• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Previous work
 Experimental procedure
 Experimental results
 Summary
 Literature cited
 Acknowledgement














Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 575
Title: Feeding value of citrus and blackstrap molasses for fattening cattle
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 Material Information
Title: Feeding value of citrus and blackstrap molasses for fattening cattle
Series Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 575
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Kirk, W. G.
Kelly, E. M.
Fulford, H. J.
Henderson, H. E.
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Publication Date: 1956
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Bibliographic ID: UF00027651
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Previous work
        Page 3
    Experimental procedure
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Experimental results
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Summary
        Page 22
    Literature cited
        Page 22
    Acknowledgement
        Page 23
Full Text



Bulletin 575 July 1956




UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
JOSEPH R. BECKENBACH, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
(A contribution from the Range Cattle Experiment Station)











Feeding Value of Citrus and

Blackstrap Molasses for Fattening Cattle


W. G. KIRK, E. M. KELLY, H. J. FULFORD and H. E. HENDERSON
Vice-Director in Charge and former Assistant Animal Husbandmen
Range Cattle Experiment Station, Ona, Florida


Siu ylk copies free to Florida residents upon request to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA

















CONTENTS


Page

INTRODUCTION .. ....... ...... ............ ....................... 3

PREVIOUS W ORK ......................... ........ 8

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE .................................... ............. 4


EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS ................................. .................. 6


Hand-feeding Molasses ........ .................... ............ 6


Self-feeding Molasses .................... ......... .. ................... 12


Mineral Consumption .................... ..... ..... .. ....... ........... 17

Live Animal and Carcass Grades ................ .......................... 19


Carcass Yield ..............-........-..............--- ............... 20

Discussion ......... ......... .... ............................. 20


SUMMARY ..-.-....-. ...............-..... ........... ....... .. .....-....... 22


LITERATURE CITED .............. .......... ......... .. .............. 22


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ... ............. .. .... ... .... .. ... ......... .. 23








Feeding Value of Citrus and

Blackstrap Molasses for Fattening Cattle

W. G. KIRK, E. M. KELLY, H. J. FULFORD and H. E. HENDERSON
Vice-Director in Charge and former Assistant Animal Husbandmen
Range Cattle Experiment Station, Ona, Florida

The number of steers fattened in dry-lot in Florida has in-
creased rapidly since 1950. It has been found that Florida-
produced feeds can be used to advantage in a feeding program
when supplemented to provide a balanced ration. Ground snap-
ped corn and citrus pulp are the main energy feeds, but there
has been an increase in the use of both citrus molasses and
blackstrap molasses for cattle feeding. The value of the latter
two feeds has been shown in several trials with steers fed in
groups. This report deals with the response of animals fed
citrus and blackstrap molasses individually in paired feeding
trials.
PREVIOUS WORK
The importance of citrus products as feed for cattle has been
shown by Becker et al (4, 5),1 Becker, Arnold and Davis (4),
and Kirk et al (8, 9). Citrus molasses is second to citrus pulp
in tonnage of feed produced by citrus processing plants. Citrus
molasses contains from 60 to 70 percent dry matter and is made
up largely of sugars, which supply most of its value as cattle
feed. Much of the molasses has been sold in bulk, either plain
or mixed with urea, but increasing amounts are being combined
with citrus pulp and other feeds.
Citrus molasses was first produced commercially in 1941.
Becker et al (5) estimated that it contained 1.4 percent digest-
ible crude protein and 56.7 percent TDN (total digestible nu-
trients), based upon 69.9 percent dry matter. Although citrus
molasses has a bitter taste, cattle eat it readily within a few
days after it is fed for the first time.
Blackstrap molasses, a by-product of the sugar industry, is of
world-wide importance as a feed for livestock. It has been used
in numerous experimental feeding trials, many of which are
summarized in Morrison's "Feeds and Feeding" (10). Florida-
produced blackstrap molasses has a higher dry matter content
than molasses produced in other areas. This is due to the in-
1 Italic figures in parentheses refer to Literature Cited.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


creased level of crude protein (largely non-protein nitrogen),
ash and slightly more sugar. Citrus and blackstrap molasses
are similar in composition and both have a high calcium content,
usually from 1 to 2 percent. Their value as feeds is due to high
sugar content and palatability.
On a dry-matter basis, citrus molasses and Florida blackstrap
molasses contain approximately the same amount of TDN.
Blackstrap is more viscous than citrus molasses. For this reason
cattle do not eat it as quickly and it is more difficult to mix with
other feeds at low temperatures.
Blackstrap molasses has been used increasingly in fattening
rations in Florida since 1940. Kidder and Kirk (7) in 1941
reported that in three 120-day trials in dry lot, steers fed sugar-
cane and ground snapped corn had an average daily gain of 1.95
pounds, while those fed sugarcane silage and the same weight
of corn gained 1.87 pounds daily. Replacing one-half the ground
snapped corn with an equal weight of blackstrap molasses gave
an average daily gain of 1.90 pounds for those fed fresh sugar-
cane and 1.80 pounds when sugarcane silage was fed.
Baker (1, 2, 3), reported that citrus molasses can be used to
replace one-half of the ground snapped corn in a fattening ration,
frequently with an increase in rate of gain. Average daily gains
were lower when blackstrap molasses replaced one-half the
ground snapped corn. Feeding either citrus or blackstrap mo-
lasses did not affect yield or quality of beef, as indicated by
dressing percent and carcass grade.
Results of feeding trials show that both citrus and blackstrap
molasses can be used to replace more expensive feeds in steer
fattening rations.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
Seven dry-lot feeding trials of 120 days each, in which all
steers were fed individually, have been completed at the Range
Cattle Station. In four trials a total of 13 pairs of steers were
hand-fed molasses. One animal in each pair received citrus
molasses, the other the same weight of blackstrap molasses.
In three other trials a total of six pairs of steers were self-fed
molasses. One steer in each pair was self-fed citrus molasses,
the other was self-fed blackstrap molasses. Otherwise the ration
given each steer in a pair was the same as to ingredients and
amount fed. In each trial there was a preliminary feeding period
of 7 to 10 days.






Citrus and Blackstrap Molasses for Fattening Cattle 5

The four trials in which citrus and blackstrap molasses were
hand-fed to paired steers were completed on 12-21-48, 5-12-49,
10-10-49 and 4-4-50; the self-feeding trials were completed on
12-21-48, 5-12-49 and 8-15-50.
Of the 38 animals fed, 22 were yearlings, 6 were two years
and 10 were three years old when placed on test. Brahman
breeding predominated, with considerable Shorthorn and some
Devon and Hereford blood. Pairs were selected using as criteria,
weight, age, disposition, breeding and feeder grade. Individual
weights were taken at the beginning of each trial and at weekly
intervals throughout the trials.
All animals were fed individually in stalls 5 x 14 feet. They
were exercised twice weekly, once when being weighed and again
by allowing animals to exercise in groups in a small yard for
one-half hour.
Feeds used in the rations were as follows:
Ration 1. Pangola hay, cottonseed meal, and equal amounts
of citrus pulp and citrus molasses, all hand-fed.
Ration 2. Same as Ration 1 except blackstrap molasses re-
placed citrus molasses, all hand-fed.
Ration 3. Pangola hay, cottonseed meal and citrus pulp, hand-
fed, and citrus molasses self-fed.
Ration 4. Same as Ration 3 except blackstrap molasses self-
fed replaced citrus molasses self-fed.
The Pangola hay provided roughage which is essential when
citrus pulp is fed, cottonseed meal the indispensable protein to
balance the ration, and citrus pulp plus either citrus or black-
strap molasses supplied the necessary energy nutrients in the
fattening ration.
The steers in a pair hand-fed either citrus or blackstrap mo-
lasses were given the same amount by weight of each ingredient
in the ration. The pairs self-fed molasses were given the same
*amount of hay, cottonseed meal and citrus pulp and as much of
either citrus or blackstrap molasses as would be eaten by the
next feeding time.
The Pangola hay produced at the Range Cattle Station was of
fair quality. To eliminate waste at feeding it was cut into 1- to
3-inch lengths by putting through a silage cutter. Cottonseed
meal of 41 per cent protein was purchased as needed from Florida
feed dealers. Citrus pulp and molasses and blackstrap molasses
were secured from local producers.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Steers were fed twice daily, at 8:00 A.M. and 4:00 P.M. The
feed ingredients making up individual rations were weighed
immediately before feeding. Cottonseed meal and citrus pulp
were fed together and the molasses separately. Hay was fed
after most of the dry feed had been eaten. Any refusal was
weighed and recorded.
Each steer had free access to the following mineral mixture
(6): steamed bonemeal 29.00 parts, defluorinated phosphate
29.00 parts, common salt 34.20 parts, red oxide of iron 3.42 parts,
copper sulfate 0.34 parts, cobalt chloride 0.04 parts, cottonseed
meal 2.00 parts and blackstrap molasses 2.00 parts.
All steers were slaughtered by Kingan & Company, Bartow.
Dressing percent was based on weight as delivered to slaughter
plant and shrunk carcass weight.

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
HAND-FEEDING MOLASSES
Data from four 120-day paired feeding trials with steers hand-
fed either citrus or blackstrap molasses are given in Table 1.
Results for steers making a pair are on a horizontal line; for
example, steers 12 and 14 fed in Trial 1, Table 1, are a pair, as
are steers 1 and 2. This method is used to designate paired
animals throughout the bulletin. Initial weight and gain for
all steers hand-fed molasses, and averages for each trial and
for the four trials are given in Table 1.
The difference in average initial weight of steers used in the
four trials is partly due to age of animals used. Three-year-old
steers were fed in Trial 1; in Trial 4, 2-year-old; and in Trials
2 and 3, yearlings. Daily gains of steers fed citrus molasses
ranged from 2.01 to 3.04 pounds, with an average of 2.30 pounds
for the 12 animals. Individual gains of steers fed blackstrap
molasses varied from 1.71 to 2.67 pounds daily, with an average
of 2.29 pounds for the 12 animals. The highest average daily
gains were made in Trial 2. They were 2.98 and 2.56 pounds,
respectively, for the citrus- and blackstrap-fed steers.
Table 2 gives the average daily feed intake for each of the
24 steers hand-fed molasses, with average feed intake for each
trial and grand average for the four trials. The steers in a pair
were fed-the same weight of feed daily. The steers eating the
least feed governed the quantity given the other member of a
pair. Any difference in average daily feed intake is due to feed
refusal.







Citrus and Blackstrap Molasses for Fattening Cattle 7

The feed ingredients eaten for 100 pounds gain for individual
and groups of steers fed either citrus or blackstrap molasses
are given in Table 3. While there is considerable variation in
the feed required for 100 pounds gain within a pair and within
trials, the average for the 12 steers fed citrus molasses was 190
pounds hay, 121 pounds cottonseed meal, 238 pounds citrus pulp
and 232 pounds molasses-a total of 781 pounds. The steers
fed blackstrap molasses required 191 pounds hay, 122 pounds
cottonseed meal, 240 pounds citrus pulp and 233 pounds molasses
-a total of 786 pounds of feed: The difference in total feed
required for gains between the animals hand-fed citrus molasses
and those hand-fed blackstrap molasses is not significant. In
general, the steer making the highest average daily gain in a
pair required the least feed per 100 pounds of gain.

TABLE 1.-WEIGHTS AND GAINS OF STEERS HAND-FED CITRUS AND BLACK-
STAP MOLASSES IN PAIRED FEEDING TRIALS.


Citrus Molasses


I ________ -


Trial
No. Animal
No.


12*
1
13
21**


Initial
Weight


pounds
735
670
680
655


Total
Gain


pounds
262
272
243
237


Blackstrap Molasses


Av.
Daily Animal Initial
Gain No. Weight


pounds
2.18
2.27
2.03
1.98


14*
2
11
10**


pounds
685
685
660
705


I Av.
Total I Daily
Gain Gain


pounds
1.96
2.27
1.71
0.98


pounds
235
272
205
118


Average ........ 695 259 2.16 __ 677 237 1.98

2 5 590 350 2.92 12 470 320 2.67
7 505 365 3.04 8 570 295 2.46
I I
Average ....... 548 358 2.98 520 308 2.56

3 68 400 249 2.08 75 420 263 2.19
35 555 241 2.01 37 570 248 2.07
62 605 274 2.28 64 650 283 2.36
42X 635 242 2.02 44X 615 258 2.15

Average ........ 549 252 2.10 564 1 263 2.19

4 60 715 285 2.38 54 630 1.290 2.42
55 580 265 2.21 77 665 :315 2.11.
51 670 270 2.25 57 615 315 2.63


Average ........
Grand Avg.


612


273 2.28 637
277 2.30 603


* Animals opposite in table are paired. ie. 12 and 14.
** Pair not included in averages since animal 10 did not make normal gains.


" i










TABLE 2.-AVERAGE DAILY RATION OF STEERS HAND-FED CITRUS AND BLACKSTRAP MOLASSES IN PAIRED FEEDING TRIALS.


T lCitrus Molasses
Trial H 1 Cotton-
No. Animal: Hay seed Citrus
No. Meal Pulp
pounds pounds pounds

1 12 4.72 2.63 5.73
41 4.72 2.63 5.90
13 4.71 2.63 5.85


Mo-
lasses


pounds

5.71
5.90
5.85


Blackstrap Molasses
Cotton-
Animal Hay seed Citrus
No. Meal Pulp


pounds

4.72
4.72
4.67


pounds

2.62
2.64
2.63


pounds

5.73
5.89
5.85


Mo-
lasses


pounds

5.71
5.88
5.85


Average ............... 4.72 2.63 5.83 5.82 4.70 2.63 5.82 5.81

2 5 4.98 2.63 5.34 5.19 12 4.95 2.62 5.34 5.14
7 5.23 2.63 5.37 5.19 8 5.23 2.64 5.37 5.23

Average ..................... 5.10 2.63 5.36 5.19 5.09 2.63 5.36 5.19

3 68 3.60 2.61 5.08 4.82 75 3.58 2.61 5.13 4.71
35 4.20 2.89 5.26 4.95 37 4.22 2.90 5.28 5.00
62 4.18 2.91 5.40 5.01 64 4.23 2.91 5.42 5.13
42X 4.22 2.94 5.42 4.98 44X 4.22 2.91 5.42 5.01

Average .. 4.05 2.84 5.29 4.94 4.06 2.83 5.31 4.97

4.00 3.01 5.94 5.944.00 3.01 .00 3.01 5.94 5.94
55 4.00 301 5.43 5.34 77 4.00 3.01 5.43 5.40
51 4.00 3.01 5.15 5.07 57 4.00 3.01 5.15 5.11

Average ........................ 4.00 3.01 5.51 5.45 4.00 3.01 5.51 5.48

Grand Average ........ 4.38 2.80 5.49 5.34 4.37 2.79 5.49 5.34


L


I


S





TABLE 3.-FEED REQUIRED FOR 100 POUNDS GAIN BY STEERS HAND-FED CITRUS AND BLACKSTAP MOLASSES IN PAIRED
FEEDING TRIALS.


Citrus Molasses


Trial
No. Animal Hay
No.


1 12
1
13


pounds

216
208
233


Cotton-
seed
Meal


pounds

121
116
130


Citrus
Pulp


pounds

263
260
289


Mo-
lasses


pounds

262
260
289


Blackstrap Molasses
Cotton- i
Animal Hay seed Citrus I Mo-
No. Meal Pulp lasses


pounds

14 241
2 208
11 273


pounds pounds

134 293
116 260
154 342


pounds

292
259
343


Average ........-.....-.... 219 122 270 270 236 132 294 294

2 5 171 90 183 178 12 186 99 200 193
S 7 172 87 176 171 8 206 107 218 213

Average ..........---..... 171 88 180 174 199 103 209 202

3 68 173 126 245 232 75 163 119 234 215
35 209 144 262 228 37 204 140 256 242
62 183 127 238 222 64 179 123 230 218
42X 209 146 269 247 44X 196 135 252 233

Average ..... ------. 193 135 252 236 185 129 242 226

4 60 168 127 250 250 54 166 125 246 246
55 181 136 246 244 77 152 115 207 206
51 177 134 229 225 57 152 115 196 196

Average .........176 132 242 240 157 118 215 215

Grand Average .. ... 190 121 238 232 191 122 240 233


,


,


,







Florida Agricultural E.i, piI, i att Stations


Average composition of feeds used in the different feeding
trials is shown in Table 4. Blackstrap molasses had a higher
average dry matter content than citrus molasses, due largely
to its higher content of crude protein and ash. The coefficients
of digestibility used in estimating TDN in hay, cottonseed meal
and blackstrap molasses were obtained from Morrison's Feeds
and Feeding (10): for dried citrus pulp, from Neal, Becker and
Arnold (11) : and for citrus and blackstrap molasses, from Becker,
Arnold, Davis and Fouts (5). It is seen from Table 4 that the
citrus pulp contained 73.1 pounds TDN and citrus and blackstrap
molasses 51.3 and 52.8 pounds, respectively. Thus the steers
obtained a larger proportion of TDN from citrus pulp than from
either of the two kinds of molasses.

TABLE 4.-AVERAGE COMPOSITION AND DIGESTIBLE NUTRIENT CONTENT OF
FEEDS USED IN THE SEVEN TRIALS.
SNitro-
Crude I gen-
Feed Dry Pro- Crude Crude I Ash I Free TDN*
Matter tein Fiber I Fat I Ex-
I I tract I
percent percent percent percent percent percent percent
Pangola hay ........ 88.78 4.21 27.67 1.75 4.51 50.64 42.7
Cottonseed meal. 91.23 41.53 12.21 4.96 6.07 26.46 70.1
Dried citrus pulp 88.28 6.40 13.20 3.34 4.58 60.76 73.1
Citrus molasses 60.32 5.61 ... 0.30 4.41 50.00 51.3
Blackstrap
molasses .......... 68.86 7.58 ... 0.33 8.25 52.70 52.8

Total digestible nutrients.

The average TDN required for 100 pounds gain and the amount
furnished by each feed are given in Table 5. In Trials 1 and 2
the steers fed citrus molasses required less nutrients per unit
of gain than those fed blackstrap molasses, but in Trials 3 and 4
this was reversed. The average TDN for 100 pounds gain for
the 12 steers hand-fed citrus molasses and the 12 steers hand-
fed blackstrap molasses was 459 pounds and 466 pounds, re-
spectively.
Steers hand-fed citrus molasses obtained 18 percent TDN from
hay, 18 percent from cottonseed meal, 38 percent from citrus
pulp and 26 percent from molasses. Steers hand-fed cane mo-
lasses obtained 17 percent of TDN from hay, 18 percent from
cottonseed meal, 38 percent from citrus pulp and 27 percent
from molasses.






TABLE 5.-TOTAL DIGESTIBLE NUTRIENTS REQUIRED FOR 100 POUNDS GAIN BY STEERS HAND-FED CITRUS AND BLACKSTRAP
MOLASSES IN PAIRED FEEDING TRIALS.


Animal Hay
Xi


Citrus Molasses
Cotton-
seed Citrus Mo-
SMeal Puln lasses


Total


Animal Hay
No.


Blackstrap Molasses
Cotton- I
seed Citrus Mo-
Meal Pulp lasses


Total


._____ I _____ I ______, __ _
pounds pounds pounds pounds poundsI pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds

112 92 82 188 148 510 14 103 91 210 165 569
1 89 79 186 148 502 2 89 79 186 147 501
3 99 88 207 164 558 11 116 105 245 194 660
Average ................. 93 83 193 153 522 ___ 101 90 211 167 569

2 5 74 68 137 94 373 12 80 74 150 107 411
7 74 65 132 90 361 8 92 81 164 118 455



Average ................--

3 68
36
62
42X

Average ......................

4 60
55
51

Average .....................

Grand Average .......


66 135


85
93
86
99


173
155
167
190


92 I 367


116
123
111
123


445
492
439
498


86


77 157 112


81
95
84
92


165
180
162
178


113
127
114
122


_ _ 1I 1- F I


79

74
80
78


92

88
95
93


77 92

81 84


178


189
186
173


118 467


120
117
108


471
478
452


115i 4 C7


173 120 459 81


88 171 119


186
156
148


124
104
98


82 163 108


85 175 125


sa


ta
cs
a-
%n
|e


0,


432

426
486
434
473

454

470
407 C
393

422

466
r-


Trial
No.


1 i8


I


i


66 13


178 18 1 4


I-


173 108


I






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Feeder steers used in the fourth trial are shown in Figs. 1
and 3. These same steers at the completion of the 120-day
feeding trial are shown in Figs. 2 and 4.

SELF-FEEDING MOLASSES
Three 120-day paired feeding trials with steers self-fed either
citrus or blackstrap molasses have been completed. The two
steers in a pair were fed the same amount of hay, cottonseed
meal and citrus pulp and as much of either citrus or blackstrap
molasses as they would eat. Since molasses was kept before
the steers at all times there was more refusal of the dry feeds
than when molasses was hand-fed. Initial weight and gain for
each of the 12 steers self-fed molasses and averages for the six
pairs are shown in Table 6.

TABLE 6.-WEIGHTS AND GAINS OF STEERS SELF-FED CITRUS AND BLACK-
STRAP MOLASSES IN PAIRED FEEDING TRIALS.


Trial
No. Animal
No.


Citrus Molasses


Initial
Weight


I Av.
Total I Daily
Gain [ Gain


Blackstrap Molasses


I
Animal Initial
No. Weight


I Av.
Total I Daily
Gain Gain


pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds
5 34 515 225 1.88 4-46 635 207 1.73
20 645 203 1.69 4-45 690 227 1.89

Average .......... 580 214 1.78 663 217 1.81

6 16 525 320 2.67 31 605 335 2.79
19 580 305 2.54 30 570 310 2.58

Average .......... 553 313 2.60 588 323 2.69

7 52 700 280 2.33 44 745 275 2.29
38 770 235 1.96 40 765 305 2.54

Average ....... 735 258 2.15 755 290 2.22


Grand Av. ......


2.18


668


It is shown in Table 6 that the steers fed


citrus molasses had


an average initial weight of 623 pounds, compared with 668
pounds for those receiving blackstrap molasses. Although the





------------ '







TABLE 7.-AVERAGE DAILY RATION OF STEERS SELF-FED CITRUS AND BLACKSTRAP MOLASSES IN PAIRED FEEDING TRIALS.


Citrus Molasses Blackstrap Molasses
Trial Cotton- I I Cotton-
No. Animal Hay seed Citrus I Mo- Animal( Hay seed Citrus Mo-
No. Meal Pulp lasses No. |Meal Pulp lasses
pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds
5 34 4.15 2.63 4.51 6.73 4-46 4.33 2.63 4.52 5.46
20 4.60 2.47 3.63 9.47 4-45 4.68 2.63 4.28 9.53

Average -............. 4.38 2.55 4.07 8.10 4.51 2.63 4.44 7.59

6 16 5.01 2.63 5.39 7.57 31 5.00 2.63 5.37 7.57
19 5.28 2.63 5.45 7.70 30 5.28 2.63 5.45 7.71
I_____ I _____ __ _________ I ____ 1. ___ ___
Average .......... 5.14 2.63 5.42 7.63 5.14 2.63 5.41 7.64

7 52 6.08 3.41 7.52 7.76 44 6.10 3.50 7.50 4.01
38 6.07 3.40 7.38 8.04 40 6.10 3.50 7.50 8.04

Average ..................... 6.08 3.40 7.45 7.90 6.10 3.50 7.50 6.02


Grand Average ...........


5.20


2.92


5.79


5.64 7.88










..:.^ .'*:* .... .iI ii i iilM. ..i BgMi~ f ^---



Ziaa
















Fig. I.-Steer No. 60 when placed on feed December 5, 1949, Trial 4.
Feeder grade U. S. Good.

,... .-:.. :.- ... -... :-:. .-.. s~ .. ~.~* ".:"*"
,I" w u


Fig. 2.-Steer No. 60 after being hand-fed citrus molasses for 120 days.
Slaughter grade U. S. High Good.






























.'



Fig. 3.-Steer No. 54 when placed on feed December 5, 1949, Trial 4.
Feeder grade U. S. Good.


Fig. 4.-Steer No. 54 after being hand-fed blackstrap molasses for 120 days.
Slaughter grade U. S. Good.


"Y


.~FI~ -B










TABLE 8.-FEED REQUIRED FOR 100 POUNDS GAIN BY STEERS SELF-FED CITRUS AND BLACKSTRAP MOLASSES IN PAIRED
FEEDING TRIALS.

Citrus Molasses |Blackstrap Molasses
Trial I Cotton- I I I Cotton- |
No. Animal Hay seed I Citmr Mn- I Animal I T-T .,1 I "rC


I No. Meal Pulp lasses No. Meal Pulp i lasses
pounds pounds pounds I pounds 1 pounds pounds pounds pounds

5 34 221 140 241 359 4-46 251 153 262 327
20 272 146 214 560 4-45 248 139 226 504


Average --..-.................. 245 143 228 454 249 146 243 420


6 16 188 98 202 284 31 179 94 192 271
19 203 104 215 303 30 204 102 211 299


Average ...................... 193 101 208 293 192 98 202 285


7 52 261 146 322 333 44 267 153 328 178
38 310 173 377 411 40 240 137 296 329


Average ------.........-... 283 159 347 372 253 145 311 258


Grand Average ........... 239 131 259 362 228 127 251 310


vi.


cvi
vi
0


J.J.J..J. f ay J.CI


----


sCeCUe rIus t *


o.--


---- --


---


--







Citrus and Blackstrap Molasses for Fattening Cattle 17

steers fed citrus molasses had an average daily gain of 2.18
pounds as compared with 2.30 pounds for the blackstrap mo-
lasses fed cattle, two steers fed citrus molasses made larger
gains than their paired mates.
The average daily ration for each steer self-fed molasses is
given in Table 7. There was little difference in the daily amount
of molasses eaten by four pairs of steers and considerable vari-
ation in molasses eaten by two pairs. Steers ate on the average
7.88 pounds of citrus molasses and 7.15 pounds blackstrap mo-
lasses daily, a difference of 0.73 pounds. Steers fed citrus mo-
lasses ate an average of 21.6 pounds of feed daily, while those
fed blackstrap molasses ate 21.1 pounds.
In Table 8 it is shown that there is considerable difference in
feed requirements for gains by steers in each of the three trials.
In Trial 5 steers fed citrus molasses required 1,070 pounds and
those fed blackstrap molasses 1,058 pounds total feed per 100
pounds gain. In contrast, cattle fed citrus molasses in Trial
6 ate 795 pounds, those fed blackstrap molasses ate 772 pounds;
and in Trial 7 the figures were 1,161 and 967 pounds, respectively.
The average consumption of feed for the three trials for 100
pounds gain was 991 pounds for steers fed citrus molasses and
916 pounds for those fed blackstrap molasses.
The TDN required for gains by each steer and average for
the steers self-fed citrus molasses and blackstrap molasses are
presented in Table 9. It is observed that the TDN requirements
for gains for six steers fed citrus molasses range from 457
pounds to 696 pounds and for six steers fed blackstrap molasses
the range is from 443 to 646 pounds. In all but one pair, steers
38 and 40, there was only a small difference in TDN eaten for
100 pounds gain. Steers fed blackstrap molasses consumed on
the average 532 pounds TDN and those fed citrus molasses 567
pounds TDN for 100 pounds gain.
The TDN required for 100 pounds gain for each of the 12
pairs of steers hand-fed either citrus or blackstrap molasses is
given in Table 5 and for each of the six pairs self-fed either
citrus or blackstrap molasses in Table 9. The difference in TDN
required for gains when either citrus or blackstrap molasses
was hand-fed or self-fed in the steer fattening rations tested
was not significant.
MINERAL CONSUMPTION
Steers had access to the mineral mixture recommended by the
Range Cattle Station (6) at all times. The average amount of








TABLE 9.-TOTAL DIGESTIBLE NUTRIENTS REQUIRED FOR 100 POUNDS GAIN BY STEERS SELF-FED CITRUS AND BLACKSTRAP
MOLASSES IN PAIRED FEEDING TRIALS.

Citrus Molasses Blackstrap Molasses
Trial i Cotton- I Cotton- i
No. Animal Hay seed Citrus Mo- Total Animal Hay | seed Citrus Mo- Total "
I No. Meal Pulp lasses No. Meal Pulp lasses 2.
Pounds pounds pounds pounds pounds | pounds pounds pounds I pounds pounds
5 34 94 95 172 204 565 4-46 107 104 187 185 583
S 20 116 99 153 317 685 4-45 105 94 162 285 646

Average -.................. 105 97 163 258 623 106 99 174 237 616

6 16 81 74 152 150 457 31 77 71 144 151 443
19 89 78 161 160 488 30 88 77 158 166 489

Average .---............- 85 76 156 154 471 82 74 151 158 465

I I I I i
7 52 111 97 228 148 584 44 113 102 233 84 532
38 132 115 267 182 696 40 102 91 210 156 559

Average .....--............ 120 105 246 163 634 107 96 221 122 546

Grand Average ........ 102 91 188 186 5 97 88 181 166 532







Citrus and Blackstrap Molasses for Fattening Cattle 19

mineral eaten daily, mineral required for 100 pounds gain for
the four groups of steers, and percentage of calcium and phos-
phorus in the ration are given in Table 10. It is shown in Table 4
that the ash content of the five feeds ranged from 4.41 percent
in citrus molasses to 8.25 percent in blackstrap molasses. Cotton-
seed meal was lowest in calcium with 0.35 percent. There was
0.98 percent in citrus molasses, 1.20 percent in blackstrap mo-
lasses and 1.53 percent in citrus pulp. Cottonseed meal contained
0.88 percent and citrus pulp 0.05 percent phosphorus. The aver-
age daily ration contained from 1.05 to 1.16 percent calcium and
from 0.32 to 0.36 percent phosphorus-more than sufficient for
the nutritional needs of the steers (12). Average daily consump-
tion of common salt per steer from the complete mineral was
from 0.07 to 0.08 pounds.
TABLE 10.-AVERAGE DAILY MINERAL CONSUMPTION PER STEER AND FOR 100
POUNDS GAIN AND CALCIUM AND PHOSPHORUS CONTENT OF RATIONS.

Complete Mineral Amount in Ration
Eaten _
I 100 |
Daily Pounds Calcium Phos-
_Gain phorus
pounds pounds percent percent
Citrus molasses, hand-fed ...... 0.21 9.06 1.09 0.35
Blackstrap molasses, hand-fed 0.21 9.18 1.16 0.35
Citrus molasses, self-fed ....... 0.23 10.52 1.05 0.32
Blackstrap molasses, self-fed.. 0.23 9.76 1.14 0.34

LIVE ANIMAL AND CARCASS GRADES
All steers were graded as feeder cattle when placed on feed
and as slaughter animals when the different trials were com-
pleted. An official grader from the United States Department
of Agriculture passed on all carcasses two days after slaughter.
Average grades and dressing percentages for the four groups
are given in Table 11.
It is shown in Table 11 that the six steers self-fed blackstrap
molasses had an average feeder, slaughter and carcass grade of
U. S. Good, which was one-third grade higher than the other
three groups. This difference in grade is not significant but is
the expected variation. As feeder cattle the 36 steers were
classified 10 U. S. Medium, 25 U. S. Good and 1 U. S. Choice.
After being fed for 120 days slaughter grades were 14 U. S.
Commercial and 22 U. S. Good, while the carcasses graded 13
U. S. Commercial, 22 U. S. Good and 1 U. S. Choice.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


TABLE 11.-AVERAGE FEEDER, SLAUGHTER AND CARCASS GRADES AND
CARCASS YIELD.

No. Average Grades Dressing
Steers Test Feed I Percent
___Feeder Slaughter Carcass
12 Hand-fed citrus
molasses .......... L. Good* L. Good L. Good | 59.4
12 Hand-fed black-
strap molasses L. Good L. Good I L. Good 59.4
6 Self-fed citrus
molasses .......... L. Good L. Good i L. Good 59.5
6 Self-fed black- I
strap molasses Good Good I Good 59.2

L. Good = Low Good.

CARCASS YIELD
The carcass data are based upon individual weight when steers
were delivered at the slaughter plant 44 miles from Range Cattle
Station and weight of carcass 48 hours after slaughter. In-
dividual steers hand-fed citrus molasses had carcass yields
ranging from 57.05 to 62.89 percent, those hand-fed blackstrap
molasses from 54.91 to 62.84 percent, animals self-fed citrus
molasses from 58.18 to 62.07 percent and steers self-fed black-
strap molasses from 57.07 to 61.51 percent. It is shown in
Table 11 that average carcass yield ranged from 59.20 percent
for the six steers self-fed blackstrap molasses to 59.49 percent
for the six steers self-fed citrus molasses-not a significant
difference.
DISCUSSION
There was considerable variation in age, weight and feeder
grade of steers used in the different trials. The steers in a pair
hand-fed molasses were more uniform in weight (Table 1) than
those self-fed molasses (Table 6). Selection of a pair was made
before the steers were placed in their respective pens. Response
of the two steers in a pair during the 7- to 10-day preliminary
period was not always the same, which accounts for some of the
variation in initial weight.
The steers were handled uniformly in the different feeding
trials. All rations contained roughage, protein, energy, vitamin
A and minerals in adequate amounts for fattening cattle. Cot-
tonseed meal and citrus pulp were fed together and steers ate
this part of the ration before eating the molasses. If a steer
did not eat all the molasses fed for two or three feedings, the
amount of pulp and molasses given were both reduced 0.25 pounds


, 20






Citrus and Blackstrap Molasses for Fattening Cattle 21

with each animal in a pair. When all the feed was eaten for
several days, the pulp and molasses were both increased by 0.25
pounds. Atmospheric temperature seemed to be the factor which
most affected the appetites of the steers, feed consumption being
stimulated by cool weather.
When self-feeding was practiced, molasses was kept before
the steers at all times. After the cottonseed meal and citrus pulp
ration was consumed steers would begin on the molasses, eating
it at frequent intervals. The steers self-fed citrus molasses ate
1.39 times and those self-fed blackstrap molasses 1.23 times as
much molasses by weight as pulp.

TABLE 12.-SUMMARY OF PERFORMANCE OF STEERS HAND-FED AND SELF-FED
CITRUS MOLASSES AND BLACKSTRAP MOLASSES IN PAIRED FEEDING TRIALS.

Hand-fed Molasses Self-fed Molasses
Black- IBlack-
Citrus strap Citrus strap

Initial weight, pounds ... ........ 612 603 623 668
Final weight, pounds ................ 889 878 884 945
Daily gain, pounds ............... 2.30 2.29 2.18 2.30
Daily ration, pounds ........... 18.0 18.0 21.6 21.1
Daily feed eaten per 100
pounds live weight, pounds .. 2.4 2.4 2.8 2.6
Total feed 100 pounds gain,
pounds ..... .... ........ 781 786 991 916
TDN per 100 pounds gain,
pounds ...... ...... .... ........ 459 466 567 532

Percent TDN obtained from
feed components:
Hay ........................... ... .. 18 17 18 18
Cottonseed meal .............. 18 18 16 17
Citrus pulp .......... ......... 38 38 33 34
Citrus molasses ...................... 26 .... 33
Blackstrap molasses .......... ... 27 -. 31

Carcass grade .......... .... Low Good Low Good Low Good Good
Dressing percent ....... .......... 59.4 59.4 59.5 59.2


The results of the four trials with citrus and blackstrap mo-
lasses when hand-fed and three trials when self-fed are sum-
marized in Table 12. There was no difference in average daily
ration of steers hand-fed either citrus or blackstrap molasses.
Steers self-fed citrus molasses ate an average of 21.6 pounds of
feed daily, while those fed blackstrap molasses ate 21.1 pounds.
There was more refusal of feed when steers were self-fed mo-
lasses than when hand-feeding was practiced. On the average,






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


the steers hand-fed molasses ate 2.4 pounds feed daily per 100
pounds live weight. When self-fed molasses the steers fed citrus
molasses ate 2.8 and those fed blackstrap molasses 2.6 pounds
daily per 100 pounds live weight.

SUMMARY
Citrus molasses and blackstrap molasses are Florida-produced
feeds available in large quantities for livestock feeding. Four
trials of 120 days in which a total of 12 pairs of steers, one
animal in each pair hand-fed citrus and one hand-fed blackstrap
molasses, and three similar trials in which six pairs of steers,
one animal in each pair self-fed citrus and one self-fed black-
strap molasses, have been completed. The 36 steers were fed
individually, 18 fed citrus and 18 blackstrap molasses.
The ration consisted of Pangola hay, cottonseed meal, citrus
pulp and either citrus or blackstrap molasses. In. each trial all
steers were fed the same amount of hay and cottonseed meal.
Equal amounts of citrus pulp and either citrus or blackstrap
molasses were given when molasses was hand-fed. The animal
in a pair eating the least citrus pulp and molasses governed the
amount fed the other steer.
Steers hand-fed citrus molasses had an average daily gain of
2.30 pounds and required 459 pounds TDN per 100 pounds gain,
while those hand-fed blackstrap molasses gained 2.29 pounds
and required 466 pounds TDN.
Steers self-fed citrus molasses gained an average of 2.18
pounds daily and consumed 567 pounds TDN for 100 pounds
gain, while similar steers self-fed blackstrap molasses gained
2.30 pounds and required 532 pounds TDN.
Self-feeding of both citrus and blackstrap molasses increased
the total feed and TDN requirements for gains as compared with
hand-feeding.
Cattle ate slightly more citrus molasses than blackstrap mo-
lasses when self-fed. This resulted in lower gains and increased
feed consumption when citrus molasses was self-fed.
Results of these paired feeding trials show that both citrus
and blackstrap molasses are palatable and can be used satisfac-
torily in a steer fattening ration.

LITERATURE CITED
1. BAKER, F. S., JR. Citrus Molasses in a Steer Fattening Ration. Fla.
Agr. Exp. Sta. Cir. S-22. 1950.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


the steers hand-fed molasses ate 2.4 pounds feed daily per 100
pounds live weight. When self-fed molasses the steers fed citrus
molasses ate 2.8 and those fed blackstrap molasses 2.6 pounds
daily per 100 pounds live weight.

SUMMARY
Citrus molasses and blackstrap molasses are Florida-produced
feeds available in large quantities for livestock feeding. Four
trials of 120 days in which a total of 12 pairs of steers, one
animal in each pair hand-fed citrus and one hand-fed blackstrap
molasses, and three similar trials in which six pairs of steers,
one animal in each pair self-fed citrus and one self-fed black-
strap molasses, have been completed. The 36 steers were fed
individually, 18 fed citrus and 18 blackstrap molasses.
The ration consisted of Pangola hay, cottonseed meal, citrus
pulp and either citrus or blackstrap molasses. In. each trial all
steers were fed the same amount of hay and cottonseed meal.
Equal amounts of citrus pulp and either citrus or blackstrap
molasses were given when molasses was hand-fed. The animal
in a pair eating the least citrus pulp and molasses governed the
amount fed the other steer.
Steers hand-fed citrus molasses had an average daily gain of
2.30 pounds and required 459 pounds TDN per 100 pounds gain,
while those hand-fed blackstrap molasses gained 2.29 pounds
and required 466 pounds TDN.
Steers self-fed citrus molasses gained an average of 2.18
pounds daily and consumed 567 pounds TDN for 100 pounds
gain, while similar steers self-fed blackstrap molasses gained
2.30 pounds and required 532 pounds TDN.
Self-feeding of both citrus and blackstrap molasses increased
the total feed and TDN requirements for gains as compared with
hand-feeding.
Cattle ate slightly more citrus molasses than blackstrap mo-
lasses when self-fed. This resulted in lower gains and increased
feed consumption when citrus molasses was self-fed.
Results of these paired feeding trials show that both citrus
and blackstrap molasses are palatable and can be used satisfac-
torily in a steer fattening ration.

LITERATURE CITED
1. BAKER, F. S., JR. Citrus Molasses in a Steer Fattening Ration. Fla.
Agr. Exp. Sta. Cir. S-22. 1950.






Citrus and Blackstrap Molasses for Fattening Cattle 23

2. BAKER, F. S., JR. Citrus and Blackstrap Molasses in Steer Fattening
Rations. North Fla. Exp. Sta. Mimeo Report 54-6. 1954.
3. BAKER, F. S., JR. Citrus Molasses, Dried Citrus Pulp, Citrus Meal
and Blackstrap Molasses in Steer Fattening Ration. North Fla.
Exp. Sta. Mimeo Report 55-3. 1955.
4. BECKER, R. B., P. T. DIX ARNOLD and GEORGE K. DAVIS. Citrus By-
Products as Feeds for Cattle. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Press Bul. 644.
1948.
5. BECKER, R. B., P. T. DIX ARNOLD, GEORGE K. DAVIS and E. L. Fours.
Citrus Molasses. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Press Bul. 623. 1946.
6. BECKER, R. B., P. T. Dix ARNOLD, W. G. KIRK, GEORGE K. DAVIS and
R. W. KIDDER. Minerals for Dairy and Beef Cattle. Fla. Agr.
Exp. Sta. Bul. 513. 1953.
7. KIDDER, R. W., and W. G. KIRK. Cattle Feeding in Southern Florida.
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 360. 1941.
8. KIRK, W. G., and GEORGE K. DAVIS. Citrus Products for Beef Cattle.
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 538. 1954.
9. KIRK, W. G., E. R. FELTON, H. J. FULFORD and E. M. HODGES. Citrus
Products for Fattening Cattle. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 454. 1949.
10. MORRISON, F. B. Feeds and Feeding. The Morrison Pub. Co. Ed. 21.
1949.
11. NEAL, W. M., R. B. BECKER and P. T. Dix ARNOLD. The Feeding Value
and Nutritive Properties of Citrus By-Products. 1. The Digestible
Nutrients of Dried Grapefruit-Orange Refusal, and the Feeding
Value of Grapefruit Refuse for Growing Heifers. Fla. Agr. Exp.
Sta. Bul. 275. 1935.
12. United States Department of Agriculture Yearbook of Agriculture,
Food and Life. 519-543. 1939.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Acknowledgment is made to H. C. Howze and 0. C. Coker for assisting
in feeding and caring for steers; George K. Davis for analyzing feed sam-
ples; E. M. Hodges and D. W. Jones for assisting with experimental design;
D. W. Hanson for statistical analysis; Betty Mosley Gause and Jackie D.
Johns in keeping records; Kingan & Company, Bartow, for steer slaughter
and carcass data; S. G. McDowell, Florida Citrus Commission, for arrang-
ing for citrus molasses and purchase of steers; Citrus Processors Asso-
ciation, Tampa, for citrus molasses; and S. L. Crochet, United States Sugar
Corporation, Clewiston, for the gift of blackstrap molasses.




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