• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Title Page
 Credits
 Table of Contents
 Fig. 1 and 2
 Celery and lettuce on Leon fine...
 Tomatoes on calcareous glade...
 Truck crops with manganese on calcareous...
 Literature cited














Title: Fertilizer experiments with truck crops
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 Material Information
Title: Fertilizer experiments with truck crops
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Skinner, J. J.
Ruprecht, R. W.
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Publication Date: 1930
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Bibliographic ID: UF00027683
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Credits
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Fig. 1 and 2
        Page 4
    Celery and lettuce on Leon fine sand
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Tomatoes on calcareous glade soil
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Truck crops with manganese on calcareous glade soil
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Literature cited
        Page 65
Full Text


Bulletin 218


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
Wilmon Newell, Director
in cooperation with
Bureau of Chemistry and Soils, U. S. Department of Agriculture.







FERTILIZER EXPERIMENTS


WITH TRUCK CROPS
I. Celery and Lettuce on Leon Fine Sand
II. Tomatoes on Calcareous Glade Soil
III. Truck Crops with Manganese on Calcareous Glade Soil
By
J. J. SKINNER
Bureau of Chemistry and Soils, U. S. Department of Agriculture
and
R. W. RUPRECHT
Floiida Agricultural Experiment Station













Bulletins will be sent free upon application to the
Agricultural Experiment Station,
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA.


July, 1930









BOARD OF CONTROL

P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola RAYMER F. MAGUIRE, Orlando
A. H. BLENDING, Leesburg FRANK J. WIDEMAN, West Palm Beach
W. B. DAVIS, Perry J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

STATION EXECUTIVE STAFF

JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President IDA KEELING CRESAP, Librarian
WILMON NEWELL, D. Sc., Director RUBY NEWHALL, Secretary**
S. T. FLEMING, A.B., Asst. Director K. H. GRAHAM, Business Manager
J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor RACHEL McQUARRIE, Accountant
R. M. FULGHUM, B.S.A., Asst. Editor

MAIN STATION-DEPARTMENTS AND INVESTIGATORS


AGRONOMY
W. E. STOKES, M.S., Agronomist
W. A. LEUKEL, Ph.D., Associate
G. E. RITCHEY, M.S.A., Assistant*
FRED H. HULL, M.S., Assistant
J. D. WARNER, M.S., Assistant
JOHN P. CAMP, M.S.A., Assistant
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Veterinarian in
Charge
E. F. THOMAS, D.V.M., Asst. Veterinarian
R. B. BECKER, Ph.D., Associate in Dairy
Husbandry
W. M. NEAL, Ph.D., Assistant in Animal
Nutrition
C. R. DAWSON, B.S.A., Assistant Dairy
Investigations
CHEMISTRY
R. W. RUPRECHT, Ph.D., Chemist
R. M. BARNETTE, Ph.D., Associate
C. E. BELL, M.S., Assistant
J. M. COLEMAN, B.S., Assistant
J. B. HESTER, M.S., Assistant
H. W. WINSOR, B.S.A., Assistant
COTTON INVESTIGATIONS
W. A. CARVER, Ph.D., Assistant
E. F. GROSSMAN, M.A., Assistant
PAUL W. CALHOUN, B.S., Assistant.
RAYMOND CROWN, B.S.A., Field Assistant


ECONOMICS, AGRICULUTRAL
C. V. NOBLE, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist
BRUCE McKINLEY, A.B., B.S.A., Associate
M. A. BROOKER, M.S.A., Assistant
JOHN L. WANN, B.S.A., Assistant

ECONOMICS, HOME
OUIDA DAVIS ABBOTT, Ph.D., Head
L. W. GADDUM, Ph.D., Biochemist
C. F. AHMANN, Ph.D., Physiologist

ENTOMOLOGY
J. R. WATSON, A.M., Entomologist
A. N. TISSOT, M.S., Assistant
H. E. BRATLEY, M.S.A., Assistant
L. W. ZIEGLER, B.S., Assistant

HORTICULTURE
A. F. CAMP, Ph.D., Horticulturist
M. R. ENSIGN, M.S., Assistant
HAROLD MOWRY, B.S.A., Assistant
A. L. STAHL, Ph.D., Assistant
G. H. BLACKMON, M.S.A., Pecan Culturist

PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. TISDALE, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
G. F. WEBER, Ph.D., Associate
A. H. EDDINS, Ph.D., Assistant
K. W. LOUCKS, M.S., Assistant
ERDMAN WEST, B.S., Mycologist


BRANCH STATION AND FIELD WORKERS

L. O. GRATZ, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist in charge, Tobacco Exp. Sta. (Quincy)
R. R. KINCAID, M.S., Assistant Plant Pathologist (Quiney)
JESSE REEVES, Foreman, Tobacco Experiment Station (Quincy)
J. H. JEFFERIES, Superintendent, Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred)
W. A. KUNTZ, A.M., Assistant Plant Pathologist (Lake Alfred)**
B. R. FUDGE, Ph.D., Assistant Chemist (Lake Alfred) '
W. L. THOMPSON, B.S., Assistant Entomologist (Lake Alfred)
R. V. ALLISON, Ph.D., Soils Specialist in charge Everglades Experiment Station (Belle Glade)
GEO. E. TEDDER, Foreman, Everglades Experiment Station (Belle Glade)
R. N. LOBDELL, M.S., Assistant Entomologist (Belle Glade)
F. D. STEVENS, B.S., Sugarcane Agronomist (Belle Glade)
H. H. WEDGWORTH, M.S., Associate Plant Pathologist (Belle Glade)
FRED YOUNT, Office Assistant (Belle Glade)
E. R. PURVIS, M.S., Assistant Chemist (Belle Glade)
A. N. BROOKS, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist (Plant City)
A. S. RHOADS, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist (Cocoa)
C. M. TUCKER, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist (Hastings)
STACY O. HAWKINS, M.A., Field Assistant in Plant Pathology (Homestead)
L. R. TOY, B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist (Homestead)
D. G. A. KELBERT, Field Assistant in Plant Pathology (Bradenton)
R. E. NOLEN, M.S.A., Field Assistant in Plant Pathology (Monticello)
FRED W. WALKER, Assistant Entomologist (Monticello)
D. A. SANDERS, D.V.M., Associate Veterinarian (West Palm Beach)
M. N. WALKER, Ph.D., Associate Plant Pathologist (Leesburg)
W. B. SHIPPY, Ph.D., Assistant Plant Pathologist (Leesburg)
C. C. GOFF, M.S., Assistant Entomologist (Leesburg)
J. W. WILSON, Ph.D., Assistant Entomologist (Pierson)
*In cooperation with U. S. Department of Agriculture.
**On leave of absence.


















CONTENTS
PAGE
I. CELERY AND LETTUCE ON LEON FINE SAND ..................... 5
Location and plan of the fertilizer experiments .................. 6
Varying quantities of fertilizer on celery. ................... 6
Effect on quality of celery ................... .......... 10
Fertilizer ratio experiment with celery ....................... 10
Influence of fertilizer on size and quality of celery .......... 13
Relative effects of sulphate and muriate of potash .............. 14
Varying sources of phosphate. ............................... 15
Varying sources of nitrogen ................................. 15
Concentrated fertilizer experiments with celery ................ 17
Fertilizer ratio experiment with lettuce.................... .. 20
Varying sources of potash and phosphate ..................... 22
Concentrated fertilizer experiments with lettuce ............... 23
Summary of results of fertilizer studies with celery and lettuce.. 23
II. TOMATOES ON CALCAREOUS GLADE SOIL. ........................ .. 25
Varying quantities of fertilizer on tomatoes .................. 26
Fertilizer ratio experiment with tomatoes .................... 27
Varying amounts of potash on tomatoes...................... 30
Varying sources of nitrogen ............................... 31
Concentrated fertilizer experiments with tomatoes............. 32
Summary of results with tomatoes on calcareous Glade soil..... 36
III. TRUCK CROPS WITH MANGANESE SULPHATE ON CALCAREOUS GLADE
SOIL .................................. ....... .......... 37
Tomato experiments ............... ....................... 37
Potato experiments ........................................ 49
Bean experiments ........................................ 50
Cabbage and cauliflower experiments ......................... 54
Lettuce and pepper experiments. ................... ......... 56
Carrot and beet experiments ................................ 58
Corn experiments .......................................... 60
Summary of results of truck crops with manganese sulphate on
calcareous Glade soil .................................... 64
LITERATURE CITED ......... ................... .... ... ..... ......... 65







2/1-2


-/10-4


2-8-6- 4-8/- 6-8.-2


2-6-78 4-cs 6'-6 e 6'69






22-/ 4-2-/10 5- -; 8-,- /0.-2-4 /2-2-2A/
S/ /7 / /9 20 2/
Fig. 1.-Triangle diagram showing the 21 fertilizers of various ratios of
nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash used in celery, lettuce and tomato ex-
periments.
272

A

2 A
77 326' 289


290 3/7 3/2 278


28<0 3// 23 2 e6 239



2-42^7 2&9 30.9 289 286' 230/
/W /7 /8 /9 20 2/
Fig. 2.-Average yields (crates per acre) of tomatoes from four experiments
with 21 fertilizers containing various ratios of nitrogen, phosphoric acid and
potash.










FERTILIZER EXPERIMENTS


WITH TRUCK CROPS
By
J. J. SKINNER'
and
R. W. RUPRECHT2

I. CELERY AND LETTUCE ON LEON FINE SAND
The results of fertilizer experiments with celery and lettuce
reported in this bulletin were secured in cooperative experiments,
conducted by the Florida Experiment Station and the United
States Department of Agriculture, in Seminole County in the
vicinity of Sanford. Funds were supplied by Seminole County
and local commercial interests to operate a small farm on which
the experiments were made. Mr. A. C. Foster, of the Bureau of
Plant Industry, U. S. Department of Agriculture, was in charge
of the Field Experiment Station and was responsible for carrying
out the details of the work. The results secured have been given
in the Annual Reports of this Field Station.3
The soil in which the experiments were made is typical of that
used for the growing of celery and lettuce in the Sanford section.
It is a fine loamy white sand, underlain at a depth of 16 to 20
inches by a compact colloidal sandy mass which is not easily pene-
trated. Tiles buried in the loose sand and resting on the compact
mass are used for drainage and for irrigation, supplied by artesian
wells.
Seminole County grows approximately 4,500 acres of celery and
1,200 acres of lettuce annually. There were planted in the state,
4,320 acres of celery and 3,400 acres of lettuce in 1925; in 1928
there were 5,350 acres of celery and 1,850 acres of lettuce. The
production of celery increased in the last few years from 6,398
cars to 8,413 cars, and that of lettuce decreased from 3,146 cars
to 819 cars.4
'Senior Biochemist, Bureau of Chemistry and Soils, U. S. Dept. of Agr.
"Chemist, Florida Experiment Station.
:Mimeographed Annual Reports of the United States Truck Disease Field
Station, Sanford, Florida, Season 1923-1924, and Season 1924-1925, by A. C.
Foster, J. J. Skinner and R. W. Ruprecht.
4Year Book of Agriculture, 1929.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Large amounts of fertilizers are used in the growing of celery
and lettuce. The applications used in the Sanford section vary
from 4,000 to 8,000 pounds per acre for celery and about half this
quantity for lettuce.
LOCATION AND PLAN OF THE FERTILIZER EXPERIMENTS
The fertilizer experiments were made on uniform land, which
was tiled, and moisture and drainage were uniform and well con-
trolled. These experiments occupied a part of the five-acre tract
used for experimental purposes by the United States Department
of Agriculture and the Florida Experiment Station, near the At-
lantic Coast Line Railroad track in the vicinity of Sanford. A
photograph of the fertilizer experiment, as laid out, is shown in
Fig. 3. Each plot is four rows, 100 feet long, and is 1/40 acre.


Fig. 3.-Five-acre experimental block at Sanford used for fertilizer experi-
ments with celery and lettuce.

The two inside rows of each plot were cut for record. The fertili-
zers for the experiment were prepared and mixed at the fertilizer
mixing plant of the Bureau of Chemistry and Soils at Arlington
Farm, Washington, D. C., and shipped to Sanford. The tests were
started in the winter of 1923-24.

VARYING QUANTITIES OF FERTILIZER ON CELERY
A complete fertilizer containing equal proportions of nitrogen,
phosphoric acid and potash was used in amounts varying from






Bulletin 218, Fertilizer Experiments with Truck Crops 7

1,000 to 10,000 pounds per acre to determine the effect of increas-
ing quantities of fertilizer on the yield and quality of celery.
Ten thousand pounds is in excess of the amounts used by growers
generally. The fertilizers were applied in the following manner:
one-third of the total amount in the row, 8 to 10 days before the
plants were set and the remainder in four equal quantities as side-
applications in the growing period. A check or no fertilizer plot
was included. The first crop was planted on soil which had been
uncropped for several years. The second on the identical plots
used for the first experiment and the third on plots which were
preceded by a crop of lettuce, the lettuce having been fertilized
similar to the celery.
Considerable difference was observed during the growing season
between the plots receiving fertilizers and the no-fertilizer plots.
The plants in the no-fertilizer plots were less vigorous from the


Fig. 4.-No-fertilizer and fertilizer plots in celery experiments.

start, grew slower, were of a lighter green color and produced but
little foliage. The more fertilizer applied, the faster the celery
grew. Celery receiving the low rates of application grew much
more slowly than that receiving the larger rates. The differences
were more pronounced in the second crop than in the first.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Fig. 5.-Celery in fertilizer experiment at Sanford on Norfolk fine sand.

In Fig. 4 is shown the celery growing without fertilizers as
compared to an application of 3 tons per acre. In Fig. 5 the crop
is shown, where 1,000, 4,000 and 8,000 pounds per acre of
fertilizer were used. The yield data are given in Table I.
The no-fertilizer plots produced no marketable celery. That
which matured was small and tough, and only a few crates were
gathered. The first year, 70 crates were cut, the second 10 and
the third 12, but these had to be discarded as unfit for human
consumption. It is observed that with the first crop, the yield
of celery increased with increased fertilizer used and that appar-







Bulletin 218, Fertilizer Experiments with Truck Crops 9

ently the maximum was not reached with the application-of five
tons per acre. Four tons of fertilizer per acre gave a yield greater
by 111 crates than did three tons of fertilizer. This additional
ton of fertilizer cost about $40.00. Similarly the difference be-
tween four and five tons is 65 crates. In the later experiments on

TABLE I.-EFFECT OF VARYING QUANTITIES OF A COMPLETE FERTILIZER CON-
TAINING 6 PERCENT AMMONIA, 6 PERCENT PHOSPHORIC ACID, AND
6 PERCENT POTASH, ON YIELD OF CELERY.
Sources of fertilizer ingredients: Phosphoric acid from superphosphate;
potash from sulphate of potash; nitrogen from 1/6 each ammonium sulphate,
sodium nitrate, cottonseed meal, fish scrap, tankage and dried blood.

Yield Per Acre of Marketable Celery
Fertilizer
Applied Meisch's Special Golden Heart Meisch's Special
Per Acre Planted 1/5/24 Planted 9/15/24 Planted 1/15/25 Average
Cut 5/12/24 Cut 2/23/25 Cut 5/11/25
Pounds ('rates Crates (rates Crates
None 0 0 0 0
1,000 118 345 306 256
2,000 122 444 582 383
3,000 174 763 632 523
4,000 310 606 710 542
5,000 372 781 684 612
6,000 458 839 701 664
8,000 569 826 588 661
10,000 634 829 719 727


Fig. 6.-Cutting, weighing and grading celery to determine accurately the
increase in yields produced by fertilizers in the experiments at Sanford.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


the plots previously fertilized, the maximum yield is practically
reached with smaller amounts of fertilizers, indicating that the
fertilizers not used by the previous crop exerted a residual effect.
Precipitation was unusually light during the rainy season between
the first and second crop and the time elapsed between the second
and third crop was not as long as is usual between crops, which
may account for the apparent accumulation of fertilizer salts.
When an average of the three crops is considered, it is seen that
10,000 pounds of fertilizer per acre has given by far the greatest
yield. The results indicate that four to five tons per acre can be
used profitably.
EFFECT OF FERTILIZER ON QUALITY OF CELERY
The celery from the various plots was graded according to size.
That which required from three to six dozen stalks to fill a crate
is classed as large grade. When 1,000 and 2,000 pounds of ferti-
lizer per acre were used, the quality was poor and there was no
large grade celery. When 3,000 pounds of fertilizer were used,
6 percent of the celery was graded large and of good quality; with
4,000 pounds, 38 percent; with 5,000 pounds, 63 percent; with
6,000 pounds, 73 per cent; with 8,000 pounds, 80 percent; and with
10,000 pounds, 87 percent was large grade and a good quality
product.
FERTILIZER RATIO EXPERIMENTS WITH CELERY
Experiments were made to determine the best fertilizer ratio,
that is, the best percentages of nitrogen, phosphoric acid and
potash, for celery. Twenty-one fertilizers of varying ratios of
these three fertilizer constituents were used. The percentage of
each fertilizer element varied in 2 percent stages from 2 to 12.
Superphosphate, sulphate of potash, nitrate of soda, sulphate of
ammonia, cottonseed meal and fish scrap were used to prepare the
mixtures. The nitrogen was derived one-fourth from each of the
four nitrogen materials. The fertilizers were applied at the rate
of 8,000 pounds per acre, one-third was applied before the plants
were set and the remainder in four equal amounts as side appli-
cations in the growing season.
In planning the fertilizer ratio experiment the Triangle System
of fertilizer experimentation was used and the mixtures employed
are given in Table II and in Fig. 1, discussed in connection with the
tomato experiments.
The results of three experiments are reported. The first was
made on land uncropped for several years; the second and third








Bulletin 218, Fertilizer Experiments with Truck Crops 11


followed on the same plot. A crop of lettuce was grown between
the second and third crop of celery, and a good deal of residue left
from the lettuce was plowed in the soil. The yields produced by
the various mixtures are given in Table II.
The fertilizers are arranged in six groups according to their
nitrogen content and within the group according to increase in
potash. The phosphate is without any definite influence on the

TABLE II.-EFFECT OF VARIOUS RATIOS OF NITROGEN, PHOSPHORIC ACID AND
POTASH ON THE YIELD OF CELERY.
Sources of fertilizer ingredients: Phosphoric acid from superphosphate;
potash from sulphate of potash; nitrogen from Y4 each ammonium sulphate,
sodium nitrate, cottonseed meal, and fish scrap. Fertilizer applied at the rate
of 8,000 pounds per acre.

Yield Per Acre of Marketable Celery


Meisch's Special
Planted 1/5/24
Cut 5/12/24

Crates
232
279
223
197
237
193

335
326
340
386
407

312
438
492
632

426
522
584

510
569

474


Golden Heart
Planted 9/15/24
Cut 2/23/25

Crates
345
550
606
546
590
648

621
658
626
614
807

626
731
785
847

646
697
825

738
858

720


Meisch's Special
Planted 1/15/25
Cut 5/11/25

Crates
339
437
444
661
774
836

436
454
804
937
1,025

212
654
797
938

541
757
630

611
459

210


Average

Crates
305
422
424
468
534
569

464
476
590
646
746

383
608
691
806

537
658
680

619
629

468


yield, but it is distinctly noticeable that in general the yield
increases with increase in nitrogen up to a certain percentage and
with increase in potash. Mixtures containing more than 6 percent
ammonia caused fertilizer injury to the third crop and there was
no advantage in the use of larger percentages of nitrogen in the
first and second crop.


Fertilizer
Ratio
or Formula

NHa-P20s-K20
2-12- 2
2-10- 4
2- 8- 6
2- 6-8
2- 4-10
2- 2-12

4-10- 2
4-8-4
4- 6- 6
44 8
4- 4- 8
4- 2-10

6-8-2
6-"-6
6-2-8

8-6-2
8-4-4
8-2-6

10-4-2
10-2-4

12-2-2







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


On careful examination of the data in each group, it becomes
apparent that in most cases there is a more or less gradual and
constant increase in yield with increase of potash in the fertilizer.
For instance, in Group III, where the fertilizers have the optimum
amount of ammonia, 6 percent, the yield in the first crop where a
2 percent potash mixture was used was 312 crates, where a 4 per-
cent potash mixture was used, 438 crates, 6 percent potash mix-
ture, 492 crates, and 8 percent potash mixture, 632 crates. There
was a corresponding increase in yield with the increase in potash
in the second crop, where the yield was respectively 626, 731, 785
and 847 crates. In the third crop, the yield varied from 212 crates
to 938 crates, this being the difference between a 2 percent and an
8 percent potash mixture.
With an increase of from 6 to 8 percent potash, or 160 pounds per
acre, there was an increase in yield of celery, in the first crop of
140 crates; in the second crop, of 62 crates; in the third crop of 141
crates. The cost of this additional potash is $7.00 to $8.00. The
normal or average market price of celery is $1.50 to $2.00 per crate.
When the three experiments are considered as a whole, the
average yield of the fertilizer in Group I, containing 2 percent
ammonia, is 454 crates, of those in Group II, containing 4 percent
ammonia, is 584 crates, of those in Group III, containing 6 percent
ammonia, is 622 crates, of those in Group IV, containing 8 percent
ammonia, is 625 crates, and of those in Group V, containing 10
percent ammonia is 624 crates. From these data it would seem
that a fertilizer mixture containing approximately 6 percent
ammonia, when used at the rate of 8,000 pounds per acre, is about
right.
In each of these groups there is an increase in yield with increase
in the potash. In Group III, for instance, the average yield from
the 2 percent potash mixture is 383 crates per acre; from the 4
percent potash mixture 608 crates; from the 6 percent potash
mixture, 691 crates and from the 8 percent potash mixture, 806
crates.
The fertilizer containing 6 percent ammonia, 2 percent phos-
phoric acid and 8 per cent potash gave the largest yield in the first
and second crops and second largest in the third crop. The mixture
giving the largest yield in the last experiment was a 10 percent
potash mixture. The average yield of all the experiments is
largest from the 6-2-8 fertilizer.
No-fertilizer plots were included, but no marketable celery was
produced. A few crates of small tough celery per plot were pro-
duced, which had to be discarded.







Bulletin 218, Fertilizer Experiments with Truck Crops 13

INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZER ON SIZE AND QUALITY
When the celery was graded for size and quality, it was apparent
that there was a difference in the quality of that produced by the
different fertilizers. That which required three to six dozen stalks
to fill a crate was classed as large grade. The percentage of celery
which was large grade grown with each fertilizer is given in
Table III.

TABLE III.-INFLUENCE OF FERTILIZER OF VARYING RATIOS ON SIZE OF CELERY.
Sources of fertilizer ingredients and quantity applied-See Table II.

Fertilizer Prent Fertilizer Percent
Group Ratio or Grade Group Ratio or LargeGrade
Analysis Celery Analysis Celery

NH3-P20O-K20 NHP-P20O-KO2
2-12- 2 21 6-8-2 49
2-10- 4 30 6-6--4 7S
I 2- 8-6 28 III 6-4-6 81
2-6-8 26 6-2-8 87
2- 4-10 26
2- 2-12 27
IV 8-6-2 76
8-4-4 81
4-10- 2 60 8-2-6 90
4- 8- 4 58
II 4- 6- 6 53 10-4-2 75
-4-- 8 59 V 10-2-4 85
4- 2-10 65


The celery produced on the plots fertilized with mixtures con-
taining only 2 percent ammonia was small and poor in quality,
regardless of the content of the phosphoric acid and potash. In
this group of plots only 20 to 30 percent of the celery fell into the
large grade and it was tough and of poor quality.
The fertilizer mixtures containing 4 percent nitrogen produced
celery approximately half of which was small grade and also of
poor quality. Increasing the potash in 4 percent ammonia mix-
tures had but slight influence. It is apparent that ammonia is
necessary to support a continuous and rapid growth for large
celery of good quality.
In Group III, where the fertilizers contain 6 per cent ammonia,
the percentage of large grade celery increases with the increase of
potash in the mixture. In the 2 percent potash mixture only 49
percent of the celery was large grade; with 4 percent potash, 78
percent; with 6 percent potash, 81 percent; and with 8 percent
potash 87 percent was large grade and of good quality. In Group







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


IV, where the fertilizer contains 8 percent ammonia, there was a
corresponding increase in the size of the celery with an increase
of potash in the fertilizer. Seventy-six percent of the celery pro-
duced on the plot fertilized with 2 percent potash was large grade.
Eighty-one percent of that grown in the 4 percent potash plot and
90 percent of that on the 6 percent potash was large grade and of
high quality.

RELATIVE EFFECT OF SULPHATE AND MURIATE OF POTASH
Sulphate and muriate of potash were used in mixed fertilizers
with nitrogen and superphosphate to study the effects of these
two potash salts on the growth, yield and quality of celery. The
fertilizer mixtures were applied at the rate of 8,000 pounds per
acre, one-third were applied in the row 8 to 10 days before the
celery was set and the remainder in four equal quantities, as side-
applications in the growing season.
The first crop was planted on soil which had been uncropped for
several years, and had been allowed to grow up in weeds and grass.
The second crop followed a crop of celery on identical plots used
the preceding year. The third result was secured on soil cropped
to lettuce the preceding season and the lettuce received the same
fertilizer treatments as did the celery.
The celery grew well, was healthy, and no abnormal character-
istics nor malnutrition troubles were noted. The yield results are
given in Table IV.
The muriate of potash gave a higher yield in each of the three
experiments than did the sulphate of potash. The average yields

TABLE IV.-EFFECT OF SULPHATE AND MURIATE OF POTASH IN FERTILIZERS
WITH NITROGEN AND PHOSPHATE ON YIELD OF CELERY.
Sources of fertilizer ingredients: Phosphoric acid from superphosphate;
nitrogen from 1/6 each ammonium sulphate, sodium nitrate, cottonseed meal,
fish scrap, tankage, and dried blood; potash as noted. Fertilizer applied at
the rate of 8,000 pounds per acre.
Yield Per Acre of Marketable Celery
Fertilizer Source
Ratio or of Meisch's Special Golden Heart Meisch's Special
Formula Potash Planted 1/5/24 Planted 9/15/24 Planted 1/15/25 Average
Cut 5/12/24 Cut 2/23/25 Cut 5/11/25
NH3-POs0-K20 Crates Crates Crates Crates
6-6-6 Sulphate
potash 415 636 484 511
6-6-6 Muriate
potash 471 763 499 574







Bulletin 218, Fertilizer Experiments with Truck Crops 15

for the three crops were 511 crates per acre for the sulphate of
potash and 574 crates for the muriate of potash.

VARYING SOURCES OF PHOSPHATE

Superphosphate and bone meal were compared as sources of
phosphate in mixed fertilizer for celery. Superphosphate gave
larger yields in two experiments than did bone meal. The
average of three experiments was 512 crates for the superphos-
phate mixture and 486 crates for the bone meal mixture. The
data are given in Table V.

TABLE V.-EFFECT OF SUPERPHOSPHATE AND BONE MEAL AS SOURCES OF
PHOSPHORIC ACID IN MIXED FERTILIZER ON YIELD OF CELERY.
Sources of fertilizer ingredients: Phosphoric acid as indicated below;
potash from sulphate of potash; nitrogen from 1/6 each ammonium sulphate,
sodium nitrate, tankage, cottonseed meal, fish scrap, and dried blood. Fer-
tilizer applied at rate of 8,000 pounds per acre.
Yield Per Acre of Marketable Celery
Fertilizer Source
Ratio or of Meisch's Special Golden Heart Meisch's Special
Formula Pliospho- Planted 1/5/24 Planted 9/15/25 Planted 1/15/25 Average
ric Acid Cut 5/12/24 Cut 2/23/25 Cut 5/11/25
NIIa-PO,-K .O Crates Crates Crates Crates
(i6 -6 -iIper-
.1....1.. 414 636 484 512
6-G-6 I!...,.
meal 406 745 306 486


VARYING SOURCES OF NITROGEN

Various sources of nitrogen were used in complete fertilizers to
secure the relative yields produced by fertilizers containing differ-
ent nitrogen materials. Mixtures were made containing each of
the nitrogen materials, as single sources of nitrogen. Sodium
nitrate was also used in mixtures with sulphate of ammonia and
in mixtures with organic fertilizer materials.
Checks or no-fertilizer plots were included, but no marketable
celery was produced on these. The first crop was planted on land
uncropped for several seasons, and the second on the same plots
used for the first crop. A third experiment was made, but due to
faulty irrigation, some of these plots suffered from lack of mois-
ture and the results are not given. The yield data are given in
Table VI.
The outstanding results secured in the test are the poor yields
secured from the use of sulphate of ammonia. In the first crop,







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


the yield from sulphate of ammonia is somewhat below that from
sodium nitrate or from the organic materials. This result was
very marked the second season, where sulphate of ammonia pro-
duced less than half the yield of the other nitrogen materials used.

TABLE VI.-EFFECT OF VARIOUS SOURCES OF NITROGEN IN MIXED FERTILIZERS
WITH SUPERPHOSPHATE AND POTASH ON CELERY.
Sources of fertilizer ingredients: Phosphoric acid from superphosphate;
potash from sulphate of potash; and nitrogen as indicated below. Fertilizer
applied at the rate of 8,000 pounds per acre. Fertilizer used: 6% NH:-6%
P20,-6% K20.


Source of Nitrogen in Fertilizer Materials



Sodium nitrate ................... .....
Ammonium sulphate ............. ......
Cottonseed meal ................... ...
D ried blood ................... ........
Tankage..............................
F ish scrap .............................
Castor pomace meal ............... ....
1 Sodium nitrate, 2 Ammonium sulphate
% Sodium nitrate, 3 Ammonium sulphate
1 Sodium nitrate, 2 Cottonseed meal....
2 Sodium nitrate, % Cottonseed meal....
1 Sodium nitrate, % Dried blood........
%3 Sodium nitrate, 13 Dried blood........
J3 Sodium nitrate, %3 Tankage...........
2% Sodium nitrate, 3 Tankage...........
13 Sodium nitrate, % Fish scrap.........
% Sodium nitrate, Y Fish'scrap .........
13 Sodium nitrate, % Castor pomace meal.
2% Sodium nitrate, 13 Castor pomace meal.


Yield of Marketable Celery Per Acre
Meisch's Special Golden Heart
Planted 1/5/24 Planted 9/15/24 Average
Crates Crates Crates
390 599 494
335 237 286
395 581 488
430 516 473
339 589 464
412 615 513
699
503 328 415
469 670 565
439 826 632
472 864 668
374 926 650
426 903 664
423 933 678
366 884 625
422 901 661
389 811 600
869
865


On the plot where two-thirds of the nitrogen was derived from
sulphate of ammonia and one-third from sodium nitrate, the yield
was good the first season and higher than from the other plots.
However, in the second season, the production was greatly de-
creased. The experiments were made on unlimed soil, and the
result might have been different if lime had been applied. There
was not a wide variation in the other materials used.
Due to a scarcity of organic nitrogen materials and their high
cost, it is not practical to use these as the entire source of nitrogen
in fertilizers for celery. The results secured with mixtures of
sodium nitrate and the organic materials are somewhat better
than from single nitrogen fertilizers. If an average of the two
seasons' results are considered, the mixtures having their nitrogen
from two-thirds sodium nitrate adpne-third organic sources are






Bulletin 218, Fertilizer Experiments with Truck Crops 17

better or about as large as from mixtures having their nitrogen
from one-third sodium nitrate and two-thirds organic material.

CONCENTRATED FERTILIZER EXPERIMENTS WITH CELERY

Results with two concentrated fertilizers made principally from
synthetic salts were secured with celery in 1926. These experi-
ments were made as the ones formerly reported on plots 1/40 acre
in size, which consisted of 4 rows 100 feet long. Two inside rows
were cut for record.
Two concentrated fertilizers were used, one of which was made
of ammonium phosphate, potassium phosphate, potassium nitrate
and ammonium nitrate. The second consisted of ammonium phos-
phate, urea and potassium sulphate. The analysis of the chem-
icals used was as follows: ammonium phosphate, 14% NHh and 60/
P20z; potassium phosphate, 52% P20a and 32% K20; potassium
nitrate, 16% NH3 and 44% K20; ammonium nitrate, 42% NH:;;
urea, 56% NH:W; and potassium sulphate 5' KIO. Each of the
fertilizers was applied in amounts equivalent to 8,000 pounds of a
mixture analyzing 6 percent ammonia, 6 percent phosphoric acid
and 6 percent potash. The concentrated fertlizers were compared
with a commercial fertilizer made from ordinary materials. The
two concentrated mixtures were used and applied to the celery in
their concentrated form and also mixed and diluted with sand to
equal in weight the 6-6-6 commercial mixture. The composition
of the fertilizers, together with the yield data, is given in Table VII.
The two concentrated mixtures had become moist and caked and
had to be applied by hand. The commercial mixture was applied
at the rate of 8,000 pounds per acre, Concentrated A mixture at
the rate of 2,252 pounds per acre, and Concentrated B mixture
at the rate of 2,416 pounds per acre. These quantities of the
concentrated mixtures contained the same amount of plant food
as 8,000 pounds of the commercial fertilizer. They are approx-
imately three and one-third times as concentrated as the commer-
cial mixture. The fertilizer was applied, one-third of the total
amount in the furrow under the plant bed, one week before the
plants were set, and the remainder as side-dressings in four equal
applications. The results are given in Table VII.
The yields from the concentrated mixtures were somewhat
better than from the commercial. There was not a wide variation
in yield from the fertilizers in a concentrated form and when
diluted with sand. No unfavorable symptoms were observed







18 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

during the growth of the crop where the concentrated fertilizers
were used. The plants maintained a green healthy color, grew
rapidly and produced celery of good grade and quality.
In 1927, a second experiment was made with concentrated fer-
tilizers in which five mixtures were compared with a commercial
mixture of ordinary materials. Two of the concentrated mixtures


TABLE VII.-RESULTS OF CONCENTRATED FERTILIZER EXPERIMENTS WITH
CELERY, 1925-1926.

Rate of Yield of
Number Fertilizer Composition Application Celery
Per Acre Per Acre
Pounds Crates
Concentrated A Ammonium phosphate ............... 700
Potassium phosphate ................ 92 868
Potassium nitrate. ................. 964
Ammonium nitrate .................. 496
Total. ............... .. 2,352

Diluted A Same as Concentrated A diluted with
sand to 8,000 pounds .............. 8,000 876

Concentrated B Ammonium phosphate ............... 800
Urea...................... ......... 656
Potassium sulphate. ................. 960
Total ........... ..... 2,416 847

Diluted B Same as Concentrated B diluted with
sand to 8,000 pounds. ............. 8,000 S34

Commercial C Superphosphate ..................... 3,000
Sodium nitrate ..................... 640
Sulphate ammonia .............. .... 480
Fish scrap .......................... 1,200
Cottonseed meal. ................... 1,500 755
Potassium sulphate ................. 960
Filler. ..................... ....... 220
T otal ................... 8,000

No fertilizer 216+

+Unmarketable.


were practically the same as those used in 1926, except in Ferti-
lizer A, potassium ammonium phosphate was included, and in both
A and B, cottonseed meal to the extent of 10 percent of the weight
of the mixture was added to keep the fertilizer in a good physical
condition. Ammo-phos was used instead of ammonium phosphate.
When applied, the mixtures were in excellent physical condition







Bulletin 218, Fertilizer Experiments with Truck Crops 19


for machine distribution. Fertilizer D, the third concentrated
mixture, was made from ammo-phos, ammonium chloride and
sulphate of potash; fertilizer E from ammo-phos, ammonium sul-
phate, and potassium sulphate; and fertilizer F from triple super-
phosphate, sodium nitrate and sulphate of potash. The analyses
of the materials used were triple superphosphate, 45% P205; am-


TABLE VIII.-RESULTS OF CONCENTRATED FERTILIZERS ON CELERY, 1926-1927.


Fertilizer Composition


Number



Concentrated A






Concentrated B





Commercial C








Concentrated D





Concentrated E





Concentrated F


I


Ammonium phosphate ...............
Potassium ammonium phosphate ......
Potassium nitrate ................. .
Ammoniumn nitrate..................
Cottonseed m eal ............. ......

Total ................

Ammonium Phosphate ..... .........
Frea..........................
Potassium sulphate ... .. ........
Cottonseed meal ........ . ..

T otal .................

Superphosphate ...... .............
Sodium nitrate .....................
Ammonium sulphate..... ............
Cottonseed meal ....................
Fish scrap .................. ...... .
Potassium sulphate. .. .....
Filler......................... ....

T otal ........ ..........

Ammonium phosphate ...............
Ammonium chloride .. ..............
Potassium sulphate. .................
Cottonseed meal. ................. ..

Total..................

Ammonium phosphate ...............
Ammonium sulphate .............. .
Potassium sulphate ............. ...
Cottonseed meal ...................

T otal ..................

Treble phosphate ........ .
Urea ............ .. ...
Potassium sulphate..................
Cottonseed m eal....................

T o tal .. ..... ...... .. .


Rate of Yield of
Application Celery
Per Acre Per Acre

Pounds Crates
784
184
1,020 832
432
268

2,688

1,000
688
960 708
284

2,932

3,000
640
480
1,500
1,200 690
960
220

8,000

1,000
1,028
960 813
332

3,320

1,000
1,284
960 663
360

3,604
I----
1,000
812 873
960
316

3,088






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


monium chloride, 31.5 % NH::; potassium ammonium phosphate,
6.5% NH:i 56.0% P20,. and 17% K20; ammo-phos, 13% NH:I and
48 % P20.. The other materials were the same. The experiments
were made on plots similar to those previously described. The plan
of the experiment and results are given in Table VIII.
The fertilizer mixtures recorded in Table VIII were mixed two
months preceding their use and stored in an open shed. When
applied they were in good physical condition and there was no
undue moisture absorption or caking. The cottonseed meal used,
which was 10 percent of the weight of the mixture, served as a
conditioner. It has been found in subsequent work that cottonseed
meal to the extent of 5 percent of the bulk keeps concentrated
mixtures, made from these materials, in a desirable physical
condition.
The yields from each of the concentrated mixtures, except one,
was greater than from the commercial. Concentrated mixture E,
consisting of ammo-phos, ammonium sulphate and potassium sul-
phate, gave by far the lowest yield. This is in harmony with other
results reported in this bulletin, in that sulphate of ammonia pro-
duced unfavorable conditions and poor yields. The concentrated
mixture giving next poorest results was No. B, which consisted
of ammo-phos, urea, and potassium sulphate. An interesting com-
parison can be made between Mixtures B and F. Both contain
urea but they differ in that B contains ammo-phos and F contains
triple superphosphate. Mixture F gave a larger yield by 165
crates.
The favorable result obtained with Fertilizer D, which contains
ammonium chloride, is interesting, and contrary to results secured
with concentrated mixtures containing ammonium chloride on
other sandy soils.
From the results of these experiments it would seem that con-
centrated fertilizers made in part from synthetic salts can be used
with good results for celery on the sandy soils of the Sanford
section. However, these experiments were for only a single crop
and do not answer the question of the results of the long and con-
tinual use of pure salt chemicals on these sandy soils. The practice
of applying fertilizers in small amounts periodically favors the use
of concentrated mixtures as were used in these tests.

FERTILIZER RATIO EXPERIMENT WITH LETTUCE
The results of the fertilizer ratio experiment with lettuce are
given in Table IX. The lettuce was grown on plots which grew







Bulletin 218, Fertilizer Experiments with Truck Crops 21


celery in the fertilizer experiment in the winter of 1923-1924.
Each plot consisted of eight rows 100 feet long. The four inside
rows were cut for record. The fertilizers were applied at the rate
of 6,000 pounds per acre; 4,000 pounds were applied broadcast
before the plants were set, and the remainder as a side applica-
tion, in the growing season.
The fertilizers are arranged in the table in groups according to
their nitrogen content and within each group according to the
potash content.
The response of the lettuce to the various fertilizer ratios in
this soil is somewhat similar to that of celery. Nitrogen is very
effective and the yield increases as the nitrogen content of the
fertilizers increases up to 8 percent.
The fertilizers giving the best yields were those which contained
6 to 8 percent ammonia and 6 to 8 percent potash. Phosphate

TABLE IX.-EFFECT OF VARIOUS RATIOS OF NITROGEN, PHOSPHORIC ACID AND
POTASH ON LETTUCE.
Sources of fertilizer ingredients: Phosphoric acid from superphosphate;
nitrogen from 1i each sodium nitrate, sulphate or ammonia, cottonseed meal,
and fish scrap; potash from sulphate of potash. Fertilizers applied at rate
of 6,000 pounds per acre.

Group Fertilizer Ratio Yield of Lettuce Average Yield


V


ano r ormula

NH3-P205-K.O
2-12- 2
2-10- 4
2- 8- 6
2- 6-8
2- 4-10
2- 2-12

4-10- 2
4- 4
4- 6- 6
4 4-4-8
4- 2-10

6-8- 2
6-6-4
6-4-6
6-2-8

8-6-2
8- 4-4
8- 2- 6

10- 4- 2
10- 2- 4

12- 2 2


Per Acre

Crates
27
91
96
142
279
320

69
119
306
354
355

96
293
363
310

270
347
362

225
261

210


ot Groups

Crates

159





241



273



326


243







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


apparently does not influence the yield greatly but undoubtedly
has an important function in the nutrition of the plant and if this
element were omitted from lettuce fertilizers malnutrition symp-
toms might result.

VARYING SOURCES OF POTASH AND PHOSPHATE

Sulphate of potash and muriate of potash were used in mixed
fertilizer with nitrogen and superphosphate to study their relative
effect on lettuce, on the same plots where these fertilizers were

TABLE X.-RESULTS OF CONCENTRATED FERTILIZER EXPERIMENTS WITH
LETTUCE.


Fertilizer
Composition


Concentrated A





Diluted A


Concentrated B


Diluted B


commerciall C


Ammonium phosphate. .
Potassium phosphate.....
Potassium nitrate .......
Amnlonium nitrate ......

T otal ...........

Same as Concentrated A
diluted with sand to
6,000 pounds..........

Ammonium phosphate ...
U rea ...................
Potassium sulphate .... .
Total..........


Same as Concentrated B
diluted with sand to
6,000 pounds ..........

Superphosphate .........
Sodium nitrate..........
Sulphate of Ammonia.. .
Fish scrap. ............ .
Cottonseed meal........
Potassium sulphate .....
Filler..................

Total ...........


Rate of Yield of Lettuce Per Acre
Application
Per Acre 1924-25 1925-26 Average
Pounds Crates Crates Crates


525
69
723
372
1,689



6,000

600
492
720

1,812


6,000

2,250
480
360
900
1,125
720
165

6,000


212 311 276





270 304 287

246 318 282





261 313 287


235 345 290


used on celery. The complete fertilizers, containing 6 percent
ammonia, 6 percent phosphoric acid, and 6 percent potash, were
applied at the rate of three tons per acre. The yields from the
fertilizers containing sulphate of potash were 434 crates per acre
against 430 crates for the fertilizer containing muriate of potash.


Number






Bulletin 218, Fertilizer Experiments with Truck Crops 23

A comparison of superphosphate and bone meal as sources of
phosphorus was made in an experiment similar to that described
for celery. The plots on which these fertilizers were used in the
celery experiment were used for lettuce work. The superphos-
phate fertilizer gave a yield of 434 crates per acre and the bone
meal fertilizer a yield of 379 crates.

CONCENTRATED FERTILIZER EXPERIMENTS WITH LETTUCE
Experiments were made with lettuce to study the relative effects
of two concentrated fertilizers in the winter of 1924-25 and the
fall of 1925. The outline of the experiments, size of plots, etc.,
is similar to that used the first year in the celery work reported in
this bulletin. One concentrated mixture was made from am-
monium phosphate, potassium phosphate, potassium nitrate, and
ammonium nitrate, and the second from ammonium phosphate,
and potassium sulphate. There was a slight absorption of mois-
ture, resulting in a condition which prevented the applying of the
fertilizer with a distributor. The application was made by hand.
Each was used in its concentrated form and also diluted with sand.
The composition of the fertilizers, rate of application, and yields
are given in Table X.
In this experiment no one of the three fertilizers was superior to
the other and the concentrated and dilute mixtures were equally
effective, the yields being the same in all cases within limits of
experimental error. As a whole the concentrated fertilizers
showed up rather well.

SUMMARY OF RESULTS OF FERTILIZER STUDIES WITH CELERY
AND LETTUCE

The experimental work reported in the preceding pages shows
that the yield, size and quality of celery is influenced largely by
commercial fertilizers and that amounts as high as 8,000 to 10,000
pounds per acre can be used profitably. Nitrogen and potash are
effective in producing growth and quality, sufficient nitrogen is
required to maintain a rapid growth during the entire growing
season. The best results were secured with mixtures containing
6 to 8 percent nitrogen. When the nitrogen need of the crop is
satisfied, potash is effective in producing yield and good quality,
these increasing with the increase of potash up to 8 to 10 percent
in the fertilizer mixture. Phosphoric acid had but little effect on
the growth or yield of celery in the experiments, but if omitted





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


from the fertilizer mixture, malnutrition disturbances would likely
occur and result detrimentally. A fertilizer analyzing 6 percent
ammonia, 2 per cent phosphoric acid and 8 percent potash gave
largest yields.
For celery on these light sandy soils all plant nutrition elements
need to be applied, which is met by the use of various commercial
fertilizer materials and such soil amendments as wood ashes and
lime.
The results secured with lettuce show it to have about the same
fertilizer requirements as celery. Superphosphate gave larger
yields than did bone meal as the source of phosphoric acid in com-
plete fertilizers and there was not a wide difference in the yield
from the muriate and sulphate of potash, the former giving slightly
better results.
A mixture of sodium nitrate with organic nitrogen materials, as
cottonseed meal, fish scrap, tankage, and dried blood, in mixed
fertilizer with superphosphate and potash gave better results than
mineral nitrogen as single source of nitrogen. Nitrogen in mixed
fertilizer, derived two-thirds from nitrate of soda and one-third
from organic nitrogen, gave good results with celery.
Concentrated fertilizer made from synthetic and pure salt
chemicals gave good results on the Sanford sand in the growing
of celery and lettuce. The yields compare favorably with ferti-
lizers made from the old fertilizer materials of commerce which
carry many impurities. However, the experiments were made for
a short period and the cropping was not sufficient to exhaust the
soil of its reserve of minor inorganic constituents, which may
occur in time if pure chemicals only are used as fertilizers. Their
effects are being studied when used with some of the unusual but
essential heavy metals, which are frequently lacking in leached
sandy soils.






Bulletin 218, Fertilizer Experiments with Truck Crops 25

II. TOMATOES ON CALCAREOUS GLADE SOIL
Soil fertility and fertilizer experiments were begun in Dade
County in the Homestead, Goulds and Cutler sections in connection
with the investigations of nail-head rust of tomatoes in the winter
of 1924-25 and are still in progress. Funds for these investiga-
tions were supplied in part the first year by local tomato growers.
The experiments were located in Glade soil lying east of the Miami-
Homestead highway on what is locally known as East Glade land.
The Glade soils of Dade County, which are used extensively for
the growing of tomatoes for winter market, present some inter-
esting soil problems which have come to the attention of scientific
investigators in recent years. The Glades are frequently sub-
merged during the summer and early fall months and each season
undergo a thorough leaching. These soils consist of a layer of
muck to a depth of from 6 to 12 inches, which is underlain by cal-
careous material analyzing 90 to 95 percent calcium carbonate.
The surface layer of mucky material is alkaline and has a pH
value of from 7.5 to 8.8. A typical sample contained 2.11 percent
silica, 0.26 percent magnesium, 0.15 percent phosphorus, 0.08 per-
cent iron, 0.33 percent total nitrogen, 0.015 percent nitrate, 0.25
percent soluble salts, and less than 0.001 percent manganese, to-
gether with small amounts of sodium, potassium, sulphate and
chloride.
It has been a universal practice among growers to place stable
manure around the roots of tomato plants when set. Without this
the crop fails, especially on newly developed Glades or on old Glades
which have grown tomatoes for many successive years. The func-
tion of the manure is not entirely understood. In addition to the
use of manure, large quantities of commercial fertilizer are re-
quired for successful crops. The amount used varies from 3,000
to 4,000 pounds per acre annually applied in several applications.
The agricultural practices employed in this section are rather
unusual as very little, if any, soil preparation is done. In general,
the weed growth covering the soil is removed by disking and burn-
ing as soon as the water is off the land. As soon as the land is
dry enough shallow furrows corresponding to the plant rows are
plowed, no general plowing of the entire field being practiced. The
young plants are dropped in this furrow and the roots covered
with a handful of moist compost, and immediately back of the
roots a handful of complete fertilizer is applied. In about five
to ten days a furrow is thrown on the roots, covering them. No
cultivation is practiced except to plow a furrow on alternate sides







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


of the rows about every 10 days, into which the fertilizer is dis-
tributed, three or four applications generally being made.
Soil fertility and fertilizer problems pertaining to the industry
have been studied cooperatively by Federal and Florida authorities
for the past three seasons and valuable data have been secured
and made available to the growers in annual reports issued by the
United States Department of Agriculture and the Florida Agri-
cultural Experiment Station.
The work reported in this bulletin1 was done on the farms of
H. L. Cook at Homestead; W. O. Talbot at Goulds, and J. B. Janes
and E. C. Gaunt at Cutler, on plots approximately 1/20 acre. The
practice of placing a handful of stable manure on each plant when
set was followed in the work.

VARYING QUANTITIES OF FERTILIZERS ON TOMATOES
Four experiments were made with a fertilizer analyzing 4 per-
cent ammonia, 8 percent phosphoric acid and 8 percent potash,

TABLE XI.-EFFECT OF VARYING AMOUNTS OF FERTILIZERS ON TOMATOES IN
CALCAREOUS GLADE SOIL.
Sources of fertilizer ingredients: Phosphoric acid from superphosphate;
potash from sulphate of potash; nitrogen from 1/ each nitrate of soda,
sulphate of ammonia, fish scrap and tankage.

Yield of Tomatoes Per Acre
1925 1926
Fertilizer Application
Analysis Per Acre H. L. Cook W. 0. Talbot H. L. Cook JB. Janes-
Farm Farm Farm E. C. Gaunt
Homestead Goulds Homestead Farm
Cutler
NH3-P0Os-K20 Pounds Crates Crates Crates Crates
None 61 42 10 0
4-8-8 500 89 176
4-8-8 750 ... .. 308 270
4-8-8 1,000 84 189
4-8-8 1,500 ... 335 367
4-8-8 2,000 120 187
4-8-8 3,000 150 212 343 400
4-8-8 4,000 141 226


using amounts from 500 to 4,000 pounds per acre. The fertilizer
was applied in four applications. The yields are given in Table XI.
There was a general increase in yield of tomatoes with the in-
crease in amount of fertilizer used. The quality of tomatoes was

1The details of these experiments as to the securing of yield data, taking
notes, etc., were looked after by Mr. D. G. A. Kelbert, 1924-1925, and by Mr.
Stacy O. Hawkins, 1926 to date, of the Florida Experiment Station.






Bulletin 218, Fertilizer Experiments with Truck Crops 27

influenced to some extent by the fertilizers. When no fertilizers
were used the tomatoes were puffy and not solid. In the 1925
Homestead experiment only 18 percent of the tomatoes grown
without fertilizers were solid; 31 percent were solid when 500
pounds of fertilizer were used, and from 60 to 70 percent were
solid with larger amounts of fertilizers. In the Talbot experi-
ment only 12 percent were solid when no fertilizer was used, 15
percent with 500 pounds of fertilizer, and from 30 to 50 percent
solid with the higher amounts of fertilizer.
There was no relation between the amount of nail-head rust on
tomatoes and the amount of fertilizers used. Where there was
but scant vine growth and little fruit, the nail-head rust was slight,
but there was no difference in the amount of nail-head rust when
500 to 4,000 pounds of fertilizer were used.

FERTILIZER RATIO EXPERIMENTS WITH TOMATOES
Experiments were made to determine the best fertilizer formula,
that is, the best ratio of nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash, for
tomatoes. In this work superphosphate was used as the source
of phosphoric acid, sulphate of potash as the source of potash and
the nitrogen was from one-fourth each nitrate of soda, sulphate
of ammonia, tankage and fish scrap. The fertilizer was applied at
the rate of 3,000 pounds per acre, in four applications, 400 pounds
of which was applied before planting.
The composition of the fertilizers used is best understood by
means of the triangle diagram shown in Fig. 1, where the fertilizer
analyses or ratios are easily shown. Fertilizer No. 1 is a high
phosphate mixture, containing 12 percent phosphoric acid and 2
percent each of ammonia and potash, totaling 16 percent, as does
each of the fertilizer mixtures used. Fertilizer No. 16 contains
12 percent potash and 2 percent each of ammonia and phosphoric
acid, similarly Fertilizer No. 21 contains 12 percent ammonia and
2 percent each of phosphoric acid and potash.
Mixtures along the line 1 to 16 contain 2 percent ammonia, but
vary in phosphoric acid and potash, in 2 percent differences. Mix-
tures on the line 3 to 17 contain 4 percent ammonia, each varying
in phosphoric acid and potash content. Likewise, mixtures on the
line 6 to 18 contain 6 percent ammonia; those on the line 10 to 19,
8 percent ammonia; those on the line 15 to 20, 10 percent ammonia
and the extreme point No. 21, 12 percent ammonia.
The base line of the triangle contains mixtures having 2 percent
phosphoric acid and variations in nitrogen and potash. The line








28 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


11 to 15 contains 4 percent phosphoric acid; the line 7 to 10, 6
percent phosphoric acid; the line 4 to 6, 8 percent phosphoric acid;
the line 2 to 3, 10 percent phosphoric acid; and the extreme point
No. 1, 12 percent phosphoric acid.
Likewise mixtures in the line 1 to 12 contain 2 percent potash;
the line 2 to 20, 4 percent potash; the line 4 to 19, 6 percent potash;
the line 7 to 18, 8 percent potash; the line 11 to 17, 10 percent
potash, and the extreme point No. 16, 12 percent potash.
Two experiments were made in 1925, on typical calcareous Glade
soil used for tomato growing in Dade County, one each in Home-

TABLE XII.-YIELD OF TOMATOES FROM FERTILIZERS CONTAINING VARYING
RATIOS OF NITROGEN, PHOSPHORIC AcD AND POTASH IN FOUR EXPERI-
MENTS ON CALCAREOUS GLADE SOIL IN DADE COUNTY.
Sources of fertilizer ingredients: Phosphoric acid from superphosphate;
potash from sulphate of potash; nitrogen from 14 each nitrate of soda,
sulphate of ammonia, fish scrap, and tankage. Fertilizer applied at the rate
of 3,000 pounds per acre.


Yield of Tomatoes Per Acre


Fertilizer
Formula



NH3-P25O-K20
2-12- 2
2-10- 4
4-10- 2
2- 8- 6
4-8-4
6-8-2
2-6-8
4-6-6
6- 6- 4
8-6-2
2- 4-10
4-4-8
6-4-6
8-4-4
10- 4- 2
2- 2-12
4- 2-10
6-2-8
8- 2- 6
10-2- 4
12- 2-2
No fertilizer


H. L. Cook W. O. Talbot
Glade, Glade,
Homestead Goulds

1925 1925

Crates Crates
208 309
175 226
211 253
183 279
178 201
221 238
198 253
181 262
223 253
191 228
205 271
174 262
267 253
192 260
182 244
199 264
203 235
174 291
178 232
163 260
109 195
61 38


H. L. Cook
Glade,
Homestead

1926

Crates
365
375
372
320
392
279
318
391
316
284
325
384
298
238
268
257
388
383
369
284
257
38


J. B. Janes-
E. C. Gaunt
Glade,
Cutler
1926

Crates
206
272
380
324
533
419
393
432
455
414
320
423
314
351
262
270
330
387
377
438
357
46


Average



Crates
272
262
304
277
326
289
290
317
312
279
280
311
283
260
239
247
289
309
289
286
230
46


stead and Goulds, and two in 1926 at Homestead and Cutler. The
results of the experiments are given in Table XII.
There is considerable variation in the yield figures as shown in







Bulletin 218, Fertilizer Experiments with Truck Crops 29

Table XII. The averages of the four experiments are given in the
last column and these are also shown in the triangle chart in Fig. 2.
The largest average yields are from fertilizer mixtures 5, 8, 9 and
12. The figures are best analyzed by averaging the yields accord-
ing to the content of nitrogen, phosphoric acid and potash in the
fertilizer.
In Table XIII the average yields from fertilizers containing
varying percentages of each ingredient are given. The first
column shows the fertilizer according to the position in the triangle
in Figures 1 and 2, the second column the percentage of the fer-
tilizer ingredient and the third the average yield of tomatoes from
each group of fertilizer.
Considering first the nitrogen variations, the largest average
yields are from the group of fertilizers containing 4 and 6 percent
ammonia. Fertilizers containing percentages of ammonia lower
than 4 or higher than 6 gave reduced yields.

TABLE XIII.-EFFECT OF VARYING AMOUNTS OF NITROGEN, PHOSPHORIC ACID
AND POTASH ON TOMATOES IN CALCAREUS GLADE SOIL.
Fertilizer on Percent of
Line Fertilizer Ingredients Average Yield
Fig. 2 in Mixtures Per Acre
Nitrogen Crates
1 to 16 2 271
3 to 17 4 309
6 to 18 6 298
10 to 19 8 276
15 to 20 10 262
21 12 230
Phosphoric acid
16 to 21 2 275
11 to 15 4 274
7 to 10 6 299
4to 6 8 297
2 to 3 10 283
1 12 272
Potash
1 to 21 2 269
2 to 20 4 289
4 to 19 6 291
7 to 18 8 303
11 to 17 10 284
16 12 247


In the group of fertilizers with varying phosphoric acid con-
tent, the largest average yields were produced in those containing
6 and 8 percent phosphoric acid; percentages smaller than 6 and
larger than 8 gave smaller yields.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


In the group with varying potash percentages, those containing
8 percent potash gave largest average yields. From these results
it would seem that a mixture containing 4 to 6 percent ammonia,
6 to 8 percent phosphoric acid, and 6 to 8 percent potash was best
for tomatoes on the calcareous Glade soils. Mixtures containing
4 percent ammonia, 8 percent phosphoric acid and 8 percent potash
have been used in large scale experiments comparing it with
mixtures containing less potash, which resulted in large yields
from the high potash mixture. This fertilizer analysis is being
used with satisfactory results by commercial growers of tomatoes
on these calcareous Glade soils of Dade County.
Special note was made of the amount of nail-head rust occurring
in the various plots and there was no correlation of the amount of
nail-head rust with any of the fertilizer ratios, nor with the amount
of any particular fertilizer element.

VARYING AMOUNTS OF POTASH

An experiment was made on two soils in the winter of 1924-25
to study the effect of varying amounts of potash in fertilizers with
a constant amount of nitrogen and phosphoric acid. A fertilizer
containing 4 percent ammonia and 8 percent phosphoric acid was
used with the potash varying from 6 to 12 percent in 2 percent
differences. The yield data are given in Table XIV.

TABLE XIV.-EFFECT OF VARYING AMOUNTS OF POTASH IN FERTILIZERS ON
TOMATOES IN CALCAREOUS GLADE SOIL, SEASON 1924-25.
Sources of fertilizer ingredients: Phosphoric acid from superphosphate;
potash from sulphate of potash; nitrogen from 1 each nitrate of soda,
sulphate of ammonia, fish scrap and tankage. Fertilizer applied at the rate
of 3,000 pounds per acre.

Fertilizer H. L. Cook Farm, W. O. Talbot Farm,
Analysis Homestead Goulds Average
NHa-P205-KO2 Crates Crates Crates
4-8- 6 139 244 191
4-8- 8 150 291 220
4-8-10 141 217 179
4-8-12 142 244 193


The 8 percent potash mixture gave the largest yield in both
experiments. In the Homestead experiment approximately half
of the fruit was affected with nail-head rust, but there was no
correlation of nail-head rust with the amount and the percentage
of potash in the fertilizer. In the second experiment the nail-head







Bulletin 218, Fertilizer Experiments with Truck Crops 31


rust varied in the tomatoes in the various plots from 27 to 39
percent, but again there was no correlation of the amount of nail-
head rust with the amount of potash in the fertilizer.


VARYING SOURCES OF NITROGEN

Experiments with sources of nitrogen for tomatoes were made
on two Glade soils in the winter of 1924-25 and on two in the winter
of 1925-26. In these tests both mineral and organic nitrogen was

TABLE XV.-EFFECT OF VARYING PROPORTIONS OF MINERAL AND ORGANIC
NITROGEN MATERIALS IN FERTILIZERS ON TOMATOES ON CALCAREOUS
GLADE SOIL SEASON 1924-25.
Sources of fertilizer ingredients: Phosphoric acid from superphosphate;
potash from sulphate of potash; nitrogen as noted. Fertilizer applied at
the rate of 3,000 pounds per acre.


Source of Nitrogen



Nitrate of soda......... .
3 from nitrate of soda, 14
from fish scrap ........
2 from nitrate of soda, ',
from fish scrap ..........
4 from nitrate of soda, 34
from fish scrap ........
Fish scrap................


Yield of Tomatoes Per Acre

II. L. Cook W. 0. Talbot
Farm, Farm, Average
Homestead Goulds


Crates
199

178

205

215
180


Crates Crates
151 175


TABLE XVI.-EFFECT OF VARYING SOURCES OF NITROGEN IN FERTILIZERS WITH
PHOSPHATE AND POTASH ON TOMATOES IN CALCAREOUS
GLADE SOIL SEASON 1925-26.
Sources of fertilizer ingredients: Phosphoric acid from superphosphate;
potash from sulphate of potash; nitrogen as noted. Fertilizers applied at
the rate of 3,000 pounds per acre.

Yield of Tomatoes Per Acre


Fertilizer
Analysis


4-8-8
4-8-8
4-8-8
4-8-8
4-8-8


Source of Nitrogen



Nitrate of soda...........
Sulphate of anmnonia .....
Fish scrap ............ ...
Tankage. ................
! Nitrate of soda
% Sulphate of ammonia
14 Fish scrap
M Tankage.............


H. L. Cook
Farm,
Homestead

Crates
273
351
401
364


361


Janes &
Gaunt Farm,
Cutler

Crates
372
402
470
482


423


Average


Crates
322
376
435
423


Fertilizer
Analysis


NH3-P205-K20
4-8-8
4-8-8

4-8-8

4-8-8

4-8-8






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


used singly and in combination. In the first experiment nitrate of
soda and fish scrap were used alone and combined in varying pro-
portions. In the second year's work nitrate of soda, sulphate of
ammonia, fish scrap and tankage were used singly, and also in
mixture in which one-fourth of the nitrogen was derived from each
material. The results are given in Tables XV and XVI.
The data given in both tables show that the organic nitrogen
materials have given larger yields than mineral nitrogen. How-
ever, in mixtures of one-half to three-fourths of organic with
mineral sources, the yields are almost as good as where organic
are used as the entire source. Their high cost tends to eliminate
fertilizers containing all organic nitrogen. Sulphate of ammonia
gave a higher yield in each of the experiments than did nitrate
of soda. There was no relation between the amount of nail-head
rust and the form of nitrogen used in the fertilizers.

CONCENTRATED FERTILIZER EXPERIMENTS WITH TOMATOES

Experiments with tomatoes were made with concentrated ferti-
lizers on the Glade soils of Dade County, Florida, in the winters of
1927-1928 and of 1928-1929.





i-















Fig. 7.-Tomatoes in concentrated fertilizer experiment on Glade soil in
Dade County. Left, one-fourth acre with concentrated fertilizer, yield 250
crates per acre. Right, one-fourth acre with commercial fertilizer, yield 270
crates per acre.






Bulletin 218, Fertilizer Experiments with Truck Crops 33

In 1927 two concentrated mixtures were used. One mixture
was made from ammonium phosphate, ammonium nitrate and
potassium sulphate and it required 1,632 pounds of this mixture
to equal the same plant food content as 4,000 pounds of fertilizer
from ordinary materials. The second mixture was made from
ammonium phosphate, urea and potassium sulphate. Both mix-
tures contained a small amount of cottonseed meal to prevent
caking. The fertilizer was applied at the rate of 4,000 pounds per
acre of a 4-8-8 commercial mixture, and plots one-fourth acre in
size were used. The experiment was made on the farm of J. B.
Janes and E. C. Gaunt at Cutler. The tomatoes were set in Decem-
ber and matured in March and April.
Plants fertilized with the concentrated mixtures grew well and
maintained a desirable, healthy color throughout the season.
There was no apparent injury from the fertilizers and the plants
grew as large as where the commercial mixture was used. The
yield data are given in Table XVII.

TABLE XVII.-EFFECT OF CONCENTRATED FERTILIZERS ON TOMATOES ON CAL-
CAREOUS GLADE SOILS AT CUTLER, DADE COUNTY, 1927-1928.
Fertilizer applied at the rate of 4,000 pounds per acre of a 4-8-8 fertilizer.
Fertilizer | Ingredients Yield
Mixture Ingredients in Fertilizer Mixture I Per Acre Per Acre


Pounds
Ammonium phosphate .............. 664
Ammonium nitrate ................ 160
Potassium sulphate. ................ 672
Cottonseed meal ....... .......... 136
T total ..................... 1,632
Ammonium phosphate .......... .. .. 664
I rea ............................. 128
Potassium sulphate. ............... 672
Cottonseed meal .................. .. 136
Total...................... 1, 600
Superphosphate .................. 2.000
Potassium sulphate ......... 6(i
Nitratp of nrsoda ')


Sulphate of ammonia ..............
F ish scrap ........................
Cottonseed meal......... ... .
T otal......... .


Crates
238


160
336
488
4,000


The yield from the commercial fertilizer was larger than from
either of the concentrated mixtures. The concentrated fertilizer







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


produced vigorous healthy plants, but they did not fruit as abun-
dantly as those fertilized with the commercial fertilizer. A photo-
graph of the tomatoes in the commercial fertilizer and the concen-
trated fertilizer plots is shown in Fig. 7. The plants are in the
midst of the fruiting period and here it is seen there is more vege-
tative growth on the concentrated fertilizer plot.

TABLE XVIII.-EFFECT OF CONCENTRATED FERTILIZERS ON TOMATOES ON CAL-
CAREOUS GLADE SOILS AT HOMESTEAD AND CUTLER. WINTER 1928-1929.
Fertilizer applied at rate of 4,000 pounds per acre of 4-8-8.


Ingredients in Fertilizer
Mixture


Ammonium phosphate.....
Ammonium nitrate.......
Potassium sulphate........
Cottonseed meal..........

T otal.............

Ammonium phosphate. ...
Urea.....................
Potassium sulphate ........
Cottonseed meal..........

Total.............

Superphosphate. ..........
Nitrate soda.............
Sulphate ammonia.........
Cottonseed meal.........
Fish scrap..............
Potassium sulphate .......
Sand ....................

Total.............

Ammonium phosphate ....
Ammonium chloride ....
Potassium sulphate ........
Cottonseed meal ......

Total.............

Ammonium phosphate ..
Ammonium sulphate......
Potassium sulphate ......
Cottonseed meal ........

T otal............

Treble phosphate .........
U rea .....................
Potassium sulphate.. .. .. .
Cottonseed meal .. .. .


I Yields Per Acre
Ingredients----
Per Acre Goulds Homestead


668.0
160.0
688.0
192.0

1,708.0

668.0
120.0
688.0
192.0

1,668.0

2,000.0
224.0
160.0
490.0
338.0
688.0
100.0

4,000.0

668.0
212.0
688.0
208.0

1,776.0

668.0
288.0
688.0
208.0

1,852.0

760.0
294.0
688.0
208.0

1,950.0


Crates Crates




54 66





52 75


A












C








D












F


T total .............


Fertilizer
Mixture


55 69





42 71


38 70







Bulletin 218, Fertilizer Experiments with Truck Crops 35

TABLE XVIII.-EFFECT OF CONCENTRATED FERTILIZERS ON TOMATOES ON CAL-
CAREOUS GLADE SOILS AT HOMESTEAD AND CUTLER. WINTER 1928-1929.
(Continued.)

Yield Per Acre
Fertilizer Ingredients in Fertilizer Ingredients
Mixture Mixture Per Acre Goulds Homestead
Crates Crates
Potassium ammonium phos-
G phate................ 571.2
Potassium nitrate ........ 506.4
U rea ............ ......... 66 .4
Cottonseed meal......... 152.0
Total............. 1,296.0 44 76
Potassium ammonium phos-
H phate................... 571.2
Potassium nitrate ......... 506.4
Ammonium sulphate....... 146.4
Cottonseed meal ........... 208.0
Total............ 1,432 0 57 17
Ammonium phosphate .... 668.0
I Ammonium nitrate........ 110.4
Sodium nitrate............ 368.0
Potassium sulphate ........ 688.0
Cottonseed meal .......... 216.0
Total......... .. 2,050.4 46 66


Experiments were repeated in the winter of 1928-1929 at two
locations-one on the farm of P. H. Lee at Goulds, and the second
on the farm of H. L. Cook at Homestead. Fertilizers in both
experiments were applied in five applications, the total being about
4,000 pounds per acre of 4-8-8. The plots used were 1/8 acre.
Eight concentrated mixtures were used, which are very similar
to those used with other crops reported in this bulletin. The
cottonseed meal used was about 12 percent of the weight of the
fertilizer. The larger amount was added to assure a good physical
mixture and to include some available nitrogen, which was thought
to be desirable.
The yields in the experiment are very small in all the plots, due
to unfavorable weather conditions during the fruiting period, but
it is believed they are reliable and comparable. The yield data
are given in Table XVIII.
While the yields in all the plots are very small, the results are
consistent in that all the concentrated mixtures in both experi-
ments are lower than the ordinary commercial mixture "C", which
is in harmony with the result secured in 1927-1928. There did






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


not appear to be any injury to plant growth from any of the ferti-
lizers during the early season, and the vegetation appeared nor-
mal, but the fruiting was slightly less from the concentrated
mixtures.
The calcareous Glade soil used in these experiments has been
found to be deficient in some of the uncommon though essential
plant food elements, such as manganese, copper, boron, etc., and
it is possible that traces of some of these chemicals may be sup-
plied in the bulky ordinary fertilizers, which would not be in the
highly concentrated synthetic nitrogen salts used in the concen-
trated mixtures. Further experimentation will be required to
work out satisfactory fertilizer mixtures made from concentrated
pure salts for soils of this character. Possibly mixtures of such
synthetic salts would give better results if small amounts of the
rare elements, such as manganese, copper, zinc, boron, etc., were
included. Experiments along this line are in progress, but consid-
erable work is required to answer this rather complicated problem.

SUMMARY OF RESULTS WITH TOMATOES ON CALCAREOUS
GLADE SOILS

The fertilizer formula or analysis giving best results with toma-
toes on the calcareous Glade soils contained from 4 to 6 percent
ammonia, 6 to 8 percent phosphoric acid and 6 to 8 percent potash.
A 4-8-8 analysis has been used in large experiments with good
results and this is one of the favorite analyses used by successful
commercial growers.
Organic nitrogen materials as sources of nitrogen in complete
fertilizers gave somewhat better results than mineral nitrogen;
however, a mixture of one-half to three-fourths of organic with
mineral nitrogen gave results almost as good as all organic
nitrogen.
Concentrated fertilizers made from synthetic and pure salt
chemicals gave good vine growth and yield of tomatoes, but the
latter was not as large as from ordinary fertilizer materials of
commerce. The calcareous Glade soils have been found to be
deficient in the so-called rare elements essential to plant growth,
which are frequently contained as impurities in fertilizer materials
and this may in part account for the better showing made by the
ordinary fertilizers.







Bulletin 218, Fertilizer Experiments with Truck Crops 37

III. TRUCK CROPS WITH MANGANESE ON CALCAREOUS
GLADE SOIL

TOMATO EXPERIMENTS
It has been found generally by growers that tomatoes cannot be
successfully grown in the calcareous Glade soils of Dade County
without the presence of manure, regardless of the amount of com-
mercial fertilizer used. In the first season's (1924-25) experi-
mental work on the relation of nail-head rust of tomatoes to fer-
tilization and nutrition, stable manure was used in varying quan-
tities, and in these experiments the crop failed where no manure
was used. The plants showed marked yellowing or chlorosis and
many died before producing. Small amounts of manure in con-
junction with the use of commercial fertilizers produced success-
ful crops. In the second year's work, some essential, or so-called
rare chemicals, were used, which have stimulated growth in alka-
line soils in other sections. Manganese sulphate, one of the most
common of these chemicals, when used in conjunction with stable
manure and compost gave interesting and valuable results. In
these investigations it developed that manganese can replace
stable manure in tomato growing on these calcareous Glade soils
and that numerous truck crops can be grown successfully by using
manganese where formerly they failed.
The results of two experiments with varying amounts of stable
manure on East Glade soil at Homestead and Goulds in the winter
of 1924-25 are given in Table XIX. Commercial fertilizers were
applied to all plots at the rate of 3,000 pounds per acre. There was
no tomato production where stable manure was not used. In one
experiment the yield increased with the amount of stable manure

TABLE XIX.-YIELD OF TOMATOES WITH VARYING AMOUNTS OF STABLE
MANURE, ON CALCAREOUS GLADE SOIL, WINTER 1924-25.
Fertilizer contained 4 percent ammonia, 8 percent phosphoric acid, and
8 percent potash, applied to all the plots at the rate of 3,000 pounds per acre.

Stable H. T. Cook W. 0. Talbot
No. Manure Glade, Glade, Average
Per Acre Homestead Goulds
Pounds Crates Crates Crates
1 None 0 0 0
2 500 96 175 135.5
3 1,000 87 189 138.0
4 2,000 74 191 132.5
5 3,000 139 189 164.0
6 4,000 208 210 209.0







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


up to 4,000 pounds per acre but in the second good results were
secured with smaller applications. The average yields of the two
experiments show increased yield with increased amount of
manure used.
Experiments with manganese sulphate and iron sulphate were
included in the 1925-26 work, and the results appear very interest-
ing. Manganese sulphate and iron sulphate were used at the rate
of 150 pounds per acre in two applications; the first was applied
with manure or peat when the plants were set, and the second two
weeks later, over an area one foot in circumference around the
plant. Stable manure or peat was applied when the plants were
set at the rate of about 1 ton per acre and commercial fertilizers
at the rate of 3,000 pounds per acre in four applications. The
results are given in Table XX.

TABLE XX.-YIELD OF TOMATOES IN EXPERIMENTS WITH STABLE MANURE,
MANGANESE SULPHATE AND IRON SULPHATE, ON CALCAREOUS
GLADE SOIL IN DADE COUNTY, WINTER 1925-26.
Fertilizer contained 4 percent ammonia, 8 percent phosphoric acid and 8
percent potash, applied at the rate of 3,000 pounds per acre to all plots.
Manganese sulphate and iron sulphate applied where used at rate of 150
pounds per acre.

Compost Yield of Tomatoes Per Acre
Used Amount J.B. Janes &
No. When Per Acre H. T. Cook, E. C. Gaunt
Tomatoes Chemical Applied Glade, Glade, Average
Were Set Homestead Cutler

Pounds Crates Crates Crates
1 None ....... 0 None........... Failed Failed 0
2 Manure .... 750 None ........... 373 423 398
3 Manure..... 1,500 None ........... 353 418 385
4 Manure..... 3,000 None........... 426 441 433
5 Manure .... 2,000 Manganese sulfate 465 520 492
6 Manure.. 2,000 Iron sulfate ..... 321 362 341
7 Peat ........ 1,000 None.......... .. 256 270 263
8 Peat ........ 1,000 Manganese sulfate 380 498 439
9 Peat........ 1,000 Iron sulfate..... 242 270 256

In each of the experiments there was a marked increase in yield
of tomatoes from the use of manganese sulphate. Where 1,500
pounds of manure were used the yield as an average of two experi-
ments was 385 crates per acre; with 3,000 pounds of manure the
average yield was 433 crates; and with 2,000 pounds of manure
plus 150 pounds of manganese the average yield was 492 crates.
Two thousand pounds of manure and 150 pounds of manganese
sulphate gave a yield of 59 crates per acre more than 3,000 pounds
of manure.







Bulletin 218, Fertilizer Experiments with Truck Crops 39

Where peat was used there was an average yield of 263 crates
per acre, and with peat and manganese an average yield of 439
crates, an increase of 176 crates per acre. There was no increased
yield from iron sulphate.
In the winter of 1926-27, experiments were made to study the
effects of manganese and of copper on the growth and yield of
tomatoes, special attention being given to methods of application
and amounts of manganese. The experiments were made at Cutler
and Homestead. The results are given in Table XXI.

TABLE XXI.-EFFECTS OF MANGANESE SULPHATE ON TOMATOES ON CAL-
CAREOUS GLADE SOILS IN DADE COUNTY, WINTER 1926-27.
Janes and Gaunt Farm, Cutler; East Glade land.
Everglades peat or stable manure applied at rate of 1 ton per acre when
plants were set.
Fertilizer application: 4-8-8 analysis, 200 pounds per acre on January 6;
400 pounds, January 16; 1,200 pounds, February 6; 1,200 pounds, Febru-
ary 20; 1,000 pounds, March 6. Total, 4,000 pounds per acre to all plots.
Plots 1/10 acre.
SCompost Yield
Plot Fertilizer I sed Method of Application Per
No. Used When Set of Manganese Acre

NIH-P2Os-K2O (rates
1 4-8-8 Peat... No manganese........ ........ 33
2 4-8-8 Peat...... Manganese sulphate, 50 lbs. per acre
mixed with peat......... .. 515
3 4-8-8 Peat ....... Manganese sulphate, 50 lbs. per acre ap-
plied direct to soil when plants were set 513
4 4-8-8 Peat....... Manganese sulphate, 50 lbs. per acre,.
mixed with commercial fertilizer ...... 528
5 4-8-8 Peat .... .. Manganese sulphate, 50 lbs. per acre in
commercial fertilizer and 25 lbs. 30 days,
after planting, 25 lbs. 45 days after
planting.................... ... 502
6 4-8-8 Peat ........ Manganese sulphate, 100 lbs. per acre, to
soil when plants were set ........... 538
7 4-8-8 None....... Manganese sulphate, 50 lbs. per acre, ap-
plied to soil when plants were set ... 459
8 4-8-8 None....... No manganese .............. ...... Failed
9 4-8-8 Stablemanure No manganese......................... 548
10 4-8-8 Stablemanure No manganese.................. 587
11 4-8-8 Stablemanure Manganese sulphate, 50 lbs. per acre,
mixed with manure ................ 530
12 4-8-8 Stablemanure Manganese sulphate, 50 lbs. per acre, ap-
plied direct to soil when plants were set 581
13 4-8-8 Stablemanure Manganese sulphate, 50 Ibs. per acre,
mixed with commercial fertilizer. ... 515
14 4-8-8 Coconut shell Manganese sulphate, 50 lbs. per acre in
com post............. ............ 51)


It is seen from the data that manganese sulphate caused an
increased yield of tomatoes. When the crop was set with peat,
the manganese sulphate gave a production of 515 to 592 crates of







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


tomatoes per acre against 335 crates for those set with peat con-
taining no manganese. It was effective in increasing the yield
regardless of the method of application. Except in Plot 5, there is
not a wide variation of yield from any of the manganese treated
plots.
Tomato plants set without a compost thrived when manganese
was applied to the soil. This treatment given in Plot 7 gave a
yield of 459 crates per acre. Plants set without a compost and
without manganese failed.
Manganese had little effect on tomatoes when the plants were
set with stable manure. The results indicate that if manganese
sulphate is used on the Glade soils some cheaper material than
stable manure can be used for tomatoes.
It is shown that the Glade soils are benefited by manganese, and
apparently it is immaterial as to how it is applied, direct to the soil,
mixed with commercial fertilizers, or mixed with compost.
Experiments somewhat similar to those here reported were
made at Homestead on East Glade soil on the farm of H. L. Cook.
No yield records were secured, as the tomato plants were damaged
by cutworms, making it necessary to reset several times, which
resulted in an ununiform crop. Increased vigor of plants was noted
where manganese was used, and evidence was secured to show that
this soil was also improved for tomato growing.
A study was made of the effect of varying the quantities of
manganese sulphate, and the results are given in Table XXII.

TABLE XXII.-EFFECTS OF VARYING QUANTITIES OF MANGANESE SULPHATE
ON TOMATOES ON GLADE SOILS, JANES AND GAUNT FARM, CUTLER, 1926-27.
Commercial fertilizer 4-8-8 used on all plots at the rate of 4,000 pounds
per acre.
Compost Manganese
Plot FUsed When Sulphate Method of Applying Yield
No. Fertizer Plants per Manganese Per
Were Set Acre Acre
NHII-P2Os-KO Pounds Crates
1 4-8-8 Peat ..... 50 Manganese sulphate added to
soil when plants were set... 515
2 4-8-8 Peat..... 100 Manganese sulphate, applied to
soil, Y/ when plants were set,
Y 30 days after ........... 512
3 4-8-8 Peat.... None ........................... 335
4 4-8-8 Manure. 50 Manganese sulphate added to
soil when plants were set. .. 581
5 4-8-8 Manure. 100 Manganese sulphate added to
soil when plants were set. .. 661
6 4-8-8 Manure. None Average of 2 plots............ 567







Bulletin 218, Fertilizer Experiments with Truck Crops 41

When plants were set with peat, 50 pounds of manganese sul-
phate per acre was as effective as 100 pounds per acre; however,
when the plants were set with stable manure, 100 pounds of man-
ganese sulphate produced a higher yield than did 50 pounds.
The results of experiments with copper sulphate are given in
Table XXIII. Copper sulphate mixed with commercial fertilizer
and used on plants set with peat increased the yield 75 crates per
acre.

TABLE XXIII.-EFFECTS OF COPPER SULPHATE ON TOMATOES ON CALCAREOUS
GLADE SOILS, 1926-27.
Janes and Gaunt Farm, Cutler.
Everglades peat or stable manure applied to plants, 1 ton per acre.
Fertilizer application: 4-8-8 analysis; 200 pounds per acre, January 6; 400
pounds per acre, January 16; 1,200 pounds, February 6; 1,200 pounds Febru-
ary 20; 1,000 pounds, March 6. Total, 4,000 pounds per acre to all plots.
Plot Fertilizer Compost Used When Copper Sulphate Yield
No. Used Plants Were Set Treatment per Acre
NH3-PzO5-KO Crates
1 4-8-8 Peat............... N one ....................... 335
11 4-8-8 Peat ............... 50 pounds in commercial fertil-
izer...................... 410
15 4-8-8 Stable manure...... 50 pounds direct to soil when
plants were set............ 560
16 4-8-8 Stable manure .. ... None. ..................... 587


In the winter of 1927-28, experiments were made to study fur-
ther the influence of manganese sulphate on the growth and yield
of tomatoes. The experiments were planned to determine the
best method of applying the manganese sulphate. It was (1)
added to the soil as a separate application; (2) mixed with peat;
(3) with stable manure and applied when the plants were set; and
(4) mixed with commercial fertilizer and applied in several appli-
cations.
Investigations made this season are a continuation of the work
conducted in the winters of 1924-25, 1925-26 and 1926-27, with
fertilizers and soil amendments. The data secured this year sub-
stantiate those secured the three previous years in showing that
small amounts of manganese sulphate are very beneficial to the
growth and yield of tomatoes in the Glade soils of Dade County,
which are highly calcareous in nature. The experiments were
planned to determine if tomatoes could be grown on the Glade soils
without the use of stable manure or compost and some interesting
data were secured which throw considerable light on this point.
The results are given in Table XXIV.










TABLE XXIV.-EFFECT OF MANGANESE SULPHATE ON TOMATOES ON GLADE SOIL IN 1927-28.
Everglades peat or stable manure applied to plots noted at rate of 1 ton per acre when plants were set.
Fertilizer 4-8-8 analysis used on all plots at rate of 4,000 pounds per acre, applied in 5 applications.


Tomato plants set without compost .......................................
Tomato plants set without compost, 50 pounds per acre manganese sulphate
added to soil .....................................................
Tom ato plants set with peat ..............................................
Tomato plants set with peat, in which manganese sulphate was mixed so as to
add 50 pounds per acre..................................................
Tomato plants set with peat, manganese sulphate added at rate of 50 pounds per
acre in commercial fertilizer applied when plants were set .................
Tomato plants set with peat, manganese sulphate added to soil at rate of 50
pounds per acre ......................................................
Tomato plants set with stable manure .....................................
Tomato plants set with stable manure in which manganese sulphate was mixed
so as to add 50 pounds per acre .........................................
Tomato plants set with stable manure, manganese sulphate added at rate of
50 pounds per acre in commercial fertilizer applied when plants were set....
Tomato plants set with stable manure, manganese sulphate added to soil at rate
of 50 pounds per acre...................................................
Tomato plants set without compost-duplicate of Plot 1 .....................
Tomato plants set with manure in which manganese-iron waste material was
mixed so as to add 50 pounds per acre .................. ................
Tomato plants set with peat, in which manganese-iron waste material was mixed
so as to add 100 pounds per acre .........................
Tomato plants set with peat in which manganese-iron waste material was mixed
so as to add 50 pounds per acre ..........................................


PLOT
NO.


YIELD OF TOMATOES PER ACRE
Janes & Gaunt H. L. Cook Glade,
Glade, Cutler Homestead
Crates Crates
94 12

234 177
81 76

220 180

241 222

260 237
200 144

276 189

258 203

249 224
46 14

321 103

305 122

193 167


6

7
8

9

10

11
12

13

14






Bulletin 218, Fertilizer Experiments with Truck Crops 43

The results secured in the two experiments are very similar.
Manganese sulphate, used at the rate of 50 pounds per acre, was
very effective in increasing the yield of tomatoes. During the
growing season it was apparent that the sections of the field where
manganese sulphate was applied were producing much stronger
and more vigorous plants than where no manganese sulphate was
used. The method of application does not appear to influence its
effect. In Fig. 8 is shown a section of the experimental field where
no manganese was used in the experiment, and on the right where
50 pounds of manganese sulphate per acre was used. Both plots
were set with peat and commercial fertilizers were used at the
rate of 4,000 pounds per acre.


S- -- -
Fig. 8.-Tomatoes on calcareous Glade soil. Left, peat compost and no
manganese; right, peat compost with manganese.

It is especially interesting to note that tomato plants set without
manure, compost or peat, lived, thrived and produced a good crop,
when manganese sulphate was added to the soil. When set with-
out compost and without manganese sulphate many plants died
and those that survived produced but little. It was demonstrated
that tomatoes can be grown in the Glade soils with manganese
salts and fertilizers alone, without having manure present, or peat
can be substituted for manure, by treating the peat with man-
ganese sulphate. In Fig. 9 is shown a tomato field where man-






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


ganese was used on the left, no manganese or manure in the center
rows, and stable manure on the right of the field. In the center
field almost all the plants have died; those that lived produced no
tomatoes. On the left a good vegetative growth and yield of
tomatoes was secured, which was about as great as from the field
on the right where stable manure was used. This is a striking
illustration of the effect of manganese on tomatoes on the calcare-
ous soils of Dade County.
A number of large-scale experiments were made with growers,
using 1-acre plots, to determine the effect of manganese sulphate.
In these tests the cooperating farmer used and applied the ma-
terial, some mixed it with the commercial fertilizer, others applied


Fig. 9.-Tomatoes on calcareous Glade soil. Manganese used on left, no
manganese nor manure in center, manure on right.

it as a separate application. Some used stable manure, while
others relied entirely on the manganese sulphate. Eighteen of
these large-scale experiments were made and each showed a sub-
stantial increase resulting from the use of manganese sulphate.
Those who used the manganese sulphate without stable manure
produced a successful crop.
Many growers ventured to use manganese sulphate as a sub-
stitute for manure on a large area; a 30-acre field of tomatoes
grown on East Glade land at Goulds is shown in Fig. 10, in which






Bulletin 218, Fertilizer Experiments with Truck Crops 45

manganese was used at the rate of 75 pounds per acre with com-
mercial fertilizers. No stable manure or compost was applied.
The yield of marketable tomatoes was 600 crates per acre. Many
other fields of successful tomatoes were grown likewise in 1927-28.
The 1927-28 experiments included soil treatment with zinc and
copper sulphate, but the results were unfavorable.
A manganese-iron waste material was used in the present
experiments and fairly satisfactory results are reported. The
material used is a by-product of a manufacturing company.
While a larger yield was produced from its use, the plants got


Fig. 10.-Thirty-acre commercial tomato field in calcareous Glade soil
where commercial fertilizer and manganese sulphate were used with manure.

a very slow start and did not thrive in the early stages of their
growth.
Other manganese slags, manganese-containing earths and man-
ganese dioxide were tested on Glade soil, the tomatoes being grown
in the greenhouse. None of the materials tested thus far appear
to be promising. Apparently it is necessary to use manganese
materials which are readily soluble and immediately available to
the plants.
Manganese occurs in Nature in very impure ores and is mined
in many of the States. In Nature it occurs as the dioxide or
carbonate. These chemical forms are insoluble and ineffective.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


When purified by chemical processes and concentrated it is con-
verted into sulphates or chlorides, and is a pink to whitish pow-
der. Manganese is used in many of the industries; in the manu-
facture of steel, in paints, in glass, etc. Its use in South Florida
to increase crop production is probably its first commercial use as
a fertilizer; however, it has been used experimentally for a num-
ber of years. High grade manganese sulphate has been supplied
South Florida growers during the past few years at from 6 to 10
cents per pound.
Bertrand(l)1 was one of the first to show that small quantities
of manganese were essential to plant growth. Later the impor-
tance of this element was clearly demonstrated by Brenchley (2),
by some workers of the various experiment stations, and by the
United States Department of Agriculture. The work of Mc-
Hargue(3) of the Kentucky Station has been of especial impor-
tance. It was first pointed out in 1916 by Skinner and Reid(4)
that manganese was more effective in limed and calcareous soils
than in acid soils and this has been substantiated in later work.
In the earlier work with manganese, it was learned that this
element is essential to plant growth, but it was considered that
soils contain a sufficient amount to supply the needs of plant
growth. This, however, does not appear to be true for the cal-
careous Glade soils of Dade County, nor for the muck soils of the
Everglades, for Allison, Bryan and Hunter(5) have demonstrated
the value to crops and deficiency of a number of the rare elements,
as copper, manganese and zinc. Soils of some of the other states,
notably North Carolina(6), show a manganese deficiency.
The widespread interest in the effects of manganese as a means
of increasing plant growth and crop production in South Florida
resulted in further experimentation in the winter of 1928-29, with
numerous truck and vegetable crops which had shown consider-
able malnutrition symptoms in Dade and Broward counties.
Experiments were made with Irish potatoes, snap beans, lima
beans, cabbage, cauliflower, peppers, sweet peas, beets, carrots
and lettuce. Commercial fertilizers at the rate of about 1 ton per
acre were used in all crops and on each plot. Two grades of man-
ganese sulphate were used. One analyzed 65 percent manganese
sulphate and the second 78 percent. Each was used in two
amounts-50 and 100 pounds per acre. The experiments were in
charge of Dr. A. O. Alben of the Bureau of Chemistry and Soils

'Figures in parentheses (italic) refer to "Literature Cited" in the back of
this bulletin.







Bulletin 218, Fertilizer Experiments with Truck Crops 47


and he was responsible for the details of the work. He has made
the experiments in cooperation with various commercial growers,
but the laying out of plots, fertilizer application, planting, culti-
vating and harvesting of the crop and securing of yield records
were directed by him. The experiments were located principally

TABLE XXV.-EFFECT OF VARYING QUANTITIES OF MANGANESE SULPHATE ON
IRISH POTATOES ON CALCAREOUS GLADE SOIL IN DADE COUNTY
EAST OF GOULDS.
Fertilizer containing 5 percent ammonia, 7 percent phosphoric acid and
5 percent potash applied on all plots at the rate of 2,000 pounds per acre.
Yield of Potatoes per Acre

Location of Experiment 65 percent 78 percent
Manganese Manganese
Sulphate Sulphate

Bushels Bushels
W. H. Tuesbury Farm: W
Manganese sulphate-None ............. ........... 45+ 45+
Manganese sulphate-50 lbs. per acre................ 76 SO
Manganese sulphate-100 lbs. per acre ................. 79 S7

A. W. Corbett Farm No. 1:
Manganese sulphate-None .. + 68+
Manganese sulphate-50 lbs. per acre................. 80 9S
Manganese sulphate-100 lbs. per acre ................ 114 102
A. W. Corbett Farm No. 2:
Manganese sulphate-None ...... ............... 34+ 34+
Manganese sulphate-50 lbs. per acre ................. 39 49
Manganese sulphate--100 lbs. per acre.......... ..... 57 56

A. W. Corbett Farm No. 3:
Manganese sulphate-None ............... 65+
Manganese sulphate-100 lbs. per acre................. 18

G. A. McCort Farm No. 1:
M anganese sulphate--None................... ........ 67
Manganese sulphate-100 lbs. per acre. .... ........... 193

G. A. McCort Farm No. 2:
Manganese sulphate--None. .. .. ... .. .. ....... 2!)+
Manganese sulphate--100 Ils. per acre .............. Si

S. S. Sturgis Farm:
Manganese sulphate-None....................... 50+
Manganese sulphate-200 lbs. per acre................. 170
Manganese sulphate-400 lbs. per acre................. 182

P. H. Lee Farm:
Manganese sulphate-None......................... 23+
Manganese sulphate--200 lbs. per acre ............... 72
Manganese sulphate-400 Ibs. per acre. ........... 92

P. H. Lee Farm:
Stable manure-Manganese sulphate-None ............. 50
Stable manure-Manganese sulphate-200 lbs. per acre 77
+Cull potatoes, unmarketable.













































Fig. 11.-Potato field with and without manganese sulphate.


ZZ Kl-r






Bulletin 218, Fertilizer Experiments with Truck Crops 49

in the section of Dade County, east of Goulds and Princeton,
locally known as South Allapattah Gardens. The soils are highly
calcareous, contain considerable quantities of organic matter, and
are typical calcareous East Glade lands. The farms in this section
are 5 to 10 acres in size and attempts have been made to grow a
diversity of truck crops other than tomatoes. This was only par-
tially successful until the inclusion of manganese sulphate in the
fertilizers.
POTATO EXPERIMENTS
Eight experiments were made with Irish potatoes, the plots in
each being approximately 1/20 acre. A fertilizer analyzing 5
percent ammonia, 7 percent phosphoric acid and 5 percent potash
was used on all plots at the rate of 2,000 pounds per acre. The
manganese sulphate was applied before planting simultaneous
with the fertilizer. This was spread in the seed furrows and
worked well in the soil. The results secured in these experiments
are given in Table XXV.
There was a very large increase where manganese was used in
all of the potato experiments, and in most cases the yield was 2
to 3 times as great as that secured without manganese. The no-
manganese potatoes were very small, unmarketable, and were


Fig. 12.-Potatoes grown with and without manganese sulphate.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


graded as culls. When manganese was used the potatoes were
large and over 80 percent were graded as Number 1 and the re-
mainder as Number 2. Practically no culls were produced.
In comparing the two grades of manganese, one containing 65
percent manganese sulphate and the other 78 percent, there is a
slightly better yield with the higher grade material. In these
potato experiments larger yields were secured with 100 pounds
of manganese sulphate than with 50 pounds.
In Fig. 11 is shown a section of the potato field with no man-
ganese on left where potato vines are small and yellow, and with
manganese sulphate on the right where the vines are large and
vigorous. A hill of potatoes dug from each plot is shown in Fig.
12; here the pale slender plants from the no-manganese plots on
the left are compared with the large green plants from the man-
ganese plots on the right.

BEAN EXPERIMENTS
A number of experiments were made with beans to study the
effect of manganese in different amounts with and without com-
post and different ways of applying it. These experiments were
made east of Goulds and Princeton, in the same section as the pota-
to experiments. A fertilizer containing 5 percent ammonia, 7 per-
cent phosphoric acid and 5 percent potash was used on this crop
before planting, at the rate of 1,500 pounds per acre. The man-
ganese was applied mixed with the fertilizer or as a separate
application when the crop was planted.
In an experiment on the farm of A. Bauman with manganese
used at the rate of 50 and 100 pounds per acre applied in one case
all before planting and in another, in two applications, one-half
before planting and one-half 30 days later, there was an average
yield of 14,190 pounds per acre from the plots in which manganese
was applied before planting, and a yield of 10,900 pounds from the
plots with one-half manganese applied later, indicating that the
entire application was needed in the early growth of the beans
for best results.
In a second application on the J. A. Hook farm, manganese sul-
phate applied at the rate of 75 pounds per acre with commercial
fertilizer 4-8-6, produced a healthy green bush and a yield of
15,840 pounds of snap beans per acre. The yield with fertilizers
and no manganese was 1,440 pounds per acre and the vines were
yellow and chlorotic. Manganese applied when bean pods were
forming to rows of yellow plants which received no manganese at







Bulletin 218, Fertilizer Experiments with Truck Crops 51

time of planting, produced the same yield of unmarketable beans
as the no-manganese plots.
In an experiment on the Simmons-Rue-Bullard farm on the
East Glade at Homestead, a 4-acre field, fertilized with a 5-7-3
mixture, stable manure and manganese sulphate at the rate of 100
pounds per acre, gave a yield of 277 hampers per acre of high grade
beans, and a similar acre receiving fertilizers and manure but no
manganese produced stunted and yellow chlorotic plants, which
yielded only 49 hampers per acre of unmarketable beans.
At Princeton, on the Glade farm of A. Walden, 1,500 pounds of
commercial fertilizer, 5-5-5, with 50 pounds of manganese sul-
phate, gave a yield of 6,720 pounds of beans per acre from vigorous
dark green plants, against 230 pounds of unmarketable beans from
a similar area where the manganese was omitted. The plants in
this field grown without manganese became very chlorotic and
yellow and produced less than one-third the vegetation as where
manganese was used. An experiment on the farm of H. L. Cox
was made with beans, in which manganese was used in several
amounts with and without stable manure compost. In this experi-
ment all the plots received a 5-7-3 fertilizer at the rate of 1,500
pounds per acre. The results are given in Table XXVI.

TABLE XXVI.-YIELD OF SNAP BEANS AS INFLUENCED BY MANGANESE SUL-
PHATE USED WITH AND WITHOUT STABLE MANURE COMPOST
ON H. L. Cox FARM, GOULDS.
Fertilizer containing 4 percent ammonia, 7 percent phosphoric acid and
5 percent potash applied on all plots at the rate of 1,500 pounds per acre.
Amount of Yield of Beans per Acre
Manganese
Sulphate Grade of Manganese Sulphate With Manure Without Ma-
Applied per Acre Compost nure Compost
Pounds Pounds Pounds
None None................. 4,860 4.500
50 65 percent manganese sulphate..... 16,320 18,480
100 65 percent manganese sulphate..... 14,400 18,840
50 78 percent manganese sulphate ..... 13.700 14,360
100 78 percent manganese sulphate...... 13.920 16,680


The beans in this experiment grown without manganese became
chlorotic before maturing and failed rapidly as maturity was
reached. The yield was far below the manganese treated plots.
Manganese used with stable manure compost gave somewhat
lower yields than when used without the compost. The relatively
low yield from the manganese-manure plots is probably due to
excessive vegetation produced in the late season. However, the






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


experiments seem to demonstrate that in the growing of truck
and especially beans on this soil, no compost is required when
manganese is used and it would also seem that 50 pounds of man-
ganese sulphate per acre is about as effective as larger quantities.
In Fig. 13 is shown typical chlorotic poorly fruited beans grown
without manganese compared with healthy well fruited beans
grown with manganese sulphate.




















Fig. 13.-Bean plants grown in field plots, without (left) and with man-
ganese sulphate.

An experiment was made with pole beans using manganese
sulphate mixed with cottonseed meal and applied along the rows
one week after planting. The results are given in Table XXVII.
The use of cottonseed meal in addition to the fertilizer mixture
gave a slightly increased yield. However, when manganese was
used with the cottonseed meal the production was increased
greatly. Manganese sulphate with cottonseed meal gave only a
slightly larger yield than did manganese alone. There was no
difference in the growth and appearance of the vines.
The experiments described were made on calcareous soils on
the East Glade in the section of Dade County locally known as the
Allapattah Gardens, east of Goulds. This section is rapidly being
developed into an intensively tilled truck and garden community.
The experiments show that beans can be grown profitably by







Bulletin 218, Fertilizer Experiments with Truck Crops 53


using small amounts of manganese sulphate together with com-
mercial fertilizer.


TABLE XXVII. EFFECT OF MANGANESE SULPHATE WITH COTTONSEED MEAL
ON POLE BEANS ON CALCAREOUS GLADE SOILS, FARM OF
A. J. COOK, PRINCETON.
Fertilizer containing 5 percent ammonia, 7 percent phosphoric acid and
5 percent potash applied at the rate of 600 pounds per acre to all plots.


Amount of
Cottonseed
Meal
per Acre

Pounds
0
200
200
200
0


Yield of Pole Beans per Acre
65 Percent 78 Percent
Manganese Manganese
Sulphate Sulphate

Pounds Pounds
314 314
443 443
1,944 1,854
1,950 1,943
1,859 ..


Two experiments were started late in the season to study the
requirements of the soil in the bean growing section of Dania,
north of Miami, in Broward County. Malnutrition symptoms had
been noted in beans growing in localized sections. This soil is not
as calcareous nor as alkaline as the Dade County soil. It is much
sandier and frequently acid. The crops did not mature and pro-
duce beans, but records were kept as to the rapidity of plant

TABLE XXVIII.-GROWTH OF SNAP BEANS AS INFLUENCED BY MANGANESE
SULPHATE WITH AND WITHOUT STABLE MANURE COMPOST
IN TWO SOILS AT DANIA.
Fertilizer containing 4 percent ammonia, 7 percent phosphoric acid and
3 percent potash applied to all plots at the rate of 1,000 pounds per acre.


Record of Growth of Beans


E. C. Edge Farm


Without Compost


Relative
Weight

Percent
100
151
189
190
180
178
185
187
184


H. T. Kille Farm


With Compost Without CompostI With Compost


Height
of Plants

Inches
6.5
7.1
9 0
9.1
9.5
7 5
S.0
9.0
9.0


Relative
Weight

Percent
100
120
160
159
158
140
147
160
160


Height
of Plants

Inches
6.5
9.1
10.0
11.0
10.1
9.2
10.0
11.1
11.0


Relative
Weight

Percent
100
114
114
126
122
119
118
120
124


Height Relative
of Plants Weight

Inches Percent
7.5 100
10.0 115
9.8 115
11.1 125
11.0 120
10.0 120
11.0 120
11.5 122
12.1 125


Amount of
Manganese
Sulphate
Applied
per Acre

Pounds
0
0
50
100
100


Manga-
nese
Sulphate
per
Acre


Pounds
None
50
100
200
300
50
100
200
300


Grade
of
Manga-
nese
Sulphate


Percent

65
65
65
65
78
78
78
78


Height
of Plants

Inches
6.0
7.1
8.5
9.0
9.1
8.5
10.2
10 0
9.S







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


growth and development of chlorosis. The height of the plants
and relative weight of the vines from each treatment in two ex-
periments near Dania are given in Table XXVIII.
The manganese produced increased growth in both experiments
on the Dania soil regardless of whether it was used with or with-
out stable manure compost. On the Edge farm, 100 pounds per
acre of the 65 percent manganese sulphate gave about as good
growth as larger amounts. However, on the Kille farm, 200
pounds of this grade manganese was required for greatest growth.
Fifty pounds per acre of the 78 percent grade manganese sulphate
gave nearly as good results as most of the larger applications in
each experiment, although these results are not so uniform as
the former.
The beans grown without manganese were noticeably chlorotic,
while those receiving the manganese showed no malnutrition
symptoms. The experiment clearly shows that manganese is
beneficial to beans in this soil and will probably produce increased
yields.
CABBAGE AND CAULIFLOWER EXPERIMENTS
Experiments were made with cabbages on two East Glade farms
in the vicinity of Goulds with rather interesting results. In these
experiments a commercial fertilizer containing 4 percent am-
monia, 8 percent phosphoric acid and 5 percent potash was applied
at the rate of 600 pounds per acre, 10 days after the plants were
set, and the manganese sulphate used was mixed with the ferti-
lizer and applied in one application. The yield data are given in
Table XXIX.

TABLE XXIX.-EFFECT OF MANGANESE SULPHATE ON CABBAGES ON CALCAR-
EOUS GLADE SOIL IN TWO EXPERIMENTS IN DADE COUNTY.
Fertilizer containing 4 percent ammonia, 8 percent phosphoric acid and
5 percent potash applied at the rate of 600 pounds per acre.
Yield of Cabbages per Acre
Manganese S. L. Thomas Farm H. Graf Farm
Sulphate Grade of
Applied Manganese Manganese Manganese Manganese
per Acre Sulphate Applied Applied 2 Before Applied
All Before Planting; Y Four All Before
Planting Weeks Later Planting
Pounds Pounds Pounds
None ............. 28,215 28,215 16,236
50 65 percent.... 37,620 37,620 33,005
100 65 percent.... 47,025 40,715 41,041
50 78 percent.... 37,620 40,715 34,153
100 78 percent.... 34,485 37,620 42,107







Bulletin 218, Fertilizer Experiments with Truck Crops 55


Manganese produced a great increase in yield of cabbages. In
each experiment 100 pounds per acre of the 65 percent manganese
sulphate gave a larger yield than did 50 pounds per acre. The
results from the 78 percent manganese sulphate are somewhat
contradictory as to the most efficient amount. The cabbages
grown without manganese were severely chlorotic, as shown in


Fig. 14.-Cabbage leaves from plants grown in field plots without (left)
and with manganese sulphate. The leaf grown without manganese is chlo-
rotic and shows typical manganese deficiency.

Fig. 14. Here it is seen that the leaf from the cabbage grown
with manganese is much larger than the one grown without man-
ganese, and shows no malnutrition symptoms. The average

TABLE XXX.-EFFECT OF MANGANESE SULPHATE ON CAULIFLOWER ON CALCAR-
EOUS GLADE SOIL AT PRINCETON.
Fertilizer containing 5 percent ammonia, 7 percent phosphoric acid, and
3 percent potash applied at the rate of 1,000 pounds per acre on all plots.


Grade of
Manganese
Sulphate



65 percent.........
65 percent.........
78 percent.........
78 percent.........


Average Weight of Cauliflowers


Lanier Farm


Without With
Compost Compost
Pounds Pounds
1.8 2.0
2.0 2.2
2.3 2.5
2.0 2.3
2.2 2.5


Amount of
Manganese
Sulphate
Applied
per Acre

Pounds
None
50
100
50
100


H. Graf Farm

Without
Compost
Pounds
3.1
3.5
4.0
3.2
4.1







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


weight of typical plants grown without manganese was 2 pounds
and of those grown with manganese, 3.7 pounds.
Experiments with cauliflower were made on two farms on East
Glade soil near Princeton to study the influence of manganese on
this crop. The manganese was used with and without compost
and was applied with the fertilizer 10 days after the plants were
set. Commercial fertilizers were used in all plots. The results
are given in Table XXX. Wide differences did not develop as a
result of the manganese applications and there was but little re-
sponse in either of the soils.

LETTUCE AND PEPPER EXPERIMENTS

A single experiment with lettuce was made on the farm of T. H.
Lanier on Glade soil east of Goulds. Manganese sulphate was
used in varying amounts with commercial fertilizers, with and
without stable manure compost. Commercial fertilizer contain-
ing 5 percent ammonia, 7 percent phosphoric acid and 3 percent
potash was used on all plots at the rate of 1,600 pounds per acre,
applied before the lettuce plants were set.
The results given in Table XXXI show that the manganese was
very beneficial to growth and increased the yield. Fifty pounds
per acre seem to have been as effective as larger amounts.

TABLE XXXI.-EFFECT OF MANGANESE SULPHATE ON LETTUCE GROWN ON
CALCAREOUS GLADE SOIL EAST OF GOULDS.
Fertilizer containing 5 percent ammonia, 7 percent phosphoric acid and
3 percent potash applied at the rate of 1,600 pounds per acre on all plots.
Growth Records of Lettuce
Without Compost With Compost
Amount of Manganese Sulphate
per Acre Average Relative Average Relative
Weight Weight Weight Weight
per Head of Crop per Head of Crop
Pounds Pounds Percent Pounds Percent
None ..................................... 0.5 100 1.5 145
50 lbs. of 65 percent manganese sulphate. ...... 3.0 170 2.5 195
100 lbs. of 65 percent manganese sulphate...... 2.7 175 3.0 200
50 lbs. of 78 percent manganese sulphate...... 2.3 160 2.7 190
100 lbs. of 78 percent manganese sulphate ...... 2.0 175 2.7 190

An experiment was made with peppers, using 65 and 125 pounds
per acre of manganese sulphate, on the Lanier farm near Goulds
in calcareous Glade soil. Peppers grown without manganese
showed severe chlorosis, made scant growth and fruited poorly.







Bulletin 218, Fertilizer Experiments with Truck Crops 57

A typical chlorotic pepper leaf grown without manganese is shown
in Fig. 15 together with a normal leaf grown with a small amount
of manganese. All of these plots received a well balanced com-
mercial fertilizer at the rate of 1,200 pounds per acre. There was
a 70 percent increase in production of peppers with 65 pounds of
manganese sulphate per acre over no manganese, and an 81 per-
cent increase in production with 125 pounds of manganese sul-
phate per acre.
An interesting observation of manganese deficiency was ob-
served in the sandy soils of Broward County near Floranada in

































Fig. 15.-Pepper leaves from plants grown without (left) and with man-
ganese sulphate.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


the section devoted to the growing of peppers and beans. The soils
of this section are very sandy and are generally acid. Frequently
small low areas varying from 20 feet to 300 feet in diameter are
found. The low areas contain shell deposits and are alkaline. The
pH of the general run of these soils is 5.6 to 6.2. The shell areas
were found to have a pH exceeding 7 and many as high as 8 to 8.5.
Peppers and beans growing in the shell areas made but scant
growth, were dwarfed, became yellow and chlorotic and produced
no marketable vegetables. Several experiments were made with
peppers in these shell areas, and there was a quick response to
manganese. Manganese sulphate applied at the rate of 120
pounds per acre to rows in the shell area after 10 days produced
a natural green color. Six weeks after the manganese application
the plants were 12 inches high with a spread of 9 inches and were
blossoming and setting fruit. The no-manganese rows left to
serve as a check were 5 inches high, with a spread of 3 inches, and
were yellow and unthrifty and did not produce.

CARROT AND BEET EXPERIMENTS
The results of manganese experiments with carrots made on
the farm of C. R. Hall, east of Goulds, are given in Table XXXII.

TABLE XXXII.--EFFECT OF MANGANESE SULPHATE ON CARROTS IN CALCAR-
EOUS GLADE SOIL EAST OF GOULDS.
Fertilizer containing 4 percent ammonia, 8 percent phosphoric acid and
5 percent potash applied in two applications to all plots at the rate of 1,200
pounds per acre.
Growth Record of Carrots
Amount of Grade of Manganese Applied 14 Be-
MManganes anganeses e nganese Applied fore Planting; 3 Weeks
Sulphate Sulphate Before Planting Iater
Applied
per Acre Carrots to Average Carrots to Average
make Height make Height
1 Pound of Tops 1 Pound of Tops
Pounds Number Inches Number Inches
None ...... ............. 40 8 40 S
50. ...... 65 percent. 14 10 15 12
100.......... 5 percent .... 15 11 16 14
50......... 7 percent.... 13 13 15 13
100 ......... 78 percent.... 16 15 17 16


The yield of carrots per acre was not taken. However, the size of
the carrots as shown by the number required to make one pound
and the height of the tops gives a good indication of the effect of
the manganese. These records were taken about two weeks before




Bulletin 218, Fertilizer Experiments with Truck Crops 59
the crop was ready for market. The smaller amount of manga-
nese used was as effective as the larger quantity.
A second experiment was made on the farm of E. C. Parker in
the same neighborhood as the one recorded in Table XXXII. In
this test 62 carrots were required to make one pound where no
manganese was used, 30 where 50 pounds of 65 percent grade
manganese sulphate were used and 32 with 100 pounds of the
same grade manganese. When the 78 percent grade manganese


Fig. 16.-Beets from two fields. Right, grown with a fertilizer containing
manganese; left, grown with a fertilizer containing no manganese.


t


g






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


sulphate was used, 35 carrots made one pound with both 50 and
100 pounds of manganese sulphate.
An interesting experiment was made with beets which showed
very striking results from the use of manganese sulphate. In
this test 50 pounds of manganese sulphate was mixed with one
ton of commercial fertilizer and used in fertilizing beets and com-
pared with the same fertilizer containing no manganese. The
fertilizer used analyzed 5 percent ammonia, 8 percent phosphoric
acid and 6 percent potash. It was applied at the rate of 1,800
pounds per acre, in two applications, 1,200 before planting and
600 as a side application. Records were made of the beets before
they were ready for the market. In the field where the no-man-
ganese fertilizer was used, the average height of the tops was
7.9 inches and the average weight of the tops was 0.1 pounds. No
roots of any consequence had formed. Where the manganese fer-
tilizer was used, the tops were 14.7 inches high and the average
weight of the tops per beet was 12 ounces. Representative beets
from each field are shown in Fig. 16. Here it is seen that the
addition of manganese has resulted in the production of large
marketable beets, and the crop was a failure where the manganese
was omitted.

CORN EXPERIMENTS

Experiments to study the effect of manganese on corn were
made, but as no yield data were taken, the effect on growth only
can be given and this is best shown by means of illustrations.
An experiment was made on the farm of A. J. Cook in which
were used two grades of manganese in two amounts, namely 50
and 100 pounds per acre. Four hundred pounds of a 4-7-5 ferti-
lizer was used on all plots, one-half applied before planting and
the remainder three weeks later. The corn grown in plots without
manganese developed slowly, became yellow and chlorotic and
tasseled when about 12 inches high; no ears were formed. That
grown with manganese maintained a dark green color, grew rap-
idly and tasseled after reaching a height of 3.5 to 4 feet; market-
able ears were formed. There was no difference in the corn pro-
duced by the two grades of manganese used, nor in the two
amounts used. Fifty pounds per acre was as effective as 100
pounds. A photograph of typical plants from the plots without
and with manganese is shown in Fig. 17.
Some very interesting observations were made of corn follow-
ing a tomato crop, in which the manganese sulphate was applied






Bulletin 218, Fertilizer Experiments with Truck Crops 61








































Fig. 17.-Typical corn plants dug from plots without (left) and with man-
ganese sulphate.

to the tomatoes. This experiment was made on the farm of P. H.
Lee near Goulds. Considerable interest has arisen as to the resid-
ual effects of manganese in this highly calcareous soil and these
experiments throw some light on the question. In Fig. 18 at the
top is shown corn planted after tomatoes. On the small corn row






62 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

in the center, manganese sulphate was applied to the preceding
crop at the rate of 30 pounds per acre when the tomatoes were set,
which was about 12 weeks before the corn was planted. The plot
on the right where the corn has grown high received three appli-
cations of manganese totalling 100 pounds per acre to the toma-
toes, which preceded the corn. The last application was made
three to four weeks before the corn was planted. In Fig. 18 at
the bottom, tomatoes were also grown preceding the corn. The


0A-

Fig. 18.-Corn following tomatoes, where different applications of manga
nese sulphate had been made to the tomatoes.






Bulletin 218, Fertilizer Experiments with Truck Crops 63

center row of small corn received no manganese when tomatoes
were growing, nor any when corn was planted. On the plot to
the left, manganese sulphate was applied to tomatoes preceding
the corn in three applications during the growth of the tomatoes,
the total amount applied being 100 pounds per acre. The last
application was made about four weeks before corn was planted.
The plot on the right received the same amount of manganese
when tomatoes were growing, but in addition manganese sulphate
at the rate of 50 pounds per acre was applied when the corn was
planted. Here it is seen that the corn on the right which received
manganese in addition to that applied to tomatoes, is larger and of
a darker color than that on the left, where manganese was applied
only to the preceding crop. Commercial fertilizer, 5-7-5, was
applied to both the tomato and corn crops, all the tomato plots
receiving 3,000 pounds per acre and the corn plots 600 pounds
per acre.
Another illustration of the residual effect of manganese is
shown in corn following Irish potatoes. The corn is shown in Fig.
19. On this field potatoes received manganese sulphate at the rate
of 75 pounds per acre applied in two applications, the latter six























Fig. 19.-Corn following potatoes where manganese sulphate was applied
to potatoes. Rows on right had additional manganese applied when corn
was planted.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


weeks before the corn was planted. When the corn was planted,
the rows to the right received an additional application of man-
ganese sulphate at the rate of 50 pounds per acre, while those to
the left received none. The entire field received 2,000 pounds of
a commercial fertilizer when the tomatoes were planted, and the
corn 600 pounds of fertilizer. It is seen in the photograph that the
additional application of manganese to the corn has produced a
much larger growth than where manganese was applied only to
the preceding crop.
From these experiments it would appear that there is some
slight residual effects of manganese, but in these experiments
only a comparatively short time elapsed between the application
of manganese to the first crop before the following crop was
planted. Manganese applied to the second crop stimulated growth
far exceeding that applied only to the first crop. It would seem
that much of the manganese had been used, or had become insol-
uble in this calcareous soil within about three months. After
the lapse of a year it is doubtful if added manganese would be
available to crops in this soil.


SUMMARY OF RESULTS OF TRUCK CROP EXPERIMENTS WITH
MANGANESE SULPHATE ON CALCAREOUS GLADE SOIL
Manganese sulphate was very effective on tomatoes and other
truck crops in calcareous Glade soil. Attempts at growing to-
matoes without stable manure or manganese failed even though
large amounts of plant food and fertilizers were used. With 50
to 100 pounds of manganese sulphate tomatoes were grown suc-
cessfully, without the addition of stable manure. Manganese can
be applied as a separate application, mixed with commercial fer-
tilizers, or mixed with compost. The most practical method of
application is to apply it mixed with commercial fertilizers.
Tomatoes, potatoes, beans, cabbages, cauliflower, carrots, beets,
and corn showed severe yellowing or chlorosis which was corrected
by the addition of small amounts of manganese. Most of these
truck crops failed to grow and produce on the Glade soil when
fertilized with commercial fertilizers only, but were thrifty,
healthy and produced profitable yields where manganese was
used in addition to commercial fertilizers. These calcareous Glade
soils proved to be deficient in manganese and are made productive
for most truck crops by its addition.


64







Bulletin 218, Fertilizer Experiments with Truck Crops 65

LITERATURE CITED

1. BERTRAND, G. Sur l'intervention du manganese dans les oxydetions pro-
voques par la locease. Compt. Rend. 124, 1032. 1897. Sur 1'action
oxydarite des sels manganeux et sur la constitution chemique des oxy-
dases. 124, 1355-58. 1897.
2. BRENCHLEY, WINIFRED E. Inorganic plant poisons and stimulants.
Cambridge Univ. Press. 1914 and 1922.
3. MCHARGUE, J. S. The role of manganese in plants. Jour. Amer. Chem.
Soc., 44:1592-98. 1922.
4. SKINNER, J. J., and REID, F. R. Action of manganese under acid and
neutral soil conditions. U. S. Dept. Agr. Bul. 441. 1916.
5. ALLISON, R. V., BRYAN, 0. C., and HUNTER, J. H. The stimulation of
plant response on the raw peat soils of the Florida Everglades through
the use of copper sulphate and other chemicals. Fla. Expt. Sta. Bul.
190. 1927.
6. WILLIS, L. G. Response of oats and soy beans to manganese in some
Coastal Plains soils. N. C. Exp. Sta. Bul. 257. 1928.




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