• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Credits
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Method of procedure
 Results
 Summary and conclusions
 Literature cited














Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 542
Title: Value of alyce clover pasture for lactating dairy cows
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027653/00001
 Material Information
Title: Value of alyce clover pasture for lactating dairy cows
Series Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 542
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Marshall, Sidney P.
Arnold, P. T. Dix
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Publication Date: 1954
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027653
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Credits
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
    Introduction
        Page 5
    Method of procedure
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Results
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Summary and conclusions
        Page 11
    Literature cited
        Page 12
Full Text

OCTQ 22 ..
July 1954


Bulletin 542


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
WILLARD M. FIPIELD, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA









Value of Alyce Clover Pasture for

Lactating Dairy Cows

SIDNEY P. MARSHALL and P. T. DIx ARNOLD



















Single copies free to Florida residents upon request to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA









BOARD OF CONTROL
Hollis Rinehart, Chairman, Miami
J. Lee Ballard, St. Petersburg
Fred H. Kent, Jacksonville
Wm. H. Dial, Orlando
Mrs. Alfred I. duPont, Jacksonville
George W. English, Jr., Ft. Lauderdale
W. Glenn Miller, Monticello
W. F. Powers, Secretary, Tallahassee
EXECUTIVE STAFF
John S. Allen, Acting Presidents
J. Wayne Reitz, Ph.D., Provost for Agr.3
Willard M. Fifield, M.S., Director
J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Asso. Director
R. W. Bledsoe, Ph.D., Assistant Director
Rogers L. Bartley, B.S., Admin. Mgr.3
Geo. R. Freeman, B.S., Farm Superintendent

MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE
AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
H. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agr. Economist '
R. E. L. Greene, Ph.D., Agr. Economist '
M. A. Brooker. Ph.D., Agr. Economist
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Agr. Economist
D. E. Alleger, M.S., Associate
D. L. Brooke, Ph.D., Associate
M. R. Godwin, Ph.D., Associate
W. K. McPherson, M.S., Agr. Economist a
Eric Thor, M.S., Asso. Agr. Economist3
Cecil N. Smith, M.A., Asso. Agr. Economist
Levi A. Powell, Sr., M.S.A., Assistant 4
E. D. Smith, Ph.D., Asst. Agr. Economist
N. K. Roberts, M.A., Asst. Agr. Economist
Orlando, Florida (Cooperative USDA)
G. Norman Rose, B.S., Asso. Agri. Economist
J. C. Townsend, Jr., B.S.A., Agr. Statistician2
J. B. Owens, B.S.A., Agr. Statistician 2
F. T. Calioway, M! n~r. Statistician
C. L. Crenshaw, Ii -t. Agr. Economist
B. W. Kelly, M.S., Asst. Agr. Economist
AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
Frazier Rogers, M.S.A., Agr. Engineer1 1
J. M. Myers, M.S.A., Asso. Agr. Engineer
J. S. Norton, M.S., Asst. Agr. Engineer
AGRONOMY
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist 1
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist
H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Agronomist
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Agronomist
Fred A. Clark, M.S., Associate 2
E. S. Horner, Ph.D., Assistant
A. T. Wallace, Ph.D., Assistant
D. E. McCloud, Ph.D., Assistant3
G. C. Nutter, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
I. M. Wofford, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
E. O. Burt, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
J. R. Edwardson, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND NUTRITION
T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., Animal Husbandman 1
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist"
R. L. Shirley, Ph.D., Biochemist
A. Pearson, Ph.D., Asso. An. Husb.3
John P. Feaster, Ph.D., Asst. An. Nutri.
H. D. Wallace, Ph.D., Asso. An. Husb."
M. Koger, Ph.D., An. Husbandman 3
J. F. Hentges, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. An. Hush. 3
L. R. Arrington, Ph.D., Asst. An. Husb.
A. C. Warnick, Ph.D., Asst. Physiologist
DAIRY SCIENCE
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist'1
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman 3
S. P. Marshall, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy Husb.3
W. A. Krienke, M.S., Asso. Dairy Tech.'
P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Asso. Dairy Husb. a
Leon Mull, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy Tech.3
H. H. Wilkowske, Ph.D., Asst. Dairy Tech.3
James M. Wing, Ph.D., Asst. Dairy Husb.


EDITORIAL
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor 1
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Editors
William G. Mitchell, A.B.J., Assistant Editor
Samuel L. Burgess, A.B.J., Assistant Editor '
H. L. Moreland, Jr., B.S.A., Assistant Editor
ENTOMOLOGY
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Entomologist
L. C. Kuitert, Ph.D., Associate
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant
F. A. Robinson, M.S., Asst. Apiculturist
R. E. Waites, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist
S. H. Kerr, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist
J. R. Christie, Ph.D., Nematologist
HOME ECONOMICS
Ouida D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ.'
R. B. French, Ph.D., Biochemist
HORTICULTURE
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist 1'
R. A. Dennison, Ph.D., Hort. & Interim Head
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Horticulturists
Albert P. Lorz, Ph.D., Horticulturist
R. K. Showalter, M.S., Asso. Hort.
R. H. Sharpe, M.S., Asso. Horticulturist
V. F. Nettles, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Horticulturists
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asso. Hort.
L. H. Halsey, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
C. B. Hall, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
Austin Griffiths, Jr., B.S., Asst. Hort.
S. E. McFadden, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
C. H. VanMiddelem, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
B. D. Thompson, M.S.A., Interim Asst. Hort.
M. W. Hoover, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
LIBRARY
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist '
Phares Decker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Erdman West, M.S., Botanist & Mycologists
Robert W. Earhart, Ph.D., Plant Path.2
Howard N. Miller, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Asso. Botanist
C. W. Anderson, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
POULTRY HUSBANDRY
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husb. 8
J. C. Driggers, Ph.D., Asso. Poultry Husb.'
SOILS
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologist I'
Gaylord M. Volk, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Nathan Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Ralph G. Leighty, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor s
G. D. Thornton, Ph.D., Microbiologist
C. F. Eno, Ph.D., Asst. Soils Microbiologist
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
R. E. Caldwell, M.S.A., Asst. Chemists'
V. W. Carlisle, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor
J. H. Walker, M.S.A., Asst. Soil Surveyor
William K. Robertson, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
0. E. Cruz, B.S.A., Asst. Soil Surveyor
W. G. Blue, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
J. G. A. Fiskel, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist *
L. C. Hammond, Ph.D., Asst. Soil Physicist'
H. L. Breland, Ph.D.. Asst. Soils Chem.
W. L. Pritchett, Ph.D., Soil Technologist
VETERINARY SCIENCE
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian'
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., .Veterinarian '
C. F. Simpson, D.V.M., Asso. Veterinarian
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist
W. R. Dennis, D.V.M., Asst. Parasitologist
E. W. Swarthout, D.V.M., Asso. Poultry
Pathologist (Dade City)
M. Ristic, D.V.M., Associate Pathologist
J. G. Wadsworth, D.V.M., Asst. Poul. Path.









BRANCH STATIONS

NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY
D. S. Prosser, Jr., B.S., Asst. Engineer
W. C. Rhoades, M.S., Entomologist in Charge
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist.
L. G. Thompson, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
W. I. Chapman, M.S., Agronomist
Frank S. Baker, Jr., B.S., Asst. An. Husb.
Frank E. Guthrie, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist
Mobile Unit, Monticello
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Associate Agronomist
Mobile Unit, Marianna
R. W. Lipscomb, M.S., Associate Agronomist
Mobile Unit, Pensacola
R. L. Smith, M.S., Associate Agronomist
Mobile Unit, Chipley
J. B. White, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist


CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Entomologist
R. F. Suit, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. P. Ducharme, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
J. W. Sites, Ph.D., Horticulturist
H. O. Sterling, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
H. J. Reitz, Ph.D., Horticulturist
Francine Fisher, M.S., Asst. Plant Path.
I. W. Wander, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
J. W. Kesterson, M.S., Asso. Chemist
R. Hendrickson, B.S., Asst. Chemist
Ivan Stewart, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
R. W. Olsen, B.S., Biochemist
F. W .Wenzel, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist
Alvin H. Rouse, M.S., Asso. Chemist
H. W. Ford, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
L. C. Knorr, Ph.D., Asso. Histologist
R. M. Pratt, Ph.D., Asso. Ent.-Pathologist
W. A. Simanton, Ph.D., Entomologist
E. J. Deszyck, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
C. D. Leonard, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
W. T. Long, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist
M. H. Muma, Ph.D., Asso. Entomologist
F. J. Reynolds, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
R. B. Johnson, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist
W. F. Newhall, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
W. F. Grierson-Jackson, Ph.D., Asst. Chem.
Roger Patrick, Ph.D., Bacteriologist
M. F. Oberbacher, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Physiol.
R. C. J. Koo, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
J. R. Kuykendall, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
W. C. Price, Ph.D., Virologist
J. J. McBride, Jr., Ph.D., Assistant Chemist


EVERGLADES STATION, BELLE GLADE
W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist in Charge
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Fiber Technologist
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Physiologist
J. W. Randolph, M.S., Agricultural Engr.
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Asso. Animal Husb.
C. C. Seale, Associate Agronomist
N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A. Asso. Entomologist
E. A. Wolf, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist
W. H. Thames, M.S., Asst. Entomologist
W. G. Genung, M.S., Asst. Entomologist
Robert J. Allen, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
V. E. Green, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
V. L. Guzman, Ph.D., Asst. Short.
J. C. Stephens, B.S., Drainage Engineer
A. E. Kretschmer, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Soils
Chem.
Charles T. Ozaki, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
Thomas L. Meade, Ph.D., Asst. An. Nutri.
D. S. Harrison. M.S., Asst. Agri. Engr.
F. T. Boyd, Ph.D., Asso. Agronomist
M. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
J. N. Simons, Ph.D., Asst. Virologist


D. W. Beardsley, M.S., Asst. Animal Husb.
R. S. Cox, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist
Donald M. Coe, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Pathologist
SUB-TROPICAL STATION, HOMESTEAD
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Vice-Dir. in Charge
D. O. Wolfenbarger, Ph.D., Entomologist
Francis B. Lincoln, Ph.D., Horticulturist
Robert A. Conover, Ph.D., Plant Path.
John L. Malcolm, Ph.D., Asso. Soils Chemist
R. W. Harkness, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
R. Bruce Ledin, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
J. C. Noonan, M.S., Asst. Hort.
M. H. Gallatin, B.S., Soil Conservationista
T. W. Young, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
WEST CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION,
BROOKSVILLE
Marian W. Hazen, M.S., Animal Husband-
man in Charge2
RANGE CATTLE STATION, ONA
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Agronomist
D. W. Jones, M.S., Asst. Soil Technologist
CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION, SANFORD
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Vice-Dir. in Charge
J. W. Wilson, ScD., Entomologist
P. J. Westgate, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
Ben F. Whitner, Jr., B.S.A., Asst. Hort.
J. F. Darby, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
WEST FLORIDA STATION, JAY
C. E. Hutton, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
H. W. Lundy, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist
R. L. Jeffers, Ph.D., Asso. Agronomist
SUWANNEE VALLEY STATION,
LIVE OAK
G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Agronomist in Charge
GULF COAST STATION, BRADENTON
E. L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist in Charge
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
David G. A. Kelbert, Asso. Horticulturist
Robert O. Magie, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
J. M. Walter, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
S. S. Woltz, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
Donald S. Burgis, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
C. M. Geraldson, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
G. Sowell, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Plant Pathologist


FIELD LABORATORIES

Watermelon, Grape, Pasture-Leesburg
J. M. CralI, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path. in Chg.
C. C. Helms, Jr., B.S., Asst. Agronomist
L. H. Stover, Assistant in Horticulture
Strawberry-Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Vegetables-Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Horticulturist
T. M. Dobrovsky, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist
D. L. Myhre, Ph.D., Asst. Soils Chemist
Pecans-Monticello
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Asso. Entomologist2
John R. Large, M.S., Asso. Plant Path.
Frost Forecasting-Lakeland
Warren O. Johnson, B.S., Meteorologist in
Charge2
1 Head of Department
2 In cooperation with U. S.
3 Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
4 On leave






















CONTENTS

PAGE


INTRODUCTION .....--- ..... ......... ... ........ .. 5


METHOD OF PROCEDURE ............... ................- --- --- .... 5


RESULTS .. .......--- -.....-----.-..-.. ...-.. ....... ... .. ...--- 7


Distribution of the Feed Supply -................................... 7


Body W eight and Milk Production ................................... 8


Total Digestible Nutrients Obtained from Pasture ........................... 9


Alfalfa Hay Equivalent Obtained from Pasture ................................ 10


Feed Replacement Value and Calculated Production Costs ............ 10


SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS ...............-........... .......- 11


LITERATURE CITED .............................. .......-.. ..... .......... ...............-.-...- 12








Value of Alyce Clover Pasture for

Lactating Dairy Cows

SIDNEY P. MARSHALL and P. T. DIX ARNOLD

INTRODUCTION
Dairy cattle require throughout the entire year a relatively
constant supply of feed. This feed must be acquired through
purchase or production of home-grown feedstuffs. Since pas-
tures commonly are the most economical sources of nutrients for
cattle, it is usually advantageous to supply a large proportion of
the feed from this source of forage.
In late summer and early fall permanent pastures decline in
productivity and many summer temporary grazing crops termi-
nate growth. A survey (4)1 of the feed supply offered dairy
cattle in Florida shows that during the months of August, Sep-
tember and October the percentage of total feed obtained from
pastures averaged 18.2 in 1950, 21.4 in 1951 and 22.9 in 1952.
Hay and other roughages supplied only 4.5, 2.5 and 3.7 percent of
the total feed consumed during this period of the respective years.
This report reveals that most of the feed offered dairy cattle
during this period was concentrates. It indicates an important
need for additional pasture during these months.
Alyce clover (Alysicarpus vaginalis (L.) DC.), a late-growing
summer legume, has been used in Florida as a hay crop. Hay
yields up to 5,560 pounds per acre have been reported (2) for
Alyce clover on well-drained, limed and fertilized virgin land.
These forage yields, coming in late summer, indicate that Alyce
clover may be adaptable as a grazing crop to supply supple-
mentary forage during this period of pasture deficiency. There-
fore, this experiment was designed to study the feeding value
of Alyce clover for lactating dairy cows, its yield of total digest-
ible nutrients per acre, its seasonal distribution as a feed supply,
and its production cost.
METHOD OF PROCEDURE
Alyce clover was planted in Alachua County on Orlando fine
sand in two plots of two acres each in 1950 and in three plots
1Italic figures in parentheses refer to Literature Cited.
Acknowledgments.-The authors express appreciation to A. B. Sanchez
and H. L. Somers for assistance in supervising the production and manage-
ment of the pastures and for managing the cattle used during the experi-
ments.








Value of Alyce Clover Pasture for

Lactating Dairy Cows

SIDNEY P. MARSHALL and P. T. DIX ARNOLD

INTRODUCTION
Dairy cattle require throughout the entire year a relatively
constant supply of feed. This feed must be acquired through
purchase or production of home-grown feedstuffs. Since pas-
tures commonly are the most economical sources of nutrients for
cattle, it is usually advantageous to supply a large proportion of
the feed from this source of forage.
In late summer and early fall permanent pastures decline in
productivity and many summer temporary grazing crops termi-
nate growth. A survey (4)1 of the feed supply offered dairy
cattle in Florida shows that during the months of August, Sep-
tember and October the percentage of total feed obtained from
pastures averaged 18.2 in 1950, 21.4 in 1951 and 22.9 in 1952.
Hay and other roughages supplied only 4.5, 2.5 and 3.7 percent of
the total feed consumed during this period of the respective years.
This report reveals that most of the feed offered dairy cattle
during this period was concentrates. It indicates an important
need for additional pasture during these months.
Alyce clover (Alysicarpus vaginalis (L.) DC.), a late-growing
summer legume, has been used in Florida as a hay crop. Hay
yields up to 5,560 pounds per acre have been reported (2) for
Alyce clover on well-drained, limed and fertilized virgin land.
These forage yields, coming in late summer, indicate that Alyce
clover may be adaptable as a grazing crop to supply supple-
mentary forage during this period of pasture deficiency. There-
fore, this experiment was designed to study the feeding value
of Alyce clover for lactating dairy cows, its yield of total digest-
ible nutrients per acre, its seasonal distribution as a feed supply,
and its production cost.
METHOD OF PROCEDURE
Alyce clover was planted in Alachua County on Orlando fine
sand in two plots of two acres each in 1950 and in three plots
1Italic figures in parentheses refer to Literature Cited.
Acknowledgments.-The authors express appreciation to A. B. Sanchez
and H. L. Somers for assistance in supervising the production and manage-
ment of the pastures and for managing the cattle used during the experi-
ments.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


of two acres each in 1951 and 1952. Finely ground calcic lime-
stone was spread before the initial planting. Applications of
superphosphate and muriate of potash were disked into the
soil each year prior to seeding. A spring-tooth harrow with
seeder attachment was used in 1950 to plant the clover and a
seeder attachment mounted on a soil pulverizer was employed
the following two years. Planting dates, seeding rates and
fertilization practices for each year are shown in Table 1.

TABLE 1.-PLANTING DATES, SEEDING RATES, AND FERTILIZATION PRACTICES
FOR ALYCE CLOVER PASTURES, BY YEARS.

Year

S1950 1951 1952

Planting date ...............-.. .------. June 8 June 30 July 3
Seeding rate,* pounds per acre ......... 19 20 20
Calcic limestone, tons per acre ........... 1
Superphosphate,** pounds per acre .. 375 300 300
Muriate of potash,t pounds per acre 175 100 100

Seed inoculated.
** Eighteen percent used in 1960 and 20 percent used in 1951 and 1952.
t Muriate of potash contained 50 percent KzO in 1950 and 60 percent KzO in 1951
and 1952.

Grazing was started with lactating cows when the Alyce clover
was 9 to 12 inches tall. The fields of clover were grazed rota-
tionally and the cows kept on pasture continually except when
removed for milking. Shade and fresh water were provided in
each pasture and the animals were sprayed regularly to control
flies.
The cows were milked twice daily. Butterfat tests were made
on an aliquot of one day's production of each cow at the begin-
ning and at bi-weekly intervals during the experiment. The
animals were weighed following the morning milking on three
consecutive days at the beginning, the end, and at 28-day inter-
vals during the experiment.
A concentrate mixture containing 16 percent of crude protein
was offered each cow at the rate of 1 pound per 3.5 pounds of
4 percent fat-corrected milk produced. The concentrate allow-
ance for each cow was adjusted at bi-weekly intervals in accord-
ance with her milk production. Concentrate mixtures, with







Value of Alyce Clover for Lactating Dairy Cows


dates used, are shown in Table 2. Common salt, steamed bone-
meal and an anemia-preventive mineral mixture were offered
free choice.

TABLE 2.--CONCENTRATE MIXTURES USED DURING ALYCE CLOVER
GRAZING EXPERIMENT.

Mixtures Used, with Years*
Ingredients
1950 1951 1952
percent percent percent
Cottonseed meal, 41% crude protein 11.4
Peanut meal, 45% crude protein .... ..... 10.2 11.4
Wheat bran ........-... ............... ... I 36.6 36.6 21.7
Hominy feed ....................................... 50.0 51.2 43.2
O ats ....................... ..... ...... ..... ....... -...... ...... 21.7
Salt ............... ..- ................... 1.0 1.0 1.0
Bonem eal ........... ........................... 1.0 1.0 1.0

Crude protein ........ ......... .. -. .... 16.0 16.0 16.0
Total digestible nutrients ............ 74.7 76.1 75.7

Cottonseed meal, 41 percent crude protein, was unavailable in 1951 and was replaced
by peanut meal. The composition of the mixture was changed in 1952 to improve palatability.


RESULTS

Intervals between planting Alyce clover and initial grazing
ranged from 53 to 82 days, with the periods being shorter for
the later plantings. Grazing was begun on August 29 the first
two years and August 15 the last year. The amount and dis-
tribution of rainfall-particularly during August-was an im-
portant factor influencing growth rate and determining the date
grazing was started.
Distribution of the Feed Supply.-Grazing periods on Alyce
clover were 43, 45 and 48 days for the successive years. Forage
growth and carrying capacity of the pastures were higher during
the first of the two rotations. In this first rotation period of
about four weeks the cows obtained over two-thirds of the total
nutrients supplied by the pasture during the grazing season.
During the second rotation when forage production was smaller,
the cows obtained slightly less than one-third of the total nu-
trients provided by the pasture during the experiment. The
percentage of the pasture's total yield of total digestible nutrients
that was grazed each week is shown for each year in Figure 1.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Body Weight and Milk Production.-Average initial weights of
the Jersey and Guernsey cows used in the trials were 801, 777
and 838 pounds for the respective years. Changes were small
between the cows' average initial weights and their average
final weights, with the average change not exceeding 0.5 pound
per cow for any year.


24 0 1950
22- A 1951
20- --- --- 1952
18 -
16
w 14
U 12



6-
4 0

2-

August September October
MONTHS

Fig. 1.-Percentage of the pasture's total yield of total digestible nutrients
that was grazed each week by lactating cows.

Daily milk production per cow during each of the respective
trials averaged 27.1, 21.4 and 22.1 pounds. The lower produc-
tion level in 1951 (second year) was due to smaller yields per
animal from the large proportion of young cows used, and in
1952 to many of the cows being in an advanced stage of lactation.
Expressed as 4 percent fat-corrected milk, the average daily
production was 30.6, 24.2 and 26.0 pounds for the successive
years. Results of grazing Alyce cover with lactating cows are
presented in Table 3.
There was no discernible change in the production trend when
the cows were shifted at the beginning of the experiments from
herd pastures of Dallis grass or Dallis grass plus millet to the
Alyce clover pasture. Persistency of milk production was satis-
factory while the cows were grazing Alyce clover in 1951 and
1952, but was lower in 1950 than for the latter two years. The







Value of Alyce Clover for Lactating Dairy Cows


forage was coarse, more fibrous and less palatable during the
first trial, which probably contributed to the sharper decline
in production that year.

TABLE 3.-VALUE OF ALYCE CLOVER PASTURE FOR LACTATING COWS, BY
YEARS AND THE AVERAGE FOR THREE YEARS.


Dates of grazing .......................

Length of grazing period, days
Av. daily carrying capacity of
pasture, cows per acre ........

Av. initial weight of cows, lbs.
Av. gain or loss in body weight
per animal, Ibs. .......-...........-

Av. daily production per cow,
Ibs ................ .......-... ..
Av. daily production 4 percent
fat-corrected milk per cow,
lbs ... ......... .... .. ................

T.D.N. obtained per acre from
pasture, lbs. ...................
Alfalfa hay equivalent obtained
per acre from pasture, tons..
Percent of T.D.N. intake ob-
tained from pasture .............
Av. daily concentrate consump-
tion per cow, lbs ...................

Calculated feed replacement
value of grazing, per acre ...
Calculated cost of pasture
production, per acre ............
Net value of pasture, per acre..


Year
1950 I 1951 1952
Aug. 29- Aug. 29- Aug. 15-
Oct. 10 Oct. 12 Oct. 1


45

2.5


48

2.6


Three-
Year
Average



45.1

2.3


801.0 777.0 838.0 805.3
+0.5 +0.2 -0.1 +0.2


27.1 21.4 22.1 23.5

30.6 24.2 26.0 26.9


811.6
0.81
58.7
9.2


$45.36

$26.40
$18.96


1,045.8
1.04
63.9
7.1


$58.24

$27.18
$31.06


1,159.3
1.15
62.2

7.5


$64.40

$29.53
$34.87


1,005.6
1.00
61.6

7.9


$56.00

$27.70
$28.30


Total Digestible Nutrients Obtained from Pasture.-Total di-
gestible nutrients obtained per acre from Alyce clover were
calculated (1) to be 811.6, 1,045.8 and 1,159.3 pounds for the
respective years, with a three-year average of 1,005.6 pounds.
Daily intake of total digestible nutrients per cow from the pas-
ture was sufficient to support body maintenance plus the pro-
duction of 9.9 pounds of 4 percent fat-corrected milk daily. The
remainder of their feed requirements was furnished by an aver-
age daily allowance per cow of 7.9 pounds of concentrate.
During the first rotation of 1951 and 1952, pastures were
stocked heavier with cows to graze Alyce clover before the stems






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


became coarse and more fibrous. This practice of grazing the
forage while it was more palatable and nutritious aided in obtain-
ing higher yields of total digestible nutrients during the latter
two years.
Alfalfa Hay Equivalent Obtained from Pasture.-A practical
method commonly used for expressing the value of a pasture
is the equivalent amount of a comparable and well-known rough-
age that would be required to replace it. A sample of Alyce
clover taken from plants 8 to 12 inches tall during the second
rotation of 1952 contained 5.47 percent of crude protein and
25.3 percent of dry matter, which is similar to the composition
of alfalfa. Since alfalfa hay has a widely known feeding value,
it was selected as the reference feedstuff. Using the total di-
gestible nutrient value of 50.3 percent (3) to calculate the alfalfa
hay equivalent, the feed obtained from Alyce clover pasture was
equal to 0.81, 1.04 and 1.15 tons of alfalfa hay per acre for the
respective years.
Feed Replacement Value and Calculated Production Costs.-
Financial returns realized from grazing Alyce clover pasture
with lactating cows were determined by multiplying the alfalfa
hay equivalent obtained per acre by a market price for alfalfa
hay of $56.00 per ton. In arriving at production costs, charges
based on prevailing market prices were made for fertilizers, seed
and land rent. Assessments for cultural practices were made
in accordance with local charges per acre for custom work where
fields were 10 acres or larger. Fertilizer and seed costs per ton
were: 20 percent superphosphate, $23.00; 18 percent superphos-
phate, $21.00; muriate of potash (60 percent K20), $54.00;
muriate of potash (50 percent K20), $46.00; and calcic limestone,
spread, $4.90. Alyce clover seed plus inoculant was $0.25 per
pound. Assessments per acre for cultural practices were: break-
ing land, $2.33; disking, $1.40; seeding with spring-tooth har-
row, $1.42; seeding with soil pulverizer, $2.00; mowing, $1.17;
application of superphosphate, $1.75; and application of muriate
of potash, $1.75. Land rental was $4.00 per acre, with $2.00
charged against Alyce clover and the remaining $2.00 assessed
against winter oats grown on the same land during other seasons.
Production costs for Alyce clover were $26.40, $27.18 and
$29.53 per acre for the successive years, with a three-year aver-
age of $27.70. The calculated feed replacement value of the
pasture was $45.36, $58.24 and $64.40 for the respective years.
Since production costs per acre were relatively constant for the






Value of Alyce Clover for Lactating Dairy Cows


three years, the annual rises in feed replacement value were
accompanied by increases in net returns of $18.96, $31.06 and
$34.87 per acre.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Alyce clover was grown on Orlando fine sand and provided
grazing for dairy cows an average of 45.1 days during the latter
part of August, September and early October of 1950, 1951 and
1952. The pastures were grazed two rotations each year. Over
two-thirds of the total digestible nutrients derived from Alyce
clover during the grazing periods was obtained in the initial
rotation period of about four weeks. Carrying capacity of the
pastures averaged 2.3 cows per acre.
Initial body weights of the cows averaged 805.3 pounds.
Changes between average initial weight and average final weight
were small, averaging less than 0.5 pound per animal each year.
The cows produced a daily average of 30.6, 24.2 and 26.0 pounds
of 4 percent fat-corrected milk during the respective three trials.
There was no noticeable change in the production trend when
the cows were moved to Alyce clover pasture from herd pastures
of Dallis grass or Dallis grass and millet. Production persistency
was satisfactory during the trials in 1951 and 1952 but was
lower in 1950, probably because the Alyce clover was more
fibrous and less palatable during that year.
Total digestible nutrients obtained from Alyce clover pasture
were 811.6, 1,045.8 and 1,159.3 pounds per acre for the successive
years. These yields were calculated to be equivalent to 0.81, 1.04
and 1.15 tons of alfalfa hay per acre, respectively. The cows
obtained 61.6 percent of their total digestible nutrient intake
from pasture; this was sufficient to support body maintenance
plus an average daily production of 9.9 pounds of 4 percent fat-
corrected milk. The remainder of their feed requirements was
supplied by the average daily allowance of 7.9 pounds of con-
centrate per cow.
Calculated production costs for Alyce clover averaged $27.70
per acre and variations were small for the different years. Feed
replacement values per acre of $45.36, $58.24 and $64.40 derived
during the successive years were accompanied by corresponding
increases in net returns per acre of $18.96, $31.06 and $34.87.
Dairymen who need additional forage in late summer and early
fall and have available land suitable for growing Alyce clover
may utilize this grazing crop profitably. Its grazing season is







12 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

short and its carrying capacity high. During the first rotation,
up to three or more cows per acre may be required for the total
acreage of Alyce clover planted in order to consume the forage
before it becomes too mature. Land used to grow Alyce clover
may be seeded in the fall to a winter temporary pasture crop.

LITERATURE CITED
1. AMER. Soc. AGRO., AMER. DAIRY SCI. ASSoc., AMER. SOC. ANIM. PROD.,
and AMER. Soc. RANGE MANGT. JOINT COMMITTEE. Pasture and
Range Research Techniques. Agron. Jour. 44: 39-50. 1952.
2. BLASER, R. E., G. W. RITCHEY and W. E. STOKES. Alyce Clover. Fla.
Agr. Expt. Sta. Press Bul. 570. 1942.
3. MORRISON, F. B. Feeds and Feeding. 21st ed. The Morrison Publish-
ing Co. 1948.
4. USDA Bur. Agr. Econ., Orlando, Fla., Cooperating with Fla. Dept. of
Agr., Dairy Div. Milk production and feed reports. 1950-52.




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