• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Credits
 Main
 Back Cover














Title: Winter clover pastures for peninsular Florida
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027668/00001
 Material Information
Title: Winter clover pastures for peninsular Florida
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Blaser, R. E.
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station,
Publication Date: 1940
Copyright Date: 1940
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027668
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: electronic_aleph - 003261642
electronic_oclc - 60455965

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Credits
        Page 2
    Main
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Back Cover
        Page 30
Full Text
Bulletin 351 November, 1940

WINTER CLOVER PASTURES

FOR PENINSULAR FLORIDA

R. E. BLASAAND EFTM Lt






EXECUTIVE STAFF
John J. Tigert, M. A., LL.D., President
of the University3
Wilmon Newell, D.Sc., Director"
Harold Mowry, M. S. A., Asst. Dir.,
Research
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor3
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editors
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Assistant Editors
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
Ruby Newhall, Administrative Manager3
K. H. Graham, Business Manager3
Rachel McQuarrie, Accountants
MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE
AGRONOMY
W. E. Stokes, M.S., Agronomist'
W. A. Leukel, Ph.D., Agronomists
Fred. H Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist
G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Associates
W. A. Carver, PH.D., Associate
John P. Camp, M.S., Assistant
Roy E. Blaser, M.S., Assistant
ANIMAL INDUSTRY
A. L. Shealy, D.V.M., Animal Indus-
trailist3
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman'
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist3
W. M. Neal, Ph.D., Asso. in An. Nutrition
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarian"
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Hus-
bandman3
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Asso. An. Husband-
mana
R. M. Crown, M.S.A., Asst. An. Husb3
P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Asst. Dairy
Husbandman3
L. L. Rusoff, Ph. D., Asst. in An.
Nutrition3
O. W. Anderson, M.S., Asst. Poultry
Husbandman3
SOILS
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Chemist1
Gaylord M. Volk, M.S., Chemist
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologist3
C. E. Bell, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
J. Russell Henderson, M.S.A., Associate3
L. H. Rogers, M.S., Asso. Biochemist
Richard A. Carrigan, B.S., Asst. Chemist
ECONOMICS, AGRICULTURAL
C. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agricultural
Economist1 3
Bruce McKinley, A.B., B.S.A., Associate
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Assistant
ECONOMICS, HOME
Ouida D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ-
omist'
Ruth Overstreet, R.N., Assistant
R. B. French, Ph.D., Asso. Chemist
ENTOMOLOGY
J. R. Watson, A.M., Entomologist1
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Associate
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant
HORTICULTURE
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist'
A. L. Stahl, Ph.D., Associate
F. S. Jamison, Ph. D., Truck Hort.3
R. J. Wilmot, M.S.A., Fumigation
Specialist
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist
J. Carlton Cain, B.S.A., Assistant
Horticulturist
Victor F. Nettles, M.S.A., Assistant
Horticulturist
F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Horticulturist2
H. M. Sell, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist2
PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist1 '
George F. Weber, Ph.D., Plant Path.3
L. O. Gratz, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Asst, Botanist


BOARD OF CONTROL
H. P. Adair, Chairman, Jacksonville
W. M. Palmer, Ocala
Chas. P. Helfenstein, Live Oak
R. H. Gore, Fort Lauderdale
N. B. Jordan, Quincy
J. T. Diamond, Secretary, Tallahassee
BRANCH STATIONS
NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY
J. D. Warner, M.S., Agron. Acting in
Charee
R. R. Kinkaid, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
Elliott Whitehurst, B.S.A., Assistant An.
Husbandman
Jesse Reeves, Asst. Agron., Tobacco
CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Horticulturist in
Charge.
John H. Jefferies, Asst. in Cit. Breeding
Michael Peech, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
L. H. Greathouse, Ph.D., Chemist
B. R. Fudge, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Associate
Entomologist
F. F. Cowart, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
W. W. Lawless, B. S., Asst. Horticulturist
R. K. Voorhees, M.S., Asst. Plant Path.
EVERGLADES STA., BELLE GLADE
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Biochemist in
Charge
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist
F. D. Stevens, B.S., Sugarcane Agron.
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Sugarcane
Physiologist
Frederick Boyd, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
G. R. Townsend, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. W. Kidder, B.S., Asst. An. Husbandman
W. T. Forsee, Ph.D., Asso. Chemist
B S. Clayton, B.S.C.E., Drainage En-
gineer2
F. S. Andrews, Ph.D., Asso. Truck Hort.
SUB-TROPICAL STA., HOMESTEAD
W. M. Fifield, M.S., Horticulturist Act-
ing in Charge
S. J. Lynch, B.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Associate Plant
Pathologist
W. CENTRAL FLA. STA.,
BROOKSVILLE
W F. Ward, M.S., Asst. An. Husband-
man in Charge'
FIELD STATIONS
Leesburg
M. N. Walker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
in Charge
K. W. Loucks, M.S., Assistant Plant
Pathologist
Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Cocoa
A. S. Rhoads, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist.
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Asso. Truck
Horticulturist
Monticello
Samuel O. Hill, B.S., Asst. Entomologist'
Bradenton
Jos. R. Beckenhch. Ph.D., Truck Horti-
culturist in Charge
David G. Kelbert, Ast. Plant Pathologist
Sanford
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Chemist in
Charge, Celery Investigations
W. B. Shippy, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
Lakeland
E. S. Ellison, Meteorologists
B. H. Moore, A.B., Asst. Meteorologist'

'Head of Department
2In cooperation with U.S.D.A.
'Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.










WINTER CLOVER PASTURES FOR PENINSULAR FLORIDA
R. E. Blaser and F. T. Boyd


CONTENTS
PAGE PAGE
Plan of Experiments 5 Fertilizer Requirements on Acid
Fertilization Treatments ...... 5 Flatwoods Sands and Acid Mucks 8
d Pr Pnti a Fertilizer Requirements on Slightly
Seedbed Preparation, Planting and Acid or Alkaline Soils .... 17
Inoculation -.-. ------- Seeding and Management of Clover
Methods of Evaluating Forage Yields 6 Pastures .... ... .... 19
Farmers' Plantings -............ ..... 6 Advantages of Clover in Pasture
Mixtures ... ----- ..-... .-_ 23
Experimental Results .. ..._--_ 6 Summary ... ........... 25
Soils of Peninsular Florida Adapted Practical Pointers for Establishing
to Clover ... ...... ......... 7 and Managing Clover Pastures 26


INTRODUCTION
Many pasture plants are well adapted to the varying soil and
climatic conditions of Florida, but these plants produce most of
their growth during the warm summer months. Many of the
summer growing plants are suitable for hay which could be fed
during the winter months. But heavy dews and rainfall are not
conducive to hay making. Thus, under Florida conditions, the
economical production of milk and beef depends on the avail-
ability of an ample supply of cheap and nutritious pasture feed
during the entire year.
Recent research has shown that many clovers and grasses
are suitable for winter grazing in Florida. It has been found
that clovers may be grown satisfactorily in conjunction with
perennial summer grasses. With this pasture mixture, winter
clovers and summer grasses greatly lengthen the grazing period.
Clovers serve also to improve the mineral, protein, and vitamin
content of livestock feed, and increase the fertility of the soil.
From the standpoint of feed production for dairy cattle,
clovers should be readily used where soils are adapted to them.
Clover and grass pastures, supplemented with silage and concen-
trates, provide economical feed. This feeding program will large-
ly eliminate the purchase of roughages and thereby reduce feed-
ing costs.
While clovers cannot furnish all winter feed for economical
beef production they may, however, constitute a substantial part
of the cattle feeding program. The protein requirement for beef
cattle during the winter months might profitably be supplied
by a small acreage of clover. Valuable breeding animals may






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


be largely fed on winter clovers. The possibility of marketing
an early calf crop is increased by having available a suitable
acreage of winter clover pasture. Winter feed, which may be
furnished by clovers, will reduce livestock mortality.

Research conducted by the Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station demonstrated in 1937 how to grow clovers in this state.
Experiments are under way to find better clovers and cheaper
fertilizer practices and it is possible that better varieties of clover
and more desirable fertilizer practices will be found. As new
results develop reports will be made to bring clover research up
to date.










experimentss

I and Phosphate Source
ver Variety

tilizer Combinations C




O



:g. 1.-Location o. clover variety and
lizer experiments (Those in western
ida are carried on by the North Flor-
Experiment Station.)







Winter Clover Pastures for Peninsular Florida


PLAN OF EXPERIMENTS
Experiments presented in this bulletin were largely coopera-
tive between the Florida Experiment Station and livestock
owners. The clover trials were located in several different areas
throughout the state to determine the effect of fertilizers and the
possibility of growing clover on various soil types, Fig. 1. The
soils studied may be grouped into two general classes; namely,
(1) the acid soils of the flatwoods and acid mucks and (2) the
slightly acid or alkaline soils with calcareous substrata, consisting
of sandy and muck soils.
FERTILIZATION TREATMENTS
For Acid Soils (Sandy Flatwoods and Mucks).-Clover ex-
periments started in the fall of 1937 have been reported in Florida
Experiment Station Bulletin 325. These experiments included
fertilizer, planting date and variety tests on several soil types.
New experiments established in the fall of 1938 and 1939 were
designed to compare different sources of lime and phosphate and
combinations of these materials with and without nitrogen and
potash on clover yields. These experiments were arranged in
duplicate in randomized blocks, and seeded with a mixture of
clovers. Experimental areas, originally fertilized in 1937 and
1938, were refertilized in 1939 with different rates and combina-
tions to study the need of refertilization on different soil types.
For Lower East Coast Soils Underlain With Calcareous Sub-
strata.-During the fall of 1938 experiments similar to those on
flatwoods soils were established in northern Dade County. These
experiments showed that clovers there failed to benefit from
lime. Clovers on plots which received superphosphate, potash
and nitrogen were generally best. Consequently in 1939 new
tests were started with superphosphate, muriate of potash, lime,
nitrogen, and minor elements such as copper, manganese and
zinc. Various amounts of superphosphate and muriate of potash
were used. These experiments were established in December
on farms in Dade, Broward and Palm Beach counties. All plots
were seeded with a mixture of winter clovers and grasses.
SEEDBED PREPARATION, PLANTING AND INOCULATION
Preparation of the seedbed differed according to soil condi-
tions and type of vegetation present. The experiments located
near DeLand and Starke were established on undisturbed soil
carrying wiregrass vegetation. The wiregrass was burned prior
to the application of fertilizer and seed. Both seed and fertilizer
were surface applied during a rain on the DeLand area. On one






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


replication of the Starke area the seed and fertilizer were surface
applied while on the other replication the fertilizer was disked
into the ground, after which the plots were seeded and rolled.
The remaining flatwoods areas were established on carpet grass
sods. In these experiments the fertilizer was incorporated in
the surface one- to two-inch soil layer; then the plots were seeded
and rolled.
On the Lower East Coast soils the experimental areas were
plowed and double-disked before planting, and rolled after the
seed was broadcast.
The technique for inoculating clover seed was as follows:
the "A" and "B" clover inoculation groups' were inoculated separ-
ately, since they require different bacteria cultures. Clover seeds
were placed in a tub. Syrup was added (while mixing) until each
seed was thinly coated with syrup. The proper bacteria culture
was added and thoroughly mixed. The bacteria were supplied
at 10 times the rate recommended by the manufacturer. Cotton-
seed meal or other drying agents were added (while stirring)
until the seeds separated and became dry enough to be planted.
After the "A" and "B" clover groups were inoculated separately,
the seeds were mixed and planted immediately.
METHODS OF EVALUATING FORAGE YIELDS
All experimental areas were fenced so that yield and growth
data could be obtained before the plots were grazed. All areas
were inspected frequently during the rapid growing period of
clover. Clippings for yield determinations were made on repre-
sentative areas within plots.
FARMERS' PLANTINGS
Specific recommendations for starting clovers were made to
many county agricultural agents and farmers. Some observa-
tions of these plantings are included in the recommendations.
EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
Experimental results are discussed in the following order:
(1) soils of peninsular Florida adapted to clovers; (2) fertilizer
requirements for producing winter clover on acid sandy and acid
muck soils; (3) fertilizer requirements for soils with calcareous
substrata; (4) seeding and management of clover pastures; and
(5) the value of clover in a pasture mixture. Practical pointers
on establishing and managing clover pastures, based on research
data, are given.

ISee page 28.






Winter Clover Pastures for Peninsular Florida


SOILS OF PENINSULAR FLORIDA ADAPTED TO CLOVER
Tests conducted by the Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station show that clovers require soils with ample moisture
during the winter months. Clover plantings made on "high ridge"
soils such as Norfolk sand have generally failed because of an
inadequate moisture supply, while good growth was obtained on
low-lying moist soils. Most of the clover plantings made in 1938
in central Florida (Fig. 1) failed because of the abnormally low
rainfall during the fall of that year. Two of the 1938 experiments,
one on a low phase of Plummer soil near DeLand and the other
on an acid muck near Davenport, produced good clover growth
because of the high moisture-holding capacity of those soils.
Rainfall approached normal during the fall of 1939, and only
three experiments failed to produce satisfactory clover growth.
The clover on the acid muck area near Davenport failed because
of excess water caused by inadequate drainage. The clovers on
two areas near Arcadia on high phases of Leon sandy soil-one
on flatwoods, the other on prairie land-produced unsatisfactory
growth primarily because of drought. These latter two soils
possessed a shallow surface organic layer which was underlaid
with coarse sand, causing them to be dry.
Clover tests made on acid soils such as low-lying phases of
Leon, Plummer, Portsmouth, Johnson, Scranton, Bladen fine



















Fig. 2.-Clover-carpet grass pasture furnishing winter feed for bulls.
Left, lime, phosphate and potash produced good clover. Right, without
fertilizer clover similarly seeded did not grow.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


sands and acid mucks have given good growth. Slightly acid or
alkaline soils, with calcareous substrata, such as mucks and sandy
mucks and low marl hammocks, also have proven satisfactory for
clovers.
Moisture requirements for different varieties of clover vary
but none of the winter clovers which have been tested in Florida
furnish much feed under dry soil conditions. The adaptation of
clovers to different soil moisture conditions is given under clover
variety tests.
Any soil of sufficient moisture, when properly fertilized, is
suitable for clovers. The best criteria for selecting soils for clover
pasture are as follows: (1) select soils with a fine textured sur-
face layer, high in organic matter, 6 to 12 inches in depth; (2) the
finer the texture of the subsoil the better the moisture-holding
capacity of the soil and the clover growth produced; (3) soils with
clay subsoils are better than hardpans, and impervious hardpan
soils are inferior to pervious hardpan soils; (4) muck soils have
produced very good clover growth.


FERTILIZER REQUIREMENTS FOR PRODUCING WINTER CLOVERS
ON ACID FLATWOODS SANDS AND ACID MUCKS
Fertilizer Combinations and Sources of Lime.-The effect of
fertilizer mixtures on clover growth is shown in data presented
in Table 1 and summarized in Figs. 3 and 4. In Table 1 the aver-
age relative yields of clover from nine soil types produced with
100

o9

80 Ca-Mg 1500 Ibs. ground limestone and 500 lbs. dolomite.
F 18 superphosphate.
K 50 muriate of potash.
70 II- 180 nitrogen (2 sulfate of arnonia and nitrate
of soda).
60
aates in Ibs. per acre.
50

4o
15 30
20
Ca-Il.r- 2000
10 Ca-Mg- 2000 Ca-I.;I- 2000 Ca-Mg- 2000 F 00 F 600
75 K- 100 F 600 k 100 K 100
No fertilizer N 75 N 75 75 ] 75

Fig 3.-Average relative clover yields with different fertilizer mix-
tures for nine soil types. (See table 1.)








Winter Clover Pastures for Peninsular Florida


a fertilizer mixture consisting of 2,000 pounds lime, 600 pounds
18% superphosphate, 100 pounds 50% muriate of potash, and 75
pounds of an 18% nitrogen fertilizer is represented by 100. When
potash was omitted the relative yield was 25; without phosphate


100

90

m 80

40







30
20

10
1o



20

10


Ca-Mg- 2000
P 600
-K 100
N 75


Ca 2000
P 600
K 100
N- 75


!Mg 2000
P 600
K 100
N- 75


Ca-yg 1000
S- 600
K 100
i 75


Ca-Mg 1000
F 300
K 100
N 75


Ca ground limestone; Mg dolomite; Ca-IMg 3/4 ground lime, 1/4
dolomite; P 18;' superphosphate, K 50%f muriate of rotash; 1, 13>5
nitrogen. Rates given in pounds per acre.

Fig. 4.-Average relative clover yields with sources, combinations
and rates of lime with other fertilizers.

12; without lime 33; without potash and phosphate 14; and with
no fertilizer 3. When twice as much lime was used with the
complete fertilizer, the yield was 123. One-half the amount of
lime and phosphorus in the mixture reduced the yield to 70. When
ground limestone and dolomite were substituted for the lime mix-
ture, the relative yields were 115 and 80, respectively.

The clover plants on plots without phosphate or potassium
fertilizers developed phosphate and potassium deficiency symp-
toms described in Florida Experiment Station Bulletin 325.

The source of lime is important from the standpoint of the
residual effect on clover growth in succeeding years. Fig. 5
shows that the average clover growth, during the second year
after fertilizing five soil types, was greater when ground






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


7000 Ca -1 ton ground limestone.
Mg 1 ton dolomite.
6000 CatMg 1500 lbs.ground lime-
Sstone and 500 lbs. dolomite.
P 600 lbs. 18% superphosphate
S5000 -K 100 lbs. 50% potash
S(rates per acre)
S 000

S3000
2000

1000 CatMg Ca Mg
SCaeg Ca Mg PK PK PK
PK PK PK
Not refertilized in 1939 Refertilized with initial
fertilizer in 1959

Initial fertilizer was applied in October 19?8.
Fig. 5.-The effect of refertilization on subsequent clover yields based
on averages of five soil types. (High calcium limestone produced larger
yields than dolomite.)

limestone, high in calcium, was used than when dolomite or a
mixture of lime and dolomite was used.
Research results indicate that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in
conjunction with lime, phosphate and potash for growing clovers
depends on such factors as rainfall, soil type, and dates and
amounts of the nitrogen application. In establishing clovers the
use of 75 pounds per acre of an 18% nitrogen fertilizer was found
(Table 2) to be of much benefit on Scranton fine sand and of
little or no benefit on a Portsmouth fine sand. On established
clover pastures, little benefit was obtained from small applica-
tions of nitrogen fertilizers, and less growth occurred with heavy
nitrogen applications (300 pounds of 18% nitrogen mixture),
Table 3.
Refertilization of Established Clover Pastures.-The import-
ance of refertilizing established clover pastures with lime, phos-
phate and potash is shown in Figs. 5-7 and Table 3. Leon fine
sandy soil was fertilized in 1937 with a mixture consisting of one
ton dolomite, 600 pounds 18% superphosphate, and 100 pounds
50% muriate of potash. Clover yields of 14,130 pounds; 7,020
pounds; and 4,420 pounds per acre were obtained when referti-
lized with one-half, one-fourth and none of the above mixture,
respectively. When clovers on a Bayboro fine sandy soil were
refertilized with one-half, one-fourth and none of the fertilizer





TABLE 1.--AVERAGE ACRE YIELDS IN POUNDS OF GREEN CL OVER FROM VARIOUS FERTILIZER TREATMENTS ON NINE
VIRGIN SOILS.


Fertilized in October 1938, and B/ of
Fertilizer Applied in September 193


Fertilizer Kissimmee
Applied Ports-
Leon mouth
f. s. f. s.
pH2 4.63 pH4.81
S1940 1940
(lbs.) (lbs.)
No fertilizer 0 0
(Ca + Mg) N 560 0
(Ca + Mg) KN 570 0
(Ca + Mg) PN 1 4,180 840
PKN I Trace 1,600
(Ca + Mg) PKN 4,250 6,930
CaPKN 6,900 8,990
MgPKN I 3,280 2,790
% (Ca + Mg)
2PKN 4,950 2,160
2(Caq-, Mg)PKN! 6.690 11.710
PbsKN 3,410 i 7,840
(Ca+Me+I) I
PbsKN I 5,510 3,550


Penney Farms

Leon Plummer
f. s. f. s.
pH 4.38 pH 4.98


1940 1939
(Ibs.) I (bs.)
0 250
340 2,270
480 2,980
1,120 2,930
Trace 3,180
6,270 5,690
6,130 11,510
4,530 9,000

2,160 6,310
4.950 10.190
2,160 1 8,040

3,210 7,160


1940
S(lbs.)
0
140
420
490
1,050
S4,670
S4,210
S4,530

2,850
5.230
3,000

2,160


1!

Ti
Tr
Ti

1
5
5
4

4
10
5
4


1Yield index-ht. of vegetation in inches with a 100% stand
ol wing formula (% ground cover tof


initiall Fertilized in October Fertilized in
9 1939 October 1938
Wau- Daven-
Samsula chula Orlandol Starke port Relative 4
Scran- Yields, '
Plummer ion Portsmouth Peaty All Soil "
f. s. f. s. I f. s. Muck Types "
pH 4.91 pH 4.98 pH 5.05 pH 5.44 pH 4.12
9391 1940 1940 | 19401 1940 193911
.1. (lbs.) (lbs.) Y. I. (lbs.) Y. I.
race Trace 0 .01 1,650 I .10 3
race Trace 1,220 .10 5,670 | .80 14
race Trace 1,780 .13 2,580 1 .30 12
.60 2,790 1,050 1.03 3,707 1.30 25
.40 I 4,600 420 .60 5,670 14.00 33
.80 11,570 6.620 4.40 6,980 4.90 100
.00 7,600 7,250 6.70 9,500 4.90 115
.40 7,110 2,680 3.20 9,300 I 3.70 80

.00 1 3,690 6,410 4.80 7,510 I 4.00 70
).00 1 6,340 7,180 6.20 9.310 1 5.10 123
.00 7,800 6,410 3.90 7,640 I 3.80 86

.90 8,020 1 8,290 6.30 6,560 I 4.00 89

or ground cover. The yield index is computed by the fol-
clover). a


2The pH values of the various soils were measured before fertilization.
Ca-1 ton ground lime (90% calcium carbonate).
Mg-1 ton dolomite (49% and 36% calcium and magnesium carbonates, respectively).
Ca -4- Iv-1 ton lime (4 ground lime and '4 dolomite).
P-600 lbs. 18% superphosphate.
K-100 lbs. 50% muriate of potash.
Pbs.-1500 lbs. basic slag per acre (10% 12%P,O,).
N.-75 Ibs. 18% nitrogen mixture per acre (% sodium nitrate and %V sulfate of ammonia).
Note: Clovers planted in October 1938 and 1939.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


p


Fig. 6.-Refertilizing established clover pastures increases the earli-
ness of feed as well as the total feed. Areas represented above were
similarly fertilized with one ton of lime, 600 pounds of superphosphate
and 100 pounds of muriate of potash in October 1937. These areas were
refertilized in October 1939 and photographed in February 1940.
Upper, early yield of California Bur clover produced when refer-
tilized with one-half of the initial fertilizer treatment. Lower, early
growth of California Bur without refertilization.


.-iy...







Winter Clovcr Pastures for Peninsular Florida


16000 Leon soil, Dinsmore

14000

S12000

10000

8000

6ooo

6000
F-

Fer cent of ini ia
O 2000


Bayboro soil, GainesvilLe


Initial fertilizer applied in 1937: 1 ton dolomite, 600 lbs.
183 superphosphate, 100 lbs. 50Y potash. Nitrogen was aprilied
at uniform rates both years.
Fig. 7.-Effect of soil type and fertility level on the need for fre-
quent fertilizer applications.


mixture previously mentioned, the green yields were 15,490
pounds; 15,580 pounds; and 14,130 pounds (green weight) per
acre, respectively. The early season clover yields were greatly
affected by the refertilizer treatments on the Leon soil type,
Table 3.
Sources of Phosphate.-Clover research with sources of phos-
phate has been carried on for two years. The use of any source
of phosphate is dependent upon soil types and accompanying
fertilizers. The results, which follow, concerning the insoluble
phosphates such as colloidal and rock phosphate, should be con-
sidered as preliminary. Four sources of phosphates with the
characteristics given below were used.
Superphosphate-18% available P205.
Rock phosphate-50% through a 200 mesh sieve, 28% total
P2Os.
Colloidal phosphate-22% total P205.
Basic slag-10% to 12% available P205.
The suitability of superphosphate, when applied with a prop-
er mixture of other fertilizers, has been previously discussed.
Basic slag applied at a rate of 750 pounds per acre with one ton
of lime and 100 pounds of muriate of potash, or a mixture of 1,500










TABLE 2.-EFFECT OF NITROGEN ON THE YIELD OF CLOVER WHEN GROWN WITH VARIOUS LIME, PHOSPHATE, AND
POTASH FERTILIZERS, ON SCRANTON AND PORTSMOUTH FINE SANDS.
Scranton Fine Sand, Wauchula I Portsmouth Fine Sand, Starke
Fertilizer Applied 75 1bs. (18%) 75 lbs. (18%)
No Nitrogen Nitrogen per Acre No Nitrogen Nitrogen per Acre
Pounds Green Weight per Acre --
PK 350 420 680 1,020
Ca P K 5,850 7,250 1,830 1,980 ;
Mg P K 1,790 2,680 1,420 2,330
(Ca+Mg) PK 3,550 6,620 1,880 1,020
1/2(Ca+Mg)PK 2,090 6,410 1,490 1,770
2(Ca+Mg) P K 2,510 7,180 3,050 2,190
Relative Yields- 1
with and without nitrogen 100 189 100 100

P-600 lbs. 18% superphosphate.
Ca-1 ton ground limestone.
Mg-1 ton dolomite.
Ca+Mg-1 ton lime, 1/4 dolomite and 3/4 ground lime. -
K-100 lbs. 50% muriate of potash.






Winter Clover Pastures for Peninsular Florida


pounds basic slag and 100 pounds muriate of potash per acre, has
generally given good clover growth on most acid soils tested,
Table 1.
Fertilizer combinations including rock phosphate and super-
phosphate, are compared on two soil types (Table 4). A fertilizer
mixture of 3,000 pounds of rock phosphate and 100 pounds of
muriate of potash produced a green clover yield of 6,460 pounds
per acre as compared with 9,500 pounds for the fertilizer con-
sisting of one ton of lime, 600 pounds superphosphate and 100
pounds of muriate of potash per acre on a Portsmouth soil. When
one ton of lime was added to rock phosphate and potash, the
yield was decreased to 4,440 pounds per acre. One thousand
pounds of rock phosphate applied in conjunction with lime and
potash produced a yield of 2,557 pounds per acre. The fertilizer
mixture of 3,000 pounds rock phosphate, 200 pounds superphos-
phate, 500 pounds lime and 100 pounds muriate of potash pro-
duced a yield of 9,970 pounds of clover and was the highest yield-
ing fertilizer on the Portsmouth soil. On the Scranton soil, 7,250
pounds of green clover was produced by the fertilizer treatment
made up of lime, superphosphate and potash, as compared with
1,390 pounds of green clover per acre produced from 3,000 pounds
of rock phosphate and 100 pounds of potash per acre. The addi-
tion of 2,000 pounds lime to the latter fertilizer increased the
clover yield to 5,090 pounds per acre.
Results with colloidal phosphate were similar to those with
rock phosphate.
Effect of Different Fertilizers and Soil Types on the Chemi-
cal Composition of Clovers.-The chemical composition of clovers
is influenced mostly by fertilizer treatments and soil type, though
the variety of clover has some effect2. The average phos-
phorus and calcium contents of clovers grown on a Johnson
soil were considerably higher than for the same clovers on Leon
soil. Conversely, the potassium and magnesium contents were
highest in clovers grown on the Leon type. These two soils were
fertilized identically.
The elemental composition of clovers on a Leon soil was
found to be directly correlated with the kind and amount of fer-
tilizer applied (Table 5). On a series of clover plots, fertilized
uniformly in 1937, an experiment was conducted to determine
the effect of different refertilization treatments on the chemical


2Unpublished data.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


TABLE 3.-THE EFFECT OF REFERTILIZATION, WITH AND WITHOUT
NITROGEN, ON CLOVER YIELD FOR LEON AND BAYBORO FINE SANDY SOILS.
(GREEN YIELD IN POUNDS PER ACRE.)


Fertilizer Applied


Initial
1937
Mg-2000
P-600
K-100
N-75
Mg-2000
P-600
K-100
N-75
Mg-2000
P-600
K-100
N-75
Mg-2000
P-600
K-100
Mg-2000
P-600
K-100
N-300


Refertilized
1939
Ca-1000
P-300
K-50
N-75
Ca-500
P-150
K-25
N-75
N-75


Ca-500
P-150
K-25
Ca-1000
P-300
K-50
N-300


Mg-dolomite.
Ca-ground limestone.


Leon Soil Bayboro Soil
Dinsmore Gainesville

Early* Total* Early** Total**

9,000 14,130 1,870 15,490


3,350 7,020 1,790 1
3,350 7,020 | 1,790 15,580
| |


4,420


8,990

6,740


1,670


1,450

1,370


1,830


4,290

2,470


P-18% superphosphate.
K-50% muriate of potash.


14,130


14,950

19,250


N-18% nitrogen (/2 nitrate soda
and 1/2 sulfate of ammonia).
Note: All areas were seeded with 8 lbs. of California Bur, 2 lbs.
each of White Dutch, Little Hop, Black Medic and Persian.

*Yield consisted of 55% Calif. Bur, 10% Black Medic, and 25% White
Dutch, 10% other clover.
**90% White Dutch and 10% others.

composition of resulting forage. One group of plots, which re-
ceived no additional fertilizer, produced clover with an ash con-
tent of 6.56% as compared with 9.12% for clover refertilized
with acre applications of 1,000 pounds limestone, 300 pounds 18%
superphosphate and 50 pounds 50% muriate of potash. The cal-
cium content of clovers was increased from 1.03% to 1.48%; phos-
phorus was increased from 0.29% to 0.46%; and the potassium
content was increased from 1.33% to 1.84% when the above re-
fertilization treatment was used. When one-half the above rate
of fertilizers was used, intermediate results were obtained. The
higher refertilizer treatment increased the protein content from
22.6% to 28.2%, but produced no change in magnesium content
of clovers.





Winter Clover Pastures for Peninsular Florida


TABLE 4.-INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT MIXTURES OF LIME, SUPER-
PHOSPHATE, AND ROCK PHOSPHATE FERTILIZERS ON THE GREEN YIELD
OF CLOVER ON Two SANDY SOIL TYPES.
Portsmouth Soil, *Scranton Soil,
Starke Wauchula
Fertilizer in Pounds per Acre pH 5.44 pH 4.98
(Lbs.) (Lbs.)

P600, K100 5,670 420
Ca2000, P600, K100 9,500 7,250
Pr3000, K100 6,460 1,390
Ca2000, Pr3000, K100 4,440 5,090
Ca2000, Pr1000, K100 2,557 836
Ca500, P200, Pr3000, K100 9,970

Ca-lime; P-18% superphosphate; K-50% muriate of potash; Pr-
rock phosphate.
*75 pounds per acre of 18% nitrogen mixture was added to the fer-
tilizer mixture used on the Scranton soil.
pH on both soils was measured before fertilization.


FERTILIZER REQUIREMENTS FOR PRODUCING WINTER GRASSES
AND CLOVERS ON SLIGHTLY ACID OR ALKALINE SOILS
(Lower East Coast Soils with Calcareous Substrata)

Since most pasture soils along the lower East Coast of Florida
are underlain with a calcareous substratum, the fertilizer require-
ments for growth of winter pasture grasses and clovers are con-
siderably different from those for acid soils of other sections of
the state. Initial fertilizer experiments established in 1938 with
various mixtures of fertilizers compared superphosphate with
basic slag, raw rock phosphate, and colloidal phosphate. These
trials showed the superiority of a fertilizer mixture containing
superphosphate and potash, and failed to show a response to
either high calcium or dolomitic limestone. Very little growth
was obtained when either superphosphate or potash was used
alone, but when both were used, highest yields resulted.
Clover experiments established in December of 1939 were
designed to show the most profitable amounts of superphosphate
and potash to use, as well as to study further the effects of lime.
nitrogen and a mixture of copper, maganese and zinc. The re-
sults are presented in Table 6 and show that, in general, sandy
soils in this region respond to a higher ratio of phosphorus to





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


A.. a 4 "




















Fig. 8.-Louisiana White Dutch clover growing in carpet grass pas-
ture on a low, moist soil (Leon fine sand) in Hardee County. Left, lime,
phosphate and potash produce good growth. Right, seeded as at left
but lime was not applied. Photographed in February.

potash than do muck soils. Statistical treatment of the original
data has shown that on sandy soils represented by the Acme
and Waldrep Dairies, treatment 6 produced most economical use
of fertilizers. This consisted of an acre application of 200 pounds
20% ammonium sulfate, 160 pounds 44% super osphate, and
240 pounds 50-% muriate of potash, and a mixture of small quan-
tities of copper, maganese and zinc. On muck soil located at Ives

TABLE 5.-EFFECT OF REFERTILIZATION ON CHEMICAL COMPOSI-
TION OF CLOVERS GROWN ON A LEON SOIL, DINSMORE, FLORIDA*
Lbs. per Acre-1939 Chemical Composition in Percent of Dry Matter
18% 90% -
50% Super- Groun Phos- Potas- Cal- Mag-
Potash phos- Lime- Ash phorus sium cium nesium Protein
phate stone i
0 0 0 6.56 0.29 1.33 1.03 0.43 22.6
25 150 500 8.11 0.38 1.62 1.43 0.43 27.6
50 300 1000 9.12 0.46 1.84 1.48 0.46 28.2
*In 1937 this area was fertilized with one ton dolomite, 600 pounds
18% superphosphate, and 100 pounds 50% potash. 75 pounds 18% ni-
trogen per acre has been applied annually.
Note: Mineral fractions given as elements and not as oxides.






Winter Clover Pastures for Peninsular Florida


Dairy the most economical use of fertilizer was obtained from
treatment 3, or an acre application of 200 pounds of 20% ammon-
ium sulfate, 70 pounds of 44% superphosphate, 240 pounds of 50 %
muriate of potash, and a mixture of minor elements consisting
of acre applications of 50 pounds 25% copper sulfate, 50 pounds
25% manganese sulfate and 10 pounds 79% zinc sulfate. It is pos-
sible that smaller quantities of copper, manganese and zinc could
be used to advantage. Large nitrogen responses were obtained
on the sandy soils and only small responses on the muck soils.
No significant increases in yield were obtained by adding two
tons per acre of lime to these soils.

TABLE 6.-AVERAGE ACRE YIELDS IN POUNDS OF GREEN PASTURE FORAGE
OBTAINED FROM CLOVER PASTURE FERTILITY EXPERIMENTS IN DADE,
BROWARD, AND PALM BEACH COUNTIES (1940).
Pounds per Acre Bout-
44% 50% Ives Acme Waldrep well Average
Treatments Super- Muriate Dairy Dairy Dai ry _____
phos- of Sandy Sand & All
phate Potash Muck Loam Sand Muck Soils
1 Check Check 5,808 484 0 484 1,694
2 70 120 7,381 9,922 7,623 8,228 8,296
3 70 240 14,036 12,463 8,712 6,050 10,316
4 70 360 14,157 13,189 8,954 20,812 14,279
5 160 120 8,228 9,317 12,463 11,858 10,421
6 160 240 11,253 17,666 12,826 13,552 13,824
7 160 360 9,559 15,488 14,762 24,442 16,063
8 275 120 2,662 10,406 14,883 9,196 9.287
9 275 240 8,833 17,182 14,520 7,744 12,070
10 275 360 14,762 15,609 16,335 25,168 17,969
*11 275 360 15,246 19,481 11,011 29,524 18.816
**12 275 360 9,317 15,125 11,374 18,634 13,612
*Treatment 11 received 2 tons dolomite.
**No minor elements on Treatment 12, all other treatments had 50
pounds CuSO4, 50 pounds MnSO4, and 10 pounds ZnSO, per acre in-
cluded.
All plots received 200 pounds per acre ammonium sulfate.
Yield data for Ives and Boutwell dairy plots are relative, but in-
complete.
Yield differences over 5,000 pounds are significant at the 5% point.

SEEDING AND MANAGEMENT OF CLOVER PASTURES
Seedbed Preparation.-Clovers in Florida have been estab-
lished successfully on unimproved cut-over lands, on grass pas-
tures, and on moist land that has been cultivated, provided that
competing vegetation was retarded or destroyed and the soil left
in a firm condition. The manner in which the land was prepared
for clovers depended upon the type of vegetation present. It was
found best on unimproved cut-over lands to disk the soil thorough-






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


ly well in advance of planting time. By allowing time to elapse
between disking and seeding, the soils became packed and soil
moisture conditions were improved. On cultivated lands good


Fig. 9.-Differences in grazing practices produced the difference in
clover growth shown here. Both areas were seeded and fertilized alike.
Above, a good stand of clover failed to develop because of dense growth
of frosted carpet grass. Below, the carpet grass was grazed close before
fall. A good stand of clover developed. Photographed in January.






Winter Clover Pastures for Peninsular Florida


results were obtained when the soil was prepared in much the
same manner as for unimproved cut-over lands. On closely
grazed improved sods, land fertilized and lightly disked just prior
to seeding produced good results. On all of these soils it was
found desirable to plant clover seed when the soil was moist, and
to roll or pack the soil to cover the seed.
Clovers have been successfully established without intensive
seedbed preparations on soils which retain a moist surface. When
such soils had native wiregrass vegetation the grass was burned
and the area subsequently fertilized and seeded. When the vege-
tion consisted of carpet or other improved sod grasses, close
grazing made possible the successful seeding of clovers. Two
experimental areas, one near St. Petersburg and the other near
Orlando, failed completely because the grass was not closely
grazed. The clovers were unable to grow through the dense sod
(Fig. 9).
Though good stands of clover were obtained irrespective of
rainfall, better results were generally obtained when seed was
planted just prior to or during a period of heavy rains.
Planting and Inoculation of Clover Seed.-Tests conducted
in 1937 have shown that clovers, for best results, should be sown
in October, though good stands have been obtained when plant-
ings were made as late as December 15. October plantings are
preferred because:
1. Soil moisture conditions are generally best for the estab-
lishment of clovers during that period.
2. Plants require considerable time to grow before grazing
is possible.
3. Earlier plantings tend to increase the length of the graz-
ing season.
As is common for all legumes, to obtain most benefit from
atmospheric nitrogen it is necessary to inoculate all clovers with
the proper legume bacteria before planting. The bacteria form
nodules on clover roots and combine nitrogen from the air into
compounds which are available to the host plant. Successful
nodule formation on clover roots has been obtained by inoculat-
ing the clover seed with either proper commercial bacterial cul-
tures or with soils from areas which had previously grown the
particular legume.
A Comparison of Clover Varieties for Peninsular Florida
Soil and Climatic Conditions.-The planting of adapted clover
varieties on moist soil, adequately fertilized, is necessary for the






22 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

successful establishment of winter pasture. The necessary char-
acteristics of desirable clover varieties are palatability, ability
to produce enough seed under Florida conditions to maintain
good stands, and ability to withstand close grazing.
Of the several varieties of clover included in the seed mixture
and used in fertility experiments, White Dutch and California Bur
were most promising. White Dutch (Louisiana variety) was
found especially adapted to low, moist soils, and to tolerate wet-
ter soil conditions than most of the other clovers. White Dutch
also tolerated more soil acidity and withstood closer grazing
than California Bur. California Bur clover was found adapted to
moist but well drained soils. It seemed to produce higher yields
than White Dutch when grown under optimum conditions. Since
California Bur clover produced an abundance of growth under
low temperature conditions, it provided grazing earlier than
White Dutch, but was found to have a shorter growth period.
Thus it seems that a mixture of California Bur and White Dutch
will provide the most promising clover combination for Florida
conditions.
In clover variety trials conducted on two distinct soil types,
18 different varieties were tested (Table 7). Due to difference
in the amount of soil moisture present in these two types of soil,
the clover varieties responded differently. Johnson loamy fine
sandy soil was poorly drained, while Leon fine sandy soil on
which these experiments were located was moist but well
drained. Louisiana and other White Dutch varieties, Alsike,
Persian and Little Hop clovers produced the best average yields
on low, wet, poorly drained Johnson soil. California Bur,
Hubam Sweet, Black Medic, and Hop clovers produced the best
average yield on the moist but well drained Leon soil.
Data in Table 7 show that varieties of White Dutch clover
differ greatly in yielding potentialities. On the poorly drained
Johnson soil type the three-year average relative yields of varie-
ties of White Dutch were as follows: Louisiana variety, 100;
Ladino, 92; Dixie variety, 83; Oregon variety, 69; and Kent Wild
(English White Dutch), 61. One year's test of two New Zealand
varieties of White Dutch clover shows that one variety equaled
Louisiana White Dutch but the other was inferior. The relation-
ship of yields of varieties of White Dutch clover was similar on
the drained Leon soil, except that Ladino White Dutch produced
best yields.
Lappa, Trifolium lapaceum, and Louisiana Red were tested for
one year on both Leon and Johnson soil types. Louisiana Red pro-







Winter Clover Pastures for Peninsular Florida


TABLE 7.-EFFECT OF A WELL DRAINED LEON SOIL TYPE AND A POORLY
DRAINED JOHNSON SOIL TYPE ON THE DRY YIELD OF 18 CLOVER
VARIETIES.
Relative Yields of Clover Varieties on
Two Soil Types


Clover Variety



White Dutch (La.) Trifolium repens
Little Hop (Trifolium dubium)n
Hop (Trifolium procumbens)
White Dutch (Kent Wild)
White Dutch (Oregon)
White Dutch (Dixie)
White Dutch (New Zealand)
White Dutch (New Zealand S100)
White Dutch (Ladino)
Persian (Trifolium resupinatum)
Subterranean (Trifolium subterranean)
Cluster (Trifolium glomeratunm)
Alsike (Trifolium hybridum)
Crimson (Trifolium incarnatium)
Carolina (Trifolium carolinianunm)
Black Medic (Medicago lupulina)
Calif. Bur (Medicago hispida)
Hubam (Melilotus alba ann ua)


Leon Fine
Sand,
Dinsmore

1940
40
38
65

22
36
35
29
55
54

36

66
116
126


*100-2,174 lbs. dry yield per acre.
**Yield taken over a period of two years.
Soils were fertilized with lime, phosphate
1937 and refertilized in the fall of 1939.


Johnson Loamy Fine
Sand, Gainesville
3-Yr, Ave
1940 1938-40
92 100"
73 72
63 57
61
63 69
42 83


92
89
40**
32**
92
27
70
38**
55
36**


and potash in the fall of


duced satisfactory yields on the Johnson soil, and Lappa was in-
ferior in yielding capacity to other clovers on both soil types.
Since Louisiana White Dutch was found to produce an abund-
ance of seed under Florida conditions, it is recommended over
all other varieties of White Dutch clover (Fig.10). Aside from
Louisiana White Dutch clover, California Bur, Black Medic,
Crimson, Persian, Hop, Little Hop, Red and Sweet clovers are the
only promising varieties which have produced sufficient seed for
adequate propagation under Florida conditions.


ADVANTAGES OF CLOVER IN PASTURE MIXTURES

Experimental results show that pasture grasses on mineral
soils produce greatest increase in yield through the use of nitro-
genous fertilizers3. Because of the high cost of commercial nitro-
gen the probability of increasing the carrying capacity of grass

3Unpublished data.






24 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

pastures profitably in Florida is questionable, unless cheaper
sources of nitrogen are made available. It has been found that
clovers, when well inoculated, greatly stimulate grass growth.
Fig. 11 compares the seasonal growth curve of fertilized carpet
grass with the growth curve of fertilized carpet grass seeded to
clover. The early increases in yield of pasture herbage on the
carpet grass-clover plots was due to the presence of clover, while
the late seasonal yield increase was primarily carpet grass stimu-
lated by nitrogen which was added to the soil through the clovers.
Besides adding to the quantity of pasture herbage, clovers in-
crease greatly the nutritive value of the feed. The average pro-
tein content of highly fertilized carpet grass4 was 11.9% as com-
pared with 28.2% for fertilized White Dutch clover. The average
4Unpublished data, Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations.
filI;, .... I... ,.. /. ," ,/ ,' I I/////
Fig. 10.-Seeding habits of three strains of White Dutch clover.
Upper, Louisiana White Dutch is both productive and prolific. Lower
left, Ladino is productive but a scant seeder in Florida. Lower right, a
low-growing and high yielding variety of New Zealand White Dutch
that does not produce seeds in Florida. Photographed in February.







Winter Clover Pastures jor Peninsular Florida


phosphorus content of fertilized carpet grass was 0.20% as com-
pared with 0.46% for the clover. The calcium content for carpet
grass was 0.65% as compared with 1.48C% for clover. It is there-


60



Q 45 ...Clover and carpet grass (fertilized)







15



Carpet grass (fertilized)......

2112/20 3 21 0 153 52 59 5*o
1939 Clipping Dates

Fig. 11.-Increase in early and total yields due to the presence of
White Dutch and other clovers. On the carpet grass-clover growth curve
the early growth is clover and the late growth is carpet grass stimulated
by soil nitrogen supplied by clover. The fertilized carpet grass growth
curve shows that carpet grass makes little growth during the cool season.
Both growth curves represent averages of 12 plots fertilized alike with
lime, superphosphate and potash.

fore evident that the addition of clover to grass pastures greatly
improved the value of feed from the standpoint of livestock pro-
duction.
SUMMARY

Clovers should be utilized in the Florida pasture program be-
cause they furnish winter feed, supply the soil with nitrogen
which increases subsequent grass growth, and improve the feed-
ing value of pasture herbage.
To establish clover successfully the soil must be properly
fertilized and suitable clover varieties should be planted under
adapted ecological conditions in October or November, on close-
ly grazed sods or well packed seedbeds. Seedings should be
made during a rainy period.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Data on fertilizer combinations and sources of lime and
phosphate for different soil types are given.




















Fig. 12.-A clover-carpet grass pasture grazed continuously by calves
during late winter. The cow droppings form "seed islands" in which
the White Dutch clover reseeds. The seed germinate in the fall for the
next year's clover crop. Photographed in April.

PRACTICAL POINTERS FOR ESTABLISHING AND
MANAGING CLOVER PASTURES
Clover pastures can be established on those Florida soils
which have favorable winter moisture conditions and are ade-
quately fertilized. Unimproved cut-over pine lands, improved
grass sods, and cultivated moist to wet soils have grown clovers
successfully. To establish and maintain clover pastures, the fol-
lowing practices are necessary:
1. For flatwoods sandy soils and acid mucks, not previously
fertilized, apply initial fertilizer at the following rates per acre:
2,000 pounds "high-calcium" limestone or 2,000 pounds dolo-
mite,
600 pounds 16-20% superphosphate, and
100 pounds 50% muriate potash.
75-100 pounds nitrate of soda or its equivalent may be added
to encourage earlier growth.
' (Calcium limestone should be used for California Bur,
Sweet or Black Medic clover.)






Winter Clover Pastures for Peninsular Florida


(600 pounds per acre of an 0-16-8 or 3-16-8 fertilizer and 1 ton
limestone may be used instead of the fertilizers given above.)
2. To maintain clover pastures on acid soils, apply fertilizer
at one-fourth to one-half of the above rates every one to two
years.
3. For soils with calcareous substrata (lower East Coast
soils), apply fertilizers at the following rates per acre:

Muck Soils
150-240 pounds of 50% muriate of potash, and
70 pounds of 44% triple superphosphate.
100 pounds 20% ammouium sulfate or other nitrogen equiv-
alent may be added to encourage earlier growth.
(The above is equivalent to 500 pounds of a 4-6-24 mixture.)
(A mixture of 50 pounds copper sulfate, 50 pounds of man-
ganese sulfate, and 10 pounds zinc sulfate per acre may be neces-
sary, depending on previous soil treatment.)

Sandy Soils
150-240 pounds 50% muriate of potash and
160 pounds 44% triple superphosphate.
200 pounds 20% ammonium sulfate, or its equivalent, ap-
pears necessary for initial treatment on most sandy soils in this
region.
(The above is equivalent to 1.000 pounds of a 4-6-12 mix-
ture.)
(Copper, manganese and zinc may be necessary in small
quantities.)

LOW MARL HAMMOCK SOILS
600 pounds superphosphate and
100 to 150 pounds 50% muriate potash.
(75 pounds nitrate soda or its equivalent may be added for
early growth.)
600 pounds per acre of fertilizer with the formula 0-16-8 or
3-16-8 may be used instead of the fertilizers given above.
4. Use the following seed mixtures for sandy soils:
Low Wet Sandy Acid Soils
3 to 5 pounds Louisiana White Dutch
or
2 to 3 pounds Louisiana White Dutch and






28 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

1 to 3 pounds Persian clover.
3 to 6 pounds Redtop (Agrostis alba) or
5 pounds Italian rye grass may be added to the above mix-
tures.
Moist to Wet Sandy Acid Soils
2 to 4 pounds Louisiana White Dutch and
5 to 8 pounds California Bur clover.
Moist Drained Sandy Acid Soils
1 to 2 pounds Louisiana White Dutch,
8 pounds Califorina Bur and
3 pounds Black Medic.
or
8 pounds California Bur and
4 pounds Black Medic.
(Avoid purchase of poorly adapted seed.)
5. Use the following seed mixtures on:
Slightly Acid or Alkaline Muck and Sandy Muck Soils
2 to 4 pounds Louisiana White Dutch
5 to 8 pounds California Bur clover and
5 to 7 pounds Italian rye grass.
Acid Muck Soils
3 to 5 pounds Louisiana White Dutch
or
2 to 3 pounds Louisiana White Dutch,
1 to 2 pounds Persian, and
1 to 2 pounds Alsike.
(3 to 6 pounds Redtop (Agrostis alba) or 5 to 7 pounds
Italian rye grass per acre may be added to the clover mixture
given above.)
6. Inoculate clover seed carefully with appropriate bacter-
ial cultures. White Dutch, Persian, Alsike and Hop clovers require
commercial bacteria culture "B". California Bur, Black Medic and
Sweet clover require bacteria culture "A".
Usually five times the rate of bacteria culture recommended
by the manufacturer is necessary for best results in Florida.
(For method of inoculation see page 6).
7. Plant in October or early November when soil moisture
conditions are favorable.
8. Prepare a firm seedbed and destroy competing veg-
etation so that seed can come in contact with moist soil. On
established grass sods, close grazing allows seed to contact the
soil without further seedbed preparation.






Winter Clover Pastures for Peninsular Florida


9. Distribute the seed and fertilizer uniformly (mechanical
spreaders are best adapted). The fertilizer should be applied pre-
vious to seeding. It is desirable that clover plantings be made
just prior to or during a rain.
10. Delay grazing until clover seedlings are 3 to 5 inches
high or until the clover root systems are well established. To
allow for re-seeding, graze clover lightly during late spring.
For best results divide clover area into several fields and
practice rotational grazing. This practice will insure a more uni-
form grazing of clovers and a better distribution of cattle drop-
pings.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The writers wish to express their appreciation to W. E. Stokes, head
of the Agronomy Department, who offered constructive criticism; to G. E.
Ritchey, Division of Forage Crops and Diseases, USDA, for suggestions
and for seed used in the strain test; to J. R. Neller for suggestions on
fertilizer treatments on alkaline soils; to W. A. Leukel, Agronomist, and
Dean Graham, student assistant, for chemical analyses; to J. P. Camp
for suggestions on the experimental design for testing legume strains;
to G. C. Willson, research assistant of the Soils Department, for help
in connection with some of the experiments; to J. R. Henderson of the
Soils Department for classifying the soils; to farmers and county agents
cooperating in this work; to Jeffery Dawson, student assistant, for com-
putations; and to R. E. Billington for assisting with collecting, drying and
weighing clippings.






















~ 1
"~x'.
F.~*-drL\1,


!\




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs