• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Credits
 Table of Contents
 Score for judging canned fruits...
 Canning a necessity
 Canning in war-time imposes many...
 Nutritive values
 Patriotism begins at home
 Sugar for canning
 Vitamins in canned food
 Why foods spoil
 Canning equipment
 Operations of water bath
 Steam pressure canner
 Operation of steam pressure...
 Processing in the oven
 Containers to use in canning
 Marking cans and jars
 Spoilage and storage
 Using the hot pack method...
 Syrups for canning fruits
 Sweetening qualities of dextrose,...
 Why fruits float in the jar
 Special directions for canning...
 Standards and nomenclature designed...
 Special directions for canning...
 Standards and grades for canned...
 Quality standards for fancy canned...
 Tables














Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Extension Service ; 121
Title: Can surplus fruits and vegetables
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027665/00001
 Material Information
Title: Can surplus fruits and vegetables
Series Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Extension Service ; 121
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Thursby, Isabelle S.
Publisher: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Publication Date: 1943
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027665
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Credits
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Score for judging canned fruits and vegetables
        Page 4
    Canning a necessity
        Page 5
    Canning in war-time imposes many obligations and problems
        Page 5
    Nutritive values
        Page 6
    Patriotism begins at home
        Page 6
    Sugar for canning
        Page 7
    Vitamins in canned food
        Page 8
    Why foods spoil
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Canning equipment
        Page 10
    Operations of water bath
        Page 11
    Steam pressure canner
        Page 12
    Operation of steam pressure method
        Page 13
    Processing in the oven
        Page 14
    Containers to use in canning
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Marking cans and jars
        Page 18
    Spoilage and storage
        Page 18
    Using the hot pack method in canning
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Syrups for canning fruits
        Page 21
    Sweetening qualities of dextrose, honey, cane and other syrups
        Page 22
    Why fruits float in the jar
        Page 23
    Special directions for canning berries and fruits
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Standards and nomenclature designed for canned fruits
        Page 37
    Special directions for canning vegetables
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Standards and grades for canned vegetables
        Page 49
    Quality standards for fancy canned vegetables
        Page 50
        Page 51
    Tables
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
Full Text


Bulletin 121


April, 1943


(A Revision of Bulletins 103 and 114)

COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR W(OMI-N ""
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICUiLTURE'
COOPERATING-
WILMON NEWELL, Director d

CAN SURPLUS FRUITS AND

VEGETABLES
By ISABELLE S. THURSBY


Fig. 1.-Fresh garden products like these, canned at home, add to the "ration" allow-
ance and protect the health of both rural and urban people. Vegetables, fruit, milk and
eggs are grouped as protective foods. All can be obtained easily from a well planned garden
and orchard, a good cow. and a laying poultry flock, providing a generous year-round variety
of these protective foods.









BOARD OF CONTROL


H. P. ADAIR, Chairman, Jacksonville
THOMAS W. BRYANT, Lakeland
R. H. GORE, Fort Lauderdale
N. B. JORDAN, Quincy
T. T. SCOTT, Live Oak
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE

JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
WILMON NEWELL, D.SC., Director of Extension'
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director
J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor'
CLYDE BEALE, A.B.J., Assistant Editor'
JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor1
FRANK M. DENNIS, B.S.A., Supervisor, Egg-Laying Test
RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Manager'

AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK, GAINESVILLE
W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., Coordinator with AAA
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citriculturist and District Agent
R. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Assistant Coordinator with AAA
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
WILMER W. BASSETT, B.S.A., Assistant Boys' Club Agent2
N. H. MCQUEEN, B.S.A., Assistant Boys' Club Agent
A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialist'
HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman
N. R. MEHRHOF, M.AGR., Poultryman'
D. F. SOWELL, M.S.A., Poultryman"
WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Animal Husbandman
A. W. O'STEEN, B.S.A., Assistant Poultryman
L. T. NIELAND, Farm Forester
C. V. NOBLE, PH.D., Agricultural Economist'
CHARLES M. HAMPSON, M.S., Economist, Farm Management
R. H. HOWARD, M.S.A., Economist, Farm Management
V. V. BOWMAN, M.S.A., Economist in Marketing
JOSEPH C. BEDSOLE, B.S.A., Assistant in Land-Use Planning'
R. V. ALLISON, PH.D., Soil Conservationist'
K. S. MCMULLEN, B.S.A., Soil Conservationist

HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK, TALLAHASSEE
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., State Agent
LUCY BELLE SETTLE, M.A., District Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent
ETHYL HOLLOWAY, B.S., District Agent
ANNA MAE SIKES, M.S., Specialist in Nutrition
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Specialist in Food Conservation

NEGRO EXTENSION WORK, TALLAHASSEE
A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent
BEULAH SHUTE, Local District Agent

1Part-time.
2 On leave.












CONTENTS


PAGE
Canning a Necessity ...................... 5
Canning in Wartime Imposes
Many Obligations and Prob-
lem s .......-......... ... ..--........ 5
Nutritive Values .............................. 6
Patriotism Begins at Home ........ 6
Sugar for Canning ........................ 7
Vitamins in Canned Foods ............ 8
W hy Foods Spoil ............................ 8
Sterilization ........................--...... 9
Canning Equipment ---........................ 10
Operations of Water Bath ...-......- 11
Steam Pressure Canner ..--............ 12
Operations of Steam Pressure
M ethod -......................-.........- 13
Processing in the Oven .........--.. 14
Containers to Use in Canning ... 15
Glass Jars ............................. --... 15
Tin Cans .-......---....................------. 16
Marking Cans and Jars ............-. 18
Spoilage and Storage .............. ..... 18
Using the Hot Pack Method in
Canning .............---------.................... 19
Syrups for Canning Fruits .......... 21
Sweetening Qualities of Dextrose,
Honey, Cane and Other Syr-
ups .......... ---.. -.. ... -..... ....... 22
Why Fruits Float in the Jar ........ 23
Special Directions for Canning
Berries and Fruits ........... 24
Avocado ................................. 24
Berries ............ .. ....... ..-......-... 24
Cherries (Surinam or Florida) 26
Figs ...................... ... ......--- 26
Grapefruit ................ ..........- .. 27
Grapes -......... ..-... ................ 28
Guavas .................--... .....-.. ... 29
Loquat or Japanese Plum ...... 30
M angos .......- .................... 31
Mayhaw .................... ... 32
Papaya ................. 32


Peaches ........... ....... ................... 33
Pears ............... ..... ......... ..... 33
Pecans ............. ....................... 35
Persim mon ............................. ..... 36
P lum s .......................... .............. 36
Roselle or "Jelly" Okra .........- 37
Standards and Nomenclature De-
signed for Canning Fruits .... 37
Special Directions for Canning
Vegetables ............... ............... 38
Beans ........... ........ ................. 40
Beets ........ ..... ... ...... ......... 41
Broccoli ......................... .. ... 41
Carrots and Other Root Crops.. 41
Celery ...........- .........-................ 41
Chayote and Summer Squash _. 42


Corn .....-..-..... -
Eggplant ...................
Greens ..................-......
Hominy .......................
O kra ............... ........
Okra and Tomatoes ....
P eas .................. .....


..... 42
..... 42
...... 43
...... 43
...... 43
...... 44
...... 44


Pim ientos .............-.. ................-..
Pumpkin or Winter Squash ......
Sauerkraut ................. ........
Tom atoes ...................... ............
Vegetables for Soups ...............
Standards and Grades for Canned


45
46
46
47
49


Vegetables ................................ 49
Quality Standards for Fancy
Canned Vegetables ............-- 50
Table 1. Approximate Yield of
Canned Products from Given
Quantities of Fresh Fruits
and Vegetables ..--.............. 51
Table 2.- Condensed Directions
for Canning Fruits and To-
matoes -........-..-..-........ ....... 52
Table 3. Condensed Directions
for Canning Non-Acid Vege-
tables ................ ....- ............... 54








SCORE FOR

JUDGING CANNED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES


1. Package .................... .................................................. ............... 10

Of uniform or specified size. Clean, polished. Labels
neat, comprehensive-as specified. (If tins are used,
they should be bright, with slightly concave ends,
showing some vacuum. A gauge may be used to
determine vacuum.)

2. Pack --.......... ..--- ........... ..........-. 30
Fullness ..... ...... ..............-. ..-. .. .. .......-......... ............ 10
As full as possible, with proper head space, yet with
contents preserved in good shape. No air bubbles.

U uniform ity .......... .............................................................. 10
Pieces of fruit or vegetable of appropriate and rea-
sonably uniform size, convenient for serving; attrac-
tive shape and attractively arranged, showing good
workmanship, not careless preparation a fancy
product, not a fancy pack. No foreign matter present,
such as sand, grit; no unnecessary bits of stem, seed,
core, leaf, silk, etc.

Proportion of fruit or vegetable to liquid..........................------. 10
Proper proportion of fruit or vegetable to juice-not
excessive in amount, not more than can be served
with fruit; upper level of liquid should come as near
top of jar as possible to prevent discoloration -
oxidation.

3. Product .--.-------.-------.--.. ----....-..--..---------............. 60

Clearness ........................................ ..................- .- ..-- 10
Greatest degree possible in a rich, concentrated juice
for fancy or grade A fruit; no cloudiness or small
particles of fruit or vegetable.

Color ---....--------.....----------.... .....-----.. ... ......-----........ 10
Natural color good and well preserved through suc-
cessful processing and efficient storage; not unduly
bleached or darkened. No artificial coloring matter
used.

Texture and ripeness or maturity.-...............------- .................. 10
Not tough, too green, or hard; tender but not over-
cooked or mushy.

Flavor ............ ........-.... ........---......--- ...--... ---.......--........... 30
Characteristic of the fruit or vegetable. No suggestion
of staleness, under- or over-ripeness, over-cooking,
decomposition.


Total Score --------- -------................. ... ............................100








CAN SURPLUS FRUITS AND

VEGETABLES
Written and Compiled by
ISABELLE S. THURSBY

CANNING A NECESSITY
Few realize the great service that canned food has rendered.
The human machine must have proper foods in proper propor-
tions. In congested sections of great cities where thousands
live on a city block, unless foods could be secured in condensed
and concentrated form, proper feeding would be impossible. In
the day when an automobile trip across the continent is a common
occurrence and when men think nothing of a voyage to frozen
regions of the North or to torrid jungles of the South, the canned
product is a necessity.
However, many women have not yet learned the satisfaction
that comes year after year from replenishing the pantry shelves
with home-grown products, furnishing the family with a more
healthful and varied menu, nor have many women appreciated
the opportunities that the great tourist trade offers to those who
make CANNING AN ART. On the other hand, few women
in Florida have worked to develop a product that would rank
with the best and have built up profitable industries in their own
kitchens.
Haphazard canning brings little satisfaction. The home
canner should study the food needs of her family. She should
consider what fresh fruits and vegetables will be available each
month, and can for one season the foods that will be scarce
another season. Each housewife should prepare a canning budget.
If interested in budgeting for an adequate, up-to-date food
supply, ask your County Home Demonstration Agent for "The
Florida Home Garden," "The Florida Calendar Orchard," and
"The Canning Budget."

CANNING IN WAR-TIME IMPOSES MANY OBLIGATIONS
AND PROBLEMS
In these uncertain war times it is impossible to foretell the
effect of rationing and priorities on the amount of canning which
may be done in the future. It is often said that "food will win
the war and write the peace" and everyone agrees that production
and preservation of food are matters of vital war-time import-








CAN SURPLUS FRUITS AND

VEGETABLES
Written and Compiled by
ISABELLE S. THURSBY

CANNING A NECESSITY
Few realize the great service that canned food has rendered.
The human machine must have proper foods in proper propor-
tions. In congested sections of great cities where thousands
live on a city block, unless foods could be secured in condensed
and concentrated form, proper feeding would be impossible. In
the day when an automobile trip across the continent is a common
occurrence and when men think nothing of a voyage to frozen
regions of the North or to torrid jungles of the South, the canned
product is a necessity.
However, many women have not yet learned the satisfaction
that comes year after year from replenishing the pantry shelves
with home-grown products, furnishing the family with a more
healthful and varied menu, nor have many women appreciated
the opportunities that the great tourist trade offers to those who
make CANNING AN ART. On the other hand, few women
in Florida have worked to develop a product that would rank
with the best and have built up profitable industries in their own
kitchens.
Haphazard canning brings little satisfaction. The home
canner should study the food needs of her family. She should
consider what fresh fruits and vegetables will be available each
month, and can for one season the foods that will be scarce
another season. Each housewife should prepare a canning budget.
If interested in budgeting for an adequate, up-to-date food
supply, ask your County Home Demonstration Agent for "The
Florida Home Garden," "The Florida Calendar Orchard," and
"The Canning Budget."

CANNING IN WAR-TIME IMPOSES MANY OBLIGATIONS
AND PROBLEMS
In these uncertain war times it is impossible to foretell the
effect of rationing and priorities on the amount of canning which
may be done in the future. It is often said that "food will win
the war and write the peace" and everyone agrees that production
and preservation of food are matters of vital war-time import-





Florida Cooperative Extension


ance. Being generous with the canning budget to insure the
rural family a good food supply without drawing on the markets
will help everyone. In these days it may be a matter of thrifty
management for urban housewives also to can surplus crops. In
the interest of national defense it is most desirable that no
food produced be allowed to waste, even though "good food and
enough of it" is as much a peace-time as a war-time necessity
for every person in the land. Guaranteeing this is a "HOME
FRONT" JOB THAT EVERY COMMUNITY SHOULD NOW
UNDERTAKE. School lunches in particular need more of the
foods which contribute to better health. All available fruits and
vegetable supplies are needed for expanding the school lunch
program.
The demand for commercially canned foods will be greater
than ever- because of increased consumer buying power, the needs
of our military forces and our allies. If commercial supplies can
be supplemented by home preservation it will help to meet
consumer needs and will tend to prevent inflation.

NUTRITIVE VALUES
This year the home canner should be more meticulous than
ever before with her products and in her canning methods. It
cannot be too strongly stressed that during this war period,
when greater production than ever before is demanded, the
greatest precaution must be taken to prevent any loss of these
crops. Losses of vitamins and other nutritive values which
occur during the harvesting, preparation, and subsequent pre-
servation of fruits and vegetables must be kept to the minimum.
Improved home storage conditions for maintaining quality in
canned and other products must be provided.
Prepare now for storing food a variety of ways-shelf space
and proper ventilation for canned foods, added cellars, outdoor
storage mounds for sweet potatoes, etc. Obtain plans, get the
necessary materials and do as much of the construction NOW
as practical.
PATRIOTISM BEGINS AT HOME
The Florida home canner has a PATRIOTIC OBLIGATION
in using the tin the government has set aside for her job-to
can only foods of highest nutritive value-red-ripe tomatoes,
leafy green vegetables, young tender beans and peas, corn in the
milk stage, soup mixtures. Tender young carrots and yellow





Florida Cooperative Extension


ance. Being generous with the canning budget to insure the
rural family a good food supply without drawing on the markets
will help everyone. In these days it may be a matter of thrifty
management for urban housewives also to can surplus crops. In
the interest of national defense it is most desirable that no
food produced be allowed to waste, even though "good food and
enough of it" is as much a peace-time as a war-time necessity
for every person in the land. Guaranteeing this is a "HOME
FRONT" JOB THAT EVERY COMMUNITY SHOULD NOW
UNDERTAKE. School lunches in particular need more of the
foods which contribute to better health. All available fruits and
vegetable supplies are needed for expanding the school lunch
program.
The demand for commercially canned foods will be greater
than ever- because of increased consumer buying power, the needs
of our military forces and our allies. If commercial supplies can
be supplemented by home preservation it will help to meet
consumer needs and will tend to prevent inflation.

NUTRITIVE VALUES
This year the home canner should be more meticulous than
ever before with her products and in her canning methods. It
cannot be too strongly stressed that during this war period,
when greater production than ever before is demanded, the
greatest precaution must be taken to prevent any loss of these
crops. Losses of vitamins and other nutritive values which
occur during the harvesting, preparation, and subsequent pre-
servation of fruits and vegetables must be kept to the minimum.
Improved home storage conditions for maintaining quality in
canned and other products must be provided.
Prepare now for storing food a variety of ways-shelf space
and proper ventilation for canned foods, added cellars, outdoor
storage mounds for sweet potatoes, etc. Obtain plans, get the
necessary materials and do as much of the construction NOW
as practical.
PATRIOTISM BEGINS AT HOME
The Florida home canner has a PATRIOTIC OBLIGATION
in using the tin the government has set aside for her job-to
can only foods of highest nutritive value-red-ripe tomatoes,
leafy green vegetables, young tender beans and peas, corn in the
milk stage, soup mixtures. Tender young carrots and yellow






Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables


squash are important too, since they cannot be stored otherwise
successfully under Florida conditions.
Vegetables, garden-fresh, supply the vital "protective" foods
which good health requires. A well planned and well tended
home garden and home orchard become a defense obligation for
every farm family, so they can supply their own needs in good
food and also produce a surplus for their urban neighbors who
cannot grow their own. The government recognizes Victory
Gardens and Victory Orchards as important factors in the agri-
cultural goals set-up and in that vital defense activity on the
"home front"-the nutrition program. All-out production of
vegetables indeed is recognized as being vital to national defense.
The government is asking commercial growers and canners to
produce the greatest supply of canned vegetables in the history
of the country. Can the home gardener and the home canner,
too, do any less than cooperate to the fullest extent with the
national plan?

SUGAR FOR CANNING
Consumer rationing of sugar will probably stay for the
duration. But there will be no need to reduce the number of
containers of canned fruits and sweets to any appreciable extent!
Just make a few changes and substitutes and the scarcity of
sugar will work no hardship. It may be a means rather by
which there will be a return to a wider use of the less highly
refined forms of sugar, which Florida people can grow so well
on their own farms and which are so healthful-cane syrup,
honey and the fruits that are especially rich in natural sugars.
In addition to their energy value they contain valuable minerals
and vitamins. Many farm families have been too heavy on the
side of rich preserves, jams and jellies and quite too light on
plain canned fruits and fruit juices and vegetables.
While sugar rationing may cause the urban dweller some
mild inconvenience, the average farm family with a few colonies
of bees and an acre of cane need not even notice it. There are
many forms of sugar on the market besides the refined white
sugar to which we have become accustomed. To the alert, patri-
otic home canner this war-time rationing offers an interesting
challenge-to take the available substitutes, honey, cane syrup,
corn syrup, dextrose, and apply them as sugar substitutes in a
pleasing, appetizing manner.





Florida Cooperative Extension


VITAMINS IN CANNED FOODS
It has been demonstrated by scientists that not only is the
vitamin content of canned foods comparable to that of fresh
foods cooked in the home kitchen but in many cases canned foods
are much the more favorable source. The canning process seems
to be peculiarly favorable to the preservation of vitamin C, due
to the fact, recently discovered, that the destructive force is
not heat alone but the combined action of heat and atmospheric
oxygen. In the open kettle method of cooking vegetables in the
home there is far greater chance for oxidation to take place
than when the vegetables are given a short pre-cook, then sealed
hot and sterilized in the can.
As a rule, vitamins A, B and G are not so readily affected
as vitamin C, and vitamins D and E are not appreciably affected
by the heat applied either in cooking or in processing.
As to protein, carbohydrate and mineral contents of canned
vegetables and fruits, it is obvious, after a moment's considera-
tion, that there would be no greater loss of these elements in the
canned vegetable than in the fresh product cooked on top of the
stove. There are today no experimental data to show that
canned foods are less nutritious than foods as usually cooked.

WHY FOODS SPOIL
Successful canning is based on an understanding of the im-
portant causes for the rapid deterioration and spoilage of fresh
foods and on a knowledge of methods by which this spoilage
may be prevented. There are 2 main causes of food spoilage:
the action of enzymes and the action of 3 groups of minute
organisms always present on the outside of fruits and vegetables,
in fact on everything. These are molds, yeasts and bacteria.
The art of canning is an attempt to free foods of these substances
and to keep them free by sealing them in air-tight containers.
If the home canner fully understands this fact and will remember
that micro-organisms are everywhere she will have greater
success.
Enzymes.-All fresh fruits, vegetables and meats contain
substances called enzymes. Up to a certain point they bring
about desirable changes in foods. They cause fruits and vege-
tables to ripen normally and the tissues of meats to become more
tender as they are held in storage, but if allowed to go on
unchecked enzymes hasten the decay of foods. The low tempera-





Florida Cooperative Extension


VITAMINS IN CANNED FOODS
It has been demonstrated by scientists that not only is the
vitamin content of canned foods comparable to that of fresh
foods cooked in the home kitchen but in many cases canned foods
are much the more favorable source. The canning process seems
to be peculiarly favorable to the preservation of vitamin C, due
to the fact, recently discovered, that the destructive force is
not heat alone but the combined action of heat and atmospheric
oxygen. In the open kettle method of cooking vegetables in the
home there is far greater chance for oxidation to take place
than when the vegetables are given a short pre-cook, then sealed
hot and sterilized in the can.
As a rule, vitamins A, B and G are not so readily affected
as vitamin C, and vitamins D and E are not appreciably affected
by the heat applied either in cooking or in processing.
As to protein, carbohydrate and mineral contents of canned
vegetables and fruits, it is obvious, after a moment's considera-
tion, that there would be no greater loss of these elements in the
canned vegetable than in the fresh product cooked on top of the
stove. There are today no experimental data to show that
canned foods are less nutritious than foods as usually cooked.

WHY FOODS SPOIL
Successful canning is based on an understanding of the im-
portant causes for the rapid deterioration and spoilage of fresh
foods and on a knowledge of methods by which this spoilage
may be prevented. There are 2 main causes of food spoilage:
the action of enzymes and the action of 3 groups of minute
organisms always present on the outside of fruits and vegetables,
in fact on everything. These are molds, yeasts and bacteria.
The art of canning is an attempt to free foods of these substances
and to keep them free by sealing them in air-tight containers.
If the home canner fully understands this fact and will remember
that micro-organisms are everywhere she will have greater
success.
Enzymes.-All fresh fruits, vegetables and meats contain
substances called enzymes. Up to a certain point they bring
about desirable changes in foods. They cause fruits and vege-
tables to ripen normally and the tissues of meats to become more
tender as they are held in storage, but if allowed to go on
unchecked enzymes hasten the decay of foods. The low tempera-






Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables


ture of cold storage retards the action of enzymes and the heat
of cooking or canning destroys them entirely.
Yeasts and Molds.-Members of this group when allowed to
grow on foods cause changes many of which bring about actual
spoilage. Familiar examples of changes that stop short of
spoilage are the souring of milk, rising of bread, fermenting of
sauerkraut, making of vinegar, ripening of cheese. Yeasts and
molds are easily destroyed by heat in canning. Temperatures
below the boiling point of water (1500 F. to 1800 F.) for varying
periods of time are effective in destroying them.
The appearance of mold growth is familiar to everyone.
There are many kinds of yeasts. Some are responsible for con-
siderable spoilage of canned fruits and preserves since they are
active destroyers of sugar. When this happens it means that
too little heat was used at some step of the canning procedure,
or that the container was defective and allowed the organisms
to gain entrance from the air.
Bacteria.-These organisms cause most trouble for the home
canner. Bacteria growing actively are easily destroyed at the
temperature of boiling water (2120 F.). However, some kinds
of bacteria go through a dormant or spore form in the course
of their life cycle and in that stage are very resistant to heat.
This occurs under unfavorable conditions of crop growth, such
as long dry seasons. The spores are very resistant even to long
boiling, but at 2400 F., the temperature obtained in the steam
pressure canner, they may be destroyed in 30 minutes.
Whether foods are acid or non-acid also makes a difference
in the rate at which bacteria may be killed.
"Two hours from garden to can" is a good rule to follow in
canning vegetables and fruits. Quick handling prevents enzyme
action and bacterial growth, both of which are hastened when
food is allowed to stand in a warm place. Likewise canning
success depends to a considerable degree upon clean food, clean
equipment, clean methods, and personal cleanliness.

STERILIZATION
Sterilization means the complete destruction of all forms of
life in the product sterilized. This is usually done by heat. The
product to be preserved is placed in the jar or can and heated to
a temperature fatal to all the micro-organisms it contains. That
sterilized products shall not spoil they must be sealed air-tight
to exclude the entrance of any other spoilage organisms.





Florida Cooperative Extension


The temperature necessary to sterilize varies with the product.
Bacteria do not develop readily in an acid medium so the acid
fruits and tomatoes require lower temperatures for sterilization.
Yeasts and molds, commonly found on fruits and tomatoes, are
destroyed at boiling temperature (2120 F.), and some even
below this temperature.
Products low in acid and often high in protein and containing
heat-resistant organisms are difficult to sterilize. All vegetables
except tomatoes and all meats fall in this class. These products
should be canned only in the steam pressure cooker. Bacteria
in these products are destroyed in the pressure cooker which
subjects them to a temperature of 2400 to 2500 F., moist heat,
for varying lengths of time.
Most fruit juices can be safely sterilized at temperatures of
from 1650 to 1750 F., and temperatures above boiling should be
avoided, as they change the flavor of the juices. The original
character and flavor of the fresh fruit are desirable.

CANNING EQUIPMENT
Take stock of equipment, as well as supplies needed for can-
ning. Plan for convenient equipment and arrangement-clean
surroundings, well screened; plenty of hot and cold water.
Elaborate, expensive equipment is not needed, little more is
required than should be found in any well appointed kitchen.
Shallow trays, pans, bowls and vegetable brushes are needed
for grading, sorting and washing; colanders or sieves for washing
and draining berries; sharp paring knives for peeling and cutting,
a silver or "stainless" steel knife for the fruit that discolors
with the use of steel.
Jar fillers, funnels, and flexible wooden or metal spatulas are
all great conveniences in filling jars and bottles. Some sort of
jar lifter is essential, or a wire basket that makes it possible
to lift a large number of jars in and out of the canner at one
time. These baskets can be made at home or by a thinner at small
expense. Half-pint and pint size measuring cups, teaspoons,
tablespoons, clock and scales all aid in securing accurate results.
A food chopper that delivers its contents into one vessel without
a drip, and a dilver are good investments.
A dilver, or a fruit press, is a valuable piece of equipment,
especially in South Florida, if used only for work with guavas.
The dilver serves as a fruit or vegetable press, sieve, colander
and ricer. A wash boiler, lard tin, peanut butter tin, or any






Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables


vessel large enough to hold a convenient number of jars is
required for processing fruits and tomatoes. It should be
provided with a rack and a cover and should be deep enough
to allow water to cover jars to a depth of at least 1 inch. The
rack or false bottom may be made of wooden strips or of strong
wire netting, which is raised about a half inch above the bottom
of the vessel, thus allowing full circulation of water under jars.
The water bath or wash boiler method is preferable to the
pressure cooker for canning all fruits and tomatoes.
















Fig. 2.-A funnel is an efficient Fig. 3.-A dilver.
aid in filling jars.

War-time Note: All counties should check cookers, sealers,
containers and other equipment. All repair work should be done
at once. If new parts are needed they should be ordered without
delay; otherwise, it may be impossible to obtain essential parts,
such as gauges, springs for cooker, petcocks, lugs for cookers,
and parts for sealers.
Those salvaged glass containers that are designed for standard
lids and rubbers should be used for canning by the water bath
method only.

OPERATIONS OF WATER BATH

1. Count time as soon as water reaches the boiling point.
Keep boiling at a moderate rather than a vigorous rate.
2. Have water well over tops of cans or jars.
3. Remove the cans or jars as soon as the processing time






Florida Cooperative Extension


is complete. Tighten covers immediately without lifting the lid,
if not completely sealed before processing. Test for leaks.
4. Cool jars quickly, but do not allow a draft, as the jars
may crack in quick contraction, as a result of too rapid cooling.
If tins are used, plunge immediately in cold water.
If an imperfect seal is discovered within a day after a jar
has cooled, open it and use contents, if good; discard if not good.
It is not wise to reprocess after the contents have cooled, as this
overcooks the food.

STEAM PRESSURE CANNER
The steam pressure canner, or cooker, is recommended for
USE IN PROCESSING NON-ACID VEGETABLES AS WELL
AS FOR CANNING ALL MEATS, FISH AND SEA FOOD.
Those who can these
foods should equip
themselves with pressure
cookers, not only because
of the great saving of
time, energy and fuel,
but especially because of
the greater security af-
Sforded through cooking
at high temperature
These products which are
unsafe to can by means
of the water bath.
MPl Pressure cookers, or
is: team pressure canners,
r I fo range in size from the
small one which will hold
only 3 quart jars to the
factory sizes which have
a capacity of thousands
Fig. 4.-Steam pressure cooker, of cans per day. Pressure
cookers for family use may vary in price from $10 to $60,
depending upon the size and make desired.
The steam pressure canner is constructed of strong material
and provided with a tightly fitting lid which when clamped in
place makes it possible to hold steam under pressure and obtain






Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables


a correspondingly high temperature-ranging from 2120 F. to
2740 F. Each steam pressure outfit is equipped with a pressure
gauge which registers the pressure in pounds and the corre-
sponding temperature, a safety valve, and usually a steam pet-
cock. It may be easily regulated so as to maintain the desired
pressure and temperature and can be used for cooking as well
as for canning.
In the use of the steam pressure canner the products, properly
prepared and packed into containers, are cooked under a pressure
of from 5 to 15 pounds of steam. This means a temperature
of 2290 F. to 2500 F. All organisms in both the active and spore
forms are destroyed in a relatively short time under such high
temperatures. Most non-acid vegetables and meat products
usually are cooked under steam pressure of 10 pounds or 2400 F.
This temperature applied for the proper length of time will not
injure the quality of the product, and will destroy all harmful
organisms.
Processing is the most important operation in canning. No
matter how carefully all other steps may have been performed,
if the processing is not thorough, if all organisms are not killed
or rendered harmless, the material will spoil. When all bacteria,
yeasts and molds present in the food and in the can are destroyed,
and when the can is sealed air-tight so that no new organisms
can enter, the food cannot fail to keep. If either one is partially
done, it cannot fail to spoil.

OPERATION OF STEAM PRESSURE METHOD
1. Fill pressure cooker with water to a depth of 2 inches.
Heat. Place properly packed jars or sealed tins on rack.
2. When canner is filled, place cover in position with the
mark on the cover and canner in conjunction. Fasten moderately
tight, one pair at a time, the clamps which are opposite each
other; then go back over all the clamps, tightening each.
3. See that no steam escapes anywhere except at the petcock
when it is open. Allow the petcock to remain open until the
steam escapes with a hissing noise, or for at least 10 minutes,
then close.
4. Allow temperature to rise until gauge registers the
desired pressure. Usually 10 pounds is sufficient for canning
most vegetables.






Florida Cooperative Extension


5. Count time from moment desired pressure is reached and
regulate fire to maintain that pressure. Fluctuations in pressure
when canning in glass, as from 10 pounds to 7 pounds and back
again to 10 pounds, are very likely to result in loss of liquid
from the jar. The steam formed under the liquid under sudden
reduction of pressure cannot escape enough through the narrow
space between cover and rubber, and it "boils up" so furiously
that it pushes the liquid out of the jar. This is likely to happen
with any sudden drop in pressure. It is especially likely to happen
if the pressure is allowed to go so high that the safety valve
releases the steam rapidly.
6. Lack of liquid in canned products may be due also to
insufficient pre-cooking; to failure to expel all air from spaces
among particles of products when jar was filled with liquid;
to improper packing of jar, i.e., packing loosely in bottom and
tightly near top.
7. Uniform pressure may be maintained by turning the gas
or kerosene flame up or down, as need arises; or in case of wood
stove, by moving the canner away from flame to retard heat.
8. Remove canner from fire at end of processing period.
If glass jars are used let pressure go down to 0 before petcock
is opened. If opened sooner the jars will lose part or all of their
liquid contents. Also if the canner is opened before the pressure
has fallen to 0 steam may scald the operator. Even when No. 2
tin cans are used the release cock should be opened very slowly
and cautiously. For No. 3 cans it is better to allow pressure
to fall to 0 before removing, since a sudden release of steam
offers too great a strain on the seams of the cans. The cans
should then be immediately removed and plunged into water
to cool. Shake tins occasionally as they cool.

PROCESSING IN THE OVEN
The oven is often recommended for the processing of food
in glass jars. However, the dry air of an oven conducts heat
less readily than does either steam or hot water. The temperature
of the product in the jar never exceeds 2120 F. although the
temperature of the oven may be much higher (2500-2750 F.)
than the boiling point of water. If the jars are completely sealed
before being put in the oven there will be some steam pressure
but this is not advised, since the accumulated steam would break
the seals or the jars themselves. THE USE OF THE OVEN






Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables


FOR CANNING NON-ACID VEGETABLES IS NOT RECOM-
MENDED UNDER FLORIDA CONDITIONS.

CONTAINERS TO USE IN CANNING
GLASS JARS
Glass jars are excellent for home canning because they can
be used repeatedly. To be satisfactory, a jar should give an
air-tight seal and should have a simple, efficient means of sealing.
Glass jars are known by the caps they wear. They come in
three types: The old, original mason jar with the porcelain lined
metal screw cap; the lightning type with a glass disc cover held
in place by metal clamps; and the automatic seal or vacuum-
seal type that seals automatically when cooled.
The lid or cap of the mason jar is hard to clean and the
porcelain lining may become loosened or chipped. If this hap-
pens, or the metal part of the cap is dented, bent or cracked,
the cap must be replaced. A new rubber ring is required each
time a rubber ring is used.
The lightning type jar with its glass lid can be cleaned and
sterilized easily, but the wire clamps may become loosened from
use and must be adjusted. This type of jar is simple, sanitary,
and gives good service under Florida condition.
The automatic or metal sealing lids have a rubber compound
flowed into a groove in the under surface of the lid. This type
lid can be used but once. The metal screw band that holds the
lid on during processing and cooling may be used repeatedly.
Note: The screw top type having the lid with the rubber compound
and the automatic-seal type are essentially the same. Either band or the
clamp holding the lid allows the air to escape but holds the lid to the jar
so that when the jar and its contents are cooling no air is drawn in and
the vacuum formed seals the lid to the jar. As the jar cools the rubber
compound hardens, making the seal more complete.
All jars manufactured for use in the home regardless of type,
WHEN USED ACCORDING TO DIRECTIONS FURNISHED
BY THE MAKER, WILL GIVE WHAT IS ESSENTIAL-an
air-tight seal. READ CAREFULLY AND FOLLOW THE IN-
STRUCTIONS THAT ACCOMPANY THEM.
All jars, before being filled, should be tested and the im-
perfect ones discarded. First, examine for cracks, nicks and
bubble holes. Next examine the surface upon which the lid or
cover makes its contact with the jar, where the seal will be
made. Both the top of the jar and the lid should feel smooth
to the touch and should form a perfect plane. Bails should be






Florida Cooperative Extension


tight. Never use 2 rubbers to tighten a clamp. Instead, adjust
the bails as directed. New bails may be purchased from the
factory to replace old ones, if needed.
Rubbers.-The rubber is an important factor in securing a
perfect seal. Only the best new rubbers should be used. A good
rubber is soft and elastic and should stretch readily and return
to normal size. When sealing jars be sure no salt, seeds or pulp
are on the rubber band or on the part of the jar where the
rubber band or sealing surface rests.

TIN CANS
Canning in tin should be more popular than it is, now that
sanitary tins and an easily operated sealing machine are on the
market at a very nominal price. It is often quite feasible for
several families to join in the purchase and use of a sealer.
Some of the many advantages of canning in tin are: No
danger of breaking, no loss of liquid, ease of handling when
processing under pressure. Tin cans heat through more quickly
and may be plunged immediately into cold water. This rapid
cooling checks cooking and produces a more desirable product.
The large opening in the new type tin makes it easier to pack
some products in tin than in glass jars unless the newer wide-
mouth jars are used.


Fig. 5-Small hand sealing machine for sanitary tins.






Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables


It is recommended that all vegetables except tomatoes be
sterilized under steam pressure. Glass jars are not as satisfac-
tory to use in a pressure sterilizer as tin. Frequently much of
the liquid boils out of the container, causing the jar after
sterilization to be only three-quarters or one-half filled with
liquid, unless considerable care is used during sterilization and
cooling. These difficulties are overcome in commercial canneries
by the use of compressed air in the pressure canners, but this
is not possible for the home canner.
Sanitary cans are really the most satisfactory containers for
vegetables that must be sterilized under pressure in the home.
Tins with special enamel linings are recommended for canning
certain products. R-enamel or sanitary enamel-bright gold in
appearance-is used for any product of which the color would
be affected by contact with plain tin. This includes all red fruits,
berries, beets and pumpkin.
C-enamel is a lacquer which is dull gold in appearance and is
used exclusively for certain vegetables, meats, fish, lye hominy,
and such other products as may form black discolorations either
in the food itself or on the can. This black discoloration is iron
sulphide and, though entirely harmless, it detracts greatly from
the appearance of the food. C-enamel should not be used for
any product which is acid, nor for vegetables canned with an
acid or vinegar sauce.
However, plain tin may be safely used for any food product
and is usually recommended to the home canner who is canning
small amounts of several different products. Tin is not harmful
to the human system in any quantities which might go into
solution in canned foods. Food packed in plain clean tin is
perfectly safe and wholesome. When in doubt as to which kind
of enamel to use, play safe and use only plain tin.
In the time tables for fruit and vegetable canning, pages 52
to 55, recommendations are given for the types of cans to be
used with the various products.
Sealing Sanitary Tins.-Very little experience is required to
obtain a perfect seal with the hand-power sealers used for sani-
tary tins if directions accompanying the sealer are followed
closely. The prepared food is packed boiling hot into the hot,
sterile can, and boiling hot syrup or other liquid is added to fill
it within 1/4 inch of the top and the tin is quickly sealed before
the contents have had time to cool.






Florida Cooperative Extension


If products are not hot when packed (as tomatoes and grape-
fruit sections) it is necessary to place the filled containers in a
boiling water bath, deep enough to come within 2 inches of the
top of the container. Cover the water bath to hold in the steam.
When contents are "smoking hot," indicating that the air is out
of the food and container, seal. Removing the air (called ex-
hausting) before sealing prevents loss of food value and flavor
and causes less discoloration and spoilage.
The sealer should be carefully adjusted when changing from
one type lid to another.

MARKING CANS AND JARS
All containers should be plainly marked with name and grade
of the product. India ink or canners' ink is used satisfactorily
for marking tins, as it stands hot water. Also, wax pencils are
specially made for writing on tin and glass. After sterilization
gummed labels may be used. All lots should be dated so that
products canned earliest can be used first. Also the containers
of each lot may be identified later, and a short record giving
the time of pre-cook and sterilization in each case should be
kept for future reference. Such labeling and records will be
found very valuable in locating the cause of spoilage, should this
occur, and in tabulating helpful reference material.

SPOILAGE AND STORAGE
Spoilage.-Sometimes with an inexperienced person canning
in tin and using the sealer, leaks will occur around the seam
of sanitary cans. Leaks, however, can be detected by bubbles
appearing when the cans are dropped into hot water. Leaks
permit air to enter and the air brings with it "germs" which
cause the fruit or other product to mold, ferment, or produce
a gas that sometimes causes the cans to swell. Flat sour,
however, is not indicated from any outside appearance of the
can. It may result from canning stale vegetables, improper
cooling, or from storage in too warm a place. A sound tin or
glass jar should have a vacuum which is indicated by the suction
of the air into the tin or jar when it is first opened. If the cover
on a jar is difficult to remove it is usually a sign of good vacuum.'
1A good vacuum in the sealed container is of primary importance in
the canning of food. A vacuum is produced in the jar or tin either by
heating the food before it is packed (precook) or by heating the product
in the container (exhaust). The application of heat causes the internal






Florida Cooperative Extension


If products are not hot when packed (as tomatoes and grape-
fruit sections) it is necessary to place the filled containers in a
boiling water bath, deep enough to come within 2 inches of the
top of the container. Cover the water bath to hold in the steam.
When contents are "smoking hot," indicating that the air is out
of the food and container, seal. Removing the air (called ex-
hausting) before sealing prevents loss of food value and flavor
and causes less discoloration and spoilage.
The sealer should be carefully adjusted when changing from
one type lid to another.

MARKING CANS AND JARS
All containers should be plainly marked with name and grade
of the product. India ink or canners' ink is used satisfactorily
for marking tins, as it stands hot water. Also, wax pencils are
specially made for writing on tin and glass. After sterilization
gummed labels may be used. All lots should be dated so that
products canned earliest can be used first. Also the containers
of each lot may be identified later, and a short record giving
the time of pre-cook and sterilization in each case should be
kept for future reference. Such labeling and records will be
found very valuable in locating the cause of spoilage, should this
occur, and in tabulating helpful reference material.

SPOILAGE AND STORAGE
Spoilage.-Sometimes with an inexperienced person canning
in tin and using the sealer, leaks will occur around the seam
of sanitary cans. Leaks, however, can be detected by bubbles
appearing when the cans are dropped into hot water. Leaks
permit air to enter and the air brings with it "germs" which
cause the fruit or other product to mold, ferment, or produce
a gas that sometimes causes the cans to swell. Flat sour,
however, is not indicated from any outside appearance of the
can. It may result from canning stale vegetables, improper
cooling, or from storage in too warm a place. A sound tin or
glass jar should have a vacuum which is indicated by the suction
of the air into the tin or jar when it is first opened. If the cover
on a jar is difficult to remove it is usually a sign of good vacuum.'
1A good vacuum in the sealed container is of primary importance in
the canning of food. A vacuum is produced in the jar or tin either by
heating the food before it is packed (precook) or by heating the product
in the container (exhaust). The application of heat causes the internal






Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables


Spoiled cans or jars of food should never even be tasted. They
may be deadly poison. Do not feed spoiled food to poultry or
animals; it may poison them. Bury it deeply.
Storage.-It is also generally true of any canned product, and
some are more definitely unstable than others, that while they
may not show spoilage by molding, souring, or fermenting, even
when properly pasteurized or sterilized they still may deteriorate.
They may change in flavor and in other ways lose quality and
food value from exposure to light and heat through improper
storage. For this reason, special precautions needed to preserve
the high degree of color, flavor, texture, vitamin content, and
other valuable characteristics of the raw products should be
strictly observed.
Today perhaps as much attention is being called to the need
for better and more modern storage facilities as to any other
item of improvement in canning technology. The home canner
must likewise be concerned with improvement of her storage
facilities. The ideal home storage room should be well ventilated,
dry, clean, dark, free from odors, and of a favorable or low
storage temperature. This ventilated pantry should be con-
structed so that the cool air which is stored up under the house
or in the house may circulate constantly through .the space
throughout the day, keeping the products at approximately the
same temperature that is maintained in a cellar or other under-
ground storage space.2

USING THE HOT PACK METHOD IN CANNING

The newer method in canning is called "hot pack." In this
a short precooking of the vegetables or fruits is substituted for
the formerly recommended "blanching." Some of the cooking
water or syrup is used to fill the container scalding hot and it
is then processed. The difference between the "cold pack" and
gases and vapors to expand. Upon cooling there is a contraction of the
expanded gases, vapors and solids and a partial vacuum is formed within
the container. In addition to inhibiting the growth of spoilage micro-
organisms, the vacuum serves to maintain an effective seal. The average
vacuum considered safe for foods in tin cans is 12 inches. A device for
testing vacuum may be purchased for about $4.00. The exclusion of air,
through complete filling of containers and closing under a hot exhaust,
is most important in preventing deterioration and protecting the quality
of canned products during the hot summer months.
2 For full particulars and suggestive drawings for building ventilated
pantries or in making some structural changes in the old ones, see your
Home Demonstration Agent or write the State Home Demonstration Office,
Tallahassee, Florida.






Florida Cooperative Extension


the "hot pack" is that the "cold dip" is omitted and in place of
blanching in a large amount of water, the product is precooked
in a small amount of liquid, usually until it boils, and is thor-
oughly shrunken. This saving of valuable nutrients is of great
importance. An exception to the "hot pack" method is found
in grapefruit sections and tomatoes which are canned by the
"cold pack."
Step3 in Hot Pack Canning.-Select only fresh, sound pro-
ducts. Can as soon as picked; do not let stand overnight. To
avoid heating keep products in cool place while waiting to can.
Grade for size, color and degree of ripeness. Do not can young,
tender vegetables with older ones; the one would be overcooked
before the other is thoroughly processed. Over-ripe products
may disintegrate, spoiling appearance of the product and some-
times leaving the liquid cloudy. Over-ripe but sound fruit should
be used in jams rather than for canning. For choice products,
fruits and vegetables must be in prime condition when used for
canning.
Preparation for Canning.-Clean products carefully, shell,
pare, scrape, core, seed, slice, according to fruit or vegetable.
and the purpose for which it is to be used. Peaches and tomatoes
are scalded and then are quickly dipped in cold water. The skin
will then slip easily. Make sure water bath or pressure canner,
whichever is needed, will be ready to receive jars or tins as soon
as packed.
Precooking is heating the fruit or vegetable in a syrup, steam,
or boiling or simmering water for a short time before processing.
Use no more water for the pre-cooking of the vegetable than
is necessary to add to the vegetable to fill the jars. If more
liquid is needed, add boiling water to fill the jar.
Packing.-Keep previously washed and rinsed jars in near
boiling water until food is ready for packing. Usually it is more
convenient to have rubber in place. Do not wipe out jar. Merely
shake out surplus moisture. Tins may be made ready in the
same way and held in warm place until needed. Give the rubber
and composition gasket covers a dip in boiling water before using.
Fill the hot food immediately into the container after the
pre-cook. Select for uniformity in size and quality, and arrange
for a symmetrically placed and attractive pack. Do not pack so
loosely as to waste space in jars or cans, but do not pack so
tightly that there is not room for expansion. Fill jar as packed
with boiling liquid or syrup in which the vegetable or fruit is






Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables


precooked, leaving 1/ to 1/ inch head space. Paddle or agitate
to remove air bubbles as completely as possible.
Sealing and Processing.-Glass-top jars with wire bails may
be fully sealed before processing. Fully sealing this type jar,
when contents are hot and properly packed, results in less loss
of liquid from the jar during processing. READ MANUFAC-
TURERS' DIRECTIONS FOR USE OF THEIR PARTICULAR
TYPES OF SEAL.

SYRUPS FOR CANNING FRUITS
Sugar is useful not only for sweetening but because it helps
fruits hold their shape, color, and natural flavor. Fruits for
pie making or for diabetic diets are often canned with no sugar.
In time they will fade somewhat in color, lose some
of their taste and texture. Using fruit juice in-
stead of water emphasizes the flavor of the fruit
and adds also to the food value.
When canning juicy fruits like berries, if sugar
is not used, can them in their own juices or juice
from a sweeter fruit. Add no water. Pick out the
riper fruits and extract the juice by crushing, heat-
ing and straining. Pack remaining fruits closely
and firmly into the container without preheating,
cover with the boiling hot juice and process in
water bath. For firm fruits like pears, peaches,
pineapples and guavas which are not juicy enough
to provide their own liquid, a juice may be made
by covering the riper .fruits, peelings and cores
with water and simmering together. Strain and
add sugar or other sweetening to this liquid to
make a syrup of both richness and food value.3
The least amount of water possible should be used
to avoid diluting the fruit flavor.
For all practical purposes syrups for canning
may be prepared with the following proportion of
sugar and water: very light syrup, 1 cup sugar to Fig. 6. -A
4 cups water; medium, 1 cup sugar to 2 cups water; hdromter or
heavy, 11/2 cups sugar to 1 cup water. Add sugar Itemeater(ins
to water (or fruit juice), bring to boil, strain to measuring
remove solid impurities and use boiling hot. When s sru content
SFor instance, peach skins have been found to contain 2 to 4 times as
much ascorbic acid per gram as the pulp.






Florida Cooperative Extension


measuring sugar see that it is well settled in cup and slightly
rounded. So measured, 1 cup sugar will equal weight of 1 cup
water.
The proper method of expressing syrups is in terms of per-
cent of sugar. This may be determined by means of a special
kind of hydrometer known as a saccharimeter.
Which syrup to use depends upon (a) acidity of fruit, (b)
family preference, (c) the amount of fruit packed into the jar.
The amount of syrup required to pack a quart of fruit will
depend largely upon the size of the pieces of fruit and closeness
of the pack. One to 11/4 cups may be allowed for 1 quart. This
will serve as a guide to the beginner in making syrups.
All fruits intended for desserts should be canned in syrup
(even fruits for salads usually take at least a light syrup). The
syrup should be of such density and of such quantity as to give
a sub-acid taste without obscuring any of the natural flavor and
aroma of the fruit.

CANNING SYRUPS OF DIFFERENT DENSITIES
Syrup Density
Syrup Sugar Water Approximate Character of Syrup
Number (cups) (cups) Percentage
1 1 4 20 Very thin
2 1 21/2 30 Thin
3 1 2 40 Medium
4 1 1 50 Thick
5 11/2 1 60 Heavy

Fruit intended for cooking purposes may be canned, if desired,
without sugar. Sugar is used not to preserve the fruit but to
bring out the flavor, to improve the taste, texture, and it is
now claimed, vitamin content. A No. 1 syrup may be used where
heavier syrups are quoted.

SWEETENING QUALITIES OF DEXTROSE, HONEY, CANE
AND OTHER SYRUPS

In general, honey and cane syrup yield about the same sweet-
ness as sugar and may be used in the place of sugar, cup for cup.
Make into a syrup with water, or preferably fruit juice, just as
would be done with sugar, reducing the amount of liquid called
for by one-fourth or one-fifth.


22 ,






Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables


The honey or the cane syrup flavor combines better with
some fruits than with others. Also it is necessary to use the
mildest flavored honeys in order that the individual, fruity
flavors may not be overshadowed or masked by that of the
honey. Flavors of honey also vary with age and storage, so it
is always desirable to use a new honey for canning purposes
when it is available.
It has become a recognized fact for some time that sugars
other than sucrose (beet or cane sugar) may be used for canning
fruits. The use of dextrose, or corn sugar, in combination with
sugar, for instance, gives greater density without adding ex-
cessive sweetness. This improves texture and aids in developing
the flavor of the fruit.
Light colored corn syrup may also be used as a sugar substi-
tute, using it preferably in combination with sucrose (cane or
beet sugar).
A syrup as dense as heavy syrup cannot be made with corn
sugar alone. If making a heavy syrup the smallest proportion
of cane sugar that is satisfactory is 1 part of cane sugar with
1 part of corn sugar. One part of corn sugar with 3 parts of
sucrose in making the heavy syrup gives the best product.
Corn sugar is only 2/3 as sweet as cane or beet sugar by
either weight or volume.
Corn syrup is not the same as corn sugar. More of it is
required than dry corn sugar, for the same sweetness. Corn
syrups vary greatly in sweetness and flavor. For sweetness,
2 cups of corn syrup equal 1 cup of cane or beet sugar.
Ask for further information about the various substitutes
for white sugar found on the markets, if interested.

WHY FRUITS FLOAT IN THE JAR
Some fruits such as strawberries, guavas, and soft, juicy
plums contain much air and undergo considerable shrinkage
when heated. They give up a large portion of their juice, when
the shrunken fruit rises to the top of the jar. Often the lower
half or even 2/3 of jar contains juice only while the shriveled
fruits fill the upper half or third.
When fruits are canned in syrup which is too heavy the
syrup extracts through osmosis a large portion of the juice from
the fruit, causing it to shrink and float to the top of the jar.
When fruits (also tomatoes) are over-processed the cell
structure is broken down, causing the fruits to break up or to





Florida Cooperative Extension


shrink. In either event the fruit becomes lighter than the syrup
or juice, and consequently it will float to the top of the jar.
If given the proper preliminary pre-cook or shrinkage in the
syrups best adapted to their texture, peaches, pears, plums,
Surinam cherries, guavas, and strawberries will be evenly dis-
tributed throughout the jar.
The natural color, flavor and texture of fruits must be
retained or improved in successful canning processes. Straw-
berries, wild plums, papayas, and some guavas tend to break up
when cooked or heated directly in the syrup. If the sugar con-
centration within the berry or fruit is not equal to that without,
the fruit floats. Hence, if strawberries and certain other fruits
are allowed to stand for a few hours or sometimes overnight in
sugar, the fruit loses water, shrinks and becomes slightly tough.
Then, if heated slowly or removed from the heat a few minutes
before boiling and allowed to stand, usually covered, the sugar
penetrates the strawberry, plumps it, and keeps it from floating.
Also strawberries and plums develop a strong flavor when
cooked a long time. Therefore, the sugar is allowed to penetrate
before boiling. The best results are obtained if the cook is rapid
and the amount of fruit handled is small.
On the other hand, hard fruits such as pears, green mangos
and some guavas must be softened first by cooking in water
or a light syrup. They will become hard and shriveled if placed
directly into a heavy syrup.

SPECIAL DIRECTIONS FOR CANNING BERRIES
AND FRUITS
AVOCADO
Methods of preserving the avocado and its by-products have,
to date, been unsuccessful. While color and texture may be
retained the resulting product proves flat and unpalatable after
a short time, even when held in cold storage.
BERRIES
Dewberries, blackberries, blueberries, elderberries, young-
berries and mulberries take practically the same method of
canning. The condition of the fruit will have much to do with
the quality of the product. Berries should be gathered in shallow
trays or baskets and not in deep baskets or buckets which allow
them to be bruised or crushed. They should be uniformly ripe






Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables


and sound, and as large as possible. Sort carefully and wash
by placing a shallow layer of fruit in colander or strainer and
dip in and out of water. Do not let stand in water. Remove hulls
or stems. Pack in hot, clean jars as closely as possible without
crushing. Do this by putting a few in a jar at a time and gently
pressing into place, layer by layer, until full, and removing all
air bubbles by gently agitating. Fill jar with hot medium to
heavy syrup. Complete seal and process pint jars in water bath
10 to 12 minutes; quart jars 15 to 20 minutes. When cool, store
in dry, dark, ventilated pantry.
In making syrup for berries if berry juice is used in place
of water the product will be better in color, flavor and food
value. Canned berries have the variety of uses that fresh berries
have. They may be served as a breakfast fruit or for dessert.
They are excellent in pies, puddings or fruit sauces.
Strawberries are an exception and cannot be canned by the
above one-process method, as they tend to lose both color and
flavor and rise in the jar, presenting a most unappetizing appear-
ance. The following directions for canning strawberries give
excellent results.
Use only freshly picked, perfectly sound, ripe strawberries.
(It is never desirable to can any fruit that is not in prime eating
condition.) Wash carefully and cap. Never allow them to stand
in water nor to stand long after being washed because they
soften rapidly when wet. To each pound of strawberries allow
3/4 to 1 cup of sugar. Place berries and sugar in alternate layers
in a kettle, reserving enough sugar to cover the top layer com-
pletely. Cover vessel and set aside in a cool place for several
hours, over night if preferred. After standing it will be found
that the sugar has caused much juice to flow from the fruit and
that most of the sugar is in solution in this juice. Now heat the
fruit and syrup over a slow fire in the partially covered kettle
until all sugar is dissolved and simmer gently for 7 to 10 minutes.
Remove from the fire and let stand covered until cold, or better
yet, over night. Occasional stirring of the fruit is advantageous.
Reheat fruit to below simmering (1600F.), pack in hot, sterile
jars or R-enamel tins. Seal and simmer pints in water bath
8 minutes.
The above method of canning strawberries, using a minimum
amount of sugar, rather than making preserves in which the
maximum amount of sugar is used, gives a product much to be
preferred and one in which the natural color, shape, flavor and





Florida Cooperative Extension


aroma are retained. These properly canned strawberries are
delightfully appetizing to use over cereal, in gelatin or other
desserts, ice cream, sherbet, and punch.
The strawberry is very unstable in color and flavor and
should be canned only in the amount needed until the fresh
fruit is in season again. If desired, 1/2 the sugar needed may be
replaced with corn sugar. (See "Conserving Florida Berries"
and "Last Lap on Strawberries" for further information.)
CHERRIES (SURINAM OR FLORIDA)
Prepare medium or heavy syrup as preferred. Select fine,
ripe fruit-that which will drop from the bush into hand when
lightly touched. Wash gently and remove pits. Precook 1 to 2
minutes in boiling water. Pack in hot jars, add hot syrup, and
process quarts in water bath 16 minutes. Cherries tend to shrivel
in a heavy syrup without preliminary blanch or precook. Water
used in the precook should be used for making syrup. Surinam
cherry juice blended with grapefruit juice fresh or canned makes
a wonderfully fine flavored blend for party punch or, indeed,
any occasion.
The surinam cherry or so-called Florida cherry is one of the
most easily cultivated and ornamental of our sub-tropical shrubs,
and is used perhaps more for hedging and other decorative pur-
poses than for its fine flavored fruits. The fruit is beautifully
colored, juicy, of high acidity and individual flavor. It deserves
to be grown more generally as a valuable addition to the home
orchard in southern Florida. For best quality and quantity
production the surinam cherry asks for abundant moisture.
Surinam cherries are of three varieties, one with brilliant
red fruits-the variety most commonly grown-another almost
black in color and of unusually fine flavor, and a less known type
which is orange in color when ripe.
FIGS
Figs in season must be gathered daily in shallow baskets
when thoroughly ripe, and be canned without delay.
Grade for size, wash and drain. Precook figs in gently boiling
water from 2 to 6 minutes. This preliminary, open-kettle cook
prepares for penetration of sugar syrup, facilitates packing a
well filled jar or can, and improves appearance.
Place in cans or jars and steam 30 minutes. Add heavy syrup
and process '1/2 to 2 hours at boiling. Sterilization must be long
enough to overcome the "raw" appearance (chalky white color).






Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables


The resulting product should be tender, plump, unbroken and
translucent in appearance with a syrup that will test 35 to 40
degrees, Balling hydrometer. Or, after the first short prelimi-
nary cook in water, figs may be placed in a heavy syrup at once
and be cooked in the open kettle until they are clear and the
syrup is fairly heavy. This takes at least an hour, usually longer.
The figs should then be allowed to stand over night to plump
and further absorb syrup.
All open-kettle boiling should be done gently and in an abund-
ance of syrup, that as few as possible of the figs be broken. The
next day bring figs to boiling point, pack in hot, sterile jars and
seal immediately. Any left-over syrup is excellent to serve with
hot biscuits or waffles.
There is a much greater demand for figs canned in a syrup
of medium sugar concentration than for the time-honored fig
preserves as prepared in the South. While fig preserves are
popular and appeal to most palates, they are extremely sweet
and only a small quantity can be eaten at a time. Also they are
relatively expensive to make. On the other hand, figs canned in
medium or thick syrup are not excessively sweet and not unduly
costly. They make a delightful breakfast fruit as well as a
dessert when served with cream cheese and crisp crackers.
Fig Spread.-This is made from the broken figs or over-ripe
stock. Clip off stems, run through coarse food grinder. Measure.
Place in heavy aluminum kettle and cook until thickened. Add
1/2 to 3/4 measure of sugar to 1 measure of fig pulp and cook to
2210 F. Pack in hot jars, seal and process by boiling 5 minutes.
This makes a most wholesome "spread" for lunches and may
be used also for cake filling and ice cream.
Over-ripe figs also may be pre-cooked in open kettle, without
sugar, packed solid in jars, and sterilized for use in baking and
for making ice cream. (See "The Fig, a Prize Package of Food
and Medicine" for further information and recipes.)
GRAPEFRUIT
Wash and dry strictly fresh, sound grapefruit. With a sharp
knife remove all peel and white membrane or rag. There are
different methods of doing this. In one method slices are cut
from both ends of the unpeeled fruit, cutting into the flesh or
segments. Then remove the rest of the peel and rag in wide
slices, cutting from one end to the other. When this operation
is completed you have a juicy ball minus all rag, with all the





Florida Cooperative Extension


segments exposed. It is then an easy matter to run the blade
of a paring knife or the pliable blade of a grapefruit spatula
between the segments and separate them from the rest of the
membrane or rag. It is possible in this way to remove every
segment entirely whole, free of all rag and seed.
With the segments free of rag and seed, pack firmly and
solidly into a sterilized jar or preferably a No. 2 tin, keeping
the rounding sides to the jar or tin. Add 2 tablespoons of extra
heavy sugar syrup to a pint jar or tin when half full. Run knife
blade or spatula down next to the side of container to permit
syrup to flow more freely into spaces between sections and to
release air bubbles. Syrup may be omitted, but flavor and texture
are better when it is used.
When jar is full adjust rubber, cover and pasteurize 30
minutes at 1800 F. If canning in tin exhaust for 10 or more
minutes or until hot in center of tin. Seal, then process as above.
Cool in cold water. Store in cool, dry place.
It is very important that the processing temperature for
grapefruit be not allowed to go beyond 1750 or 1800 F., or its
fine, delicate flavor will be destroyed. If a thermometer is not
at hand to keep check on the temperature, bring the water to
a boil, then remove water bath from heat and allow cans to
remain in hot water 25 minutes. Be sure there is an average of
a quart of water for every pint can.
We sometimes speak of using "culls" for canning purposes.
By "culls" is meant absolutely fresh, sound, ripe fruit, free from
all forms of decay, but they may be under-sized, over-sized, or
misshapen in some way.
Grapefruit is most commonly canned in No. 2 tins. The plain
tin container has been found more suitable for grapefruit than
the glass container, affording greater protection as to flavor
and color. Grapefruit is becoming more and more popular as a
canned fruit in its ready-to-serve form. The "hearts" are
excellent for breakfast, for fruit cocktails, salads, and for desserts
of all kinds and in many combinations.

GRAPES
Use firm but fully ripe fruit. Weigh, wash, separate skins
and pulps. Place hulls in kettle, adding 1 cup water for each
6 pounds fruit. Cook covered until hulls are quite tender and
water evaporated. Heat pulps and juice in another kettle until
soft enough to liberate seed. Put through colander or fruit press.






Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables


Combine pulp and hulls, add 1 pound sugar to each 6 pounds
fruit. Bring slowly to boil and boil 4 to 5 minutes. Pack in
hot jars, seal and process 5 minutes. This makes a most whole-
some, delicious "spread" for lunches and may be used for cake
and pie filling, for ice cream, and for making into grape catsup.
Whole Grapes.-Select firm, ripe grapes preferably of the
muscadine variety. Insert sharp-pointed paring knife in stem
end and pick out seed with point of knife. Pack seeded whole
grapes cold in jars. Pour over them a heavy syrup (measure
for measure). Let stand 1/2 hour; refill if necessary; adjust
rubber and top, leaving bail up. Steam jars at boiling until fruit
is softened but unbroken; add more syrup if needed, and seal
boiling hot. The time for steaming or processing varies with
the variety. The Scuppernong requires approximately an hour,
the James 11/2 hours and the Thomas fully 2 hours.
Many think this makes a delicious canned product, quite
equal to the Northern canned cherry. Seed may be left in, but if
so, slit each grape so that syrup may penetrate and prevent the
grapes from shriveling. However, it is not at all a difficult task
to remove them. (See "Grapes and Grape Products" leaflet for
further information on utilization.)
GUAVAS
There are several ways of canning guavas. They may be
canned whole, peeled or unpeeled; may be halved, have the seeds
removed by means of the dilver or a fruit press, and this pulp
returned to halves and cooked with them; or shells and pulp
may be cooked as 2 separate products.
Wash, remove blossom and stem, and peel. Cook 1 to 3
minutes (according to the size and ripeness of fruit) in boiling
thin or medium syrup. This preliminary cook is given in order
to have full pack when processing is completed. If a "peach"
pack is desired and guavas are large and thick meated, halves
may be packed in jars, after very slight precook, in overlapping
layers; the concave surface of each half should be downward
and the blossom end should face the glass. A tablespoonful of
syrup should be added to each layer. Process 16 to 20 minutes
at boiling.
Guava Sauce.-Wash fruit and remove blossom end and any
blemishes on skin. Run through dilver to remove seed. Measure.
Cook in heavy aluminum kettle until somewhat thickened. Add
2 cups sugar (according to acidity of fruit) to 4 cups of pulp






Florida Cooperative Extension


Fig. 7.-The common guava grows wild in Florida in great abundance from
Marion County southward. Because of its high nutritive value, wider use should
be made of this beautifully colored, characteristically flavored fruit, sweet or sour.
Guavas may be used fresh or processed, alone or combined with citrus or other fruits.
At present, guavas are used principally for making jelly, butter, preserves and sweet
pickles. Plain canned, they are a dessert fruit deluxe. Recently chemists in Florida
have determined its unusual potency in vitamin C, finding the guava exceptionally
rich in this important substance.

and cook rapidly again for about 10 minutes, stirring often.
Pour into hot jars, put immediately into boiling water bath and
process 5 minutes. This is excellent for pudding sauces, short-
cakes, cobblers, gelatin desserts, or ice cream. (See "The Goodly
Guava" for many other uses of the guava.)

LOQUAT OR JAPANESE PLUM

The loquat is one of Florida's most beautiful ornamentals
and produces most delectable fruit of a slightly tart, yet sweet
flavor. Used fresh in fruit cups and salads it is always enjoyed.
The loquat ranks high as a pie fruit and makes delicious
preserves.






Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables


To Can.-Use freshly gathered (clipped) not over-mature
fruit. Remove stem and blossom ends, skin and seed, or can
with seed left in (seed are objectionable only because of space
consumed). Give 2 to 4 minutes precook in light, medium or
heavy syrup depending on the acidity of the fruit which varies
with different varieties. Pack in jars, process quarts 20 minutes.
Loquat Sauce.-Prepare loquats by removing blossom end,
stems, and seeds. It is not necessary to remove skin. Run
through food chopper, using medium blade. Measure. Add 1 cup
of water to 4 cups loquat. Cook until tender, adding more water
if needed. When tender add 1 to 2 cups of sugar, cook 5 minutes
longer. Pour in hot jars and seal. Process immediately 5 min-
utes at boiling.
Loquats canned without pitting develop a "bitter almond" or
pit flavor, very pleasing to some and disliked by others.

MANGOS
If fruits of the seedling type are used for canning they will
have to be selected before they show color, otherwise the stringy
fiber will be objectionable. If these are used, peel, slice in con-
venient pieces, immerse in medium syrup for 1 to 2 minutes or
until pliable, pack in jars, boil syrup until heavy, and strain over
fruit. Process immediately 16 to 20 minutes at boiling. If the
finer, budded varieties are used, select at the stage of best flavor
and handle as you would freestone peaches.
Mangos, unlike other fruit, are delicious if used at any stage
of growth. There are endless ways of preparation-jelly, but-
ters, preserves, sweet pickles and relishes. The mango forms the
basis of most chutneys of the East India type.
Because the supply of the delicious budded varieties of man-
gos is limited, they usually command a high price and are mainly
used fresh as an incomparable dessert fruit or in combination
with citrus fruits, pineapple or papaya. They are used also in
fruit cups, salads, and frozen desserts.
The flavor of the seedling mangos when green or half ripe
is generally liked and may be used for making pies and a sauce
that is highly acid and of the most intriguing flavor. Mango
slices or the sauce should be more generally canned to serve with
meat, as a dessert, as shortcake filling or ice cream, sherbet, and
mousse.





Florida Cooperative Extension


MAYHAW
Juice, jelly and a sauce or butter are made from the fruit of
the mayhaw. They should be gathered at the first indication of
color and used promptly. It is recommended that the fruit be
cooked in an abundance of water and the pomace or pulp left
from this drip be put through the fruit press to remove seed and
be made into a sauce or butter. Use 1/2 cup sugar to each cup
pulp and cook rapidly, stirring carefully until the consistency de-
sired is reached. Pour into hot sterile jars and seal at once. (See
"The Jelly Tree" for further information.)

PAPAYA
The papaya may be canned very much as peaches are canned,
but due to lack of acidity in most papayas the flavor is improved
by the addition of lemon juice or by canning with equal parts of
grapefruit segments. The bright color and firm texture of the
papaya make it a desirable addition to some types of mixed fruit
salads.
Papaya lends itself to the making of sauce, butter, salad com-
binations, preserves, and spiced pickles-the latter product being
exceptionally delightful. Papaya may be canned for pie-filling as
the fruit makes pie deluxe. It may be used in either the green
stage, when the skin is still tender and green in color (do not
peel) and the seeds are yet white (do not remove) for sweet
pickles or it may be used full ripe. Use the same formula for pa-
paya pickles as for peach pickles. The syrup from ripe papaya
preserves is a rich golden color and of a delicate, interesting
flavor. Papaya juice is being manufactured in large quantities
at present, its popularity due mainly to its exploitation as a
health drink and to the addition of other fruit juices of a
sprightly nature, such as grapefruit and pineapple and even to
strongly flavored products like ginger.
Papayas are on the markets of South Florida during the en-
tire year, barring unusual weather conditions such as frosts and
heavy rains. Quality and flavor vary considerably and for many
people the taste must be acquired.
In full ripe stage the papaya makes a delectable breakfast or
dessert salad, served with lemon or lime. In cocktails and salads
it combines deliciously with pineapple and citrus fruits. The
fresh papaya pulp with milk or cream makes a most delicious
frozen dessert. Sliced and seasoned in the same way as peaches,
papayas are used for pie or, with pulp put through a sieve and






Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables


milk, eggs, and spices added, for a custard pie. The papaya ranks
high as a pie fruit.
PEACHES
Before preparing fruit make a thin or medium syrup, allow-
ing 1 cup of liquid for each quart jar. If the almond flavor is de-
sired a few cracked pits may be boiled in a small amount of water
and this water used in making the syrup to give the desired
flavor. Make a No. 3 or No. 4 syrup and strain before pouring
in containers.
Sort fruit, using only firm, ripe, sound peaches for canning.
Put aside the soft, broken or extra ripe ones for jam or butter.
Immerse peaches in boiling water for about 1 minute or until
skins will slip easily. Plunge in cold water and remove as soon
as cool. Skin, cut into halves and discard seed. Peaches will pack
better if dropped in hot syrup long enough to render pliable,
about 2 minutes or longer. Do not cook until soft. Remove at
once and pack in hot jars. If little juice is desired place the
halves in overlapped layers, the concave surface of each half be-
ing downward and the blossom end facing the glass. As each
layer is built up add a tablespoon or more of the syrup, paddling
carefully to remove air bubbles. Process quarts 22 minutes
if fruit is quite firm, or 16 minutes if riper and more tender.
Clingstones require about 10 minutes longer time than freestone
peaches. If the peaches are packed cold in tin cans, cover with
hot syrup and exhaust in boiling water 5 minutes before sealing.
Then process as directed in Table 2.
The peach season is not very long, hence it behooves all peach
lovers to make the most of it while it lasts. (See "The Succulent
Peach" for further information.)
Sweet Spiced Peaches.-Put in a kettle 31/2 pounds of sugar,
1 pint vinegar, 1 pint water, 1/ ounce ginger root, 1/2 ounce whole
cloves, 1/2 ounce stick cinnamon. Bring mixture to boil. Let stand
over night to absorb spice flavor. Strain and add boiling hot to
jar or can; or preferably, pour over prepared peaches and let
stand overnight. Then strain off, boil again and add to peaches
that have been packed in the jar. Process 12 to 16 minutes.

PEARS
Peel, leave whole, cut in halves, or slice, according to size and
use to which pears will be put. Leave stems on. Pears to be packed
whole. Use apple corer from blossom end to remove core. If







Florida Cooperative Extension


PITTI NG 5POONS,
CUTTING,CORJNG 2.
A Ku
PEELING KIN IVES












6.-
Fig. 8.-Special devices such as these make canning easier, facilitate good workmanship.
They may be used in paring guavas, mangos, papayas; coring pears and tomatoes; pitting
peaches; and removing sections of grapefruit. 1, Medium sized peach pitter; 2, loop pear
coring knife; 3, peach pitter (may be used for coring tomatoes) ; 4, paring and coring knife
for pears, potatoes, etc. ; 5, peeling and coring knife especially for use with tomatoes; 6,
small knife for use with all fruits, especially good for removing sections from citrus fruits.

very small leave core in fruit. Cook from 5 to 10 minutes, ac-
cording to size, in a medium syrup until barely flexible. This
preliminary cook is necessary to make a full pack. When packing
small pears whole, place each layer stems up. Let the second
row fill the spaces between the two stems. Pack the fruit in hot
sterile jars firmly enough to give an attractive but not over-
crowded appearance. Add the hot syrup (strained) as the layers
are built up. Use a 30 to 40 percent syrup. Process quarts 16 to
20 minutes, depending on length of precook.
If pears are canned in tin plunge immediately into cold water
and cool as quickly as possible, otherwise fruit may turn pink in
color. Better quality pears can be obtained when canned in tin
than in glass because of the quicker cooling. If additional flavor,
as lemon or ginger, is desired for canned pears, add to syrup at
beginning of precook. Then add a decoration of the sliced lemon
or ginger root in packing the jar.
Canned Baked Pears.-Select medium sized pears, remove
blossom end and stem. Place in baking pan with a small amount
of water; cook covered until somewhat tender. Remove cover;
brown lightly, dressing with a light covering of mild honey or
sugar; pack into jars and process 20 to 30 minutes. Serve with






Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables


or without a caramel or lemon sauce. This is a delicious, whole-
some, and practical method of canning pears.
Compote of Pears.-Off-sized or malformed pears may be
sliced, steamed in their own juices, and canned with a small
amount of sugar for use in making pies, cobblers and other des-
serts.' The Pineapple and LeConte are much more desirable than
the Kieffer in both color and texture, have a relatively small
number of grit cells, and are more uniform in shape.
The grading is very important and should be done carefully
to obtain a uniform pack. A special guarded knife is used by
commercial canners, and the peeling is done from the stem to
the blossom end and not around the pear. The core, stem, and
blossom or calyx are removed by a loop shaped knife (see Fig.
8), or the core may be removed with a French potato ball cutter.
If pears are canned in halves, cut the pears lengthwise and re-
move all core and the bundle of fibers extending from core to
stem.
If pears are left in contact with the air for any length of
time they oxidize and turn brown very rapidly. This difficulty
can be partially avoided by placing fruit in a dilute salt brine
(3 tablespoons salt to 1 gallon water). Brine checks the action of
oxidase, the enzyme responsible for browning.
It is not desirable to can pears in water. They should be
canned in a syrup of sufficient density to develop the delicate,
aromatic flavor for which pears are valued. A medium syrup
made by boiling together 2 quarts water with 1 quart sugar will
not be too sweet for most varieties. Strain to remove impurities
or any sediment.
PECANS

The pecans must be in a perfectly fresh condition, well cured
and freshly hulled. Clean, sort, and use only the perfect, un-
broken halves. Place immediately in a pan in hot oven and when

4 Pears must be carefully gathered at the proper stage of maturity for
canning and be transported without bruising. They develop a better flavor
and are of finer grained texture if ripened after gathering. Fruit ripened
on the tree is apt to be coarse in texture and often softens badly around
the core. Gather pears when full size, somewhat yellow in color, but while
still hard. Hold from 4 to 8 days to ripen in a dark but well ventilated,
cool room. LeConte pears are an exception to this rule and if picked when
three-fourths grown and allowed to mellow in a darkened room, make the
most delicious canned product of any of the pears grown in Florida. The
fruit will not ripen evenly, and it will be necessary to sort daily during
this ripening period in order that fruit of a prime degree of maturity for
canning may be obtained.





Florida Cooperative Extension


nuts are hot through, fill into hot, dry, pint or half pint jars
which have previously been boiled to sterilize them. Seal and
process at boiling for 30 minutes or in the steam pressure cooker
at 5 pounds for 10 minutes. Store in a cool, dry place.
Note: Most of the containers in which commercial nuts are packed are
closed with a vacuum sealer and without applying heat or processing.

PERSIMMON
The persimmon is pre-eminently a fruit for consumption
while fresh. It is most commonly served when soft and full-ripe,
the pulp being spooned out and eaten as a dessert. However,
it may also be sliced and served with cream. When peeled the
large-fruited varieties make a delectable fruit salad on lettuce,
with French, cream or mayonnaise dressing. The non-astringent
varieties, of which Fuyugaki is the finest, can be eaten while
still hard and are used for dicing in fruit salads in the same man-
ner as apples are used.
The soft pulp may be made into delicious sauce or "spread"
when the abundance of fruit seems justifiable and when its
proper stage of ripeness can be accurately determined. While
persimmons darken when heated, the flavor is not impaired.
For a sauce or marmalade take sufficient fruit to make 1
quart of pulp, remove the skins. Add 1/2 cup strained orange
juice or half orange and half lemon juice, and cook the mixture
rapidly until thick. Add 2 to 3 cups of sugar and cook to the
desired consistency. Seal boiling hot in hot jars. Spice may be
added if preferred.
PLUMS
Cultivated.-Select sound, uniformly ripe plums. Prick with
fork. Let stand in hot medium syrup until cool. Pack in jars
as firmly as possible without crushing; add syrup, somewhat
concentrated, and process quarts 12 to 15 minutes.
Wild.-Select well ripened but not over-ripe fruit. Wash and
drain. Prepare medium syrup and when boiling add plums.
Cover and remove from fire. If plums have considerable acidity,
when cold-preferably the next day-drain off juice, add sugar
sufficient to make a 50 to 60 percent syrup, bring to a boil and
boil 10 minutes. Add plums and again set aside. When cold,
if plums are tender and slightly transparent and syrup some-
what heavy, pour into hot sterilized jars, seal and simmer pint
jars 5 minutes. These wild plums, with their peculiar acidity






Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables


and tang of the skin, are not only fine for canning but for juice,
jelly and butter making. (See "Plums, Wild and Otherwise" for
other utilization recipes.)

ROSELLE OR "JELLY" OKRA
Pick calyces as soon as they are full grown to get best flavor
and jellying quality, and to extend the roselle season from
November into February-providing, of course, there are no
frosts.
Roselle Sauce.-When served as sauce, use equal measures of
calyces (with seed removed) and water. Cook gently until tender
in open kettle. Sweeten lightly, bring to boil again, pack at
once into hot containers, place in water bath (at boiling) and
process quarts 8 to 12 minutes. If a smooth product is desired
rub through a fruit press before sugar is added.
Note: This annual has been tested sufficiently to indicate its value and
to warrant more extended cultivation in the warmer sections of Florida.
The plant is a vigorous grower and bears abundantly. The stems are
reddish in color and branch profusely. The blossoms fade within 1 day
and the calyces, which are the edible portion, are ready for picking about
3 weeks after the bloom appears. These are open pods, much smaller than
ordinary okra, bright red in color, and contain a very pleasing and refresh-
ing acid. Roselle practically takes the place of cranberry, and a few
bushes of this ornamental and useful plant should be found growing in
every garden in South Florida for making "ade", sauces, and jams.

STANDARDS AND NOMENCLATURE DESIGNED FOR
CANNED FRUITS

Commercially canned fruits and fruit products in great vari-
ety and of varying quality are found in all up-to-date stores.
They are commonly sold under 4 grades: fancy, choice, stand-
ard, and off-grade or sub-standard. Unfortunately these grades
are not always indicated on the label, nor is the price, in many
cases, indicative of the quality.
The Bureau of Agricultural Economics of the United States
Department of Agriculture has set up definite grades designated
for fruits as: A, Fancy; B, Extra Standard or Choice; C, Stand-
ard and Sub-standard. While these very simple and definite
terms (A, B, C) relative to quality are not used by all commer-
cial canners, it is believed some type of informative labeling
will eventually come into universal use. With knowledge and
use of informative and descriptive labels, the housewife will
know exactly what is in the can before it is opened. Home can-
ners themselves will do well to observe all the special precautions





Florida Cooperative Extension


and use the same degree of syrup density as commercial can-
ners to conserve as nearly as possible the high degree of color,
flavor, and vitamins characteristic of the raw fruit.

SPECIAL DIRECTIONS FOR CANNING VEGETABLES
While the water bath canning method has been widely used
in canning non-acid vegetables in past years, we are recom-
mending at this time that only the steam pressure canner be
used. The steam pressure canner not only saves time but also
eliminates all spoilage difficulties when directions are carefully
followed. Since most vegetables have only a small amount of
acid as compared with fruits, this low degree of acidity permits
the growth of certain bacteria which are very difficult to kill by
heating at 2120 F. Hence, a temperature above boiling (2120 F.)
is necessary for all non-acid vegetables. This requires the use of
the steam pressure cooker which has an accurate pressure gauge.
Only fresh, tender, young vegetables should be canned. They
should be perfectly sound, carefully and thoroughly washed and
quickly prepared. NEVER CAN VEGETABLES THAT HAVE
STOOD OVER NIGHT.
To obtain the highest possible flavor and food value, vege-
tables-beans, peas, corn, carrots, and all greens-should be
canned if possible within 2 hours after gathering unless held
in a very cold place. Loss of fresh flavor and the growth of
many heat-resistant bacteria characterize products held in a
warm kitchen (or a warm grocery store), resulting in a loss of
valuable food constituents and making sterilization more diffi-
cult. (Organisms called enzymes in the product cause a chemi-
cal change in a warm atmosphere.)
Precook for Green Vegetables.-Until recently canning direc-
tions have advised precooking green vegetables, in fact all
vegetables, at boiling temperature. Now it is recommended that
any green vegetable-beans, English peas, turnip greens, spin-
ach-be precooked at a low temperature. That is, a tempera-
ture just below simmering (about 1700 F.) should be used in
order to better hold the natural green color and the fresh flavor
that is so desirable in the finished product. This lower cook
takes a longer time and extra care to get the vegetable in the
container as hot as needed.
Maintaining the natural green color and fresh flavor in canned
vegetables formerly was a serious problem. Green is so elusive,






Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables


and the heat of canning often has faded or changed it to a
dull green. Worse still, with the loss of color has gone some loss
of flavor and fresh texture.
It has been known that chlorophyl, the green substance in
plants, is sensitive to acid applied during heating. Most vege-
tables contain acid which the heat of cooking drives out and
which affects the chlorophyl unless it can pass off in the steam.
If cooked in a closed kettle or sealed can the acid remains and
attacks the green color. Hence, this newer rule. For the sake of
color and freshness generally, precook at a temperature of about
1700 F., or below simmering. In this lower cook the color seems
to "set" or hold; it will not fade or change later, even when it
is exposed to the high heat of processing.
The precook is important and accomplishes three things: It
drives the air out of the vegetables; it wilts or shrinks the pro-
duct so that it packs well; and it gives a high temperature at
the start of the processing which is necessary for a good vacuum
in the container.
Precautions in Filling, Exhausting and Sealing Vegetables.-
Stand jars or cans in very hot water in a pan while filling, to
keep the contents hot. When separate rubber rings are used,
place them on the jar before filling.
Stand the filled jars or cans without lids on rack in cooker
with boiling water in bottom of cooker and the cooker lid on but
not sealed, while filling other jars. Pack vegetables hot, adding
hot liquid as needed. Work fast.
When containers have been filled and are ready to be pro-
cessed lift from cooker and add more boiling liquid if needed to
fill jars to 1/2 inch of the tops. When using pints fill to 1/ inch.
Exhausting Air from Filled Jars.-Wipe the top of each jar
with a clean, moist cloth to remove all food particles before ap-
plying the lid, fasten the lids on loosely (with lids having clamps,
leave clamps off), and put jars back in pressure cooker. Have
enough hot water in bottom of cooker for steam throughout the
processing period, put on the cooker lid, leave the cooker unsealed
and place the cooker over the heat.
Allow the jars to remain in the live steam for 10 minutes for
beets, carrots, celery, peas, string beans, or okra, and for 15
minutes for corn or greens.
It is also advisable to exhaust tin cans unless filled boiling
hot and sealed immediately.






Florida Cooperative Extension


Seal jars after exhausting them and seal the cooker. Leave
petcock open and exhaust cooker 10 minutes. Close petcock
and follow time and pressure prescribed for the vegetable. See
Table 2.
DO NOT IN ANY WAY DISTURB THE SEAL OF A JAR
AFTER PROCESSING UNTIL COMPLETELY COOL. Then
test seal, wash, label and date. Store in a cool, dark place.
Spoilage and Storage.-When preparing canned vegetables
for the table they should be examined very carefully. Any indica-
tion of spoilage, foreign odor or taste, or any unusual appearance
should be sufficient grounds for discarding that package. With
ordinary care in selection, preparation, and the use of steam
pressure in canning vegetables, the Florida housewife need have
little fear of feeding her family unwholesome foods.
Seasoning for Canned Vegetables.-For most vegetables 1
teaspoon of salt is used for each quart. In case of tomatoes,
peas, field peas, field peas and butter beans, corn, carrots, and
beets, a salt and sugar mixture tends to improve flavor. This
is made in proportion of 1 cup of salt and 2 cups of sugar. Use
2 level teaspoons of this mixture for a quart and 1 teaspoon for
each pint.
BEANS
Butter Beans.-Use only freshly picked, young, tender beans.
(Legumes such as snap beans, butter beans, and peas lose vita-
min C rapidly unless held under -refrigeration.) Wash pods before
shelling. Wash the shelled beans. Precook 4 to 8 minutes.
Pack boiling hot into containers and cover with water in which
beans were cooked. When the jar is packed half full, add season-
ing. Exhaust, seal and process.
Snap Beans.-Only very small, tender, freshly picked beans
should be used for canning. These are the most desirable, are
richest in vitamins, and grade highest-Grade A, or Fancy.
They are canned whole with ends of pod snipped. Wash thor-
oughly, snip or, if preferred, cut into desired lengths.
Place in kettle, cover with boiling water and simmer uncov-
ered about 4 minutes or until the beans will bend without break-
ing. The larger, less succulent grades will take 5 to 10 minutes
precook. Pack hot into the containers, cover with liquid in which
cooked; add 1 teaspoon salt to each quart and completely seal.
Process immediately as directed in Table 3.






Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables


If mature beans or so-called "shell beans" (those which have
grown starchy) are used, the time for processing should be in-
creased 10 minutes.
BEETS
Only young, tender beets should be canned. Sort, leave 1
inch stem on each root to prevent bleeding. Wash thoroughly,
using a scrubbing brush if necessary. Boil with skins on 15 to
20 minutes or until skin will readily slip off; or cook 5 minutes
at 5 pounds pressure, allowing pressure to run down before open-
ing petcock. Skin, trim, and pack (as tightly as possible with-
out crushing) into glass jars or enamel lined cans. Fill with
clear boiling water, season, exhaust, completely seal and pro-
cess immediately.
BROCCOLI
Select only very young broccoli with tight, unopened flower
buds and can immediately after gathering. Soak 1/2 hour in salt
water to remove any insects. Wash thoroughly. Tie in small
bundles and steam or slightly wilt for 1 to 3 minutes in water
below boiling in uncovered container. Be very particular not to
over-soften.
Remove broccoli, pack, cover with the boiling water, add salt,
exhaust, seal and process at once.

CARROTS AND OTHER ROOT CROPS
Only very young, tender carrots, turnips, or parsnips should
be canned. Steam or boil until 14 cooked, or cook under pres-
sure to 5 pounds and open cooker when gauge registers 0. Cut
into halves or slice as preferred. Pack. Cover with boiling
water. Add salt and sugar mixture, exhaust, seal and process
immediately.
CELERY
Often at the growing centers celery may be purchased very
cheaply. It is easy to can and is delightful to use in meat soups,
cream of celery soup and au gratin dishes.
Prepare celery carefully by brushing well and scraping to
remove any soil, blemishes or defects. Cut into 1/2 or 1 inch
lengths. Cover with water and cook 5 to 10 minutes or until
wilted. Pack boiling hot into jars or cans, cover with liquid in
which celery was precooked. Add 1 teaspoon salt to each quart.
Exhaust, seal and process immediately.
In many high grade commercial packs of celery the hearts
are merely cut in halves or quarters, container length.






Florida Cooperative Extension


CHAYOTE AND SUMMER SQUASH
Select only young, tender fresh vegetables. Wash and cut
into halves if needed or cut into cubes for convenient packing.
Steam 5 to 10 minutes. Pack into jars, add salt, cover with
boiling water, completely seal and process immediately.

CORN
Only freshly gathered, young tender corn should be canned.
It is best for canning when taken in the LAST DAYS OF THE
MILK STAGE. When corn has passed the milky stage or is
stale it is very hard to sterilize successfully. Sweet corn deteri-
orates with amazing rapidity; hence, it should NEVER be allowed
to wait after being gathered. Shuck, silk, and clean carefully.
A stiff bristle brush will help here. Cut corn from cob without
precooking, but do not cut too deep. Scrape from cobs with back
of knife. Put in kettle and for every pint of corn add 1 cup boil-
ing water and 1 teaspoon of the salt and sugar seasoning. Stir
and allow to boil 10 to 12 minutes. Add more water if needed.
Pack boiling hot into containers. The pack should be LOOSE
AND MOIST. Seal tin cans and process. (Do not use quart con-
tainers for corn.) Exhaust glass jars 15 to 20 minutes in water
bath or cooker before sealing completely.
Whole Grain Style.-Corn for the whole grain pack should
be gathered two or three days earlier than for cream style corn.
Cut from the cob only deep enough to remove most of the kernels
without objectionable hulls. Do not scrape cob. The whole
grain corn is considered to retain appearance and flavor of fresh
corn more nearly than cream style. Whole grain corn has less
tendency to discolor when packed in plain tin cans than does
cream style corn, though the C-enamel cans give better results
for both kinds.
Add seasoning and enough boiling water to cover the corn
and bring to a boil. Boil 3 minutes. Fill boiling hot in jars and
heat in boiling water 15 to 20 minutes. Exhaust, seal and pro-
cess in pressure cooker as in Table 3. Tin cans are filled boiling
hot, sealed at once and processed. Cool cans in cold water after
sterilizing.
EGGPLANT
Can only fresh gathered, young fruit. Wash, peel and cut
into cubes and hold in salt brine (1 tablespoon salt to 1 quart
water). Drain and steam or cook in a small quantity of water






Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables


for about 4 minutes or until boiling hot. Pack hot, add salt.
Exhaust, seal, and process 45 minutes at 10 pounds pressure.

GREENS

All greens, if canned when very young, tender and freshly
gathered, are a valuable addition to the diet. Many plants are
used for greens, such as turnip tops, beet tops, mustard, spinach,
chard, and kale. In canning they are all treated practically in
the same manner. Can as soon as possible after they are picked.
Be sure that they are free of insects, blight, wilt and tough
stems. Wash thoroughly in a number of waters, lifting the
greens out each time. Precook in an uncovered vessel until com-
pletely wilted, adding as little water as possible and never
allowing water to heat above simmering. Pack loosely while
scalding hot into cans or jars. Add pot liquor to completely
cover, adding boiling water when necessary. Add 1 teaspoon
salt. Exhaust, seal and process immediately.

HOMINY
Use a fancy grade of hard, white corn. To make 1 gallon of
hominy, use 1 teaspoon of concentrated lye, 6 cups of water and
6 cups of shelled white corn.
Use an iron or enamel kettle; never use an aluminum one.
Place the soaked corn in the lye solution and boil for 20 to 25
minutes, just long enough to loosen hulls. Remove, rinse thor-
oughly in fresh water; rub to loosen hulls and the dark portion
of the kernel near the germ. Let stand in fresh water 2 or 3
hours, CHANGING WATER OFTEN TO BE SURE ALL LYE
IS REMOVED. Drain. The black coat covering the germ of the
corn should be removed by this time. Cover corn with water.
bring to a boil. Pack into cans hot, to within 1 inch of top. Fill
can with boiling water to 1/ inch of top. Add 1/ teaspoon of
salt to No. 2 cans. Exhaust, seal and process. Remove cans and
cool quickly in cold water, shaking cans at intervals.

OKRA
Select young, tender pods, 11/2 to 2 inches long. Remove
stems without cutting into seedpod and leave whole. Steam or
precook 3 to 5 minutes. Add salt. Pack hot, covering with hot
liquid in which okra was cooked. Exhaust, seal and process im-
mediately.






Florida Cooperative Extension


OKRA AND TOMATOES
Use only very young, small pods and sound, firm, ripe toma-
toes. Wash okra and trim without cutting into seedpod. Com-
bine okra and tomatoes and heat to boiling. Pack boiling hot,
add seasoning and seal completely. Process.

PEAS
Blackeyed Peas.-Blackeyed peas may be canned with pork,
the most popular way, or may be made "vegetarian" by omitting
the pork. Pork adds much to the flavor and palatability of the
finished product. (The pork generally used is salt pork sides.
Cured bacon, however, adds a very pleasing zest, but is con-
siderably more expensive than salt pork.)
The pork should be cut in cubes or slices. The amount used
per can helps to determine type and quality of product. The
pork for a No. 2 tin should weigh 0.6 ounce, No. 3, 1.0 ounce.
It should be in one piece and should show strips of lean meat
and clear, firm fat. When a tin is opened it should show very
few broken or mushy peas. The peas should be neither tough
nor soft and, while approximately firm, should crush easily
between the fingers. They should be full and firm and have
the pleasing, nut-like flavor characteristic of this type of legume.
(See also directions for English peas and butter beans.)
English Peas.-Gather the peas when cool, or early in the
morning. Select fresh young peas and do not allow to stand
long after gathering or shelling. Peas and beans, when piled
up and allowed to stand for even a few hours during warm
weather, may "heat" and develop flat sour.5 Avoid this by using
refrigeration or by spreading out and keeping as cool as possible.
Wash pods well and shell only enough to fill containers to be
processed at one time. Grade as to maturity and size. Bring
to boil with water to cover and simmer 1 to 5 minutes. Pack
boiling hot into hot cans or jars. Add 1 teaspoon sugar and salt
seasoning to each pint. A gluey or cloudy liquid may be the

5 Flat sour is a term applied to a type of spoilage of non-acid vegetables
causing the product to become soft and mushy and have a sour taste and
odor. It may occur between the time the product was gathered and the
time it is served. Gas bubbles are not present as in a fermented product.
The bacteria causing this form of spoilage grow best at temperatures of
about 105 to 1500 F. and develop rapidly after the vegetables are picked.
Spoilage in flat sour can be practically eliminated by packing hot food
into containers as soon as possible after harvesting, processing the jars at
once, cooling immediately and thoroughly after processing and storing in
a cool place. Corn, peas and green beans are subject to flat sour spoilage.






Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables


result of over-cooking, often too full a pack, or too much min-
eral matter in the water. Water of high mineral content has a
tendency to increase cloudiness and may harden the peas. (Boil-
ing, then cooling and straining off carefully will often soften
hard water sufficiently. Or, let the water stand after boiling
until the fine precipitate settles and then pour off the clear
water to use in canning.) Peas which are too mature or which
are given too long a precook may burst, allowing the starch to
escape into the surrounding liquid. A cloudy appearance of the
liquid of peas might also indicate that spoilage had occurred.
Many of the commonly canned garden vegetables are nat-
urally excellent sources of vitamins A and C-the vitamins
which are most subject to destruction by oxidization. It has been
found that much of this vitamin content is rapidly lost if the
vegetables stand in a warm place after coming in from the
garden. The less the vegetable is exposed to the air, the better
for vitamin saving, hence beans and peas should not be shelled
until just before canning operations, since it has been shown
that shelled peas and beans lose ascorbic acid (vitamins) much
more rapidly than unshelled ones. When freshly gathered and
just mature enough, sweet corn, peas, snap and butter beans
contain a great deal of sugar as well as vitamins. Likewise,
if these vegetables are held in a warm place after they are picked
the sugar rapidly changes to starch. Canning and freezing in-
dustries and commercial shippers of fresh vegetables now make
every effort to cool vegetables right after harvesting. Some-
times the vegetables are plunged in ice water to take out the
"field heat" and are kept in a cold room. Sometimes they are
packed in ice before shipping. The housewife may well take a
tip from these industries and use her refrigerator to slow up
enzyme action and spoilage as well as to save vitamins, flavor
and crisp texture.
PIMIENTOS
The best sweet peppers for canning are the Spanish varieties
known as pimientos. These peppers have a very thick flesh and
tough skins and are comparatively smooth and free from ridges.
(The bell peppers are not suitable for canning.) Pimientos
should be ripe, sound and free from bruises. Sort, using whole
peppers for canning and the small or broken ones for sauces,
soups, chutneys and Dixie relish. Prepare peppers for peeling
by placing them in a hot oven for 6 or 8 minutes to blister and
crack the skin; if the oven is not hot enough it will cook the





Florida Cooperative Extension


flesh of the pepper before the skin is blistered. Dip quickly in
cold water to cool. Peel, cut out stem, remove seed cores, fold
and pack in flattened layers in cans or jars. No liquid is used
in the preparation of these peppers; the processing brings
out a thick liquor which almost covers them in the can or jar.
Add 1/ teaspoon salt to each pint.

PUMPKIN OR WINTER SQUASH
Wash the pumpkin, cut in halves or convenient slices, remove
seed and steam until tender (if in pressure cooker, 10 minutes
at 10 pounds pressure). Remove pulp from shell, run through
dilver or fruit press. Spices may be added to the pumpkin if
intended for pie filling. Some think flavoring is better if added
at time of canning rather than at time of using.
The proportion of ground spices generally used for each quart
of steam, strained pumpkin is: 2 cup brown sugar, 2 teaspoons
cinnamon, 1 teaspoon salt, and 1 teaspoon ginger. Stir pulp until
of a smooth, even consistency and pack into cans or jars while
steaming hot. Exhaust 15 minutes. Completely seal and pro-
cess immediately in the pressure cooker as directed in Table 3.

SAUERKRAUT
Cabbage is converted into sauerkraut by a lactic acid fermen-
tation which takes place in the brine made from the juice of
the cabbage drawn out by the salt. Kraut making affords a
convenient means of conserving surplus cabbage during periods
of temporary overproduction. Sauerkraut, as well as the juice,
is a most valuable and healthful food and should be more com-
monly used in Florida homes. It is delicious served with hot
meats and fowl. It is especially good with spareribs, roast pork,
duck and chicken. It may be served cold as a relish or as a salad.
Method.-Select only fresh, sound heads of mature cabbage.
(It is a great mistake to wait until the cabbage is over-mature
and sunburned in the field before using it for kraut making.)
One pound of salt is used with 40 pounds of cabbage; 2 ounces
(31/2 tablespoons) with 5 pounds cabbage; 2 level teaspoons with
1 pound cabbage. A 2-gallon crock holds 10 pounds or more;
1 pound fills a pint jar.
Remove outside green and dirty leaves. Quarter the head
and cut out the core. (In many commercial factories core is
not removed.) Weigh cabbage. For shredding, use a kraut
cutting machine which shreds finely and rapidly. (Cost of cut-






Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables


ting machine is about $1.75 to $2.50, or a 50-cent slaw cutter
may be found very efficient.) Mix salt and cabbage in large
pan thoroughly for even distribution and until juice flows freely.
(For further information write for Circular 62, Making and
Using Sauerkraut.)
TOMATOES
Plain Canned.-Select fresh, firm, uniformly red-ripe toma-
toes. They should be sorted carefully and be absolutely free from
spots or decay. Wash thoroughly to remove all soil. Scald in
boiling water in wire basket or square of cheesecloth about 1/
minute, or long enough to cause skins to slip readily. Chill in
cold water. Over-scalding will make the tomatoes soft and
under-scalding will cause waste of time and fruit in removing
their skins. Valuable nutrients lie immediately under the skin
and must not be removed. DO NOT ATTEMPT TO HANDLE
TOO MANY AT ONE TIME, AS THE WHOLE PROCESS
MUST BE CARRIED THROUGH QUICKLY. Avoid delay at
any stage of the canning process.
Drain, core and peel promptly. Cut out core with a short-
bladed, sharp-pointed knife or a tomato corer. Slip off skins.
Often there is a small, black spot at the bottom end which should
be removed. Pack at once, as fruit is prepared, firmly and
solidly into the hot jar or tin with back of wooden spoon or hand
until enough juice is released to cover the solids and to fill all
spaces between pieces. Cutting into suitable sizes facilitates a
rapid fill. Add 2 teaspoons of sugar and salt mixture (2 parts
sugar and 1 part salt) for each quart. If tomatoes are canned
in tins, the tins filled to 1/4 inch of top must be heated in boiling
water or live steam until contents are hot before sealing.
Glass jars may also be packed to within 1/4 inch of top.
Sterilize as directed in Table 2. Do not add any water as it is
a violation of the Pure Food Law to add water or even the juice
from other tomatoes. The only liquid allowed is the juice which
is pressed out of the tomatoes during their preparation.
Tomato Juice.-High grade, choice, ripe tomatoes only should
be used for juice. They should be red-ripe, well developed, firm,
and smooth, as well as high in acidity. Green tomatoes, or over-
ripe, moldy or decayed fruit, will impair the flavor and must
be avoided.
Wash carefully and drain. Cut out all cores. Place in kettle,
crushing a few to secure enough free juice to start the cooking.
Cook the tomatoes lightly in a covered container to release the






Florida Cooperative Extension


color from the skins and give a larger yield of juice. Avoid
boiling. This cooking also liberates the vegetable gums and
the pectin around the seeds and fleshy tissue, drives out air, ren-
ders enzymes inactive and permits a better separation of pulp
from skins. Allow to cool somewhat WITHOUT STIRRING
before pulping. Extract the pulp by passing through first a
coarse and then a fine sieve. The first sieve will remove skin,
seeds and coarse fiber; the second should be very fine to disinte-
grate the pulp as finely as possible so that it will stay in suspen-
sion for a long period. It is difficult, with equipment found in
the home, to sieve tomato juice fine enough for the particles of
red to stay in suspension like the commercially prepared juice.
Even if the clear juice, in storage, goes to the top and the pulp
settles to the bottom, it may be shaken together before serving.
Reheat the juice at once after putting through the sieve. If
using glass container, heat the juice to 1900 F. (if no ther-
mometer is available, heat just to boiling), pour into the hot,
sterilized containers and seal. If work is carried on quickly, no
further heating is necessary. Otherwise, process in boiling water
5 minutes. If tins are used, heat juice to 1800 to 1900 F., pour
into cans, seal and process 10 minutes at simmering. A thermo-
meter, such as dairy or candy thermometer, would aid in hold-
ing the right temperature for the water bath. Do not leave
headspace in either glass or tin containers. Cool tins in running
water. Store in cool, dark place. It is especially important to
keep tomato juice in glass protected from light to preserve color,
flavor and vitamin content.
The lower the temperature used, the better the flavor. Juice
can be sterilized at a much lower temperature and in a shorter
time than is used for canned tomatoes because it has no solid
pieces to prevent rapid heat penetration and may be sterilized
at 1750 to 1800 F., as against the boiling temperature (2120 F.)
needed in canning whole tomatoes.
Tomatoes for War.-Canned tomatoes were served prominent-
ly as both food and drink for our soldiers in France during World
War I. In World War II canned tomatoes again figure promi-
nently in the food requirements of our Allies for lend-lease ship-
ments abroad. As a source of a pure drink and vitamin C, as
a food easily prepared and blendable with other foods, canned
tomatoes are invaluable in bombed areas, in the trenches, and on
shipboard. Once considered poisonous, the tomato is now the
most valued commercial truck crop produced in the United States.





Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables


IS IT NOT EQUALLY IMPORTANT THAT THE HOME
CANNER INCREASE HER SUPPLY OF FRESH, SUN-
RIPENED TOMATOES AND THAT THEY BE USED
FREELY, FRESH AND CANNED?
Tomato Puree and Hot Sauce.-Tomato puree or sauce is very
convenient for flavoring many dishes, such as stews, soups and
macaroni. Cook until soft. Run through fruit press or dilver.
Concentrate the puree by boiling to at least :1/ its original volume.
Season. Pack boiling hot into jars or cans, exhaust, seal and
process. If a hot sauce is desired add chopped onions and hot
peppers to tomatoes before cooking and straining.

VEGETABLES FOR SOUP
Any desired mixture of vegetables may be canned for home
use. The 4-H product consists of 1 quart concentrated tomato
pulp, 1 pint young, tender corn or tiny butter beans, and 1 pint
okra, with 4 teaspoons salt and sugar seasoning, 1 small onion,
chopped, and 1/2 cup chopped sweet red pepper. Cook the to-
matoes, pepper and onions and put through dilver or fruit press
to remove seed (this is optional), then cook to the consistency
of ketchup. Measure, add the corn or beans and okra, which
have been prepared as for canning, add seasoning, and cook all
together for 10 minutes. Pack boiling hot into hot jars or cans,
exhaust, seal, and process immediately.
If all the vegetables recommended are not available, others
may be substituted. Celery makes a valuable addition to the
mixture.


STANDARDS AND GRADES FOR CANNED VEGETABLES

Grades for the more commonly canned vegetables have been
developed by the United States Bureau of Agricultural Econo-
mics in cooperation with the canning trade. New grades are
tried out for a number of years and then adopted with modifi-
cations, if advisable, as official grades.
Common vegetable grades are Extra Fancy, Fancy, Extra
Standard and Standard. After the United States standard for
vegetables is accepted and printed on the labels, the contents
are considered misbranded if not up to the standard specified.
Detailed information as to these grades may be secured from
the United States Department of Agriculture and will be of





Florida Cooperative Extension


great value to the home canner who is interested in putting up
superior products as well as to the homemaker concerned with
buying canned goods intelligently.
Before placing canned goods upon the market it is advisable
first to establish a high grade of home canner's products and
to maintain a uniform quality. If uniformity is obtained, both
the process of growing the product and the packing (canning)
must be carefully controlled. The product must be brought to
certain definite and predetermined standards for splendid quality
and pleasing appearance. It is well, therefore, to know what
standards and prices have been set by the commercial canning
trade with whom the home canner competes.'

QUALITY STANDARDS FOR FANCY CANNED
VEGETABLES
Lima beans are classified as tiny, fancy, medium, standard
and mammoth. The smallest sizes are most tender, sweetest,
green in color and most desirable. These may be termed Grade
A or Fancy.
Snap beans should be of a deep green color, crisp, tender,
fleshy and free from fiber and strings; they are substantially
whole when of the highest grade.
Ladyfinger peas should be tender and sweet, with young
snaps free of fiber or string if used. Pork should be in one
piece, show strips of lean meat and clear, firm fat.
Beets for canning must be of small size, of uniform deep red
color, tender and of good flavor.
Sauerkraut must be of normal acid flavor, uniform cut, of
light straw or golden color and crisp.
Sweet corn varieties are most suitable for canning. The ker-
nels should be sweet and tender, of good flavor and cooking
quality. Most commercial canned corn is packed in No. 2 cans.

6 The following table will assist in determining the price to place upon
home canned products, after figuring the production cost:
Cost per quart of fruit (total cost divided by total qts.)....... $.... $ ..... ....
Cost per quart of vegetables (total cost divided by total qts.) ........
Profit per hour (net profit divided by total hours)............... ................
Labor returns per hour (add 10 cents to above) ........................






Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables 51

Fancy canned sweet corn is produced from young, tender corn of
superior flavor and of such degree of maturity that the kernels
are milky or creamy.
Canned tomatoes are prepared from sound, ripe, fresh toma-
toes. Fancy tomatoes are canned whole, are of uniform red
color, free from pieces of skin or core. Tomatoes are canned
usually with a level teaspoon of sugar and salt mixture added
to improve the flavor.
Standard pack tomatoes consist of small ones, those of im-
perfect color, not soft ones and those trimmed reasonably free
from under-colored or green parts and from pieces of skin and
core.
Addition of water in tomatoes is never necessary or desirable
and constitutes an adulteration under the law.



TABLE 1.-APPROXIMATE YIELDS OF CANNED PRODUCTS FROM GIVEN
QUANTITIES OF FRESH FRUITS AND VEGETABLES.

Amount of No. of lbs. No. 2 cans No. 3 cans
Name of fresh product per bu. of or pint jars or qt. jars
Product needed to can fresh canned from canned from
1 quart products 1 bushel 1 bushel

Beans (snap) ............ 2 lbs. 28-30 25-30 14-20
Beans (lima in hull)... 3-4 lbs. 28 14-18 8-10
Beets............................. 21/2-3 lbs. 50 30-34 17-20
Berries
(not strawberries) 1% lbs. 48-64 50 30
Carrots................... .. 21/2 lbs. 50 30-34 17-20
Corn............................... 10-12 ears 16
Greens........................... 2-3 lbs. 12-30 10-13
Peas (in hull)............. 4 lbs. 30 12-16 7-10
Peaches........................ 2-3 lbs. 50 28-32 16-24
Pears.........----................... 2-3 lbs. 50 38-45 20-25
Pumpkin or squash..... 4 lbs. in shell 40 20
Tomatoes...................... 3 lbs. 50-60 22-26 14-18
Tomato puree
concentrated for
soup mixture............ 7-10 lbs. 50-60 9-12











TABLE 2.-CONDENSED DIRECTIONS FOR CANNING FRUITS AND TOMATOES.


Fruit



Berries,
All Varieties
Cherries,
Surinam
Figs

Fruit for Salad


Grapefruit


Grapes,
Muscadine

Guavas

Loquats

Mangos


Preparation Before Processing


Pick over, wash, hull or stem, drain. Pack in contain-
ers, fill with hot thin or medium syrup or hot berry
juice. For strawberries see special directions, page 24.
Use fine, ripe fruit. Pre-cook 1 to 2 minutes. Pack hot
in light or medium syrup.
Sort, wash, firm ripe figs. Pre-cook 2 to 6 minutes.
Pack hot in medium or heavy syrup.
Use fruit perfect in form and fruit color. Trim care-
fully. Cook each separately in light syrup.
Use only thoroughly ripened fruit. Peel, separate hearts
from all rag or membrane. Add 1 teaspoonful heavy
syrup or teaspoonful salt. Process at 1800 F. (be-
low boiling)
Select firm, ripe grapes. Prepare by removing pulps
or keep whole. See special directions, page 28.
Pare, pack whole or cut and remove seed. Pre-cook 2
to 5 minutes. Use thin or medium syrup; or put
through dilver, cook thick and pack hot as sauce.
Remove stem, blossom end and seed, unless almond
flavor is desired. Use light or medium syrup.
Peel, slice, pre-cook in syrup. Pack hot in heavy syrup.


Processing Period
Minutes to Process In Water
Bath at 2120 F.


Qt. Jars
Minutes

12-20


16

120


30
At or just
below
simmering
From 10 mins.
to 2 hours

16-20


20
16-20


No. 2-3 Tins
Minutes

7-15


11

115



25
At simmering

From 10 mins.
to 2 hours

11-15


Type of Can
Recommended

R-Enamel.
Glass for
Blueberries

R-Enamel

Plain

Plain

Plain



R-Enamel

Plain


15 Plain
11-15 Plain


Drop tins immediately in cold water when removed from water bath. Glass pints require the minimum cook listed above.







TABLE 2.-CONDENSED DIRECTIONS FOR CANNING FRUITS AND TOMATOES-(Concluded).


Fruit


Preparation Before Processing


Papaya See special directions.
Peaches Use firm, ripe peaches. Scald, cold dip, peel, pit. Pre-
cook. Pack in thin or medium syrup.
Pears Pare, leave whole or cut as preferred. Boil in syrup or
bake as for serving. Add medium syrup. Pack hot.
Use fresh pecans. Hull, sort. Keep unbroken halves
Pecans for fancy pack. Heat containers and nuts in oven.
Pack hot in dry jars. Seal hot.


Pineapples


Plums

Roselle

Tomatoes

Jelly Juices



Fruit Juices
and Syrups


Wash well, slice, peel and core. Pre-cook. Pack in
medium syrup.
Select firm, ripe but not over-ripe, fruit. Prick. Let
stand in hot syrup until cool. Pack hot in medium
syrup.
Use roselle just at maturity. Add equal measure of water
to prepared calyces. Cook until tender. Pack hot.
Scald, cold dip, peel and core. Pack whole or cut in
pieces. Pack solid in jars. Add salt and sugar mixture.
Boil fruit until soft, press, strain juice. Can hot. Add no
sugar. (Tins not recommended for fruit juices.)


Peel, crush or press fruit. Heat slowly covered, to
simmering point. Strain. Add 1 cup sugar to one
gallon juice. Can hot. Seal. Process below boiling.


Processing Period
Minutes to Process in Water
Bath at 2120 F.
Qt. Jars No. 2-3 Tins
Minutes | Minutes


16-20

16-20
Pints
30


10-15

12-15


11-15

11-15




5-10

7-10


8-12 3-7

25 20-25
15 at Simmer-
ing at 180 F.
Pasteurize at 1650 F. Process
at 180 F. for 30 min., or bring
to boiling, cut off heat and
leave in bath 10 minutes. Cool
as quickly as possible, first in
warm, then in cold water.


Type of Can
Recommended



Plain

Plain




Plain

Plain


R-Enamel

Plain


Drop tins immediately in cold water when removed from water bath. Glass pints require the minimum cook listed above.









TABLE 3.-CONDENSED DIRECTIONS FOR CANNING NON-ACID VEGETABLES.


Vegetables



Beans, butter


Beans, snap


Beets

Carrots and
other roots


Celery


Corn:
Cream style


Whole grain


Eggplant


Lye hominy


Preparation Before Processing


Use only young, tender, freshly harvested beans.
Wash, shell. Pre-cook. Add salt and sugar mix-
ture. Fill, exhaust, seal, process.
Wash, string, cut; pre-cook in water below boiling
to cover. Add salt. Use liquid beans are cooked
in to fill jar. Exhaust, seal, process.
Use only baby beets. Do not break root or cut top
too close. Pre-cook, peel, pack. Add salt. Fill con-
tainer with boiling water. Exhaust, seal, process.
Jse only very young and tender, freshly harvested
roots. Clean, scrape, pre-cook. Pack, add salt
and sugar mixture. Exhaust, seal, process.
Prepare carefully. Pre-cook. Pack boiling hot in
container, using liquor to cover; salt. Exhaust,
seal, process.
Use when in milky stage. Gather only as immedi-
ately ready to use in small lots. Prepare, add
liquid, pre-cook thoroughly, add salt and sugar
mixture. Pack hot, exhaust, seal, process.
Use when in milk stage. Gather as specified above.
Prepare, cut whole grains. Add liquid, pre-cook
thoroughly, season. Pack hot, exhaust, seal,
process.
Pare, cut in pieces, soak in brine. Steam. Pack
hot, exhaust, seal, process.
Wash thoroughly, cook tender. Pack boiling hot.
Add boiling water and salt. Exhaust, seal,
process. Cool quickly.


Exhaust
Time
Minutes

15


10


10


10


10



15



15


10

15


Processil
Pressure Can
Pressure
Qt. Jars
Minutes

Pints only
50

30


30


30


30


Pints only
75



60


50


ng Period
iner at 10 Ibs.
or 2400 F.
No. 2-3 Tins
Minutes

60


25


25


25


25



70



55


45


Type of Can
Recommended

Plain or C-
Enamel if
obtainable

Plain


R-Enamel


R-Enamel


Plain


Plain or C-
Enamel if
obtainable

Plain or C-
Enamel if
obtainable

Plain

C-Enamel




TABLE 3.-CONDENSED DIRECTIONS FOR CANNING NON-ACID VEGETABLES-(Concluded).


Vegetables



All greens


Okra

Peas, blackeyed
and English

Pimiento

Potato, sweet
Pumpkin or
Winter squash
Sauerkraut


Summer squash


Vegetables
for soup


Preparation Before Processing


Trim, wash, pre-cook at below boiling temperature.
Pack loosely in container steaming hot. Salt.
Cover with boiling liquid. Exhaust, seal, process.
Use only young, tender pods, not longer than 11/2
inches. Wash, trim, steam, pack hot. Exhaust,
seal, process.
Gather in early morning, do not let stand. Grade,
shell, pre-cook. Add seasoning. Pack hot.
Exhaust, seal, process.
Roast in hot oven. Skin, cut out stem, remove seed,
pack dry in flattened layers in pints or half pints.
Storage rather than canning recommended.
Steam until tender. Pack hot. Exhaust, seal, and
process immediately.
Bring to boil, pack hot, exhaust and process
immediately at boiling 10 minutes.
Use only young, tender, freshly picked vegetables.
Wash, cut in halves or cubes. Steam pack into
jars. Salt. Add boiling water to cover. Exhaust,
seal, process.

See special directions, page 49.


Exhaust
Time
Minutes

15


10


15





15

10

10


Processing Period
Pressure Canner at 10 lbs.
Pressure or 2400 F.


Qt. Jars
Minutes


55


35

Pints
only
55

35


55



35


No. 2-3 Tins
Minutes

50


30


50


30


50



30



30


Type of Can
Recommended


Plain


Plain


Plain or C-
Enamel
Plain or R-
Enamel


R-Enamel
Plain or R-
Enamel

Plain


Corn or butter beans should not be canned in No. 3 cans or quart jars because of difficulty of heat penetration.
Place jars or cans in hot cooker as soon as filled.
Leave space between jars or tins in the cooker that steam may circulate about them.
Test all jars for seal after processing and cooling.
To exhaust: Put jars in hot pressure cooker. Have enough boiling water in bottom of cooker for steam throughout the
processing period. Put on cooker lid, leave the cooker unsealed and place over heat. Allow jars to remain in LIVE
STEAM as per time table. Seal jars or tins after exhausting and return to cooker; seal cooker. Leave petcock open and
exhaust cooker by allowing a stream of live steam to escape from petcock for at least 10 minutes. Close petcock and
follow time and pressure or temperature prescribed for the vegetable, counting time after the pressure prescribed is
reached. See Table 2.


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