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 Credits
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Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 131
Title: Florida home garden
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027661/00001
 Material Information
Title: Florida home garden
Series Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 131
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Jamison, F. S.
Publisher: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics
Publication Date: 1946
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Bibliographic ID: UF00027661
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Credits
        Page 2
    Main
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
Full Text


December, 1946


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
A. P. Spencer, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA




THE

FLORIDA HOME GARDEN

By F. S. JAMISON
Truck Horticulturist, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station



Fig. 1.-Home gardening is a popular project with 4-H girls.


'Sri

~ *;.* .1 1


Bulletin 131







BOARD OF CONTROL


J. THOS. GURNEY, Chairman, Orlando M. L. MERSHON, Miami
J. HENSON MARKHAM, Jacksonville N. B. JORDAN, Quincy
THOS. W. BRYANT, Lakeland J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE

JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
H. HAROLD HUME, D.Sc., Provost for Agriculture
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Director of Extension
MARSHALL O. WATKINS, B.S.A., Assistant to the Director

Agricultural Demonstration Work, Gainesville
J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor'
CLYDE BEALE, A.B.J., Associate Editor'
JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor1
RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Manager'
W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., State Supervisor, Emergency Farm Labor
H. S. MCLENDON, B.A., Asst. State Supervisor, Emergency Farm Labor
HANS O. ANDERSEN, B.S.A., Asst. State Supervisor, EFL
P. L. PEADEN, M.A., Asst. State Supervisor, EFL
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., Director, P. & M. Admin.
R. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Assistant Director, P. & M. Admin.
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
W. W. BROWN, B.S.A., Assistant Boys' Club Agent
A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialist'
N. R. MEHRHOF, M.Agr., Poultry Husbandman'
FRANK S. PERRY, B.S.A., Asst. Poultry Husbandman
WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Animal Husbandman
A. W. O'STEEN, B.S.A., Supervisor, Egg-Laying Test
L. T. NIELAND, Farm Forester
C. V. NOBLE, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist'
CHARLES M. HAMPSON, M.S., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Economist in Marketing'
K. S. MCMULLEN, B.S.A., District Agent
JOHN M. JOHNSON, B.S.A., Agricultural Engineer

Home Demonstration Work, Tallahassee
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., State Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent
ETHYL HOLLOWAY, B.S., District Agent
MRS. EDITH Y. BARRUS, District Agent
ANNA MAE SIKES, M.S., Specialist in Nutrition
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Specialist in Food Conservation
JOYCE BEVIS, M.A., Clothing Specialist

Negro Extension Work, Tallahassee
A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent
FLOY BRITT, B.S.H.E., Local District Agent
1 Part-time.
2On leave.


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
Agricultural Extension Service, University of Florida, Florida State College for Women and
United States Department of Agriculture, cooperating. A. P. Spencer, Director.









THE FLORIDA HOME GARDEN
By F. S. JAMISON

Considered either for its monetary value or as a source of
wholesome and healthful food, the home vegetable garden usually
is the most valuable piece of land on the farm.
The Florida home gardener may harvest vegetables each
month of the year. However, the various crops grow best
during certain seasons and the gardener should try to grow the
crops during these best seasons. By carefully selecting the
proper vegetables, the gardener can have an adequate supply of
fresh vegetables during most of the year. Vegetables harvested
from one's own garden are fresh, vitamin-packed, of good quality.

LOCATION OF THE GARDEN

Every effort should be made to select a desirable piece of soil
for the garden where seeds, fertilizer and labor may be used
advantageously. The plot selected should be fertile and be
either naturally moist or provided with irrigation for dry seasons
and should have good drainage for wet seasons. Heavier soils
on the edge of hammocks and in drained lowlands make good
garden spots. Many hours of labor will be saved the housewife,
and the family will be assured of more vegetables, if the garden
is located conveniently close to the house. It should be well
fenced to protect it from rabbits, chickens and other animals.
Size will depend upon the number of individuals in the family,
and upon the care and attention given the garden. It should
be large enough to supply fresh vegetables not only for im-
mediate consumption but also for canning, pickling and storage.
There are 2 distinct ways to care for a farm or home vege-
table garden. The first and probably most satisfactory way is
to use a relatively small area, fertilize it heavily, plant the crops
relatively close together and do the planting and cultivating
with hand tools. The other method is to use a large area, plant-
ing the rows far enough apart to allow for cultivating with
field equipment. More care probably will be given to the small
garden. Quite often gardeners find it profitable to grow certain
crops such as watermelons, cantaloupes, sweet potatoes -and
Irish potatoes in the field and grow only those crops in the
garden which will produce heavily on a small area.






Florida Cooperative Extension


SEED FOR PLANTING
Good vegetable seed can be purchased from many reliable
sources. The important thing in purchasing seed is to know
the amount required, the variety adapted to the particular needs
and the growing conditions to which it will be subjected. Many
gardeners find it advantageous to secure seed catalogs, even
though they purchase at local stores.
The gardener should know the variety of vegetable best suited
to his needs, and not be satisfied to buy just carrot, beet or
cabbage seed. Since seed is such a small part of the cost in
growing the garden, it is usually wise to purchase enough so
that one replanting can be made if necessary.

TREATING SEED FOR PLANTING
All cultivated Florida soils are more or less infested with
bacteria or fungi which often cause decay of seed, resulting
in poor stands. The extent of damage varies with soil type
and condition, time of planting and variety of crop. Under cer-
tain conditions seed decay may cause a complete failure to one
planting and no damage to the same crop planted only a few
weeks later. Unfortunately, there is no means for determining
in advance what the outcome will be.
However, certain chemicals applied to the seed before plant-
ing will protect them against decay and it is considered good
insurance to treat them. Several chemicals are recommended.
The ones most commonly used on vegetable seed are spergon
and arasan-both used as dusts.
They may be applied by shaking the seed and dust together
for a minute in a closed glass jar, bottle or tin can. As a rule,
the seed will not retain enough of the chemical to injure them.
Consequently, it is unnecessary to measure the amount of dust
for treating small quantities of seed. Excess dust may be left
in the jar or removed by pouring the seed on a screen. For
treating 1 pound or more of seed, using measured amounts of
the chemical saves dust. For each pound of seed use 1 level
teaspoonful of spergon or 14 teaspoonful of arasan.
Be sure the chemical is not removed from the treated seed
in handling. If damping-off should begin to develop in the seed-
lings as they emerge from the soil, check it by wetting the soil
with a suspension of the seed-treating material. Follow direc-
tions on the package.







The Florida Home Garden


VEGETABLE VARIETIES
That there-is a tremendous difference among varieties cannot
be emphasized too strongly. Quite often success with a garden
depends upon care in selecting proper varieties. Carefully
select varieties for climatic conditions and for adaptation to
a particular purpose. The varieties given in Table 1 are adapted
to Florida. The wise gardener will select varieties from this
list, unless he has tried others and found them superior. The
list has been prepared for home gardeners and not for the com-
mercial truck grower.

OBTAINING PLANTS
The home gardener can grow cabbage, tomato, onion, pepper
and other vegetable plants. But often he finds it advantageous
to purchase from a local grower. Or he may buy plants from
a larger plant grower doing a mail order business. He should
be sure to specify definite varieties. Usually the plants he ob-
tains in this way are satisfactory. However, there is always
danger of bringing in diseases with the plants.
Home gardeners who wish to grow plants find a shallow box
filled with hammock soil an ideal place for this purpose. In

Fig. 2.-4-H club boys also grow numerous successful gardens in Florida.






Florida Cooperative Extension


unfavorable weather they can protect the young plants by cover-
ing them with paper or cloth or by moving the entire box to a
safe place. Some home gardeners prepare with extra care a
small plot in the garden for growing plants for transplanting.
They must provide protection from frost or freezes in winter
or early spring, from the hot sun and dashing rains in late
summer. Old fertilizer bags washed clean, or other such ma-
terials afford good protection. The cloth is stretched tightly
over the plants, 10 to 12 inches above them to insure adequate
ventilation.
Plants handled properly in the bed or flat grow much better
when transplanted. As transplanting time approaches, gradually
harden the plants by subjecting them to slightly adverse grow-
ing conditions so that they will store food instead of using it
in growing. Leave off the cover protecting the young plants
a little longer each day so that for the last week before trans-
planting it is not used. Withhold water from the plants for
longer periods than usual.

TRANSPLANTING
Suitable plants planted properly and at the right season usually
grow. Water plants thoroughly 12 hours before they are re-
moved from the seedbed. Place them in firm soil, well worked
and free of trash. Set them slightly deeper in the garden than
they were in the seedbed, and carefully press the soil around
the roots. Water them following transplanting to supply
needed soil moisture and help to bring the soil into close contact
with the roots.
Plants may be transplanted at any time of day. Protect them
from the hot sun, however, if transplanting in the morning or
during midday. Palmetto leaves or shingles stuck into the
ground alongside the plants will shade them. Plants trans-
planted in late afternoon or evening suffer less shock.

PREPARING THE SOIL
Prepare the soil in the garden carefully. Burn, rake off, or,
much better turn into the soil the crop residue on the ground
so that it is well decomposed by planting time. Raking or
burning plant residue destroys the organic matter so valuable
in maintaining soil fertility. However, the gardener should re-
move old plant growth to get the land into shape for planting
small seeds or to destroy diseased materials.






The Florida Home Garden


Select a soil free of weeds if possible. If this is impracticable,
eliminate such plants as bermuda grass by carefully raking out
the stems and roots as the ground is spaded or plowed. A few
hours of extra work before planting will save many hours of
hoeing later Do not plant in areas severely infested with root-
knot nematodes.
Spade well or plow the land some time before planting begins.
Just previous to planting, rework the soil until you secure a fine,
firm seedbed free of weeds, grass and other materials that would
interfere with planting.
FERTILIZERS
Practically all soils in the state require the addition of plant
foods for the production of satisfactory crops. Part of this
plant food, particularly nitrogen, can be supplied by animal
manures. In fact, manure is one of the most satisfactory fertiliz-
ing materials that the gardener can use. In sufficient quantities
it will furnish all the necessary elements except phosphoric acid.
To balance the plant foods, use approximately 200 pounds of
superphosphate for every ton of manure.
There is really no limit to the amount of well-rotted animal
manures that can be applied. Approximately 25 pounds of
manure and 21/ pounds of 16 percent superphosphate for each
100 square feet of garden will be adequate. If the manure is not
well-rotted and larger quantities are used, apply it 2 or 3 months
before planting and work well into the soil, so that it will par-
tially decompose before the garden is planted.
When manure is not available, use commercial fertilizers.
Probably the best fertilizer for general purposes on sandy or
clay soils is one analyzing 5% nitrogen, 7% phosphoric acid and
5% potash. Apply it at the rate of 21/2 to 5 pounds to each
100 square feet of area. On muck or peat soils the fertilizer
should contain less nitrogen and more potash. On most mucks
and peats, a fertilizer containing 3% nitrogen, 8% phosphoric
acid and 10 or 12% potash will produce satisfactory crops. Apply
it at a rate of 11/2 to 3 pounds for each 100 square feet of area.
If broadcasting fertilizer, particularly on sandy soils, apply
it 10 days to 2 weeks before planting the crop. A superior
method of applying fertilizer is to place it in a band on each
side of the seed or plant row. The band should be 2 or 3 inches
away from the seeds or plants and 1 or 2 inches below the level
of the seed or plant roots. Fertilizer may be applied by this
method at time of planting.






Florida Cooperative Extension


SOIL ACIDITY
In addition to drainage, irrigation and proper fertilizer, sev-
eral other things are necessary in growing good vegetables.
Most plants grow best in a slightly acid soil. If planted in an
extremely acid soil they will soon turn yellow, appear stunted
and develop other symptoms of poor nutrition. To remedy this
condition, apply lime. On most sandy soils a half ton of finely
ground dolomite will correct the condition. Do not apply lime
until you determine that the garden soil is too acid.
Very sweet soil quite often requires special treatment before
it will produce maximum yields. If the garden is planted on
marl, or muck, or sand that has marl close to the surface, add
manganese sulphate to the fertilizer or apply it to the plants
as a spray. If added to the fertilizer, 1/2,. usually will suffice.

SIDE-DRESSING
Nitrogen is easily leached from sandy soils by excessive ir-
rigation or rainfall. This makes it often desirable to apply
nitrogen and sometimes potash after the plants are growing.
This is particularly true on well-drained sandy soils. Any
readily soluble nitrogen-bearing material is satisfactory for
this top-dressing or side-dressing. The most commonly used
materials are nitrate of soda or a mixture of nitrate of soda
and some soluble form of potash. Never apply more than 1
pound of top-dressing materials for each 100 square feet of
area. Half this amount is a heavy application. Several light
applications of top-dressing usually are superior to 1 heavy
application. Apply the material when the foliage is dry.
To fruiting plants such as tomatoes, cucumbers and water-
melons apply it either well ahead of or after fruit setting, not
while the plant is setting fruit. Large amounts of nitrogen
sometimes cause excessive vegetative growth and poor or de-
layed fruit set.
PLANTING
Time of planting has much to do with successful growth of
any crop. Table 1 gives the approximate dates that each vege-
table may be planted. The gardener's own good judgment, how-
ever, will help him to plant at the proper time. If the garden
location is relatively warm or cold as compared with adjoining
areas, he will select a planting date accordingly. Then, too,
some seasons are warm and others cold. The home gardener







The Florida Home Garden


can afford to take some risk to assure an early or* late crop.
However, it is important that consideration be given to the
risks of having the crop frosted or of running into too hot
weather for proper maturity.
Use care in planting the seed at the proper distances and
depths. Study Table 2 to learn the distance between rows and
between seeds or plants in the row. Plant seed thicker in the
row than the plants are to stand. After the plants are well
started thin to the approximate distances given in Table 2.
Table 2 also lists planting depths for seed of the different
crops. Where different depths are listed for the same seed,
plant shallow on heavy or very moist soils, deep on light and
dry soils.
CULTIVATING THE GARDEN
Contrary to popular opinion, the primary purpose of culti-
vation is to control weeds and not to conserve moisture. Make
every effort to keep weeds out of the garden. In using a wheel
hoe or cultivator, set the teeth or knives shallow so that the
weeds will be cut off close to the surface of the soil. Deep
Fig. 3.-But Mother plays second fiddle to no one when it comes to
growing a good garden. She knows how those fresh vegetables help to
keep the whole family healthy and happy.


'1 *'- ^ \








TABLE 1.-VARIETIES AND PLANTING TIME FOR FLORIDA VEGETABLES.


Kind



Beans
Bush


Beans
Pole

Beans
Lima

**Beets

**Broccoli

**Cabbage


*::Carrots


***Cauliflower

**Celery
**Chinese Cabbage

**Collards


Corn, Sweet


Variety

Tendergreen
String'ess Black Valentine
Surecrop Wax
Logan
Florida Belle
Kentucky Wonder
McCaslan
Alabama No. 1
Fordhook 242
Henderson
Baby Fordhook
Early Wonder
Crosby Egyptian
Detroit Dark Red
Italian Green Sprouting
Copenhagen Market
Golden Acre
Glory of Enkhuizen
Coreless or Nantes
Imperator
Chantenay Red Core

Snowball
Florida Pascal
Golden Self-Blanching
Pekin Celery Cabbage
Georgia
Louisiana Sweet
Golden Cross Bantam
loana
Illinois Golden No. 10
Tri-State


North

Mar.-Apr.
and
Aug.-Sept.


Mar.-June


Mar.-June


Sept.-Mar.

Aug.-Feb.

Sept.-Feb.


Sept.-Mar.

Jan.-Feb. and
Aug.-Oct.

Jan.-Mar.
Oct.-Jan.
Feb.-Mar. and
Sept.-Nov.


Mar.-Apr.


Time to Plant in Florida
Central

Feb.-Mar.
and
Sept.


Feb.-Apr.


Feb.-Apr.


J;


Oct.-Mar.

Aug.-Jan.

Sept.-Jan.


Oct.-Mar.


Oct.-Jan.

Aug.-Feb.
Oct.-Jan.
an.-Apr. and
Aug.-Nov.


Feb.-Mar.


South


Sept.-Apr.



Jan.-Feb.


Sept.-Apr.


Oct.-Feb.

Sept.-Jan.

Sept.-Jan.


Oct.-Feb.


Oct.-Jan.

Oct.-Jan.
Nov.-Jan.

Sept.-Jan.


Jan.-Feb.


0

5m
0

-
o
o

't3


to
- N.



S.








Kind


Cowpeas

Cucumbers

Eggplant

**Endive

**Escarole

Kohl Rabi

***Lettuce


Muskmelons
Cantaloupes

***Mustard

Okra



*Onions


***Parsley

**Peas


TABLE 1.-VARIETIES AND PLANTING TIME FOR FLORIDA VEGETABLES Continued.

Variety Time to Plant in Florida
North Central
Brown Crowder
Large Blackeye Mar.-May Mar.-May
Straight 8 Feb.-Mar.
Colorado Feb.-Apr. and Sept.
Jan.-Feb.
Ft. Myers Market Feb.-Mar. and July
Feb.-Mar. Jan.-Feb.
Green Curled and Sept. I and Sept.
Feb.-Mar. Jan.-Feb.
Brown-Leaved Batavian and Sept. and Sept.
Mar.-Apr. and Feb.-Mar. and
Early White Vienna Oct.-Nov. Oct.-Nov.
Black-Seeded Simpson (Leaf)
Bibbs Feb.-Mar. Jan.-Feb.
Great Lakes (Iceberg type) and Sept. and Sept.
Smith's Perfect
Texas No. 1 Mar.-Apr. Feb.-Apr.
Hale's Best
Southern Giant Curled Jan.-Mar. and Jan.-Mar. and
Florida Broadleaf Sept.-May Sept.-Nov.
Clemson Spineless
White Velvet Mar.-May Mar.-May
Perkins Long Green and Aug. and Aug.
Crystal Wax
Bermuda Red Jan.-Mar. Jan.-Mar.
SYellow and and
Early Grano Aug.-Nov. Aug.-Nov.
Creole (hot)
Moss-Curled (Triple Curled) Feb. Dec.-Jan._
Little Marvel
Hundredfold Jan.-Feb. Sept.-Mar.
Laxton's Progress


South

Feb.-Apr.

Jan.-Feb.
Dec.-Feb. and
Aug.-Sept.

Sept.-Jan.

Sept.-Jan.

Nov.-Feb.

Sept.-Jan.


Feb.-Mar.


Sept.-Mar.
Feb.-Mar.
and
Aug.-Sept.

Jan.-Mar.
and
Sept.-Dec.

Sept.-Jan.

Sept.-Feb.







TABLE 1.-VARIETIES AND PLANTING TIME FOR FLORIDA VEGETABLES Continued.


Kind


Peppers

Peppers (Hot) _

**'Potatoes (Irish)

Pumpkins
(See Squash, Winter)

*:Radish


:Spinach .
Spinach, Summer


Squash, Summer

Squash, Winter

Sweet Potatoes
Swiss Chard

Tomatoes


**Turnips

Watermelons


Variety

California Wonder
Worldbeater
Hungarian Wax
Anaheim Chili
Katahdin
Sebago
Bliss Triumph (South Florida)


Early Scarlet Globe
Cincinnati Market
Scarlet Turnip White-tipped
Bloomsdale, Long Standing
Bloomsdale Savoy
New Zealand
Patty Pan or White Bush
Yellow Straight Neck
Table Queen
Zucchini
African
Improved Porto Rican
Copper-Skinned Porto Rican
Lucullus
Marglobe
Pan-America
Rutgers

Japanese Foliage (Shogoin)
Leesburg
Blacklee


Time to Plant in Florida
North Central

Feb.-Apr. Jan.-Mar.

Feb.-Apr. Jan.-Mar.

Jan.-Feb. Jan.




Oct.-Mar. Oct.-Mar.

Oct.-Nov. and Oct.-Nov.
Jan.-Feb._ and Jan.
Mar.-Apr. Mar.-Apr.

Mar.-Apr. Feb.-Mar.
and Aug. and Aug.

Mar. Feb.-Mar.

Mar.-June Feb.-June
Oct.-Feb. Oct.-Feb.

Feb.-Aug. Feb.-Sept.

Jan.-Apr. and Jan.-Mar. and
Aug.-Oct. Sept.-Nov.

Mar.-Apr. Jan.-Apr.


South
Jan.-Feb. and
Aug.-Oct.
Jan.-Feb. and
Aug.-Oct.

Sept.-Jan.




Oct.-Mar.


Oct.-Jan.
Jan.-Apr.

Jan.-Mar. and
Sept.-Oct.

Jan.-Feb.

Feb.-June
Oct.-Feb.

Aug.-Mar.


Oct.-Feb.

Feb.-Mar.


Will not be injured by light frost.
** Can stand considerable freezing.
*** Will be injured by temperatures as low as 280 only when blossoming or forming heads.




TABLE 2.-PLANTING DISTANCE AND AMOUNT OF SEED REQUIRED FOR VEGETABLES.


Vegetable


Beans, bush .............
Beans, lima ...........
Beans, pole ...........
B eet .......... ...
Broccoli .--.~...........
Cabbage ......... ...
Carrot ........... ...
Cauliflower .........
Celery ..................
Chinese cabbage
Collards ...........
Corn, sweet .....
Cowpeas .............
Cucumber .......
Eggplant ........
Endive ..........
Escarole ..............
Lettuce ......... ..
Muskmelons .......
M ustard .............
O kra ........ ...........
Onion ..............
Parsley .........-..
Peas ......... .. ..
Pepper ...............
Potatoes, Irish ......
Radish ........ ....
Spinach ............. ..
Squash, summer
Squash, winter.....
Sweet potatoes....
Tomato ..............
Turnip ..............
Watermelons ......


Seed Required
100 Feet of Row

1 lb.
1 lb.
1 lb.
1 oz.


1/2 OZ.


%/ oz.

1/ Ib.
1 z Ibs.
1 oz.

1 oz.
1 oz.


1/2 OZ.
1 oz.
1 oz.
2 oz.
1 oz.
1 oz.
12, lbs.

15 lbs.
1. oz.
2 oz.
2 oz.
2 oz.
10 plants

1 oz.
2 oz.


*Seed Required to Pro-
duced Given No. of
Plants





1 oz. to 5,000
1 oz. to 5,000

1 oz. to 4,500
1 oz. to 8,000

1 oz. to 4,000



1 oz. to 2,000









1 oz. to 1,000






I oz. to 2,000


Distance
Between Rows
(Inches)

18-30
26-48
40-48
14-24
30-36
24-36
16-24
24-30
24-:36
24-36
24-30
34-42
24-36
48-60
:36-42
18-21
18-2-1
12-18
70-80
14-24
24-4(0
12-24
12-20
24-36
20-36
36-42
12-18
14-18
42-48
90-120
48-54
40-60
12-20
90-120


Inches Between Depth of Planting
Plants in Row (Inches)

2-3 11 to 2
12-15 11/2 to 2
15-18 11/2 to 2
3-5 V2 to 1
16-22 19 to 1
14-24 1/2
1-3 1/2
20-24 '/2
6-10 1' to 1V
8-12 14 to 1'
14-18 %
12-18 1 to 2
2-3 1 to 2
15-24 to %
36-48 2
8-12 5
8-12 %4
12-18 %
48-60 %
4-6 1/2
18-24 1 to 2
3-4 %
8-12 %
2-3 1 to 2
18-24 1/%
12-15 4 to 8
1-2 '
3-5 %
42-48 %/2
48-72 2
18-24
36-40 %
4-6 /2 to :4
60-84 2


* Plants of these crops may be purchased from local plant grower,.






Florida Cooperative Extension


cultivation or hoeing cuts the roots of the vegetables. On sandy
soil the only time cultivation is either necessary or desirable
is when weeds are present. Then immediate cultivation is an
advantage. It is much easier to destroy weeds when they are
quite young than to remove them after they become large.

IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE
Crops grown during dry seasons usually require some water-
ing or irrigation. Overhead sprinkling with an ordinary garden
hose is satisfactory. You can water some soils by running the
water down the middle of the row, controlling the flow so that
the soil is thoroughly saturated. If no other means are avail-
able, use buckets-a very laborious method.
Whatever the method, thoroughly saturate the soil at each
watering. Frequency of watering will depend upon the crop
being grown and prevailing weather conditions. For most crops
a thorough watering once a week is sufficient.

DISEASES AND INSECTS
Two important types of insects-chewing and sucking-at-
tack many kinds of vegetables. The chewing insects eat the
foliage, their injury usually being easily seen. Lead arsenate
dust made by mixing 1 part lead arsenate to 4 or 5 parts of
hydrated lime usually gives good control. Beans are the only
important vegetable on which this dust cannot be used. Arseni-
cal dusts or sprays are poisonous to humans. Before using it
as food, thoroughly wash any crop to which this material has
been applied. Several materials are rapidly replacing the
arsenicals. Rotenone, pyrethrum and DDT dust are effective
against many chewing insects.
Other insects suck the sap from the plant and cause a mottling
or drying out of the plant in relatively small areas. Black-leaf
40 or nicotine sulphate applied on a warm day as a 3 or 4 percent
dust will control most sucking insects such as aphids. DDT
is effective against some of the insects in this group, apparently
does not affect others.
At garden supply stores dusts are available which combine
several different materials and thus are effective for controlling
a number of insects. As most of the materials used in control-
ling insects are also toxic to humans, always remove them by
careful washing before using the vegetables for food purposes.
Fungous diseases attack most vegetables at some time or






The Florida Home Garden


other. Many of these diseases can be effectively controlled by
spraying or dusting. Many organic fungicides have been de-
veloped recently for specific uses. No one dut or spray is
effective against all diseases. It is important that the gardener
know what disease is present before attempting to control it.
Certain diseases and insects live in the soil or are carried
inside the seed and these cannot be controlled by spraying or
dusting the plant. Among these diseases are fusarium wilts.
Planting of resistant varieties where available is the most satis-
factory control for this type of disease. Root-knot is another
serious pest in Florida gardens. This difficulty is best controlled
by avoiding areas infested with nematodes.

CROPS FOR DIFFERENT SEASONS
Cool Season Crops.-Many vegetable crops thrive best during
cool weather, growing well and standing light frosts or even
considerable freezing without being seriously injured. These
crops can be grown late in the fall and early in the spring. Over
most of the state they can be grown during the entire winter.
Cabbage and all its relatives, such as cauliflower, Brussels
sprouts, collards, turnips, mustard and radishes, do well in cool
weather. Other crops that thrive in cool weather are lettuce,
endive, spinach, carrots, beets and onions.
Warm Season Crops.-Snap beans, lima beans, cucumber, to-
matoes and sweet corn must be grown in a frost-free season,
but will produce highest yields if grown before or after the
season of hot summer temperatures. Some of these crops will
grow during hot weather but it is almost impossible to control
diseases and insects at that time. Plant these crops immediately
following, or just previous to, the last frost.
Hot Weather Crops.-The number of crops that thrive during
hot weather in Florida is limited. However, sweet potatoes,
New Zealand spinach, okra, eggplant, pepper and watermelons
will all produce during hot weather.

HARVESTING
To insure high quality products harvest most vegetables
promptly when they are ready. Many deteriorate rapidly. Sweet
corn and English peas lose 12 of their sweetness at prevailing
field temperature in 2 days after they reach edible maturity, and
snap beans rapidly become fibrous once the pod is fully grown.
However, not all crops lose quality quickly. Carrots, turnips,






Florida Cooperative Extension


beets and all root crops continue to be of high quality as long as
they continue to grow rapidly. Peppers and eggplants may be
harvested over a long period without decrease in quality. For
best quality, allow such crops as tomatoes, cantaloupes and
watermelons to ripen on the vines.
Crops that deteriorate rapidly on the plant, such as corn,
peas and beans, will continue to lose quality when removed from
the plant. This change occurs much more rapidly at high than
at low temperature. In storing, hold them at as low a tempera-
ture as possible without freezing them. Make every effort, once
the crop is grown, to harvest it at the proper time.
When harvesting vegetables remove and destroy all cull
products. Removing all fruit will keep the plant producing
longer and help in controlling certain insects and diseases.

SURPLUS PRODUCTS
While their primary interest is products for home use, home
gardeners often have a surplus of certain vegetables. Preserve
this surplus for the future-by canning, salt brining, dehydrat-
ing or storing dry. If a surplus remains after these needs are
filled, sell it.
To be marketable, surplus garden produce must be of as high
quality as that of the commercial grower and must be graded
and packaged so that it is acceptable to the buyer.

Fig. 4.-The whole family cans the garden surplus at the community center.


~B i.;1




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