• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Credits
 Table of Contents
 Score for judging canned fruits...
 Canning a necessity
 Vitamins in canned food
 Why foods spoil
 Canning equipment
 Operations of water bath
 Steam pressure canner
 Operation of steam pressure...
 Containers to use in canning
 Marking cans and jars
 Spoilage and storage
 Using the hot pack method...
 Syrups for canning fruits
 Special directions for canning...
 Standards and nomenclature designed...
 Special directions for canning...
 Standards and grades for canned...
 Quality standards for fancy canned...
 Tables














Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Extension Service ; 103
Title: Can surplus fruits and vegetables
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027660/00001
 Material Information
Title: Can surplus fruits and vegetables
Series Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Extension Service ; 103
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Thursby, Isabelle S.
Publisher: Cooperative extension work in agriculture and home economics,
Publication Date: 1939
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027660
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Credits
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Score for judging canned fruits and vegetables
        Page 4
    Canning a necessity
        Page 5
    Vitamins in canned food
        Page 5
    Why foods spoil
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Canning equipment
        Page 8
    Operations of water bath
        Page 9
    Steam pressure canner
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Operation of steam pressure method
        Page 11
    Containers to use in canning
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Marking cans and jars
        Page 15
    Spoilage and storage
        Page 16
    Using the hot pack method in canning
        Page 17
    Syrups for canning fruits
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Special directions for canning berries and fruits
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
    Standards and nomenclature designed for canned fruits
        Page 34
    Special directions for canning vegetables
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
    Standards and grades for canned vegetables
        Page 45
    Quality standards for fancy canned vegetables
        Page 46
    Tables
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
Full Text



Bulletin 103 Revision of Bulletin 64)


September, 1939


COOPERATIVE EXTENSION WORK IN
AGRICULTURE AND HOME ECONOMICS
(Acts of May 8 and June 30, 1914)
CULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE, UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
FLORIDA STATE COLLEGE FOR WOMEN
AND UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE
COOPERATING
WILMON NEWELL. Director


Revision of
ao1. rc
rOe810. 11


CAN SURPLUS FRUITS AND

VEGETABLES
By ISABELLE S. THURSBY


Fig. 1.-The time has come to understand more fully the value of garden products,
fresh or canned, to the health of farm people. Vegetables, fruit, milk and eggs are grouped
as protective foods. A well planned garden and a well canned pantry should provide a
generous year-round variety of these protective foods.

Single copies free to Florida residents upon request to
STATE HOME DEMONSTRATION DEPARTMENT
TALLAHASSEE, FLORIDA







BOARD OF CONTROL
R. P. TERRY, Chairman, Miami
THOMAS W. BRYANT, Lakeland
W. M. PALMER, Ocala
H. P. ADAIR, Jacksonville
C. P. HELFENSTEIN, Live Oak
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Tallahassee

STAFF, AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION SERVICE
JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A., LL.D., President of the University
WILMON NEWELL, D.Sc., Director of Extension1
A. P. SPENCER, M.S., Vice-Director and County Agent Leader
J. FRANCIS COOPER, M.S.A., Editor'
JEFFERSON THOMAS, Assistant Editor'
CLYDE BEALE, A.B.J., Assistant Editor'
E. F. STANTON, Supervisor, Egg-Laying Contest
RUBY NEWHALL, Administrative Managerl
COOPERATIVE AGRICULTURAL DEMONSTRATION WORK
W. T. NETTLES, B.S., District Agent
H. G. CLAYTON, M.S.A., District Agent, Organization and Outlook Specialist
J. LEE SMITH, District Agent and Agronomist
R. S. DENNIS, B.S.A., Assistant District Agent
A. E. DUNSCOMBE, M.S.A., Assistant District Agent
R. W. BLACKLOCK, A.B., Boys' Club Agent
E. F. DEBUSK, B.S., Citriculturist
A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Animal Industrialist'
HAMLIN L. BROWN, B.S., Dairyman
N. R. MEHRHOF, M.AGR., Poultryman'
D. F. SOWELL, M.S.A., Assistant Poultryman
WALTER J. SHEELY, B.S., Animal Husbandman
L. T. NIELAND, Farm Forester
C. V. NOBLE, PH.D., Agricultural Economist'
D. E. TIMMONS, M.S.A., Agricultural Economist, Marketing
CHARLES M. HAMPSON, M.S., Agricultural Economist, Farm Management
R. H. HOWARD, M.S.A., Asst. Agr. Economist, Farm Management
GRAY MILEY, B.S.A., Asst. Agr. Economist, Farm Management
JOSEPH C. BEDSOLE, B.S.A., Asst. Economist, Farm Management
R. V. ALLISON, PH.D., Soil Conservationist'
COOPERATIVE HOME DEMONSTRATION WORK
MARY E. KEOWN, M.S., State Agent
LUCY BELLE SETTLE, M.A., District Agent
RUBY MCDAVID, District Agent
ETHYL HOLLOWAY, B.S.H.E., District Agent
ANNA MAE SIKES, B.S., Nutritionist
VIRGINIA P. MOORE, Home Improvement Agent
ISABELLE S. THURSBY, Economist in Food Conservation
CLARINE BELCHER, M.S., Clothing Specialist
NEGRO EXTENSION WORK
A. A. TURNER, Local District Agent
BEULAH SHUTE, Local District Agent

1Part-time.














CONTENTS


Page
Canning a Necessity ......... ....... 5
Vitamins in Canned Foods ....... 5
Why Foods Spoil ............ .. 6
Sterilization .......... .... ... 7
Canning Equipment ............... 8
Operations of Water Bath ........ 9
Steam Pressure Canner ........... 9
Operation of Steam Pressure
M ethod .................... ....... 11
Processing in the Oven ............... 12
Containers to Use in Canning .. 12
Glass Jars ........... .... ....... .. 12
Tin Cans ................... .. 14
Marking Cans and Jars ........ 15
Spoilage and Storage ......... 16
Using the Hot Pack Method in
Canning ........................ 17
Syrups for Canning Fruits ...... 18
Special Directions for Canning
Berries and Fruits 21
Avocado ..21
Berries ............ ................. 21
Cherries (Surinam or Florida) 22
Figs ........ .23
Grapefruit... 24
Grapes ........25
Guavas -..............-.. .. ........... 26
Loquat or Japanese Plum 27
M angos ................ ..... 27
Mayhaw ....................... 28
Papaya ..........-. ............ 28
Peaches ............ ... 29
Pears ... ........ ..... 30
Pecans ..... ... ............ 32
Persimmon ..... .... 32
Plum s .................... ........ .. 33
Roselle or "Jelly" Okra 33


Page
Standards and Nomenclature De-
signed for Canned Fruits .... 34
Special Directions for Canning
V vegetables ........ .. ............... 34
Beans ............................. 36
Beets ..................................... 37
Broccoli .... ...... .. .....- .......... 37
Carrots and Other Root Crops 37
Celery ....................... ................ 37
Chayote and Summer Squash .. 38
C orn .... ................................... 38
Eggplant ......... ...... ...... ..... 38
G reens ....................... ..... 39
H om iny .............................. 39
Okra ..................... .... ...... .... 39
Okra and Tomatoes .................. 40
Peas .... .. .... .......... 40
Pimientos .............. ...... .......... 41
Pumpkin or Winter Squash ..... 42
Sauerkraut _............ .. .. ....... 42
Tomatoes -...... ................. ...... 43
Vegetables for Soups ....... -...... 45
Standards and Grades for Canned
Vegetables ............................... 45
Quality Standards for Fancy
Canned Vegetables .......-..... 46
Table 1. Condensed Directions
for Canning Fruits and To-
m atoes ........... ....... ............... 47
Table 2. Condensed Directions
for Canning Non-Acid Vege-
tables ...................... ............. 49
Table 3. Approximate Yield of
Canned Products from Given
Quantities of Fresh Fruits
and Vegetables .................... 51










SCORE FOR


JUDGING CANNED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES

1. P package ..... .. .... --.... .... .... ......... .... ..-. --- -- -- --- ----------- ---. 10
Of uniform or specified size. Clean, polished. Labels
neat, comprehensive-as specified. (If tins are used,
they should be bright, with slightly concave ends,
showing some vacuum. A gauge may be used to
determine vacuum.)

2. Pack .. .. ............ ... .. .. ... 30
F ullness .. .. ........ ............. .. ...... .. ..... 10
As full as possible, with proper head space, yet with
contents preserved in good shape.
No air bubbles.
U uniform ity .... ...... .. .. ...... ......... ... .........-- ---- 10
Pieces of fruit or vegetable of appropriate and
reasonably uniform size, convenient for serving; at-
tractive shape and attractively arranged, showing
good workmanship, not careless preparation-a fancy
product, not a fancy pack. No foreign matter present,
such as sand, grit; no unnecessary bits of stem, seed,
core, leaf, silk, etc.
Proportion of fruit or vegetable to liquid .................... ...... 10
Proper proportion of fruit or vegetable to juice-not
excessive in amount, not more than can be served
with fruit; upper level of liquid should come as near
top of jar as possible to prevent discoloration-
oxidation.

3. P product ..- .. .... ..... .. ... ........... ..- ...... -- 60
Clearness .............. ................. ... ... .. .---. ----------------.... 10
Greatest degree possible in a rich, concentrated juice
for fancy or grade A fruit; no cloudiness or small
particles of fruit or vegetable.
C olor ..... ... ... ..- ........ ........ .... .. ......... --- ------ ... ..... .. 10
Natural color good and well preserved through suc-
cessful processing and efficient storage; not unduly
bleached or darkened. No artificial coloring matter
used.
Texture and ripeness or maturity ......................---....-.----.-.. 10
Not tough, too green, or hard; tender but not over-
cooked or mushy.
F lavor ..... .... ......- .......... ... .... ...... ............. --- .. ...... ... 30
Characteristic of the fruit or vegetable. No sugges-
tion of staleness, under- or over-ripeness, over-
cooking, decomposition.


................~ ....100


Total Score .....









CAN SURPLUS FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
Written and Compiled by
ISABELLE S. THURSBY

CANNING A NECESSITY
Few realize the great service that canned food has rendered
and still is rendering the race. The human machine must have
proper foods in proper proportions. In congested sections of
great cities where thousands live on a city block, unless foods
could be secured in condensed and concentrated form, proper
feeding would be impossible. In the day when an automobile
trip across the continent is a common occurrence and when
men think nothing of a voyage to frozen regions of the North
or to torrid jungles of the South, the canned product is a ne-
cessity.
Many women have not learned the satisfaction that comes
year after year from replenishing the pantry shelves with home-
grown products, furnishing the family with a more healthful
and varied menu, nor have many women appreciated the oppor-
tunities that the great tourist trade offers to those who make
canning an art. On the other hand, a few women in Florida
have studied canning, have put into it thought and care and
have worked to develop a product that would rank with the
best and have built up profitable industries in their own kitchens.
Haphazard canning brings little satisfaction. The home can-
ner should study the food needs of her family. She should
consider what fresh fruits and vegetables will be available each
month, and can for one season the foods that will be scarce
another season. Each housewife should prepare a canning
budget.
If interested in budgeting for an adequate, up-to-date food
supply, ask your County Home Demonstration Agent for "The
Canning Budget" and "All-Year Garden and Orchard Record
Book".
VITAMINS IN CANNED FOODS

It has been demonstrated by scientists that the vitamin con-
tent of canned foods is not only comparable to that of fresh
foods cooked in the home kitchen, but in many cases canned
foods are much the more favorable source. The canning pro-
cess seems to be peculiarly favorable to the preservation of
vitamin C. due to the fact, recently discovered, that the de-









CAN SURPLUS FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
Written and Compiled by
ISABELLE S. THURSBY

CANNING A NECESSITY
Few realize the great service that canned food has rendered
and still is rendering the race. The human machine must have
proper foods in proper proportions. In congested sections of
great cities where thousands live on a city block, unless foods
could be secured in condensed and concentrated form, proper
feeding would be impossible. In the day when an automobile
trip across the continent is a common occurrence and when
men think nothing of a voyage to frozen regions of the North
or to torrid jungles of the South, the canned product is a ne-
cessity.
Many women have not learned the satisfaction that comes
year after year from replenishing the pantry shelves with home-
grown products, furnishing the family with a more healthful
and varied menu, nor have many women appreciated the oppor-
tunities that the great tourist trade offers to those who make
canning an art. On the other hand, a few women in Florida
have studied canning, have put into it thought and care and
have worked to develop a product that would rank with the
best and have built up profitable industries in their own kitchens.
Haphazard canning brings little satisfaction. The home can-
ner should study the food needs of her family. She should
consider what fresh fruits and vegetables will be available each
month, and can for one season the foods that will be scarce
another season. Each housewife should prepare a canning
budget.
If interested in budgeting for an adequate, up-to-date food
supply, ask your County Home Demonstration Agent for "The
Canning Budget" and "All-Year Garden and Orchard Record
Book".
VITAMINS IN CANNED FOODS

It has been demonstrated by scientists that the vitamin con-
tent of canned foods is not only comparable to that of fresh
foods cooked in the home kitchen, but in many cases canned
foods are much the more favorable source. The canning pro-
cess seems to be peculiarly favorable to the preservation of
vitamin C. due to the fact, recently discovered, that the de-






Florida Cooperative Extension


structive force is not heat alone but the combined action of
heat and atmospheric oxygen. In the open kettle method of
cooking vegetables in the home there is far greater chance for
oxidation to take place than when the vegetables are given a
short pre-cook, then sealed hot and sterilized in the can.
As a rule, vitamins A, B and G are not so readily affected
as vitamin C, and vitamins D and E are not appreciably affected
by the heat applied either in cooking or in processing.
As to protein, carbohydrate and mineral contents of canned
vegetables and fruit, it is obvious, after a moment's considera-
tion, that there would be no greater loss of these elements in
the canned vegetable than in the fresh product cooked on top
of the stove. There are today no experimental data to show
that canned foods are less nutritious than foods as usually
cooked.
WHY FOODS SPOIL
Successful canning is based on an understanding of the im-
portant causes for the rapid deterioration and spoilage of fresh
foods and on a knowledge of the methods by which this spoil-
age may be prevented. There are two main causes of food
spoilage: the action of enzymes and the action of three groups
of minute organisms that are always present on the outside of
fruits and vegetables, in fact on everything. These are molds,
yeasts and bacteria. The art of canning is an attempt to free
foods of these substances and to keep them free of reinfection
by sealing them in air-tight containers. If the home canner
fully understands this fact and will remember that micro-
organisms are everywhere, she will have greater success.
Enzymes.-All fresh fruits, vegetables and meats contain
substances called enzymes. Up to a certain point they bring
about desirable changes in foods. They cause fruits and vege-
tables to ripen normally and the tissues of meats to become
more tender as they are held in storage, but if allowed to go
on unchecked enzymes hasten the decay of foods. The low
temperature of cold storage retards the action of enzymes and
the heat of cooking or canning destroys them entirely.
Yeasts and Molds.-Members of this group when allowed to
grow on foods cause changes many of which bring about actual
spoilage. Familiar examples of changes that stop short of
spoilage are the souring of milk, rising of bread, fermenting of
sauerkraut, making of vinegar, ripening of cheese. They are







Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables


easily destroyed by heat in canning. Temperatures below the
boiling point of water (1500 F. to 180 F.) for varying periods
of time are effective in destroying them.
The appearance of mold growth is familiar to everyone. There
are many kinds of yeasts. Some are responsible for consider-
able spoilage of canned fruits and preserves since they are
active destroyers of sugar. When this happens it means that
too little heat was used at some step of the canning procedure,
or that the container was defective and allowed the organisms
to gain entrance from the air.
Bacteria.-These organisms cause the most trouble for the
home canner. While bacteria are growing actively they are
easily destroyed at the temperature of boiling water (2120 F.).
However, some kinds of bacteria go through a dormant or spore
form in the course of their life cycle and in that stage are
very resistant to heat. This occurs under unfavorable condi-
tions of crop growth, such as long dry seasons. The spores
are very resistant even to long boiling, but at 240 F., the
temperature obtained in the steam pressure canner, they may
be destroyed in 30 minutes.
Whether foods are acid or non-acid also makes a difference
in the rate at which bacteria may be killed.
"Two hours from garden to can" is a good rule to follow in
canning vegetables and fruits. Quick handling prevents en-
zyme action and bacterial growth, both of which are hastened
when food is allowed to stand in a warm place. Likewise can-
ning success depends to a considerable degree upon clean food,
clean equipment, clean methods, and personal cleanliness.
STERILIZATION
Sterilization means the complete destruction of all forms of
life in the product sterilized. This is usually done by heat. The
product to be preserved is placed in the jar or can and heated
to a temperature fatal to all the micro-organisms it contains.
That sterilized products shall not spoil they must be sealed air-
tight to exclude the entrance of any other spoilage organisms.
The temperature necessary to sterilize varies with the pro-
duct. Bacteria do not develop readily in an acid medium so
the acid fruits and tomatoes require lower temperatures for
sterilization. The yeasts and molds, commonly found on fruits
and tomatoes, are destroyed at boiling temperature (212' F.),
and some even below this temperature.







Florida Cooperative Extension


Products low in acid and often high in protein and contain-
ing heat-resistant organisms are difficult to sterilize. All vege-
tables except tomatoes and all meats fall in this class. These
products should be canned only in the steam pressure cooker.
Bacteria in these products are destroyed in the pressure cooker
which subjects them to a temperature of 240 to 2500 F. moist
heat, for varying lengths of time.
Most fruit juices can be safely sterilized at temperatures of
from 1650 to 175 F., and temperatures above boiling should
be avoided, as they change the flavor of the juices. The original
character and flavor of the fresh fruit is desirable.

CANNING EQUIPMENT
Take stock of equipment, as well as supplies needed for can-
ning. Plan for convenient equipment and arrangement-clean
surroundings, well screened; plenty of hot and cold water. Elab-
orate, expensive equipment is not needed, little more is required
than should be found in any well-appointed kitchen.















Fig. 2.-A funnel is an efficient
aid in filling jars.

Fig. 3.-A dilver.

Shallow trays, pans, bowls and vegetable brushes are needed
for grading, sorting and washing; colanders or sieves for wash-
ing and draining berries; sharp paring knives for peeling and
cutting, a silver or "stainless" steel knife for the fruit that
discolors with the use of steel.
Jar fillers, funnels, and flexible wooden or metal spatulas are
all great conveniences in filling jars and bottles. Some sort







Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables


of jar lifter is essential, or a wire basket that makes it possible
to lift a large number of jars in and out of the canner at one
time. These baskets can be made at home or by a tinner at
small expense. Half-pint and pint size measuring cups, tea-
spoons, tablespoons, clock and sca'es all aid in securing accurate
results. A food chopper that delivers its contents into one
vessel without a drip and a dilver are good investments.
A dilver, or a fruit press, is a valuable piece of equipment,
especially in South Florida, if used only for work with guavas.
The dilver serves as a fruit or vegetable press, sieve, colander
and ricer. A wash boiler, lard tin, peanut butter tin, or any
vessel large enough to ho'd a convenient number of jars is
required for processing fruits and tomatoes. It should be pro-
vided with a rack and a cover and should be deep enough to allow
water to cover jars to a depth of at least one inch. The rack
or false bottom may be made of wooden strips or of strong wire
netting, which is raised a half inch or more above the bottom
of the vessel, thus allowing full circulation of water under jars.
The water bath or wash boiler method is preferable to the pres-
sure cooker for canning all fruits and tomatoes.

OPERATIONS OF WATER BATH
1. Count time as soon as water reaches the boiling point.
Keep boiling at a moderate rather than a vigorous rate.
2. Have water well over tops of cans or jars.
3. Remove the cans or jars as soon as the processing time
is complete. Tighten covers immediately without lifting the lid,
if not completely sealed before processing. Test for leaks.
4. Cool jars quickly, but do not allow a draft as the jars
may crack in quick contraction, as a result of too rapid cooling.
If tins are used, plunge immediately in cold water.
If an imperfect seal is discovered within a day after a jar
has cooled, open it and use contents, if good; discard if not
good. It is not wise to reprocess after the contents have cooled,
as this overcooks the food.

STEAM PRESSURE CANNER
The steam pressure canner, or cooker, is recommended for
use in processing non-acid vegetables as well as for canning
all meats, fish, and sea food. Those who can these foods should
equip themselves with pressure cookers, not only because of the







Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables


of jar lifter is essential, or a wire basket that makes it possible
to lift a large number of jars in and out of the canner at one
time. These baskets can be made at home or by a tinner at
small expense. Half-pint and pint size measuring cups, tea-
spoons, tablespoons, clock and sca'es all aid in securing accurate
results. A food chopper that delivers its contents into one
vessel without a drip and a dilver are good investments.
A dilver, or a fruit press, is a valuable piece of equipment,
especially in South Florida, if used only for work with guavas.
The dilver serves as a fruit or vegetable press, sieve, colander
and ricer. A wash boiler, lard tin, peanut butter tin, or any
vessel large enough to ho'd a convenient number of jars is
required for processing fruits and tomatoes. It should be pro-
vided with a rack and a cover and should be deep enough to allow
water to cover jars to a depth of at least one inch. The rack
or false bottom may be made of wooden strips or of strong wire
netting, which is raised a half inch or more above the bottom
of the vessel, thus allowing full circulation of water under jars.
The water bath or wash boiler method is preferable to the pres-
sure cooker for canning all fruits and tomatoes.

OPERATIONS OF WATER BATH
1. Count time as soon as water reaches the boiling point.
Keep boiling at a moderate rather than a vigorous rate.
2. Have water well over tops of cans or jars.
3. Remove the cans or jars as soon as the processing time
is complete. Tighten covers immediately without lifting the lid,
if not completely sealed before processing. Test for leaks.
4. Cool jars quickly, but do not allow a draft as the jars
may crack in quick contraction, as a result of too rapid cooling.
If tins are used, plunge immediately in cold water.
If an imperfect seal is discovered within a day after a jar
has cooled, open it and use contents, if good; discard if not
good. It is not wise to reprocess after the contents have cooled,
as this overcooks the food.

STEAM PRESSURE CANNER
The steam pressure canner, or cooker, is recommended for
use in processing non-acid vegetables as well as for canning
all meats, fish, and sea food. Those who can these foods should
equip themselves with pressure cookers, not only because of the







Florida Cooperative Extension


great saving of time, energy and fuel, but especially because
of the greater security afforded through cooking at high tem-
perature these products which are unsafe to can by means of
the water bath.
Pressure cookers, or steam pressure canners, range in size
from the small one which will hold only three quart jars to the
factory sizes which have a
capacity of thousands of
cans per day. Pressure cook-
ers for family use may vary
in price from $10 to $60,
Z depending upon the size and
,"/ make desired.
The steam pressure can-
Sner is constructed of strong
S' material and provided with
I'' a tightly fitting lid which
.'Ji i il when clamped in place makes
Sit possible to hold steam
1 iiunder pressure and obtain
S'' a correspondingly high
-;' I temperature ranging
I from 2120 F. to 2740 F.
!.E ,iach steam pressure
"i outfit is equipped with
*. a pressure gauge which
--registers the pressure in
Fig. 4.-Steam pressure cooker. pounds and the corre-
sponding temperature, a
safety valve, and usually, a steam petcock. It may be easily
regulated so as to maintain the desired pressure and tempera-
ture and can be used for cooking as well as for canning.
In the use of the steam pressure canner the products, properly
prepared and packed into containers, are cooked under a pres-
sure of from 5 to 15 pounds of steam. This means a tempera-
ture of 229 F. to 250 F. All organisms in both the active
and spore forms are destroyed in a relatively short time under
such high temperatures. Most of the non-acid vegetables and
meat products usually are cooked under steam pressure of 10
pounds or 240 F. This temperature applied for the proper
length of time will not injure the quality of the product, and
will destroy all harmful organisms.







Can Surplus 'Friits and Vegetables 11

The pressure cooker method is employed by commercial can-
ners for all meats and all vegetables except tomatoes.
Processing is the most important operation in canning. No
matter how carefully all other steps may have been performed,
if the processing is not thorough, if all organisms are not killed
or rendered harmless, the material will spoil. When all bacteria,
yeasts and molds present in the food and in the can are de-
stroyed, and when the can is sealed air-tight so that no new
organisms can enter, the food cannot fail to keep. If either
one is partially done, it cannot fail to spoil.

OPERATION OF STEAM PRESSURE METHOD
1. Fill pressure cooker with water to a depth of two inches.
Heat. Place properly packed jars or sealed tins on rack.
2. When canner is filled, place cover in position with the
mark on the cover and canner in conjunction. Fasten mod-
erately tight, one pair at a time. the clamps which are opposite
each other; then go back over all the clamps, tightening each.
3. See that no steam escapes anywhere except at the pet-
cock when it is open. Allow the pet-cock to remain open until
the steam escapes with a hissing noise, or for at least 7 minutes,
then close.
4. Allow temperature to rise until gauge registers the de-
sired pressure. Usually 10 pounds is sufficient for canning.
5. Count time from moment desired pressure is reached and
regulate fire to maintain that pressure. Fluctuations in pressure
when canning in glass, as from 10 pounds to 7 pounds and back
again to 10 pounds, are very likely to result in loss of liquid from
the jar. The steam formed under the liquid under sudden re-
duction of pressure cannot escape enough through the narrow
space between cover and rubber, and it "boils up" so furiously
that it pushes the liquid out of the jar. This is likely to happen
with any sudden drop in pressure. It is especially likely to
happen if the pressure is allowed to go so high that the safety
valve releases the steam rapidly.
6. Lack of liquid in canned products may be due also to in-
sufficient pre-cooking; to failure to expel all air from spaces
among particles of products when jar was filled with liquid;
to improper packing of jar. i. e.. packing loosely in bottom and
tightly near top.
7. Uniform pressure may be maintained by turning the gas,
or kerosene flame up or down. as need arises: or in case of wood






Florida Cooperative Extension


stove, by moving the canner away from flame to retard heat.
8. Remove canner from fire at end of processing period. If
glass jars are used let pressure run down to zero before pet-
cock is opened. If opened before pressure falls to zero the jars
will lose a part or all of their liquid contents. Also if the canner
is opened before the pressure has fallen to zero steam may
scald the operator. Even when No. 2 tin cans are used the
release cock should be opened very slowly and cautiously. For
No. 3 cans it is better to allow pressure to fall to zero before
removing, since a sudden release of steam offers too great a
strain on the seams of the cans. The cans should then be
immediately removed and plunged into water to cool.

PROCESSING IN THE OVEN
The oven is often recommended for the processing of food
in glass jars. However, the dry air of an oven conducts heat
less readily than does steam or hot water. The temperature
of the product in the jar never exceeds 212 F. although the
temperature of the oven may be much higher (250o-275 F.)
than the boiling point of water. If the jars are compietel.
sealed before being put in the oven there will be some steam
pressure but this is not advised, since the accumulated steam
would break the seals or the jars themselves. The use of the
oven is not recommended for canning meat, fish or non-acid
vegetables.

CONTAINERS TO USE IN CANNING
GLASS JARS
To be satisfactory, a jar should give an air-tight seal and
should have a simple, efficient means of sealing.
Glass jars are known by the caps they wear. They come in
three types: the old, original mason jar with the porcelain
lined metal screw cap; the lightning type with a glass disc
cover held in place by two wire clamps; and the automatic self
or vacuum-sealing type that seals automatically when cooled.
The lid or cap of the mason jar is hard to clean and the
porcelain lining may become loosened or chipped. If this hap
pens, or the metal part of the cap is dented or bent. the cap
must be replaced by a new one.
The lightning type jar with its glass lid can be cleaned and
sterilized easily, but the wire clamps may become loosened from
use and must be adjusted. This type of jar is sanitary. simple.







Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables


and of attractive appearance, and gives good service under
Florida conditions.
The automatic sealing lids on the third type can be used only
once, necessitating replacement of the cover.
Glass jars should be selected and purchased from the stand-
point of quality of glass, durability or re-use value, and ease
with which they can be sealed rather than from the standpoint
of the initial cost. All jars manufactured for use in the home.
regardless of type, when used according to directions furnished
by the maker will give what is essential to all-an air-tight seal.
The wire clamps which fit over the gass top on the rubber
band and which hold the top in place are not easily subject
to rust, corrosion or other deterioration influenced by climatic
conditions. This glass top is easily cleaned and unless care-
lessly cracked or nicked may be used over and over again. The
relatively high initial cost of the all-glass type jar is offset
by this advantage.
All jars, before being filled, should be tested and the im-
perfect ones discarded. First, examine for cracks, nicks and
bubble holes. Next examine the surface upon which the lid
or cover makes its contact with the jar, where the seal will
be made. Both the top of the jar and the lid should feel smooth
to the touch and should form a perfect plane.
Test for Seal.-Partially fill jar with warm water, adjust
rubber and lid and seal jar. Invert and shake vigorously. If
no water escapes, the jar has a perfect seal and is suitable
to use in canning. When the clamp is adjusted, it should slip
into the notch on the cover with a slight snap. (If too loose.
it may slip off during processing and the contents of the jar
will be spoiled.) Remove the bail from the jar, bend it down-
ward slightly in the middle, then bend the sides in to fit the
jar. Replace and test again. If the bail is too tight the cover
may be broken while processing. Never use two rubbers to
tighten clamp. Instead, adjust the bails as directed. New bails
may be purchased from the factory to replace old ones if needed.
Rubbers.-The rubber is the most important factor in secur-
ing a perfect seal. Only the best new rubbers should be used.
Never use rubbers a second year. A good rubber is soft and
elastic and should stretch readily and return to normal size.
When sealing jars be sure no salt, seeds or pulp are on the
rubber band or on the part of the jar where the rubber band
rests.







Florida Cooperative Extension


TIN CANS
Canning in tin should be more popular than it is, now that
sanitary tins and an easily operated sealing machine are on the
market at a very nominal price. It is often quite feasible for
several families to join in the purchase and use of a sealer.
Some of the many advantages of canning in tin are: No
danger of breaking, no loss of liquid, ease of handling when
processing under pressure. Tin cans heat through more quickly
and may be plunged immediately into cold water. This rapid
cooling checks the cooking and produces a more desirable pro-
duct.
The large opening in the new type tin makes it easier to
pack some products in tin than in glass jars unless the newer,
wide mouth jars are used.



















Fig. 5.-Small hand sealing machine for sanitary tins.

It is recommended that all vegetables except tomatoes be
sterilized under steam pressure. Glass jars are not as satis-
factory to use in a pressure sterilizer as tin. Frequently much
of the liquid boils out of the container, causing the jar after
sterilization to be only three-quarters or one-half filled with
liquid, unless considerable care is used during sterilization and
cooling. These difficulties are overcome in commercial canneries
by the use of compressed air in the pressure canners, but this
is not possible for the home canner.







Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables


Sanitary cans are really the most satisfactory containers for
vegetables that must be sterilized under pressure in the home.
Tins with special enamel linings are recommended for canning
certain products. R-enamel or sanitary enamel-bright gold in
appearance-is used for any product whose color would be af-
fected by contact with plain tin and cause it to fade. This
includes all red fruits, berries, beets and pumpkin.
C-enamel is a lacquer which is dull gold in appearance and is
used exclusively for certain vegetables, meats, fish, lye hominy.
and such other products as may form black discolorations either
in the food itself or on the can. This black discoloration is iron
sulphide, and though entirely harmless, it detracts greatly from
the appearance of the food. C-enamel should not be used for
any product which is acid, nor for vegetables canned with an
acid or vinegar sauce.
However, plain tin may be safely used for any food product
and is usually recommended to the home canner who is canning
small amounts of several different products. Tin is not harmful
to the human system in any quantities which might go into
solution in canned foods. Food packed in plain clean tin is
perfectly safe and wholesome. When in doubt as to which kind
of enamel to use, play safe and use only plain tin.
In the time tables for fruit and vegetable canning, pages 47
to 50, recommendations are given for the type of can to be used
with the various products.
Sealing Sanitary Tins.-Very little experience is required to
obtain a perfect seal with the hand-power sealers used for sani-
tary tins if the directions accompanying the sealer are followed
closely. The prepared food is packed boiling hot into the hot,
sterile can, and boiling hot syrup or other liquid is added to
fill it within one-fourth inch of the top and the tin is quickly
sealed before the contents have had time to cool.

MARKING CANS AND JARS
All containers should be plainly marked with name and grade
of the product. India ink or canners' ink is used satisfactorily
for marking tins, as it stands hot water. Also, wax pencils
are specially made for writing on tin and glass. After steriliza-
tion gummed labels may be used. All lots should be dated so
that products canned earliest can be used first. Also the con-
tainers of each lot may be identified later, and a short record
giving the time of pre-cook and sterilization in each case should







Florida Cooperative Extension


be kept for future reference. Such labeling and records will
be found very valuable in locating the cause of spoilage, should
this occur, and in tabulating helpful reference material.

SPOILAGE AND STORAGE
Spoilage.-Sometimes with an inexperienced person canning
in tin and using the sealer, leaks will occur around the seam
of sanitary cans. Leaks, however, can be detected by bubbles
appearing when the cans are dropped into hot water. Leaks
permit air to enter, and the air brings with it "germs" which
cause the fruit or other product to mold, ferment, or produce
a gas that sometimes causes the cans to swell. Flat sour.
however, is not indicated from any outside appearance of the
can. It may result from canning stale vegetables, improper
cooling, or from storage in too warm a place. A sound tin or
glass jar should have a vacuum which is indicated by the suc-
tion of the air into the tin or jar when it is first opened. If
the cover on a jar is difficult to remove, it is usually a sign of
good vacuum.1
Spoiled cans or jars of food should never even be tasted. They
may be deadly poison. Do not feed spoiled food to poultry or
animals; it may poison them. Bury it deeply.
Storage.-It is also generally true of any canned product.
and some are more definitely unstable than others, that while
they may not show spoilage by molding, souring, or fermenting,
even when properly pasteurized or sterilized they still may de-
teriorate. They may change in flavor and in other ways lose
quality and food value from exposure to light and heat through
improper storage.
For this reason, special precautions needed to preserve the
high degree of color, flavor, texture, vitamin content, and other
valuable characteristics of the raw products should be strictly
observed.

1A good vacuum in the sealed container is of primary importance in
the canning of food. A vacuum is produced in the jar or tin either by
heating the food before it is packed (precook) or by heating the product
in the container (exhaust). The application of heat causes the internal
gases and vapors to expand. Upon cooling there is a contraction of the
expanded gases, vapors and solids and a partial vacuum is formed within
the container. In addition to inhibiting the growth of spoilage micro-
organisms, the vacuum serves to maintain an effective seal. The average
vacuum considered safe for foods in tin cans is 12 inches. A device for
testing vacuum may be purchased for about $4.00. The exclusion of air.
through complete filling of containers and closing under a hot exhaust,
is most important in preventing deterioration and protecting the quality
of canned products during the hot summer months.







Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables


Today perhaps as much attention is being called to the need
for better and more modern storage facilities as to any other
item of improvement in canning technology. The home canner
must likewise be concerned with improvement of her storage
facilities. The ideal home storage room should be well venti-
lated, dry, clean, dark, free from odors, and of a favorable or
low storage temperature. This ventilated pantry should be con-
structed so that the cool air which is stored up under the house
or in the house may circulate constantly through the space
throughout the day, keeping the products at approximately the
same temperature that is maintained in a cellar or other under-
ground storage space.2

USING THE HOT PACK METHOD IN CANNING
The newer method in canning is called "hot pack". In this
a short precooking of the vegetables or fruits is substituted for
the formerly recommended "blanching". Some of the cooking
water or syrup is used to fill the container scalding hot and it
is then processed. The difference between the "cold pack" and
the "hot pack" is that the "cold dip" is omitted and in place
of blanching in a large amount of water, the product is pre-
cooked in a small amount of liquid, usually until it boils, and
is thoroughly shrunken. This saving of valuable nutrients is
of great importance. An exception to the "hot pack" method
is found in grapefruit sections and tomatoes which are canned
by the "cold pack".
Steps in Hot Pack Canning.-Select only fresh, sound pro-
ducts. Can as soon as picked; do not let stand overnight. To
avoid heating keep products in cool place while waiting to can.
Grade for size, color and degree of ripeness. Do not can young,
tender vegetables with older ones; the one would be overcooked
before the other is thoroughly processed. Over-ripe products
may disintegrate, spoiling appearance of the product and some-
times leaving the liquid cloudy. Over-ripe but sound fruit
should be used in jams rather than for canning. For choice
products, fruits and vegetables must be in prime condition when
used for canning.
Preparation for Canning.-Clean products carefully, shell,
pare, scrape, core, seed, slice, according to fruit or vegetable

Tor full particulars and suggestive drawings for building ventilated
pantries, see your Home Demonstration Agent or write the State Home
Demonstration Office. Tallahassee. Florida.






Florida Cooperative Extension


and the purpose for which it is to be used. Peaches and toma-
toes are scalded and then are quickly dipped in cold water. The
skin will then slip easily. Make sure water bath or pressure
canner, whichever is needed, will be ready to receive jars or
tins as soon as packed.
Precooking is heating the fruit or vegetable in a syrup,
steam, or boiling or simmering water for a short time before
processing.
Packing.-Keep previously washed and rinsed jars in near
boiling water until food is ready for packing. Usually it is
more convenient to have rubber in place. Do not wipe out jar.
Merely shake out surplus moisture. Tins may be made ready
in the same way and held in warm place until needed. Give
the rubber and composition gasket covers a dip in boiling water
before using.
Fill the hot food immediately into the container after the
preparation is finished. Select for uniformity in size and qual-
ity, and arrange for a symmetrically placed and attractive pack.
Do not pack so loosely as to waste space in jars or cans, but
do not pack so tightly that there is not room for expansion.
Fill jar as packed with boiling liquid or syrup in which the
vegetable or fruit is precooked, leaving 1/4 inch head space.
Paddle or agitate to remove air bubbles as completely as pos-
sible.
Sealing and Processing.-Processing is the method of heating
a product in partially or completely sealed containers in boiling
water or steam, resulting in a product that will be attractive
and will keep for an indefinite length of time.

SYRUPS FOR CANNING FRUITS
Sugar is useful not only for sweetening but because it helps
fruits hold their shape, color, and natural flavor. Fruits for
pie making or for diabetic diets are often canned with no sugar.
In time they will fade somewhat in color, lose some of their
taste and texture. Using fruit juice instead of water empha-
sizes the flavor of the fruit and adds also to the food value.
When canning juicy fruits like berries, if sugar is not used,
can them in their own juices and add no water. Pick out the
riper fruits and extract the juice by crushing, heating and
straining. Pack remaining fruits closely and firmly into the
container without preheating, cover with the boiling hot juice
and process in water bath. Firm fruits like pears, peaches and







Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables


guavas which are not always juicy enough to provide all their
own juice for canning will need a small amount of water added
when canned without sugar. The least amount of
water possible should be used to avoid diluting
the fruit flavor.
For all practical purposes syrups for canning
may be prepared with the following proportion
of sugar and water: very light syrup, 1 cup sugar
to 4 cups water; medium, 1 cup sugar to 2 cups
water; heavy, 11/ cups sugar to 1 cup water. Add
sugar to water (or fruit juice), bring to boil.
strain to remove solid impurities and use boiling
hot. When measuring sugar see that it is well
settled in cup and slightly rounded. So measured.
1 cup sugar will equal weight of 1 cup watcr.
The proper method of expressing syrups is in
terms of percent of sugar. This may be deter-
mined by means of a special kind of hydrometer
known as a saccharimeter.
Which syrup to use depends upon (a) acidity
of fruit, (b) family preference, (c) the amount of
fruit packed into the jar.
The amount of syrup required to pack a quart
of fruit will depend largely upon the size of the
pieces of fruit and closeness of the pack. One to Fig. 6. A
hydrometer o r
11/4 cups may be allowed for one quart. This will Brix sacharim-
eter (inside the
serve as a guide to the beginner in making syrups. measuring
glass) for meas-
All fruits intended for desserts should be canned during sugar con-
in syrup (even fruits for salads usually take at ent of sy
least a light syrup). The syrup should be of such density and
of such quantity as to give a sub-acid taste without obscuring
any of the natural flavor and aroma of the fruit.
CANNING SYRUPS OF DIFFERENT DENSITIES
Syrup Density
Syrup Sugar Water Approximate Character of Syrup
Number (cups) (cups) Percentage
1 1 4 20 Very thin
2 1 2% 30 Thin
3 1 2 40 Medium
4 1 1 50 Thick
5 1% 1 60 Heavy






Florida Cooperative Extension


Fruit intended for cooking purposes may be canned, if de-
sired, without sugar. Sugar is used, not to preserve the fruit,
but to bring out the flavor and to improve the taste and tex-
ture. A No. 1 syrup may be used where heavier syrups are
quoted.
WHY FRUITS FLOAT IN THE JAR
Some fruits such as strawberries, guavas, and soft, juicy
plums contain much air and undergo considerable shrinkage
when heated. They give up a large portion of their juice,
and the shrunken fruit rises to the top of the jar. Often the
lower half or even two-thirds of the jar contains juice only
while the shriveled fruits fill the upper half or third.
When fruits are canned in syrup which is too heavy, the
syrup extracts through osmosis a large portion of the juice
from the fruit, causing it to shrink and float to the top of
the jar.
When fruits (also tomatoes) are over-processed, the cell
structure is broken down, causing the fruits to break up or
to shrink. In either event, the fruit becomes lighter than the
syrup or juice, and consequently it will float to the top of
the jar.
If given the proper preliminary pre-cook or shrinkage in the
syrups best adapted to their texture, peaches, pears, plums.
Surinam cherries, guavas, and all berries will be evenly dis-
tributed throughout the jar.
The natural color, flavor and texture of fruits must be re-
tained or improved in successful canning processes. Straw-
berries, wild plums, papaya, and some guavas tend to break
up when cooked or heated directly in syrup. If the sugar
concentration within the berry or fruit is not equal to that
without, the fruit floats. Hence, if strawberries and certain
other fruits are allowed to stand a few hours or sometimes
overnight in sugar, the fruit loses water, shrinks and becomes
slightly tough. Then, if heated slowly or removed from the
heat a few minutes before boiling and allowed to stand, usually
covered, the sugar penetrates the strawberry, plumps it, and
keeps it from floating.
Also strawberries and plums develop a strong flavor when
cooked a long time. Therefore, the sugar is allowed to pene-
trate before boiling. The best results are obtained if the cook
is rapid and the amount of fruit handled is small.







Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables


On the other hand, hard fruits such as pears, mangos and
some guavas must be softened first by cooking in water or a
light syrup. They will become hard and shriveled if placed
directly into a heavy syrup.

SPECIAL DIRECTIONS FOR CANNING BERRIES
AND FRUITS
AVOCADO
Methods of preserving the avocado and its by-products have,
to date, been unsuccessful. While color and texture may be
retained the resulting product proves flat and unapalatable after
a short time, even when held in cold storage.
BERRIES
Dewberries, blackberries, blueberries, elderberries, young-
berries, and mulberries take practically the same method of
canning. The condition of the fruit will have much to do with
the quality of the product. Berries should be gathered in shal-
low trays or baskets and not in deep baskets or buckets which
allow them to be bruised or crushed. They should be uniformly
ripe and sound, and as large as possible. Sort carefully and
wash by placing a shallow layer of fruit in colander or strainer
and dip in and out of water. Do not let stand in water. Remove
hulls or stems. Pack in hot, clean jars as closely as possible
without crushing. Do this by putting a few in a jar at a time
and gently pressing into place, layer by layer, until full, and
removing all air bubbles by gently agitating. Fill jar with hot
medium to heavy syrup. Complete seal and process pint jars
in water bath 10 to 12 minutes; quart jars 15 to 20 minutes.
When cool, store in dry, dark, ventilated pantry.
If in making syrup for berries, berry juice is used in place
of water, the product will be better in color, flavor and food
value. Canned berries have the variety of uses that fresh
berries have. They may be served as a breakfast fruit or for
dessert. They are excellent in pies, puddings or fruit sauces.
Strawberries are an exception and cannot be canned by the
above one-process method as they tend to lose both color and
flavor and rise in the jar, presenting a most unappetizing appear-
ance. The following directions for canning strawberries give
excellent results.
Use only freshly picked, perfectly sound, ripe strawberries.
(It is never desirable to can any fruit that is not in prime






Florida Cooperative Extension


eating condition.) Wash carefully and cap. Never allow them
to stand in water nor to stand long after being washed because
they soften rapidly when wet. To each pound of strawberries
allow 3/ to 1 cup of sugar. Place berries and sugar in alternate
layers in a kettle, reserving enough sugar to cover the top
layer completely. Cover vessel and set aside in a cool place
for several hours, over night if preferred. After standing it
will be found that the sugar has caused much juice to flow
from the fruit and that most of the sugar is in solution in
this juice. Now heat the fruit and syrup over a slow fire in
the partially covered kettle until all sugar is dissolved and sim-
mer gently for 7 to 10 minutes. Remove from the fire and
let stand covered until cold, or better yet, over night. Occa-
sional stirring of the fruit is advantageous. Reheat fruit to
below simmering (160' F.), pack in hot, sterile jars or R-enamel
tins. Seal and simmer pints in water bath 8 minutes.
The above method of canning strawberries, using a minimum
amount of sugar, rather than making preserves in which the
maximum amount of sugar is used, gives a product much to
be preferred and one in which the natural color, shape, flavor
and aroma are retained. These properly canned strawberries
are delightfully appetizing to use over cereal, in gelatine or
other desserts, ice cream, sherbet, and punch.
The strawberry is very unstable in color and flavor and should
be canned only in the amount needed until the fresh fruit is
in season again. (See "Conserving Florida Berries" and "Last
Lap on Strawberries" for further information.)

CHERRIES (SURINAM OR FLORIDA)
Prepare medium or heavy syrup as preferred. Select fine,
ripe fruit-that which will drop from the bush into hand when
lightly touched. Wash gently and remove pits. Precook 1 to
2 minutes in boiling water. Pack hot in jars, add hot syrup,
and process quarts in water bath 16 minutes. Cherries tend
to shrivel in a heavy syrup without preliminary blanch or pre-
cook. Water used in the precook should be used for making
syrup. Surinam cherry juice blended with grapefruit juice
fresh or canned makes a wonderfully fine flavored blend for
party punch or, indeed, any occasion.
The surinam cherry or so-called Florida cherry is one of the
most easily cultivated and ornamental of our subtropical shrubs,
and is used perhaps more for hedging and other decorative






Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables


purposes than for its fine flavored fruits. The fruit is beauti-
fully colored, juicy, of high acidity, and individual flavor. It
deserves to be grown more generally as a valuable addition to
the home orchard in southern Florida. For best quality and
quantity production, the surinam cherry asks for abundant
moisture.
Surinam cherries are of three varieties, one with brilliant
red fruits-the variety most commonly grown, another almost
black in color and of unusually fine flavor, and a less known
type which is orange in color when ripe.
FIGS
Figs in season must be gathered daily in shallow baskets when
thoroughly ripe, and be canned without delay.
Grade for size, wash and drain. Precook figs in gently boil-
ing water from 2 to 6 minutes. This preliminary, open-kettle
cook prepares for penetration of sugar syrup, facilitates pack-
ing a well-filled jar or can, and improves appearance.
Place in cans or jars and steam 30 minutes. Add heavy syrup
and process 11/ to 2 hours at boiling. Sterilization must be
long enough to overcome the "raw" appearance (chalky white
color). The resulting product should be tender, plump, unbroken
and translucent in appearance with a syrup that will test 35 to
40 degrees, Balling hydrometer. Or, after the first short pre-
liminary cook in water, figs may be placed in a heavy syrup at
once and be cooked in the open kettle until they are clear and
the syrup is fairly heavy. This takes at least an hour, usually
longer. The figs should then be allowed to stand over night
to plump and further absorb syrup.
All open-kettle boiling should be done gently and in an abund-
ance of syrup, that as few as possible of the figs be broken.
The next day bring figs to boiling point, pack in hot, sterile
jars and seal immediately. Any left-over syrup is excellent to
serve with hot biscuit or waffles.
It has been demonstrated by the commercial canners that
there is a much greater potential demand for figs canned in
a syrup of medium sugar concentration than for the time-
honored fig preserves as prepared in the South. While fig pre-
serves are popular and appeal to most palates, they are ex-
tremely sweet, and on this account only a small quantity can
be eaten at a time. Also they are relatively expensive to make.
On the other hand, figs canned in medium or thick syrup are
not excessively sweet and not unduly costly. They make a






Florida Cooperative Extension


delightful breakfast fruit as well as a dessert when served with
cream cheese and crisp crackers.
Fig Spread.-This is made from the broken figs or over-ripe
stock. Clip off stems, run through coarse food grinder. Meas-
ure. Place in heavy aluminum kettle and cook until thickened.
Add one-half to three-fourths measure of sugar to one measure
of fig pulp and cook to 221 F. Pack in hot jars, seal and
process by boiling 5 minutes. This makes a most wholesome
"spread" for lunches and may be used also for cake filling and
ice cream.
Over-ripe figs also may be pre-cooked in open kettle, without
sugar, packed solid in jars, and sterilized for use in baking
and for making ice cream. (See "The Fig, a Prize Package of
Food and Medicine" for further information and recipes.)
GRAPEFRUIT
Wash and dry strictly fresh, ripe, sound grapefruit. With
a sharp knife remove all peel and white membrane or rag.
There are different methods of doing this. In one method
slices are cut from both ends of the unpeeled fruit, cutting
into the flesh or segments. Then remove the rest of the peel
and rag in wide slices, cutting from one end to the other. When
this operation is completed you have a juicy ball minus all rag.
with all the segments exposed. It is then an easy matter to
run the blade of a paring knife or the pliable blade of a grape-
fruit spatula between the segments and separate them from
the rest of the membrane or rag. It is possible in this way
to remove every segment entirely whole, free from all rag
and seed.
With the segments free from rag and seed, pack firmly and
solidly in a sterilized jar or preferably a No. 2 tin, keeping
the rounding sides to the jar or tin. Add 2 tablespoons of extra
heavy sugar to a pint jar or tin when half full. Run knife
blade or spatula down next to side of container to permit syrup
to flow more freely into spaces between sections and to release
air bubbles. Syrup may be omitted, but flavor and texture are
better when used.
When jar is full adjust rubber, cover and pasteurize 35 min-
utes at 180 F. If canning in tin exhaust for 10 or more minutes
or until hot in center of tin. Seal, then process as above. Cool
in cold water. Store in cool, dry plece.
It is very important that the processing temperature for
grapefruit be not allowed to go beyond 175 F. or 1800 F. or






Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables


its fine, delicate flavor will be destroyed. If a thermometer is
not at hand to keep check on the temperature, bring the water
to a boil then remove water bath from heat and allow cans to
remain in hot water 25 minutes. Be sure there is an average
of a quart of water for every pint can.
We sometimes speak of using "culls" for canning purposes.
By "culls" is meant absolutely fresh, sound, ripe fruit, free from
all forms of decay, but they may be under-sized, over-sized, or
misshapen in some way.
Grapefruit is most commonly canned in No. 2 tins. The plain
tin container has been found more suitable for grapefruit than
the glass container, affording greater protection as to flavor.
Grapefruit is becoming more and more popular as a canned
fruit in its ready-to-serve form. The "hearts" are excellent
for breakfast, for fruit cocktails, salads, and for desserts of all
kinds and in many combinations.
GRAPES
Use firm but fully ripe fruit. Weigh, wash, separate skins
and pulps. Place hulls in kettle, adding 1 cup water for each
6 pounds fruit. Cook covered until hulls are quite tender and
water evaporated. Heat pulps and juice in another kettle until
soft enough to liberate seed. Put through colander or fruit
press. Combine pulp and hulls, add one pound sugar to each
six pounds fruit. Bring slowly to boil and boil 4 to 5 minutes.
Pack in hot jars, seal and process 5 minutes. This makes a
most wholesome, delicious "spread" for lunches and may be used
for cake and pie filling, for ice cream, and for making into
grape catsup.
Whole Grapes.-Select firm, ripe grapes preferably of the
muscadine variety. Insert sharp pointed paring knife in stem
end and pick out seed with point of the knife. Pack seeded
whole grapes cold in jars. Pour over them a heavy syrup
(measure for measure). Let stand one-half hour; refill if
necessary; adjust rubber and top, leaving bail up. Steam jars
at boiling until fruit is softened but unbroken; add more syrup
if needed, and seal boiling hot. The time for steaming or pro-
cessing varies with the variety. The Scuppernong requires
approximately an hour, the James 11/2 hours and the Thomas
fully 2 hours.
Many think this makes a delicious canned product, quite equal
to the Northern canned cherry. Seed may be left in, but if so,






Florida Cooperative Extension


slit each grape in order that syrup may penetrate and so pre-
vent the grapes from shriveling. However, it is not at all a
difficult task to remove them. (See "Grapes and Grape Pro-
ducts" leaflet for further information on utilization.)


Fig. 7.-The common guava grows wild in Florida in great abundance from Marion
County southward. Because of its high nutritive value, wider use should be made of this
beautifully colored, characteristically flavored fruit, sweet or sour. Guavas may be used
fresh or processed, alone or combined with citrus fruits or pineapple. They are used prin-
cipally for making jelly, butter, preserves and sweet pickles.

GUAVAS
There are several ways of canning guavas. They may be
canned whole, peeled or unpeeled; may be halved, have the seeds
removed by means of the dilver or a fruit press, and this pulp
returned to halves and cooked with them; or shells and pulp
may be cooked as two separate products.
Wash, remove blossom and stem, and peel. Cook 1 to 3
minutes (according to the size and ripeness of fruit) in boil-
ing thin or medium syrup. This preliminary cook is given in






Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables


order to have full pack when processing is completed. If a
"peach" pack is desired and guavas are large and thick meated,
halves may be packed in jars, after very slight precook, in over-
lapping layers; the concave surface of each half should be
downward and the blossom end should face the glass. A table-
spoonful of syrup should be added to each layer. Process 16
to 20 minutes at boiling.
Guava Sauce.-Wash fruit and remove blossom end and any
blemishes on skin. Run through dilver to remove seed. Meas-
ure. Cook in heavy aluminum kettle until somewhat thickened.
Add 2 cups sugar (according to acidity of fruit) to 4 cups of
pulp and cook rapidly again for about 10 minutes, stirring often.
Pour into hot jars, put immediately into boiling water bath and
process 5 minutes. This is excellent for pudding sauces, short-
cakes, cobblers, gelatin desserts, or ice cream. (See "The Goodly
Guava" for many other uses of the guava.)

LOQUAT OR JAPANESE PLUM
The loquat is one of Florida's most beautiful ornamentals and
produces most delectable fruit of a slightly tart, yet sweet flavor.
The fruit used fresh in fruit cups and salads is always enjoyed.
The loquat ranks high as a pie fruit and also makes delicious
preserves.
To Can.-Use freshly gathered (clipped) not over-mature
fruit. Remove stem and blossom ends, skin and seed, or can
with seed left in (seed are objectionable only because of space
consumed). Give 2 to 4 minutes precook in light, medium or
heavy syrup depending on the acidity of the fruit which varies
with different varieties. Pack in jars, process quarts 20 minutes.
Loquat Sauce.-Prepare loquats by removing blossom end,
stems, and seeds. It is not necessary to remove skin. Run
through food chopper, using medium blade. Measure. Add 1
cup of water to 4 cups loquat. Cook until tender, adding more
water if needed. When tender add 1 to 2 cups of sugar, cook
5 minutes longer. Pour in hot jars and seal. Process im-
mediately 5 minutes at boiling.
Loquats canned without pitting develop a "bitter almond"
or pit flavor, very pleasing to some and disliked by others.
MANGOS
If fruits of the seedling type are used for canning they will
have to be selected before they show color, otherwise the stringy






Florida Cooperative Extension


fiber will be objectionable. If these are used, peel, slice in
convenient pieces, immerse in medium syrup for 1 to 2 min-
utes or until pliable, pack in jars, boil syrup until heavy, and
strain over fruit. Process immediately 16 to 20 minutes at
boiling. If the finer, budded varieties are used, select at the
stage of best flavor and handle as you wou'd freestone peaches.
Mangos, unlike other fruit, are delicious if used at any stage
of growth. There are endless ways of preparation-jelly, but-
ters, preserves, sweet pickles and relishes. The mango forms
the basis of most chutneys of the East India type.
Because the supply of the delicious budded varieties of
mangos is limited, they usually command a high price and are
mainly used fresh as an incomparable dessert fruit or in com-
bination with citrus fruits, pineapple or papaya. They are
used also in fruit cups, salads, and frozen desserts.
The flavor of the seedling mangos when green or half ripe
is generally liked and may be used for making pies and a sauce
that is highly acid and of the most intriguing flavor. Mango
slices or the sauce should be more generally canned to serve
with meat, as a dessert, as shortcake filling or ice cream, sher-
bet, and mousse.
MAYHAW
Juice, jelly and a sauce or butter are made from the fruit
of the mayhaw. They should be gathered at the first indica-
tion of color and used promptly. It is recommended that the
fruit be cooked in an abundance of water and the pomace or
pulp left from this drip be put through the fruit press to re-
move seed and be made into a sauce or butter. Use 1/. cup
sugar to each cup pulp and cook rapidly, stirring carefully until
the consistency desired is reached. Pour into hot sterile jars
and seal at once. (See "The Jelly Tree" for further informa-
tion.)
PAPAYA
The papaya may be canned very much as peaches are canned,
but due to lack of acidity in most papayas the flavor is im-
proved by the addition of lemon juice or by canning with equal
parts of grapefruit segments. The bright color and firm tex-
ture of the papaya make it a desirable addition to some types
of mixed fruit salads.
Papaya lends itself to the making of sauce, butter, salad com-
binations, preserves, and spiced pickles-the latter product being
exceptionally delightful. Papaya may be canned for pie filling






Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables


as the fruit makes pie de luxe. It may be used in either the
green stage, when the skin is still tender and green in color
(do not peel) and the seeds are yet white (do not remove) for
sweet pickles or it may be used full ripe. Use the same formula
for papaya pickles as for peach pickles. The syrup from ripe
papaya preserves is a rich golden color and of a delicate, in-
teresting flavor. Papaya juice is being manufactured in large
quantities at present, its popularity due mainly to its exploita-
tion as a health drink and to the addition of other fruit juices
of a sprightly nature, such as grapefruit and pineapple and
even to strongly flavored products like ginger.
Papayas are on the markets of South Florida during the
entire year, barring unusual weather conditions, such as frosts
and heavy rains. The quality and flavor vary considerably and
for many people the taste must be acquired.
In the full ripe stage the papaya makes a delectable breakfast
or dessert fruit, served with lemon or lime. In cocktails and
salads it combines deliciously with pineapple and citrus fruits.
The fresh papaya pulp with milk or cream makes a most de-
licious frozen dessert. Sliced and seasoned in the same way as
peaches, papayas are used for pie or, with pulp put through a
sieve and milk, eggs, and spices added, for a custard pie. The
papaya ranks high as a pie fruit.
PEACHES
Before preparing fruit make a thin or medium syrup, allow-
ing 1 cup of liquid for each quart jar. If the almond flavor
is desired a few cracked pits may be boiled in a small amount
of water and this water used in making the syrup to give the
desired flavor. Make a No. 3 or No. 4 syrup and strain before
pouring in containers.
Sort fruit, using only firm, ripe, sound peaches for canning.
Put aside the soft, broken or extra ripe ones for jam or butter.
Immerse peaches in boiling water for about 1 minute or until
skins will slip easily. Plunge in cold water and remove as soon
as cool. Skin, cut into halves and discard seed. Peaches will
pack better if dropped in hot syrup long enough to render
pliable, about 2 minutes or longer. Do not cook until soft.
Remove at once and pack in hot jars. If little juice is desired
place the halves in overlapped layers, the concave surface of
each half being downward and the blossom end facing the glass.
As each layer is built up add a tablespoon or more of the syrup,
paddling carefully to remove air bubbles. Process quarts 22






Florida Cooperative Extension


minutes if fruit is quite firm, or 16 minutes if riper and more
tender. Clingstones require about 10 minutes longer time than
freestone peaches. If the peaches are packed cold in tin cans,
cover with hot syrup and exhaust in boiling water 5 minutes
before sealing. Then process as directed in Table 1.
The peach season is not very long, hence it behooves all peach
lovers to make the most of it while it lasts. (See "The Suc-
culent Peach" for further information.)

PITTI NG SPOONS5 -1.
CUITTING,CORI NG 2.

PEELING KN IVES












-6.-
Fig. 8.-Special devices such as these make canning easier, facilitate good workman-
ship. They may be used in paring guavas, mangos, papayas; coring pears and tomatoes;
pitting peaches; and removing sections of grapefruit. 1, Medium sized peach pitter; 2, loop
pear coring knife; 3, peach pitter (may be used for coring tomatoes) ; 4, paring and coring
knife for pears, potatoes, etc.; 5, peeling and coring knife especially for use with tomatoes;
6, small knife for use with all fruits, especially good for removing sections from citrus fruits.

Sweet Spiced Peaches.-Put in a kettle 31 pounds of sugar,
1 pint vinegar, 1 pint water, 1/4 ounce ginger root, 1/2 ounce
whole cloves, 1/2 ounce stick cinnamon. Bring mixture to boil.
Let stand over night to absorb spice flavor. Strain and add
boiling hot to jar or can; or preferably, pour over prepared
peaches and let stand over night. Then strain off, boil again
and add to peaches that have been packed in the jar. Process
12 to 16 minutes.
PEARS
Peel, leave whole, cut in halves, or slice, according to size
and use to which pears will be put. When packed whole, leave
stems on. Use apple corer from blossom end to remove core.
If very small leave core in fruit. Cook from 5 to 10 minutes,







Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables


according to size, in a medium syrup until barely flexible. This
preliminary cook is necessary to make full pack. When packed
whole, if pears are small, place each layer stems up. Let the
second row fill the spaces between the two stems. Pack the
fruit in the hot sterile jars firmly enough to give an attractive
but not over-crowded appearance. Add the hot syrup (strained)
as the layers are built up. Use a 30 to 40 percent syrup. Pro-
cess quarts 16 to 20 minutes, depending on length of precook.
If pears are canned in tin plunge immediately into cold water
and cool as quickly as possible, otherwise fruit may turn pink
in color. Better quality pears can be obtained when canned in
tin than in glass because of the quicker cooling. If additional
flavor, as lemon or ginger, is desired for canned pears, add to
syrup at beginning of precook. Then add a decoration of the
sliced lemon or ginger root in packing the jar.
Canned Baked Pears.-Select medium sized pears, remove
blossom end and stem. Place in baking pan with a small amount
of water; cook covered until somewhat tender. Remove cover:
brown lightly, dressing with a light covering of mild honey or
sugar; pack into jars and process 20 to 30 minutes. Serve with
or without a caramel or lemon sauce. This is a delicious, whole-
some, and practical method of canning pears.
Compote of Pears.-Off-sized or malformed pears may be
sliced, steamed in their own juices, and canned with a small
amount of sugar for use in making pies, cobblers and other
desserts.3
The Pineapple pear and the LeConte are much more desirable
than the Kieffer, in both color and texture, have a relatively
small number of grit cells, and are more uniform in shape.
The grading is very important and should be done carefully
to obtain a uniform pack. A special guarded knife is used by
commercial canners, and the peeling is done from the stem to
the blossom end and not around the pear. The core, stem, and

"Pears must be carefully gathered at the proper stage of maturity for
canning and be transported without bruising. They develop a better flavor
and are of finer grained texture if ripened after gathering. Fruit ripened
on the tree is apt to be coarse in texture and often softens badly around
the core. Gather pears when full size, somewhat yellow in color, but while
still hard. Hold from 4 to 8 days to ripen in a dark but well ventilated,
cool room. LeConte pears are an exception to this rule and if picked when
three-fourths grown and allowed to mellow in a darkened room, make the
most delicious canned product of any of the pears grown in Florida. The
fruit will not ripen evenly, and it will be necessary to sort daily during
this ripening period in order that fruit of a prime degree of maturity for
canning may be obtained.






Florida Cooperative Extension


blossom or calyx are removed by a loop shaped knife (see
Fig. 8), or the core may be removed with a French potato
ball cutter. If pears are canned in halves, cut the pears length-
wise and remove all core and the bundle of fibers extending
from core to stem.
If pears are left in contact with the air for any length of
time they oxidize and turn brown very rapidly. This difficulty
can be partially avoided by placing fruit in a dilute salt brine
(3 tablespoons salt to 1 gallon water). Brine checks the action
of oxidase, the enzyme responsible for browning.
It is not desirable to can pears in water. They should be
canned in a syrup of sufficient density to develop the delicate.
aromatic flavor for which pears are valued. A medium syrup
made by boiling together 2 quarts of water with 1 quart sugar
will not be too sweet for most varieties. Strain to remove im-
purities or any sediment.
PECANS
The pecans must be in a perfectly fresh condition and freshly
hulled. Clean, sort, and use only the perfect, unbroken halves.
Place immediately in pan in hot oven and when nuts are hot
through, fill into hot, dry, pint or half pint jars which have
previously been boiled to sterilize them. Seal and process at
boiling for 30 minutes or in the steam pressure cooker at 5
pounds for 10 minutes. Store in a cool, dry place.
Note: Most of the containers in which commercial nuts are
packed are closed with a vacuum sealer and without applying
heat or processing.
PERSIMMON
The persimmon is pre-eminently a fruit for consumption while
fresh. It is most commonly served when soft and full-ripe,
the pulp being spooned out and eaten as a dessert. However.
it may also be sliced and served with cream. When peeled the
large fruited varieties make a delectable fruit salad on lettuce,
with French, cream or mayonnaise dressing. The non-astringent
varieties, of which Fuyugaki is the finest, can be eaten while
still hard and are used for dicing in fruit salads in the same
manner as apples are used.
The soft pulp may be made into a delicious sauce or "spread"
when the abundance of fruit seems justifiable and when its
proper stage of ripeness can be accurately determined. While
persimmons darken when heated, the flavor is not impaired.







Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables


For a sauce or marmalade take sufficient fruit to make 1
quart of pulp, removing the skins. Add 1/ cup strained orange
juice or half orange and half lemon juice, and cook the mixture
rapidly until thick. Add 2 to 3 cups of sugar and cook to the
desired consistency. Seal boiling hot in hot jars. Spice may
be added if preferred.
PLUMS
Cultivated.-Select sound, uniformly ripe plums. Prick with
fork. Let stand in hot medium syrup until cool. Pack in jars
as firmly as possible without crushing; add syrup, somewhat
concentrated, and process quarts 12 to 15 minutes.
Wild.-Select well-ripened but not over-ripe fruit. Wash and
drain. Prepare medium syrup and when boiling add plums.
Cover and remove from fire. If plums have considerable acidity,
when cold-preferably the next day-drain off juice, add sugar
sufficient to make a 50 to 60 percent syrup, bring to a boil and
boil 10 minutes. Add plums and again set aside. When cold,
if plums are tender and slightly transparent and syrup some-
what heavy, pour into hot, sterilized jars, seal and simmer pint
jars 5 minutes. These wild plums, with their peculiar acidity
and tang of the skin, are not only fine for canning but for juice,
jelly, and butter making. (See "Plums, Wild and Otherwise"
for other utilization recipes.)
ROSELLE OR "JELLY" OKRA

Pick calyces as soon as they are full grown to get best flavor
and jellying quality, and to extend the roselle season from
November into February-providing, of course, there are no
frosts.
Roselle Sauce.-When served as sauce, use equal measures of
calyces (with seed removed) and water. Cook gently until tender
in open kettle. Sweeten lightly, bring to boil again, pack at once
into hot containers, place in water bath (at boiling) and process
quarts 8 to 12 minutes. If a smooth product is desired rub
through a fruit press before sugar is added.
Note: This annual has been tested sufficiently to indicate its value and
to warrant more extended cultivation in the warmer sections of Florida.
The plant is a vigorous grower and bears abundantly. The stems are red-
dish in color and branch profusely. The blossoms fade within one day and
the calyces, which are the edible portion, are ready for picking about three
weeks after the bloom appears. These are open pods, much smaller than
the ordinary okra, bright red in color, and contain a very pleasing and
refreshing acid. Roselle practically takes the pace of cranberry, and a
few bushes of this ornamental and useful plant should be found growing
in every garden in South Florida for making "ade", sauces, and jams.






Florida Cooperative Extension


STANDARDS AND NOMENCLATURE DESIGNED FOR
CANNED FRUITS
Commercially canned fruits and fruit products in great vari-
ety and of varying quality are found in all up-to-date stores.
They are commonly sold under four grades: fancy, choice,
standard, and off-grade or sub-standard. Unfortunately these
grades are not always indicated on the label, nor is the price,
in many cases, indicative of the quality.
The Bureau of Agricultural Economics of the United States
Department of Agriculture has set up definite grades designated
for fruits as: A, Fancy; B, Extra Standard or Choice; C,
Standard and Sub-standard. While these very simple and
definite terms (A, B, C) relative to quality are not used by
all commercial canners, it is believed some type of informative
labeling will eventually come into universal use. With the
knowledge and use of the terms of informative and descriptive
labels, the housewife will know exactly what is in the can before
it is opened. Home canners themselves will do well to observe
all the special precautions and use the same degree of syrup
density as the commercial canners of fruit in order to conserve
as nearly as possible the high degree of color, flavor, and vita-
mins characteristic of the raw fruit.

SPECIAL DIRECTIONS FOR CANNING VEGETABLES
While the water bath canning method has been widely used
in the canning of non-acid vegetables in past years, we are
recommending at this time that only the steam pressure canner
be used. The steam pressure canner not only saves time but
also eliminates all spoilage difficulties when directions are care-
fully followed. Since most vegetables have only a small amount
of acid as compared with fruits, this low degree of acidity per-
mits the growth of certain bacteria which are very difficult to
kill by heating at 212 F. Hence, a temperature above boiling
(212 F.) is necessary for all non-acid vegetables. This requires
the use of the steam pressure cooker and preferably tin cans
and the hand sealer, rather than glass jars. Neither the steam
pressure cooker nor the hand sealer is difficult to operate, and
both can be obtained at reasonable cost.
Only fresh, tender, young vegetables should be canned. They
should be perfectly sound, carefully and thoroughly washed and






Florida Cooperative Extension


STANDARDS AND NOMENCLATURE DESIGNED FOR
CANNED FRUITS
Commercially canned fruits and fruit products in great vari-
ety and of varying quality are found in all up-to-date stores.
They are commonly sold under four grades: fancy, choice,
standard, and off-grade or sub-standard. Unfortunately these
grades are not always indicated on the label, nor is the price,
in many cases, indicative of the quality.
The Bureau of Agricultural Economics of the United States
Department of Agriculture has set up definite grades designated
for fruits as: A, Fancy; B, Extra Standard or Choice; C,
Standard and Sub-standard. While these very simple and
definite terms (A, B, C) relative to quality are not used by
all commercial canners, it is believed some type of informative
labeling will eventually come into universal use. With the
knowledge and use of the terms of informative and descriptive
labels, the housewife will know exactly what is in the can before
it is opened. Home canners themselves will do well to observe
all the special precautions and use the same degree of syrup
density as the commercial canners of fruit in order to conserve
as nearly as possible the high degree of color, flavor, and vita-
mins characteristic of the raw fruit.

SPECIAL DIRECTIONS FOR CANNING VEGETABLES
While the water bath canning method has been widely used
in the canning of non-acid vegetables in past years, we are
recommending at this time that only the steam pressure canner
be used. The steam pressure canner not only saves time but
also eliminates all spoilage difficulties when directions are care-
fully followed. Since most vegetables have only a small amount
of acid as compared with fruits, this low degree of acidity per-
mits the growth of certain bacteria which are very difficult to
kill by heating at 212 F. Hence, a temperature above boiling
(212 F.) is necessary for all non-acid vegetables. This requires
the use of the steam pressure cooker and preferably tin cans
and the hand sealer, rather than glass jars. Neither the steam
pressure cooker nor the hand sealer is difficult to operate, and
both can be obtained at reasonable cost.
Only fresh, tender, young vegetables should be canned. They
should be perfectly sound, carefully and thoroughly washed and







Can Surplus Fruit.s and Vegetables


quickly prepared. NEVER CAN VEGETABLES THAT HAVE
STOOD OVER NIGHT.
To obtain the highest possible flavor and food value, vege-
tables-beans, peas, corn, carrots, and all greens-should be
canned if possible within two hours after gathering unless held
in a very cold place. Loss of fresh flavor and the growth of many
heat-resistant bacteria characterize products held in a warm
kitchen (or a warm grocery store), resulting in a loss of valu-
able food constituents and making sterilization more difficult.
(Organisms called enzymes in the product cause a chemical
change in a warm atmosphere.)









Fig. 9.-Carefully canned vegetables are pleasing to the eye as well as the palate.

Precook for Green Colored Vegetables.-Until recently can-
ning directions have advised precooking green vegetables, in
fact all vegetables, at the boiling temperature. Now it is rec-
ommended that any green vegetable-beans, English peas,
turnip greens, spinach-be precooked at a low temperature.
That is, a temperature just below simmering, about 1700 F..
should be used in order to better hold the natural green color
and the fresh flavor that is so desirable in the finished product.
This lower cook takes a longer time and extra care to get the
vegetable in the container as hot as needed.
Maintaining the natural green color and the fresh flavor in
canned vegetables has been a serious problem until recent years.
Green has been a problem because it is so elusive, and the heat
of the canning often has faded or changed it to a dull green.
Worse still, with the loss of color has gone some loss of flavor
and fresh texture.
It has been known that chlorophyl, the green substance in
plants, is sensitive to acid applied during heating. Most vege-
tables contain acid which the heat of cooking drives out and
which affects the chlorophyl unless it can pass off in the steam.
If cooked in a closed kettle or sealed can. the acid remains and






Florida Cooperative Extension


attacks the green co'or. Hence, this newer rule: For the sake
of color and freshness generally, precook at a temperature of
about 1700 F., or below simmering. In this lower cook the color
seems to "set" or hold; it will not fade or change later even
when it is exposed to the high heat of processing.
The precook is important and accomplishes three things: It
drives the air out of the vegetables; it wilts or shrinks the
product so that it packs well; and it gives a high temperature
at the start of the processing which is necessary for a good
vacuum in the container.
Spoilage and Storage.-When preparing canned vegetables for
the table they should be examined very carefully. Any indica-
tion of spoilage, foreign odor or taste, or any unusual appearance
should be sufficient grounds for discarding that package. With
ordinary care in selection, preparation, and the use of the steam
pressure in canning of vegetables, the Florida housewife need
have little fear of feeding her family unwholesome foods.
Seasoning for Canned Vegetables.-For most vegetables 1
teaspoon of salt is used for each quart.. In case of tomatoes.
peas, field peas, field peas and butter beans, corn, carrots, and
beets, a salt and sugar mixture tends to improve flavor. This
is made in proportion of 1 cup of salt to 2 cups of sugar. Use
2 level teaspoons of this mixture for a quart, and 1 teaspoon
for each pint.
BEANS
Butter Beans.-Use only freshly picked, young, tender beans.
(Legumes such as snap beans, butter beans, and peas lose vita-
min C rapidly unless held under refrigeration.) Wash pods
before shelling. Wash the shelled beans. Precook 4 to 8 min-
utes. Pack boiling hot into containers and cover with water
in which beans were cooked. When the jar is packed half full.
add seasoning. Seal and process.
Snap Beans.-Only very small, tender, freshly picked beans
should be used for canning. These are the most desirable, are
richest in vitamins, and grade the highest-Grade A, or Fancy.
They are canned whole with ends of pod snipped. Wash thor-
oughly, snip or, if preferred, cut into desired lengths.
Place in kettle, cover with boiling water and simmer un-
covered about 4 minutes or until the beans will bend without
breaking. The larger, less succulent grades will take 5 to 10
minutes precook. Pack hot into the containers, cover with







Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables


liquid in which cooked; add 1 teaspoon salt to each quart and
completely seal. Process immediately as directed in Table 2.
If mature beans or so-called "shell beans" (those which have
grown starchy) are used, the time for processing should be
increased 10 minutes.
BEETS
Only young, tender beets should be canned. Sort, leave 1
inch stem on each root to prevent bleeding. Wash thoroughly.
using a scrubbing brush if necessary. Boil with skins on 15
to 20 minutes or until skin will readily slip off; or cook 5 min-
utes at 5 pounds pressure, allowing pressure to run down before
opening petcock. Skin, trim, and pack (as tightly as possible
without crushing) into glass jars or enamel lined cans. Fill
with clear, boiling water, season, completely seal and process
immediately.
BROCCOLI
Select only very young broccoli with tight, unopened flower
buds and can immediately after gathering. Soak 1/2 hour in
salt water to remove any insects. Wash thoroughly. Tie in
small bundles and steam or slightly wilt for 2 or 3 minutes in
water below boiling in uncovered container. Be very particular
not to over-soften.
Remove broccoli, pack, cover with boiling water, add salt, seal
and process at once.
CARROTS AND OTHER ROOT CROPS
Only very young, tender carrots, turnips, or parsnips should
be canned. Steam or boil until one-fourth cooked, or cook under
pressure to 5 pounds and open cooker when gauge registers
zero. Cut into halves or slice as preferred. Pack. Cover with
boiling water. Add salt and sugar mixture. completely seal
and process immediately.
CELERY
Often at the celery growing centers this vegetable may be
purchased very cheaply. Celery is easy to can and is delightful
to use in meat soups, cream of celery soup and au gratin dishes.
Prepare celery carefully by brushing well and scraping to
remove any soil, blemishes or defects. Cut into 1/2 or 1 inch
lengths. Cover with water and cook 5 to 10 minutes or until
wilted. Pack boiling hot into jars or cans, cover with liquid
in which celery was precooked. Add 1 teaspoon salt to each
quart, completely seal and process immediately.






Florida Cooperative Extension


CHAYOTE AND SUMMER SQUASH
Select only young, tender fresh vegetables. Wash and cut
into halves if needed or cut into cubes for convenient packing.
Steam 5 to 10 minutes. Pack into jars, add salt, cover with
boiling water, completely seal and process immediately.

CORN
Corn is best for canning when taken in the last days of the
milk stage. When it has passed the milky stage or when stale.
it is very hard to sterilize successfully. Sweet corn deteriorates
with amazing rapidity; hence, it should never be allowed to
wait after being gathered. Shuck, silk, and clean carefully.
A stiff bristle brush will help here. Cut corn from cob without
precooking, but do not cut too deep. Scrape from cobs with
back of knife. Put in kettle and for every pint of corn add 1
cup boiling water and 1 teaspoon of the salt and sugar season-
ing. Stir and allow to boil 10 to 12 minutes. Add more water
if needed. Pack boiling hot into containers. The pack should
be loose and moist. Seal tin cans and process. (Do not use
quart containers for corn.) Heat glass jars 15 to 20 minutes
in water bath before sealing completely and putting in pressure
cooker.
Whole Grain Style.-Corn for the whole grain pack should
be gathered two or three days earlier than for cream style corn.
For whole grain style cut from the cob only deep enough to
remove most of the kernels without objectionable hulls. Do not
scrape cob. The whole grain corn is considered to retain appear-
ance and flavor of fresh corn more nearly than cream style.
Whole grain corn has less tendency to discolor when packed
in plain tin cans than does cream style corn, though the C-enamel
cans give better results for both kinds.
Add seasoning and enough boiling water to cover the corn
and bring to boil. Boil 3 minutes. Fill boiling hot in jars and
heat in boiling water 15 to 20 minutes. Completely seal and
process in pressure cooker as in Table 2. Tin cans are filled
boiling hot, sealed at once and processed. Cool cans in cold
water after sterilizing.
EGGPLANT
Can only freshly gathered, young fruit. Wash, peel and cut
into cubes and hold in salt brine (1 tablespoon salt to 1 quart
water). Drain and steam or cook in a small quantity of water







Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables


for about 5 minutes or until boiling hot. Pack hot, add salt,
and seal completely. Process 45 minutes at 10 pounds pressure.
GREENS
All greens, if canned when very young, tender and freshly
gathered, are a valuable addition to the diet. Many plants are
used for greens, such as turnip tops, beet tops, mustard, spinach.
chard, and kale. In canning they are all treated practically in
the same manner. Can as soon as possible after they are picked.
Be sure that they are free of insects, blight, wilt and tough
stems. Wash thoroughly in a number of waters, lifting the
greens out each time. Precook in an uncovered vessel until
completely wilted, adding as little water as possible and never
allowing water to heat above simmering. Pack loosely while
scalding hot into cans or jars. Add pot liquor to completely
cover, adding boiling water when necessary. Add 1 teaspoon
salt. Process immediately.
HOMINY
Use a fancy grade of hard, white corn. To make 1 gallon
of hominy, use 1 tablespoon of concentrated lye, 6 cups of water
and 6 cups of shelled white corn.
Use an iron or enamel kettle; never use an aluminum one.
Wash and soak the corn in lukewarm water for a short time.
Place the soaked corn in the lye solution and boil for 20 to 25
minutes, just long enough to loosen hulls. Remove, rinse thor-
oughly in fresh water; rub to loosen hulls and the dark portion
of the kernel near the germ. Let stand in fresh water 2 or 3
hours, changing water occasionally to be sure all lye is removed.
Drain. The black coat covering the germ of the corn should
be removed by this time. Cover corn with water, bring to a
boil. Pack into cans hot, to within 1 inch of top. Fill can with
boiling water to 14 inch of top. Add 1/2 teaspoon of salt to
No. 2 cans. Seal cans hot and process at 10 pounds (2400 F.),
No. 2 cans 75 minutes. Remove cans. and cool quickly in cold
water.
OKRA
Select young, tender pods, 11 to 2 inches long. Remove
stem without cutting into seedpod and leave whole. Steam or
precook 3 to 5 minutes. Add salt. Pack hot, covering with
hot liquid in which okra was cooked. Seal and process im-
mediately.






Florida Cooperative Extension


OKRA AND TOMATOES
Use only very young, small pods and sound, firm, ripe toma-
toes. Wash okra and trim without cutting into seedpod. Com-
bine okra and tomatoes and heat to boiling. Pack boiling hot.
add seasoning and seal completely. Process.

PEAS
Blackeyed Peas.-Blackeyed peas may be canned with pork.
the most popular way, or may be made "vegetarian" by omitting
the pork. Pork adds much to the flavor and palatability of the
finished product. (The pork generally used is salt pork sides.
Cured bacon, however, adds a very pleasing zest, but is con-
siderably more expensive than salt pork.)
The pork should be cut in cubes or slices. The amount used
per can helps to determine type and quality of product. The
pork for a No. 2 tin should weigh 0.6 ounce, No. 3, 1.0 ounce.
It should be in one piece and should show strips of lean meal
and clear, firm fat. When a tin is opened it should show very
few broken or mushy peas. The peas should be neither tough
nor soft and while approximately firm, should crush easily
between the fingers. They should be full and firm and have
the pleasing, nut-like flavor characteristic of this type of legume.
(See also directions for English peas and butter beans.)
English Peas.-Gather the peas when cool, or early in the
morning. Select fresh young peas and do not allow to stand
long after gathering or shelling. Peas and beans, when piled
up and allowed to stand for even a few hours during warm
weather, may "heat" and develop flat sour.4 Avoid this by using
refrigeration or by spreading out and keeping as cool as possible.
Wash pods well and shell only enough to fill containers to be
processed at one time. Grade as to maturity and size. Bring
to boil with water to cover and boil 5 to 7 minutes. Pack boil-
ing hot into hot cans or jars. Add 1 teaspoon sugar and salt
seasoning to each pint. A gluey or cloudy liquid may be the
result of over-cooking, often too full a pack, or too much min-
eral matter in the water. Water of high mineral content has
a tendency to increase cloudiness and may harden the peas.
'Flat sour is a term applied to a type of spoilage of non-acid vege-
tab'es causing the product to become soft and mushy and have a sour
taste and odor. Gas bubbles are not present as in a fermented product.
The bacteria causing this form of spoilage grow best at temperatures
of about 1300 to 1400 F. They sometimes cause spoilage in canned foods
not properly cooled after processing or held at too high storage tempera-
tures. Corn, peas and green beans are subject to flat sour spoilage.






Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables


(Boiling, then cooling and straining off carefully will often soften
hard water sufficiently. Or, let the water stand after boiling
until the fine precipitate settles and then pour off the clear
water to use in canning.) Peas which are too mature or which
are given too long a precook may burst, allowing the starch to
escape into the surrounding liquid. A cloudy appearance of the
liquid of peas might also indicate that spoilage had occurred.
Many of the commonly canned garden vegetables are nat-
urally excellent sources of vitamins A and C-the vitamins
which are most subject to destruction by oxidation. It has been
found that much of this vitamin content is rapidly lost if the
vegetables stand in a warm place after coming in from the
garden. The less the vegetable is exposed to the air, the better
for vitamin saving, hence beans and peas should not be shelled
until just before canning operations, since it has been shown
that shelled peas and beans lose ascorbic acid (vitamins) much
more rapidly than unshelled ones. When freshly gathered and
just mature enough, sweet corn, peas, snap and butter beans
contain a great deal of sugar as well as vitamins. Likewise.
if these vegetables are held in a warm place after they are picked
the sugar rapidly changes to starch. Canning and freezing in-
dustries and commercial shippers of fresh vegetables now make
every effort to cool vegetables right after harvesting. Some-
times the vegetables are plunged in ice water to take out the
"field heat" and are kept in a cold room. Sometimes they are
packed in ice before shipping. The housewife may well take a
tip from these industries and use her refrigerator to slow up
enzyme action and spoilage as well as to save vitamins, flavor
and crisp texture.
PIMIENTOS
The best sweet peppers for canning are the Spanish varieties
known as pimientos. These peppers have very thick flesh and
tough skins and are comparatively smooth and free from ridges.
(The bell peppers are not suitable for canning.) Pimientos
should be ripe, sound and free from bruises. Sort, using whole
peppers for canning and the small or broken ones for sauces,
soups, chutneys and Dixie relish. Prepare peppers for peeling
by placing them in a hot oven for 6 or 8 minutes to blister
and crack the skin; if the oven is not hot enough it will cook
the flesh of the pepper before the skin is blistered. Dip quickly
in cold water to cool. Peel, cut out stem, remove seed cores,
fold and pack in flattened layers in cans or jars. No liquid is






Florida Cooperative Extension


used in the preparation of these peppers; the processing brings
out a thick liquor which almost covers them in the can or jar.
Add 1/ teaspoon salt to each pint.

PUMPKIN OR WINTER SQUASH
Wash the pumpkin, cut in halves or convenient slices, remove
seed and steam until tender (if in pressure cooker, 10 minutes
at 10 pounds pressure). Remove pulp from shell, run through
dilver or fruit press. Spices may be added to the pumpkin if
intended for pie filling. Some think flavor is better if added
at the time of canning than when making the addition at the
time of using.
The proportion of ground spices generally used for each quart
of steamed, strained pumpkin is: 12 cup brown sugar, 2 tea-
spoons cinnamon, 1 teaspoon salt, and 1 teaspoon ginger. Stir
pulp until of a smooth, even consistency and pack into cans or
jars while steaming hot. Heat in water bath at boiling for 10
minutes. Completely seal and process immediately in the pres-
sure cooker as directed in Table 2.
SAUERKRAUT
Cabbage is converted into sauerkraut by a lactic acid fermen-
tation which takes place in the brine made from the juice of
the cabbage drawn out by the salt. Kraut making affords a
convenient means of conserving surplus cabbage during periods
of temporary overproduction. Sauerkraut, as well as the juice,
is a most valuable and healthful food and should be more com-
monly used in Florida homes. It is delicious served with hot
meats and fowl. It is especially good with spare ribs, roast
pork, duck and chicken. It may be served cold as a relish or
as a salad.
Method.-Select only fresh, sound heads of mature cabbage.
(It is a great mistake to wait until the cabbage is over-mature
and sunburned in the field before using it for kraut making.)
One pound of salt is used with 40 pounds of cabbage; 2 ounces
(31 tablespoons) with 5 pounds cabbage; 2 level teaspoons with
1 pound cabbage. A 2 gallon crock holds 10 pounds or more;
1 pound fills a pint jar.
Remove outside green and dirty leaves. Quarter the head
and cut out the core. (In many commercial factories core is
not removed.) Weigh cabbage. For shredding, use a kraut
cutting machine which shreds finely and rapidly. (Cost of cut-
ting machine is about $1.75 to $2.50, or a 50-cent slaw cutter







Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables


may be found very efficient.) Mix salt and cabbage in large
pan thoroughly for even distribution and until juice flows freely.
(For further information write for Circular 40, Making and
Using Sauerkraut.)
TOMATOES
Plain Canned.-Select fresh, firm, uniformly red-ripe toma-
toes. They should be sorted carefully and be absolutely free
from spots or decay. Wash thoroughly to remove all soil. Scald
in boiling water in wire basket or square of cheesecloth about
1 minute or long enough to cause skins to slip easily. Remove
and chiA in cold water. Over-scalding will make the tomatoes
soft and under-scalding will cause waste of time and fruit in
removing their skins. Do not attempt to handle too many at
one time as the whole process must be carried through quickly.
Drain, core and peel promptly. Cut out core with a short
bladed, sharp pointed knife or a tomato corer. Clip off skins.
This is most easily done by beginning at the blossom end.
Often there is a small, black spot at the blossom end which
should be removed. When sufficient quantity of tomatoes to
fill two or three jars or tins has been secured, pack at once firmly
and solidly into the glass or tin containers with back of wooden
spoon until enough juice is released to cover the solids and to
fill all spaces between pieces. If too large to pass readily through
the opening, cut into suitable sizes. Add 2 teaspoons of sugar
and salt mixture for each quart. If tomatoes are canned in tin,
the tins filled to 1/4 inch of top must be heated in boiling water
or live steam until contents are hot before sealing.
Glass jars may be packed full. Steri ize as directed in Table 1.
Do not add any water as it is a violation of the Pure Food Law
to add water or even the juice from other tomatoes. The only
liquid allowed is the juice which is pressed out of the tomatoes
during their preparation.
Tomato Juice.-High grade, choice, ripe tomatoes only should
be used for juice. They should be red-ripe, well developed, firm,
and smooth, as well as high in acidity. Green tomatoes, or over-
ripe, moldy or decayed fruit, will impair the flavor and must
be avoided.
Wash carefully and drain. Cut out all cores. Place in kettle,
crushing a few to secure enough free juice to start the cooking.
Cook the tomatoes lightly in a covered container to release the
color from the skins and give a larger yield of juice. Avoid
boiling. This cooking also liberates the vegetable gums and






Florida Cooperative Extension


the pectin around the seeds and fleshy tissue, drives out air,
renders enzymes inactive and permits a better separation of
pulp from skin. Allow to cool somewhat without stirring be-
for pulping. Extract the pulp by passing first through a coarse
sieve and then a fine sieve. The first sieve will remove the
skin, seeds and coarse fiber; the second one should be very fine
in order to disintegrate the pulp as finely as possible so that
it will stay in suspension for a long period. It is difficult,
with the equipment found in the home, to sieve tomato juice
fine enough for the particles of red to stay in suspension like
the commercially prepared juice. Even if the clear juice, in
storage, goes to the top and the pulp settles to the bottom, it
may be shaken or stirred together before serving.
Reheat the juice at once after putting through the sieve. If
using glass containers, heat the juice to 190 F. (if no ther-
mometer is available, heat just to boiling), pour into the hot,
sterilized containers, and seal. If work is carried on quickly
no further heating is necessary. Otherwise, process in boiling
water 5 minutes. If tins are used, heat juice to 1800 F. to
1900 F., pour into cans, seal and process 5 minutes at boiling.
Do not leave headspace in either glass or tin containers. Cool
tins in running water. Store in cool, dark place. It is especially
important to keep tomato juice in glass protected from light to
preserve color, flavor and vitamin content.
The lower the temperature used, the better the flavor. Juice
can be sterilized at a much lower temperature and in a shorter
time than is used for canned tomatoes because it has no solid
pieces to prevent rapid heat penetration and may be sterilized
at 175 to 180 F., as against the boiling temperature (2120 F.)
needed in canning whole tomatoes.
Give tomato juice to babies at the physician's direction in
the quantities he may advise. For adults tomato juice may be
served hot or ice cold, adding salt to taste, as a drink by itself
or seasoned to make a delicious tomato juice cocktail, or a health-
ful, colorful party punch. It makes an excellent pick-up drink
for breakfast or a before dinner appetizer, or it may be served
during the day as a refreshing, healthful drink. In cooking it
can be used in many ways, being excellent for tomato bouillon
or as a delightful base for gelatin or aspic salad.
Tomato Puree and Hot Sauce.-Tomato puree or sauce is very
convenient for flavoring many dishes, such as stews, soups and
macaroni. Cook until soft. Run through fruit press or dilver.







Can Surplus Fruits and Vegetables


Concentrate the puree by boiling to at least one-half its original
volume. Season. Pack boiling hot into jars or cans and pro-
cess. If a hot sauce is desired add chopped onions and hot
peppers to tomatoes before cooking and straining.
VEGETABLES FOR SOUP
Any desired mixture of vegetables may be canned for home
use. The 4-H product consists of 1 quart concentrated tomato
pulp, 1 pint young, tender corn or tiny butter beans, and 1 pint
okra with 4 teaspoons salt and sugar seasoning, 1 small onion,
chopped, and 1/ cup chopped sweet red pepper. Cook the toma-
toes, pepper and onions and put through dilver or fruit press
to remove seed (this is optional), then cook to the consistency
of ketchup. Measure, add the corn or beans and okra, which
have been prepared as for canning, add seasoning, and cook all
together for 10 minutes. Pack boiling hot into hot jars or cans,
seal, and process immediately.
If all of the vegetables recommended are not available, others
may be substituted. Celery makes a valuable addition to the
mixture.

STANDARDS AND GRADES FOR CANNED VEGETABLES
Grades for the more commonly canned vegetables have been
developed by the United States Bureau of Agricultural Eco-
nomics in cooperation with the canning trade. New grades are
tried out for a number of years and then adopted with modifi-
cations, if advisable, as official grades.
Common vegetable grades are Extra Fancy, Fancy, Extra
Standard and Standard. After the United States standard for
vegetables is accepted and printed on the labels, the contents
are considered misbranded if not up to the standard specified.
Detailed information as to these grades may be secured from
the United States Department of Agriculture and will be of
great value to the home canner who is interested in putting
up superior products as well as to the homemaker concerned
with buying canned goods intelligently.
Before placing canned goods upon the market it is advisable
first to establish a high grade of home canner's products and
to maintain a uniform quality. If uniformity is obtained, both
the process of growing the product as well as the packing
(canning) must be carefully controlled. The product must be
brought to certain definite and predetermined standards for
splendid quality and pleasing appearance. It is well, therefore,







Florida Cooperative Extension


to know what standards and prices have been set by the com-
mercial canning trade with whom the home canner competes.6

QUALITY STANDARDS FOR FANCY CANNED
VEGETABLES
Lima beans are classified as tiny, fancy, medium, standard
and mammoth. The smallest sizes are most tender, sweetest,
green in color and the most desirable. These may be termed
Grade A or Fancy.
Snap beans should be of a deep green color, crisp, tender,
fleshy and free from fiber and strings; they are substantially
whole when of the highest grade.
Ladyfinger peas should be tender and sweet, with young
snaps free of fiber or string if used. Pork should be in one
piece, show strips of lean meat and clear, firm fat.
Beets for canning must be of small size, of uniform deep red
color, tender and of good flavor.
Sauerkraut must be of normal acid flavor, uniform cut, of
light straw or golden color and crisp.
Sweet corn varieties are suitable for canning. The kernels
should be sweet and tender, of good flavor and cooking quality.
Most commercial canned corn is packed in No. 2 cans. Fancy
canned sweet corn is produced from young, tender corn of
superior flavor and of such degree of maturity that the kernels
are milky or creamy.
Canned tomatoes are prepared from sound, ripe, fresh toma-
toes. Fancy tomatoes are canned whole, are of uniform red
color, free from pieces of skin or core. Tomatoes are canned
usually with a level teaspoon of sugar and salt mixture added
to improve the flavor.
Standard pack tomatoes consist of small ones, those of im-
perfect color, not soft ones and those trimmed reasonably free
from under-colored or green parts and from pieces of skin
and core.
Addition of water in tomatoes is never necessary or desirable
and constitutes an adulteration under the law.
"The following table will assist in determining the price to place upon
home canned produces, alter figuring the production cost:
Cost per quart of fruit (total cost divided by total qts.) ........ $...................
Cost per quart of vegetables (total cost divided by total qts.) ........
Profit per hour (net profit divided by total hours) ............-
Labor returns per hour (add 10 cents to above) ......................







TABLE 1.-CONDENSED DIRECTIONS FOR CANNING FRUITS AND TOMATOES.


Fruit



Berries,
All Varieties

Cherries,
Surinam
Figs

Fruit for Salad


Grapefruit


Grapes,
Muscadine

Guavas

Loquats

Mangos


Preparation Before Processing


Pick over, wash, hull or stem, drain. Pack in con-
tainers, fill with hot thin or medium syrup or hot
berry juice. For strawberries see special directions,
page 21.
Use fine, ripe fruit. Pre-cook 1 to 2 minutes. Pack
hot in light or medium syrup.
Sort, wash, firm ripe figs. Pre-cook 2 to 6 minutes.
Pack hot in medium or heavy syrup.
Use fruit perfect in form and fruit color. Trim care-
fully. Cook each separately in light syrup.
Use only thoroughly ripened fruit. Peel, separate
hearts from all lag or membrane. Add 1 teaspoon-
ful heavy syrup or % teaspoonful salt. Process at
1800 F. (below boiling).
Select firm, ripe grapes. Prepare by removing pulps
or keep whole. See special directions, page 25.
Pare, pack whole or cut and remove seed. Pre-cook 2
to 5 minutes. Use thin or medium syrup; or put
through dilver, cook thick and pack hot as sauce.
Remove stem, blossom end and seed, unless almond
flavor is desired. Use light or medium syrup.
Peel, slice, pre-cook in syrup. Pack hot in heavy syrup.


Processing Period
Minutes to Process in Water
Bath at 212 F.


Qt. Jars
Minutes


12-20


30
Below
nmering
m 10 mins.
2 hours

16-20


20
16-20


sir
Fro
to


No. 2-3 Tins
Minutes


Type of Can
Recommended


7-15 R-Enamel. Glass
for Blueberries

11 R-Enamel

115 Plain

Plain

25
Below Plain
simmering
From 10 mins.
to 2 hours R-Enamel

11-15 Plain


15 Plain
11-15 Plain


Drop tins immediately in cold water when removed from water bath. Glass pints require the minimum cook listed above.


J










TABLE 1.-CONDENSED DIRECTIONS FOR CANNING FRUITS AND TOMATOES-(Concluhded).


Preparation Before Processing


Fruit


ya
.es




s

pples

s

le


toes

Juices


Juices
SSyrups


Processing Period
SMinutes to Process in Water
Bath at 212 F.
Qt. Jars No. 2-3 Tins
Minutes Minutes


16-20

16-20
Pints

30

10-15

12-15

8-12

15-25


Type of Can
Recommended


11-15 Plain

11-15 Plain


5-10 Plain

7-10 Plain


See special directions.
Use firm, ripe peaches. Scald, cold dip, peel, pit. Pre-
cook. Pack in thin or medium syrup.
Pare, leave whole or cut as preferred. Boil in syrup
or bake as for serving. Add medium syrup. Pack hot.
Use fresh pecans. Hull, sort. Keep unbroken halves
for fancy pack. Heat containers and nuts in oven.
Pack hot in dry jars. Seal hot.
Wash well, slice, peel and core. Pre-cook. Pack in
medium syrup.
Select firm, ripe but not over-ripe, fruit. Prick. Let stand
in hot syrup until cool. Pack hot in medium syrup.
Use roselle just at maturity. Add equal measure of wa-
ter to prepared calyces. Cook until tender. Pack hot.
Scald, cold dip, peel and core. Pack whole or cut in
pieces. Pack solid in jars. Add salt and sugar
mixture.
Boil fruit until soft, press, strain juice. Can hot. Add
no sugar. (Tins not recommended for fruit juices.)

Peel, crush or press fruit. Heat slowly to simmering
point. Strain. Add 1 cup sugar to one gallon juice.
Can hot. Seal. Process below boiling.


Papaya
Peach

Pears


Pecan

Pinea

Plum:

Rosel


Toma

Jelly


Fruit
and


15 at Simmer-
ing 1800 F.
Pasteurize at 165 F. Process
at 180F. for 30 min., or bring
to boiling, cut off heat and
leave in bath until cold.


Drop tins immediately in cold water when removed from water bath. Glass pints require the minimum cook listed above.


3-7

10-20


R-Enamel

Plain
J -













Be


Be


Be


Ca


Ce

Ch



Co


Vegetables


ans,
Butter

ans,
Snap

ets


rrots and
Other Roots

lery

layote and
Summer
Squash

)rn:
Cream Style


Whole Grain


TABLE 2.-CONDENSED DIRECTIONS FOR CANNING



Preparation Before Processing



Use only young, tender, freshly harvested beans. Wash,
shell. Pre-cook. Add salt and sugar mixture.
Wash, string, cut; pre-cook in water below boiling to
cover. Add salt. Use liquid beans are cooked in to
fifl jar.
Use only baby beets. Do not break root or cut top
too close. Pre-cook, peel, pack. Add salt. Fill con-
tainer with boiling water.
Use only very young and tender, freshly harvested
roots. Clean, scrape, pre-cook. Pack, add salt and
sugar mixture. Process at once.
Prepare carefully. Pre-cook. Pack boiling hot in con-
tainer, using liquor to cover; salt.
Use only young, tender, freshly picked vegetables.
Wash, cut into halves or cubes. Steam pack into
jars. Salt. Add boiling water to cover.
Use when in milky stage. Gather only as immediately
ready to use in small lots. Prepare, add liquid, pre-
cook thoroughly, add salt and sugar mixture. Pack
hot.
Use when in milk stage. Gather as specified above.
Prepare, cut whole grains. Add liquid, pre-cook
thoroughly, season. Pack hot, seal and process.


25 Plain


25 Plain


25 R-Enamel


30 Plain

30 Plain


Pints only
75


Plain or C-
Enamel if
obtainable


55 Plain or C-
Enamel


1. Corn or butter beans should not be cannel in No. 3 cans or quart j:trs because of difficulty of heat penLtration.
2. Place jars or cans in hot canner as soon as filled.


NON-ACID VEGETABLES.
rrocessng Period
Pressure Canner at 10 Ibs.
Pressure or 2400 F.
Qt. Jars No. 2-3 Tins
Minutes Minutes
Pints only
50 50


Type of Can
Recommended


Plain or C-
Enamel if
obtainable











TABLE 2.-CONDENSED DIRECTIONS FOR CANNING NON-ACID VEGETABLES-(Concluded).


Vegetables


Eggplant
Lye Hominy


All Greens
Broccoli
Okra

Peas, Blackeyed
and English
Pimiento

Potato, Sweet
Pumpkin or
Winter Squash
Sauerkraut

Vegetables
for Soup


Preparation Before Processing


Pare, cut in pieces, soak in brine. Steam. Pack hot.
Wash thoroughly, cook tender. Pack boiling hot. Add
boiling wa'er and salt. Seal boiling hot. Cool quickly.
Trim, wash, pre-cook at below boiling temperature.
Pack in container steaming hot. Salt. Cover with
boiling liquid. Process at once.
Use only young, tender pods, not longer than 11/
inches. Wash, trim, steam, pack hot.
Gather in early morning, do not let stand. Grade, shell,
pre-cook. Add seasoning. Pack hot.
Roast in hot oven. Skin, cut out stem, remove seed,
pack dry in flattened layers in pints or half pints.
Storage rather than canning recommended.

Steam until tender. Pack hot. Process immediately.
Bring to boil, pack hot and process immediately below
boi ing 16 minutes.

See special directions. page 45.


Press

Qt.
Mi


Pin


Processing Period
assure Canner at 10 lbs. Type o
Pressure or 2400 F. Recomm
Jars No. 2-3 Tins
nutes Minutes
50 55 Plain

35 40 C-Ename

55 50 Plain


35 30 Plain
ts only Plain or
55 50 Ename
Plain or
35 30 Ename


55 50 R-Enami
SPlain or
R-Ena

35 30


f Can
ended


il


C-
Il
R-
el



el
me]


Place jars or cans in hot canner as soon as filled.








Can Surplus Fmrits and Vegetables


TABLE 3.-APPROXIMATE YIELDS OF CANNED PRODUCTS FROM GIVEN
QUANTITIES OF FRESH FRUITS AND VEGETABLES.


Name of
Product


Beans (snap) .....
Beans (lima in
hull) ......

B eets ............ ...
Berries (not
strawberries)

Carrots ..... .

Corn ... .. ....

Greens .......

Peas (in hull) ...i

Peaches ...........

Pears ..........
Pumpkin or
squash ..............

Tomatoes .........
Tomato puree
concentrated
for soup
mixture ...
I


Amount of
fresh product
needed to can
1 quart

21/ lbs.

3-4 lbs.

21-3 lbs.

1!2 lbs.

21' lbs.

10-12 ears

2-3 lbs.

4 lbs.

2-3 lbs.

2-3 lbs.

4 lbs. in shell

3 lbs.



7-10 lbs.


No. of lbs.
per bu. of
fresh
products

28-30

28

50

48-64

50



12-30

30

50

50

40

50-60



50-60


No. 2 cans No. 3 cans
or pint jars or qt. jars
canned from canned from
1 bushel 1 bushel


25-30

14-18

30-34

50

30-34

16

10-13

12-16

28-32

38-45

20

22-26



9-12


14-20

8-10

17-20

30

17 20


7-10

16-24

20-25



14-18




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