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Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 391
Title: Fattening steers on winter pasture with ground snapped corn, ground shallu heads, molasses and cottonseed meal
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 Material Information
Title: Fattening steers on winter pasture with ground snapped corn, ground shallu heads, molasses and cottonseed meal
Series Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 391
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Kidder, Ralph W.
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Publication Date: 1943
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Bibliographic ID: UF00027662
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Credits
        Page 2
    Main
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
Full Text

Bulletin 391


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
WILMON NEWELL, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA




FATTENING STEERS ON

WINTER PASTURE

WITH
GROUND SNAPPED CORN, GROUND SHALLU HEADS,
MOLASSES AND COTTONSEED MEAL

By R. W. KIDDER


"A -. .' 4. &, -.e

Fig. 1.-Steers fattening on winter pasture in the Everglades.

Single copies free to Florida residents upon request to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


August, 1943


Np~c~"




EXECUTIVE STAFF

John J. Tigert, M.A., LL.D., President of the
University8
Wilmon Newell, D.Sc., Director3
Harold Mowry, M.S.A., Asso. Director
L. O. Gratz, Ph.D., Asst. Dir., Research
W. M. Fifield, M.S., Asst. Dir., Admin.'
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor3
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Assistant Editors
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editors
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
Ruby Newhall, Administrative Managers
K. H. Graham, LL.D., Business Manager3
Claranelle Alderman, Accountant3

MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE
AGRONOMY
W. E. Stokes, M.S., Agronomist'
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist
G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Associate2
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate
Roy E. Blaser, M.S., Associate
G. B. Killinger. Ph.D., Associate
Fred A. Clark, B.S., Assistant

ANIMAL INDUSTRY
A. L. Shealy, D.V.M., An. Industrialist' s
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman'
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist3
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarian3
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist'
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husb.3
T. R. Freeman, Ph.D., Asso. in Dairy Mfg.
R. S. Glasscock, Ph.D., Asso. An. Hush.
D. J. Smith, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.'
P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Asst. Dairy Husb.3
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist
L. E. Mull, M.S., Asst. in Dairy Tech.*
0. K. Moore, M.S., Asst. Poultry Husb.3
J. E. Pace, B.S., Asst. An. Husb.3
S. P. Marshall, M.S., Asst. in An. Nutr.
C. B. Reeves, B.S., Asst. Dairy Tech.
ECONOMICS, AGRICULTURAL
C. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agr. Economist' 3
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Associate
Max E. Brunk, M.S.. Assistant
ECONOMICS, HOME
Ouida D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ.1
Ruth O. Townsend. R.N., Assistant
R. B. French, Ph.D., Biochemist
ENTOMOLOGY
J. R. Watson, A.M., Entomologist'
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D.. Associate"
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant
HORTICULTURE
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A.. Horticulturist'
A. L. Stahl, Ph.D., Associate
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Truck Hort.
R. J. Wilmot, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.A
J. Carlton Cain, B.S.A., Asst. Hort.'
Victor F. Nettles, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.4
Byron E. Janes. Ph.D.. Asst. Hort.
A. L. Kenworthy, M.S., Asst. Hort.2
F. S. Lagassee, Ph.D.. Asso. Hort.2
II. M. Sell. Ph.D., Asso. Hort.2
PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist' s
Phares Decker, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist
Erdman West. M.S., Mycologist
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S.. Asst. Botanist
SOILS
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Chemist'1
Gaylord M. Volk, M.S., Chemist
F. B. Smith. Ph.D., Microbiologist3
C. E. Bell, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
L. E. Ensminger, Ph.D., Soils Chem.
J. R. Henderson, M.S.A., Soil Technologist
L. H. Rogers, Ph.D., Asso. Biochemist4
R. A. Carrigan, B.S., Asso. Biochemist4
J. N. Howard, B.S., Asst. Chemist
T. C. Erwin, Assistant Chemist
H. W. Winsor. B.S.A.. Assistant Chemist
Geo. D. Thornton, M.S., Asst. Microbiologist3
R. E. Caldwell, M.S.A., Asst. Soil Surveyor'
Olaf C. Olson, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor'


BOARD OF CONTROL

H. P. Adair, Chairman, Jacksonville
R. H. Gore, Fort Lauderdale
N. B. Jordan, Quincy
T. T. Scott, Live Oak
Thos. W. Bryant, Lakeland
J. T. Diamond, Secretary, Tallasassee
BRANCH STATIONS
NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY
J. D. Warner, M.S., Agronomist in Charge
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
V. E. Whitehurst, Jr., B.S.A., Asst. An. Hush.4
W. C. McCormick. B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.
Jesse Reeves, Asst. Agron., Tobacco
W. H. Chapman, M.S., Asst. Agron.4
Mobile Unit, Monticello
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Asso. Agronomist
Mobile Unit, Milton
Ralph L. Smith, M.S., Asso. Agronomist
CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Charge
V. C. Jamison, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
B. R. Fudge, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Entomologist
W. W. Lawless, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist'
R. K. Voorhees, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
C. R. Stearns, Jr., B.S.A., Chemist
H. O. Sterling, B.S., Asst. Hort.
T. W. Young, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
J. W. Sites, M.S.A., Asso. Horticulturist
EVERGLADES STA.. BELLE GLADE
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Biochemist in Charge
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist4
F. D. Stevens, B.S., Sugarcane Agron.
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Sugarcane
Physiologist
G. R. Townsend, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. W. Kidder, M.S.. Asst. An. Husbh.
W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Asso. Chemist
B. S. Clayton, B.S.C.E., Drainage Eng.2
F. S. Andrews, Ph.D., Asso. Truck Hort.'
Roy A. Bair, Ph.D., Asst. Agron.
E. C. Minnum, M.S., Asst. Truck Hort.
N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A., Asst. Entomologist
SUB-TROPICAL STA., HOMESTEAD
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge
S. J. Lynch, B.S.A., Asso. Horticulturist
E. M. Andersen, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
W. CENT. FLA. STA., BROOKSVILLE
Clement D. Gordon, Ph.D., Asso. Poultry
Geneticist in Charge2
RANGE CATTLE STA., ONA
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., An. Hush. in Charge
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Asso. Agron., Wauchula
Gilbert A. Tucker, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.'

FIELD STATIONS
Leesburg
M. N. Walker, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge5
Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D.. Plant Pathologist
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Truck Horticulturist
Monticello
S. O. Hill, B.S., Asst. Entomologist2
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Asst. Entomologist2
Bradenton
J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Horticulturist in
Charge
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
F. T. McLean, Ph.D., Horticulturist
A. L. Harrison, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
David G. Kelbert, Asst. Plant Pathologist
Sanford
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Chemist in Charge
J. C. Russell, M.S., Asst. Entomologist
Lakeland
E. S. Ellison, Meteorologist2 r
Harry Armstrong, Meteorologist2

Head of Department.
In cooperation with U. S.
Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
In Military Service.
SOn leave.


I 2







FATTENING STEERS ON WINTER PASTURE WITH
GROUND SNAPPED CORN, GROUND SHALLU HEADS,
MOLASSES AND COTTONSEED MEAL

By R. W. KIDDER
CONTENTS
Page Page
Method of Procedure ........ ..... 4 Composition of Feeds ... .................. 13
Results of Experiments .... ... Discussion ... ........ ......................... 13
Minerals Consumed ... .. ... ..... 10 Summary .. .. .. .... .... ...... 14
Grades of Steers and Carcasses ............... 11 Literature Cited ................................ 14
Slaughter Records ..... .... ..... .... 11

Southern Florida, because of its favorable climate and fertile
soil, produces excellent pasture, particularly in the Everglades
region. While many of the grasses grow most rapidly during
the summer months, a substantial winter pasture can be obtained
by using frost-resistant varieties of grass-both perennial and
annual.
Pasture grass is the natural feed for cattle. All other cattle
feeds are used in 1 or more of 4 ways: (a) to provide feed
during seasons of the year when pastures are unavailable; (b)
to supplement the pastures; (c) to utilize economically some
commercial by-products; and (d) to concentrate the feed nutri-
ents of the ration for some specific purpose, such as milk pro-
duction or fattening for market.
More than 95 percent of the cattle sold for beef in Florida
are fattened on grass. It is generally believed by cattlemen that
steers fattened on grass alone return larger profits than those
fattened with supplementary concentrates even though the ani-
mals do not gain as rapidly nor attain as high a degree of finish.
It was considered important to determine the rate of gain and
degree of finish which could be obtained by steers on pasture
supplemented with limited amounts of concentrates.
Shallu or Egyptian wheat, an open-panicle type of grain sor-
ghum, is grown in commercial amounts in the Everglades region
around Lake Okeechobee. It was considered of prime importance
to compare ground shallu heads with ground snapped corn and
to study the effects of these feeds for fattening steers on pasture
with molasses and cottenseed meal.
Previous feeding trials have shown that winter pasture supple-
mented with cottonseed meal and ground snapped corn is a satis-
factory fattening ration and that blackstrap molasses can be
used to replace one-half of the ground snapped corn when fed





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


with fresh cut sugarcane (1).1 Since molasses is produced
locally, and under normal conditions costs less than corn, the
use of this feed should reduce the cost of fattening steers.
The steer feeding experiments reported in this bulletin were
conducted at the Everglades Experiment Station for 3 successive
years, beginning in October 1939 and concluding in April 1942.

METHOD OF PROCEDURE

Animals.-The steers used in these trials were mostly grade
Hereford and Angus, with some grade Devons from the Experi-
ment Station herd, and a few grade Brahmans. All except the
Devons were range steers raised in Highlands, Osceola, Okee-
chobee and Indian River counties. The first and second trials
were conducted mostly with yearling steers but in the third trial
the steers were 2 years old and over.
Thirty steers were divided uniformly, according to weight,
grade and age, into 3 lots of 10 each at the beginning of each
trial. Following a preliminary feeding period of 10 to 14 days
the trials were conducted for 120 to 128 days. The steers were
weighed individually on 3 consecutive days at the beginning and
end of each preliminary feeding period and at the end of each
trial. Individual weights also were taken at 28-day intervals.
The steers were graded as feeders at the beginning and as
slaughter steers at the end of each trial. Individual weights
were obtained before shipping and again on arrival at the mar-
ket. After slaughter the carcasses were weighed before and
after chilling and graded according to standard grades estab-
lished by the Agricultural Marketing Service, United States
Department of Agriculture.
Feeds.-Several varieties of perennial grasses, including Para,
St. Augustine, Bermuda, Carib, Vasey and Dallis, were grazed
in this experiment. While these pastures were not uniform, an
attempt was made to provide an adequate amount of grass for
each lot of steers. Temporary pastures of oats, barley, White
Dutch clover and Italian rye grass were used by each lot in
rotation to equalize the grazing between lots. During the first
and third trials a supplement of freshly cut sugarcane was pro-
vided in amounts which were readily consumed when pasture
became inadequate.

1 Italic figures in parentheses refer to "Literature Cited" in the back
of this bulletin.





Fattening Steers on Winter Pasture


In addition to pasture these steers were fed concentrate mix-
tures as follows: Lot I, cottonseed meal, molasses and ground
snapped corn; Lot II, cottonseed meal, molasses and ground
shallu heads; and Lot III, cottonseed meal (only).
Cottonseed meal, 41 percent crude protein, was fed each year
to all lots of steers at the rate of 2 pounds per head daily. The
Lot III steers, on limited concentrates, received their cottonseed
in cake or pellet form, thereby reducing some waste and improv-
ing distribution among the steers.
Cane molasses (blackstrap) produced from sugarcane grown
in the Everglades was used.2 It was fed in equal amounts to
steers in Lots I and II and at the same rate as the ground
snapped corn and ground shallu heads.
The ground snapped corn, Florida grown, was purchased
through local feed dealers and was fed to steers in Lot I at a
rate beginning at 2 pounds and gradually increasing to 5 pounds
or more per head daily.
The shallu or Egyptian wheat was grown locally and consisted
of the heads which had been cut by hand, dried in a commercial
dehydrator and ground with a hammer mill. Lot II steers re-
ceived this feed at the same rate that ground snapped corn was
fed to Lot I.
Steers were fed in the pasture daily at about 8 A. M. The
molasses was poured over the grain mixture for Lots I and II
and the container was left where the steers would lick out any
remaining molasses.
Minerals.-Steamed bone meal and the "salt sick" mineral
supplement were available to the steers at all times. The
formula for the "salt sick" mineral used was:
100 pounds common fine salt
25 pounds red oxide of iron
2 pounds copper sulfate
2 ounces cobalt sulfate

RESULTS OF EXPERIMENTS
Results of the first trial, which was started in October 1939
and concluded in March 1940, are shown in Table 1.
The first trial was conducted for 128 days, following a 14-
day preliminary feeding period. After 91 days, cool weather
diminished the growth rate of the pasture grass, making it

SObtained from United States Sugar Corporation, Clewiston, Florida.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


advisable to supplement the grass with freshly cut sugarcane
for the last 37 days of the trial. Steers in Lot I receiving ground
snapped corn made better gains than those in Lot II receiving
ground shallu heads. Lot III steers, fed cottenseed meal as the
only concentrate, gained 106 pounds each compared with 218
pounds for Lot I and 203 pounds for Lot II.

TABLE 1.-COMPARISON OF LIMITED COTTONSEED MEAL WITH COTTONSEED
MEAL, MOLASSES AND GROUND SNAPPED CORN OR GROUND SHALLU HEADS
FOR FATTENING STEERS ON WINTER PASTURE, OCTOBER 30, 1939, TO
MARCH 5, 1940-128 DAYS.


Grain supplement .........


Number of steers fed .-


Average initial weight
Average final weight pe:
Average gain per steer
Average daily gain per E


Lot I Lot II Lot III

Cottonseed Cottonseed
Meal, Ground Meal, Ground Cottonseed
............... Snapped Corn Shallu Heads Meal
and Molasses and Molasses _

......... .. 10 10 10

Pounds Pounds Pounds

per steer 545 530 533
r steer .. 763 733 639
........... 218 203 106
teer .... ..1.70 1.59 .83


Amount of feed consumed daily per steer:


Pasture ......... ... .. ....
Cottonseed meal ........
M olasses ....................... ....
Ground snapped corn ...
Ground shallu ................
Sugarcane last 37 days of


trial


ad lib.
2.00
5.21
5.21
9.68


ad lib.
2.00
5.21
5.21
9.68


Amount of feed required to produce 100 pounds gain:

Cottonseed meal ..................... 117.43 126.11
M olasses ................_ ...-............ 305.96 328.57
Ground snapped corn ................ 305.96
Ground shallu ............................ 328.57
Sugarcane ...... ...................... 164.22 176.35


ad lib.
2.00


18.23




241.51


636.32


Results obtained during the second trial are shown in Table 2.
The second trial began after a 10-day preliminary feeding
period in October 1940 and continued 120 days until February
1941. The feeds and methods were similar to those used in the
first trial except that adequate grass was available during the
whole period, making it unnecessary to feed sugarcane. Lot II





Fattening Steers on Winter Pasture


steers which received ground shallu heads made slightly higher
gains than Lot I steers on the ground snapped corn ration.
Steers in Lot III on limited concentrates gained 110 pounds each,
compared with 162 pounds for Lot I and 172 pounds for Lot II.

TABLE 2.-COMPARISON OF LIMITED COTTONSEED MEAL WITH COTTONSEED
MEAL, MOLASSES AND GROUND SNAPPED CORN OR GROUND SHALLU HEADS
FOR FATTENING STEERS ON WINTER PASTURE, OCTOBER 22, 1940, TO FEB-
RUARY 18, 1941-120 DAYS.


Lot I Lot II Lot III

Cottonseed Cottonseed
Meal, Ground Meal, Ground ICottonseed
Grain supplement ............... Snapped Corn Shallu Heads Meal
and Molasses and Molasses
Number of steers fed ................... 10 o10 10

Pounds Pounds Pounds
Average initial weight per steer 587 581 597
Average final weight per steer ... 749 753 707
Average gain per steer ............-..- 162 172 110
Average daily gain per steer ........ 1.35 1.43 .92

Amount of feed consumed daily per steer:

Pasture ..................... ... ...... .. ad lib. ad lib. ad lib.
Cottonseed meal ........... .....1 1.97 1.97 1.97
M olasses .................................... 4.98 4.98
Ground snapped corn ................ 4.98
Ground shallu heads .............. 4.98

Amount of feed required to produce 100 pounds gain:

Cottonseed meal ................... 145.68 137.21 214.55
M olasses ..-................... .... ..... 369.14 347.67
Ground snapped corn .........-. 369.14
Ground shallu heads ............ -- 347.67


Results of the third and final trial are shown in Table 3.
Steers obtained for the third trial were older and heavier than
those of the previous trials; however, they were of about the
same grade. Following a 14-day preliminary feeding period the
trial was started in December 1941 and continued 120 days to
April 1942. As in the first trial, pasture grass became scarce,
making it necessary to feed sugarcane for the last 36 days of






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


the experiment. A field of oats was grazed by the 3 lots of steers
on alternate days to supplement the pastures.

TABLE 3.-COMPARISON OF LIMITED COTTONSEED MEAL WITH COTTONSEED
MEAL, MOLASSES AND GROUND SNAPPED CORN OR GROUND SHALLU HEADS
FOR FATTENING STEERS ON WINTER PASTURE, DECEMBER 9, 1941, TO
APRIL 7, 1942-120 DAYS.


Grain supplement ..... ............


Number of steers fed....



Average initial weight per ste
Average final weight per steer
Average gain per steer ..........
Average daily gain per steer ..


Lot I Lot II Lot III

Cottonseed Cottonseed
Meal, Ground Meal, Ground Cottonseed
.... Snapped Cornl Shallu Heads Meal
and Molasses and Molasses

S 10 10 10

Pounds Pounds Pounds

er 727 725 708
-.. 884 908 798
157 183 90
I 1.31 1.52 .75
1 ~ ~ ~ a lib._______


Amount of feed consumed daily per steer:


P asture ....... .. ..- .. ........ .. ..
Cottonseed meal ....- ... .........
M olasses ...........-............-.....- ....
Ground snapped corn .............
Ground shallu heads ..-..........
Sugarcane last 36 days of trial


ad lib.
2.0
4.39
4.41

6.46


ad lib.
2.0
4.39

4.41
6.46


ad lib.
2.0


18.6


Amount of feed required to produce 100 pounds gain:


Cottonseed meal...
M olasses ............. .....
Ground snapped corn
Ground shallu heads
Sugarcane ......... .....


152.87
335.67
337.26

148.09


131.15
287.98

289.34
127.05


266.67


744.44


Resulting gains for Lot II steers were slightly better than
for Lot I. Records of gain in weight at the end of 112 days
showed very little advantage for ground shallu heads over ground
snapped corn. Steers in Lot III gained 90 pounds each while
those in Lot II gained 183 pounds each.
Average results of the 3 feeding trials are shown in Table 4.
Rates of gain or feed required to produce 100 pounds gain on
ground shallu heads were 6nly slightly higher than on ground
snapped corn, which shows that these 2 feeds were practically





Fattening Steers on Winter Pasture 9

equal in feeding value. Steers in Lot III on limited supplement
averaged 57 percent as much gain in weight as Lot I and 55 per-
cent as much as Lot II. When cold weather retarded growth
of pasture grass the steers consumed an average of 18.4 pounds
of freshly cut sugarcane each per day in Lot III and 8.0 pounds
in Lot I and II. The feeding of freshly cut sugarcane apparently
is a satisfactory and practical method of supplementing pastures
when light frosts and cool weather diminish the growth of the
grass.

TABLE 4.-AVERAGE RESULTS OF 3 FEEDING TRIALS, 1939-40, 1940-41,
1941-42, COMPARING LIMITED COTTONSEED MEAL WITH COTTONSEED
MEAL, MOLASSES AND GROUND SNAPPED CORN OR GROUND SHALLU HEADS
FOR FATTENING STEERS ON WINTER PASTURE.


Grain supplement ..-... ................


Number of steers fed ..................


Average initial weight per steer
Average final weight per steer ....
Average gain per steer ..-....- ---.
Average daily gain per steer ........


Lot I Lot II

Cottonseed Cottonseed
Meal, Ground Meal, Ground
Snapped Corn Shallu Heads
and Molasses and Molasses

30 30

Pounds Pounds


620
799
179
1.49


612
798
186
1.55


Amount of feed consumed daily per steer:

Pasture ................ ................ ad lib. ad lib.
Cottonseed meal ......................... 1.99 1.99
M olasses ............................... ..! 4.87 4.87
Ground snapped corn ..-....-.... 4.87
Ground shallu heads ............... 4.87
Sugarcane* ................................ 8.07 8.07


Amount of feed required to produce 100 pounds gain:


Cottonseed meal .......................
Molasses ..................................
Ground snapped corn ................
Ground shallu heads ................
Sugarcane* .......................


138.66
336.92
337.45
156.16


131.49
321.41

321.86
151.70


* Sugarcane was fed to supplement pastures in the first and third trials.


Lot III


Cottonseed
Meal
Only

30

Pounds
613
715
102
.85


ad lib.
1.99


18.42


240.91


690.28


I






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


MINERALS CONSUMED

Average consumption of minerals per steer for the 3 trials is
shown in Table 5.

TABLE 5.-AVERAGE TOTAL CONSUMPTION OF MINERALS PER STEER BY LOTS.


Steamed bone meal .....

"Salt sick" mineral .....


Lot I

Pounds

1.08

1.53


Lot II

Pounds

1.23

1.92


Lot III

Pounds

2.28

2.07


Pounds

1.53

1.84


TABLE 6.-AVERAGE





Lot I

Feeder steer grade .....-

Slaughter steer grade

Carcass grade* ............

Lot II

Feeder steer grade ......

Slaughter steer grade

Carcass grade* .........

Lot III

Feeder steer grade .....

Slaughter steer grade

Carcass grade* ...........


STEER GRADES BY LOTS FOI


1939-40




High
Medium

High
Medium

High
Commercial


High
Medium

High
Medium

High
Commercial


High
Medium

Low
Medium

High
Utility


1940-41


High
Medium

High
Medium

High
Commercial


High
Medium

High
Medium

High


Commercial


High
Medium

High
Medium

High
Commercial


EACH FEEDING TRIAL.


1941-42




High
Medium

High
Medium

Low
Good


High
Medium

Low
Good

Low
Good


High
Medium

Low
Medium

Low
Commercial


Average



High
Medium

High
Medium

High
Commercial


High
Medium

High
Medium

High
Commercial


High
Medium

Medium

Low
Commercial


"Good" grade applies alike to live steers and carcass grade. "Medium" grade live steer
corresponds with "Commercial" grade carcass. "Common" grade steer produces "Utility"
grade carcass.


I





Fattening Steers on Winter Pasture


The steers in Lot III on limited concentrates consumed con-
siderably more bone meal than those in Lots I and II. The
amount of "salt sick" mineral taken varied less between the
lots. In the third year the steers consumed an average of 0.78
pounds of bone meal and 2.85 pounds of "salt sick" mineral.
These mineral consumption records constitute a basis for
cattlemen to estimate the requirements of cattle and also indi-
cate that considerable variations in requirements can be expected
between different lots of cattle due to age, previous management,
character of range where cattle were grown, palatability of
supplements offered and perhaps other factors.

GRADES OF STEERS AND CARCASSES
In Table 6 are shown the average grades of steers by lots for
each year, as feeder steers, as slaughter steers and as carcasses.
All lots of steers at the beginning of each trial were of equal
feeder grade and at the end of the feeding period Lots I and II
produced beef each year with an average grade of "High Com-
mercial." Lot III steers in general were similar in finish and
grade to grass-fattened steers direct from the range. In the
second trial, 1940-41, two steers in Lot III graded "Low Good"
which raised the lot average, while 1 steer in each of Lots I and
II graded "Utility" and hence lowered the average grade for
these lots.3
SLAUGHTER RECORDS
In Table 7 average marketing and slaughter records are pre-
sented to show the average dressing percentages by lots, the
shrinkage en route to market and shrinkage during the cooling
of the carcasses.
TABLE 7.-AVERAGE MARKETING AND SLAUGHTER DATA BY LOTS.

Lot I Lot II Lot III

Number of steers ................... 30 30 30
Shipping weight, pounds ........ 808 804 730
Market weight, pounds ........... 763 764 690
Shrinkage in transit, percent .... 5.57 4.98 5.48
Warm carcass weight, pounds 449 447 378
Chilled carcass weight, pounds 442 440 372
Shrinkage in chilling, percent .. 1.56 1.57 1.59
Dressing percentage,* percent 58.8 58.5 54.8
Calculated on market and warm carcass weights.
'Recently, OPA rulings have designated beef grades as follows: "Choice"
as "AA", "Good" as "A", "Commercial" as "B", and "Utility" as "C".






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


The slaughter records in Table 7 show no significant differ-
ence in shrinkage between lots either en route to market or in
chilling the carcasses. The cattle were shipped to market by
truck traveling 60 miles the first year, 240 miles the second year
and 40 miles the last year. The average shrinkage each year
for all lots was 5.43, 7.69 and 3.27 percent, respectively, which
indicates that the shrinkage is greater when there is a long haul
to market but is not proportional to the distance to market.
Other factors such as time of year, day or night hauling and
holding period before shipping may affect shrinkage.
Steers in Lots I and II were finished sufficiently to dress an
average of 58.8 and 58.5 percent, respectively, while Lot III
steers dressed 54.8 percent. The shrinkage en route to market
has a direct effect on dressing percentage.

TABLE 8.-AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF FEEDS USED IN THE 3 STEER
FEEDING TRIALS.


Ground snapped corn
1939-1940 ...... ....
1940-1941 ............
1941-1942 ...........
Average ...- .......

Ground shallu heads
1939-1940 ..........
1940-1941 ...... .....
1941-1942 ........-
Average ............-

Cottonseed meal
1939-1940 ...-. -
1940-1941 ... ...
1941-1942 ............
Average .............

Cottonseed cake
1939-1940 ...........
1940-1941 ............
1941-1942 ...........
Average .............-

M classes* .....................-


Sugarcane** ............

Pasture grass .............


Dry Crude Crude N-Free
Matter Protein Fat I Fiber Extract Ash
SPercent Percent Percent Percent percent Percent

89.57 8.72 2.10 9.89 66.95 1.91
90.94 9.95 2.73 10.67 67.09 1.60
S91.03 8.97 3.19 9.50 67.80 1.57
89.85 8.85 2.67 10.02 67.28 1.69

S90.02 11.13 3.25 8.96 63.91 2.77
90.26 12.70 3.50 8.47 62.18 3.41
S91.24 14.19 3.70 10.29 59.64 3.42
S90.51 12.67 3.48 9.24 61.91 3.20

S87.37 41.94 3.12 14.38 21.18 6.75
j 92.38 41.90 3.67 13.25 27.13 6.43
S89.37 41.95 2.53 12.92 25.82 6.15
S89.71 41.93 3.11 13.52 24.71 6.44


87.04
94.38
90.96
90.79

80.20

20.00

18.19


44.07
44.40
44.80
44.42

9.01

1.38

2.73


2.78
2.15
2.90
2.61

0

.22

0.52


11.76
12.75
13.69
12.71
0

6.90

5.40


21.44
28.09
23.20
24.24

63.99

10.48

8.20


Analysis by United States Sugar Corporation.
** Unpublished data, Everglades Experiment Station.
SAverage of 46 analyses on 6 varieties of grass in grazing stage, Everglades Experiment
Station (S).





Fattening Steers on Winter Pasture


COMPOSITION OF FEEDS
Samples of the ground snapped corn, ground shallu heads and
cottonseed meal and cake were taken at 28-day intervals during
each trial and composite samples were analyzed of each feed for
each trial. Average composition of these feeds is shown in
Table 8.
DISCUSSION
The cattle feeding program in southern Florida is based upon
the economical use of pasture grass, whereas in other sections
of the state dry-lot feeding is a common practice (3). In this
experiment cattle in Lot III fattened on grass supplemented with
limited concentrates gained at the rate of 0.85 pounds per day
and produced carcasses with an average grade of "Low Com-
mercial." They consumed 241 pounds of cottonseed meal per
100 pounds gain (Table 4) and yielded 54.8 percent of dressed
beef. General observations have indicated that these steers
were about equal in finish and grade to many of the steers sold
for slaughter from the ranges of Florida.
Steers in Lots I and II fed additional carbohydrate concen-
trates produced carcasses with an average grade of "High Com-
mercial" and dressed 58.8 and 58.5 percent. On this feed they
gained at the average rates of 1.49 and 1.55 pounds per day and
required 813 and 775 pounds of concentrates, respectively, per
100 pounds gain (Table 4).
Under feed and beef prices which prevailed during the 3 years
of these feeding trials it appears that the greatest net returns
would come from the cattle fattened mostly on grass. The in-
dividual cattleman will have to decide whether or not it will
be profitable to feed concentrates in addition to grass and the
amount of such concentrates he will feed. The amount of grass
available, the local cost of supplementary feeds, the quality of
cattle being fed and the spread in value between "Utility" and
"High Commercial" or "Low Good" grades of beef should be
considered in making the decision.
The increased use of purebred and high grade sires along with
improved methods of herd and pasture management is produc-
ing better beef cattle throughout Florida. These steers of im-
proved breeding have an inherited ability to attain a higher
degree of finish and will respond more to the feeding of con-
centrates than steers having a preponderance of native breeding.
A relatively small acreage of sugarcane, which grows well in





Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


southern Florida, provided a reserve of feed during periods of
winter pasture shortage. The entire stalk was fed, including
mill cane, tops and leaves. It was put through a silage cutter
immediately before feeding.
SUMMARY
Feeding trials were conducted annually for 3 seasons to com-
pare ground snapped corn with ground shallu heads for fatten-
ing Florida steers on winter pasture, and to study the effects
of limited concentrates on growth rates and carcass grades.
Each animal of the 3 lots received 2 pounds of cottonseed meal
per day.
Ground shallu heads were found to produce slightly more
gains and to provide slightly more total digestible nutrients
than ground snapped corn.
Carcasses of steers fattened on ground shallu heads and
ground snapped corn with molasses and cottonseed meal made an
average grade of "High Commercial" while those fed limited con-
centrates (cottonseed meal only) averaged "Low Commercial."
From the rate of gain obtained by steers and from the quality
and grade of carcasses produced, pasture grass with limited
concentrates was shown to supply insufficient nutrients to at-
tain a high finish on steers.
The ground shallu heads contained more protein but less
nitrogen-free extract than ground snapped corn.
The feeding of mature, freshly cut, unstripped sugarcane put
through an ensilage cutter daily is shown to be a satisfactory
and practical method of supplementing pastures when frosts
and cool weather diminish the growth of grass.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The author wishes to acknowledge the counsel and assistance of Drs.
J. R. Neller, A. L. Shealy and W. G. Kirk in conducting these experiments
and in preparing this publication. The feeds and grasses were analyzed
by Dr. W. T. Forsee, Jr., and L. S. Jones. Steers were fed by J. O. Roberts.
LITERATURE CITED
1. KIDDER, R. W., and W. G. KIRK. Cattle feeding in southern Florida.
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 360. 1941.
2. NELLER, J. R., and A. DAANE. Yield and composition of Everglades
grass crops in relation to fertilizer treatment. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Bul. 338. 1939.
3. SHEALY, A. L., W. G. KIRK and R. M. CROWN. Comparative feeding
value of silages made from Napier grass, sorghum and sugarcane.
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 358. 1941.




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