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 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Previous work
 Fattening cattle in dry lot
 Feeding cattle on common bahia...
 Fattening cattle grazing native...
 Summary
 Conclusions
 Literature cited














Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 603
Title: Urea and cottonseed meal in the ration of fattening cattle
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 Material Information
Title: Urea and cottonseed meal in the ration of fattening cattle
Series Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 603
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Kirk, W. G.
Peacock, F. M.
Hodges, E. M.
Jones, D. W.
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Publication Date: 1958
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Bibliographic ID: UF00027649
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Previous work
        Page 3
    Fattening cattle in dry lot
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Feeding cattle on common bahia pasture
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Fattening cattle grazing native pasture
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Summary
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Conclusions
        Page 15
    Literature cited
        Page 16
Full Text



November 1958


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
JOSEPH R. BECKENBACH, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
(A contribution from the Range Cattle Experiment Station, Ona, Fla.)














UREA AND COTTONSEED MEAL IN

THE RATION OF FATTENING CATTLE


W. G. KIRK, F. M. PEACOCK, E. M. HODGES and D. W. JONES















Single copies free to Florida residents upon request to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


Bulletin 603

















CONTENTS


Page


INTRODUCTION -... ..--........... ..------ .----- ...----..-- .... 3

PREVIOUS W ORK ......-................. ... .. .- ------- ---..---. -

FATTENING CATTLE IN DRY LOT -....--................. --------------....-- 4

Experimental Procedure .............-......-..---.. --- -- ------------ 4

Experimental Results ..................................... --......... 6

Discussion ........---------- -- -- ----..------.........--. ---------- 8

FEEDING CATTLE ON COMMON BAHIA PASTURE ..........-.--..------------------- 9

Experimental Procedure ................................. ------ ------ 9

Experimental Results ...... ....~...... ...... ---.-.....--- ----...... 11

Discussion .-..... -------~..... -..-.. -..- .....---.----------- 11

FATTENING CATTLE GRAZING NATIVE PASTURE ...-----.........-- ..-------.-----.- 11

Experimental Procedure ----.----...................- ... ...- .. ------ 11

Experimental Results .............. ..... 12

Discussion .............-........................... -- ---- -..... 13

SUMMARY ................-..---.....---... ---- ----.. -13

CONCLUSIONS -............-......... --.- ......------- -- ------ --..--- 15

LITERATURE CITED 1.........~... --..--....... ..... --- -----..-- 16

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ......----.........---------............- ------------------- 16








Urea and Cottonseed Meal in the Ration

of Fattening Cattle

W. G. KIRK, F. M. PEACOCK, E. M. HODGES and D. W. JONES 1

Florida-produced feeds-both forages and concentrates-are
usually low in protein. Good cattle performance requires ade-
quate protein in the ration and, as feeding practices improve
and cattle numbers increase, there will be more demand for this
nutrient. Cottonseed meal has been the standard protein supple-
ment, but with a growing demand it is important to examine
other materials which may be used in balancing low-protein
feeds. The object of the feeding trials reported here was to
determine the value of urea as a partial replacement for cotton-
seed meal when used with citrus products in fattening rations.

PREVIOUS WORK
Urea is a commercial non-protein nitrogenous compound con-
taining 46.7 percent nitrogen. It may be supplied in a number
of forms for mixing in animal rations. Some of these products
are pure urea while others, such as the one used in these experi-
ments, have a conditioner added to prevent caking. The feed
urea used in these trials contained 42 percent nitrogen, or the
equivalent of 262 percent crude protein (nitrogen times 6.25).
The crude protein content of cottonseed meal on the market
ranges from 36 to 41 percent.
Numerous investigators have shown that urea nitrogen can
be used to replace part of the protein nitrogen in balanced fat-
tening rations for beef cattle. Many of these feeding trials
have been reviewed by Reid (7),2 Gallup et al.(4) and Morri-
son(6). It has been shown that urea nitrogen can replace satis-
factorily up to 25 percent of the required nitrogen for fattening
calves and somewhat higher levels for older cattle. When urea
provided up to 40 percent of the total nitrogen of the ration,
rate of gain was only 80 percent as rapid as when a true protein
supplement was used. Beeson and Perry(3) showed that urea
can replace from one-third to two-thirds of the protein equiva-
lent supplied by soybean oil meal in the ration of steers fed
SVice-Director in Charge, Assistant Animal Husbandman, Agronomist
and formerly Assistant Soil Technologist, Range Cattle Experiment Station.
SItalic figures in parentheses refer to literature cited.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


in dry lot. However, the proportions of urea that can be used
depend upon the quantity of true protein in the other feeds
making up the ration. Baker (1) found that urea could replace
one-half the cottonseed meal nitrogen in a ration of hay, ground
snapped corn and citrus molasses. It is generally agreed that
urea can be used to replace natural protein to a much larger
extent with long yearling and older cattle than for younger
animals.
Microorganisms, which are found in large numbers in the
rumen, are able to convert the nitrogen of urea into nitrogenous
cellular compounds. These microorganisms are digested in the
fourth stomach or abomasum and in the intestine, and in this
way the protein becomes available to the cow. Rumen organ-
isms utilize the non-protein nitrogen of urea more efficiently when
there is a low level of true protein and a high level of energy nu-
trients in the ration. Urea has given best results in rations that
contain a plentiful supply of energy nutrients such as corn, citrus
pulp and molasses, and an adequate amount of essential mineral
elements and vitamin A. Simple sugars and cellulose are inferior
to starch as sources of energy for bacterial growth, as sugars
become available too quickly and cellulose resists the action of
digestive juices. However, in well balanced steer fattening
rations, roughages such as corn cobs can be used to advantage.
The toxic effect of too much urea has been demonstrated by
Whitehair et al. (10) and Roberts and Davis (8). The amount of
urea necessary to produce acute toxicity was more than 20
grams per 100 pounds body weight, or 120 grams for a 600-pound
animal. Tolerance to high levels of urea is much higher if
there is a gradual daily increase in the amounts fed. Cattle
deaths from excess urea have been observed on ranches and
farms in Florida. A heavier loss occurs where the feed intake
is reduced because of the unpalatability of a ration high in urea.

FATTENING CATTLE IN DRY LOT
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
Four dry lot cattle feeding trials of 120 days each have been
completed at the Range Cattle Station. A total of 12 pairs were
fed individually, one animal in each pair getting cottonseed
meal and the other an equal weight of the cottonseed meal-
urea 3 mixture. In all other respects the ration given each
3Two-Sixty-Two supplied by E. 1. duPont de Nemours & Company,
Wilmington, Delaware.







Urea and Cottonseed Meal in Ration of Fattening Cattle 5

steer in the pair was the same. There was a preliminary feed-
ing period of from 8 to 13 days to accustom the animals to con-
finement and their respective rations. Crossbred (1/ Shorthorn-
1/ Brahman) and grade Brahman steer calves averaging 81/.
months of age were used in Trials 1 and 3 and yearling steers,
13 months old, in Trials 2 and 4.

TABLE 1.-WEIGHTS AND GAINS OF STEERS HAND-FED COTTONSEED MEAL
AND PROTEIN FEED IN PAIRED FEEDING TRIALS.


Cottonseed Meal


Trial
No.*
Calves


Ave



Ave


Animal Initial Total
No. Weight Gain


pounds pounds pounds


1 X9 485
73X 570
80X_ 510
rage ........... 522
3 26 580
34 500
42 580
rage .............. 553


Grand Average,
calves ...........
Yearlings
2 15


Average
4


Average ..........
Grand Average,
yearlings .......
Grand Average,
for 4 trials


538 244 i 2.03t


Protein Feed**
Av.
Daily Animal Initial Total
Gain No. Weight Gain


pounds

X17 465
74X 590
81X 480
512
1 580
7 490
43 585
552


pounds

180
280
210
223
180
210
240
210


Av.
Daily
Gain
pounds

1.50
2.33
1.75
1.86
1.50
1.75
2.00
1.75


532 i 217 1.81


2.17
2.54
2.92
2.54
2.42
2.38
2.28
2.36


S303

274


2.53: :

2.28t


562 294 2.45

547 255 2.13


*Completion dates: Trial 1, 3-14-51; Trial 2, 8-3-51; Trial 3, 2-7-52; Trial 4, 7-12-52.
Sixty parts cottonseed meal, 5.5 parts urea and 34.5 parts citrus meal.
SSignificant at the .01 level of probability.
SNon-significant.

Pairs were selected for similarity in weight, age, disposition,
breeding and feeder grade. Individual weights were taken at the
beginning of each trial and at weekly intervals throughout the
experimental periods. All animals were fed individually in
stalls 5 by 14 feet. Steers were exercised twice weekly, once
when being weighed and again by turning them out in groups
in a small yard for one-half hour. The rations for the experi-
mental lots were as follows:






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Lot 1. Pangola hay, cottonseed meal (41 percent protein)
and twice as much citrus pulp as citrus molasses.
Lot 2. Same as Lot 1, except cottonseed meal was replaced
by a mixture of 60 parts cottonseed meal, 5.5 parts urea and
34.5 parts citrus pulp.
The two protein-equivalent rations were fed at the same rate
in each trial, since their nitrogen content was approximately
the same. Urea furnished slightly more than one-third of the
nitrogen in the concentrate ration given Lot 2 and 20 percent
of the total nitrogen in the ration.
Pangola hay provided the roughage and citrus pulp and citrus
molasses (5) the energy requirements of the ration. Each steer
had free access to Range Station complete mineral mixture (2)
consisting of 29 parts each of bonemeal and defluorinated phos-
phate, 38 parts modified salt sick mineral and 2 parts each of
cottonseed meal and cane molasses. Two ounces of cod liver oil
of high vitamin A potency were fed weekly to each steer. In
Trial 3 each calf was fed an average of 0.2 pound alfalfa leaf
meal daily to insure adequate vitamin A.

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
Weights and gains of individual steers in four 120-day feed-
ing trials in dry lot are summarized in Table 1. The records
for the paired steers are on one horizontal line; for example,
steers X9 and X17 in Trial 1 are a pair.
As shown in Table 1, calves with an initial age of 81/2 months
receiving cottonseed meal as a protein supplement in Trials
1 and 3 gained faster than calves fed the supplement contain-
ing urea. This difference amounted to an average of 27 pounds
per animal, or 0.23 pound daily per steer.
Analysis of variance shows that there was a highly signifi-
cant difference in average daily gains in favor of the calves
receiving cottonseed meal over those fed the urea nitrogen.
There was no significant difference in average daily gains be-
tween yearling steers fed the two protein supplements.
There was a 9-pound difference in average total gain per
steer, or 0.08 pound in average daily gain, in favor of the steers
receiving cottonseed meal. Results with yearling steers in Trials
2 and 4 emphasize that substituting urea for part of the cotton-
seed meal is more effective in promoting gains with yearling
steers than with calves.







Urea and Cottonseed Meal in Ration of Fattening Cattle 7

TABLE 2.-DAILY RATION AND FEED PER 100 POUNDS OF GAIN BY STEERS
ON COTTONSEED MEAL AND COTTONSEED MEAL-UREA MIXTURE.

Calves Yearlings
Cotton- I Cotton-
seed Protein seed Protein
Meal Feed Meal Feed
Cattle fed ............................ 6 6 6 6
Average daily ration,
pounds:
Hay .......- .......... ........... 4.24 4.22 4.30 4.48
Cottonseed meal .............. 2.35 .... 2.69 .
Protein feed ...................... ...... 2.36 ...... 2.69
Citrus pulp ...................... 5.76 5.40 7.21 7.38
Citrus molasses .............. 2.76 2.83 3.57 3.58
Alfalfa leaf meal ........... 0.22 0.21
Complete mineral .......... 0.07 0.07 0.09 0.10
Total .............................. 15.40 15.09 17.86 18.23
Average feed for 100
pounds gain, pounds:
H ay .....-..-...........-............... 209 234 172 182
Cottonseed meal .............. 116 ..... 106
Protein feed .................... ...... 131 ...... 110
Citrus pulp ...................... 283 293 285 301
Citrus molasses .............. 135 152 141 146
Alfalfa leaf meal ........... 5 6
Complete mineral .......... 3 4 5 4
Total ............................. 751 821 709 1 743
TDN* per 100 pounds
gain, pounds** ............ 446 476 424 443
TDN refers throughout this Bulletin to total digestible nutrients.
** Non-significant for both calves and yearlings.

Average daily feed consumption, total feed and TDN required
for gains are given in Table 2. There were 12 pairs of cattle
fed, six pairs of calves and six of yearlings. Animals in a pair
received the same total feed twice daily and any difference in
average daily ration resulted from feed refusal. Adjustments
in feed ingredients were made whenever necessary to keep ani-
mals in a pair at the same nutrient intake level. There was
more refusal of feed by calves fed the urea mixture and steers
fed cottonseed meal than by calves fed cottonseed meal and
yearlings given the urea mixture. The average total feed and
TDN required for 100 pounds gain varied according to the gain
made by the four groups.
No significant difference in TDN per 100 pounds gain was
apparent between the protein-equivalent feeds tested for either
calves or yearlings. However, the difference between calves
approached significance in favor of those fed cottonseed meal.
Average total gain is reflected in shrunk dressing percent;
this was 60.21 for calves and 60.17 percent for steers fed cotton-






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


seed meal, 57.91 and 59.15 percent for calves and steers fed
urea. Calves fed urea had an average carcass grade of U. S.
High Commercial, now known as U. S. Standard, while the calves
fed cottonseed meal and both groups of steers graded U. S. Good.

DISCUSSION
Individual weight records show that the six calves fed cotton-
seed meal made significantly faster gains than the urea-cotton-
seed meal group throughout most of the 120-day feeding period.
There was no significant difference between weight gains of
steers fed the two protein feeds. Steers fed cottonseed meal,
however, made faster gains during the first 60 to 90 days, but
in the last 30 to 60 days of feeding steers given the urea-protein
feed equaled or exceeded those fed cottonseed meal.- A longer
period was required for calves than for yearlings to develop
the necessary microorganisms in the digestive system, so the
animals could utilize the nitrogen from urea efficiently for main-
tenance and gains. The yearling steers had been fed limited


Fig. 1.-Yearling steer No. 49, fed cottonseed meal.






Urea and Cottonseed Meal in Ration of Fattening Cattle 9

amounts of molasses-urea from weaning until placed in dry lot.
This preconditioned them to urea and resulted in gains and feed
requirements for gains similar to those fed cottonseed meal.
The calves in Trials 1 and 3 had not been fed urea prior to
going on test, which probably was a factor in their slower gains.

FEEDING CATTLE ON COMMON BAHIA PASTURE
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
Two five-acre fields of common bahiagrass were available for
steer feeding trials in late 1953 and 1954. These fields were
used in grazing trials from March to October of each year and
received 900 pounds of 9-6-6 fertilizer per acre (300 pounds
applied in March, June and late July). When the grazing trials
were completed there was considerable low quality forage left
in each field. This furnished sufficient roughage for a 92-day
feeding trial starting October 23, 1953, and a 70-day trial start-
ing October 4, 1954.


Fig. 2.-Yearling steer No. 48, fed cottonseed meal and urea.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


The rations fed in Trial 1 to steers grazing common bahia
pasture consisted of:
Lot 1. Cottonseed meal, 41 percent, and citrus pulp fed
daily, with free choice of citrus molasses.
Lot 2. One-half the cottonseed meal and the same amount
of citrus pulp fed daily as given Lot 1, with free-choice of a
mixture of 97 parts citrus molasses and 3 parts of urea.

TABLE 3.-RESULTS OF TWO PASTURE TRIALS WITH STEERS FED COTTON-
SEED MEAL VERSUS A COMBINATION OF COTTONSEED MEAL AND UREA.


Cottonseed
Meal
Lot N o. ..................................... ..... ... 1
Number of trials* ................................. 2
Number of steers ................----.................--. 15
Average age, initial, months ............. 27
Average feeding period, days ............. 82
Average weights, pounds:
Initial ......-....-...........------ ....---...-..-- .. -906
Final ..........-.............. ...-----... ..- .... 1038
Gain .............. -.......-- ................... 131
Daily gaint ............................... ..... .. 1.61
Average daily ration, pounds:
Bahia pasture .......................-----... Ad lib.
Cottonseed meal ..................... 2.83
Citrus pulp .......-...------ -.......-...--..... 7.64
Citrus molasses --....-...--..--....-- -..... 7.05
Urea .-...-....--------.... .---...-.-----...
Range Station mineral ...-................. .02
Total ............... -... ........ ............ | 17.54
Average feed per 100 pounds gain,
pounds:
Bahia pasture, days .......................--. 62
Cottonseed meal .................................. 177
Citrus pulp .............. ......-- ..----- .. 440
Citrus molasses ........ ...-..-....- ....... 477
Urea .-..--......... --......------ ..... ..----------
Range Station mineral ..................... 1.22
Average TDN per 100 pounds gain,
pounds ..--.. --..........-------- .. 673
Average grades:
Feeder, initial .--..-- ...---..--........ -- High Good
Slaughter, initial ............................ Standard
Slaughter, final ............................. Low Good
Carcass ......----....---...-...----....-- ..------ Low Good
Average shrunk dressing percent ...... 58.28


Cottonseed
Meal-Urea**
2
2
15
27
82

911
1042
130
1.59

Ad lib.
1.40
7.64
8.05**
.25**
.03
17.37


63
88
481
506
15.7
1.9

655

High Good
Standard
Low Good
Low Good
58.32


Completion dates: Trial 1, 1-13-54; Trial 2, 12-13-54.
** Urea 3 percent and citrus molasses 97 percent.
f Non-significant.

In Trial 2 the same feeds were used to make up the rations,
but larger amounts of citrus pulp were fed to each lot than in
Trial 1. Both lots had free access to Range Station complete
mineral (2).






Urea and Cottonseed Meal in Ration of Fattening Cattle 11

In 1953, Trial 1, each lot consisted of five two-year-old and
three yearling steers. The two-year-old animals were fed for
82 days and the yearlings for 108 days. In 1954, Lot 1 con-
sisted of two yearlings and five two-year-old steers and Lot 2
of one yearling and six two-year-old steers, all fed for 70 days.

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
Results of two pasture feeding trials are summarized in
Table 3. The steers were fed once daily at 8:30 a.m. The dry
feed-cottonseed meal and citrus pulp-was eaten before the
animals touched the molasses. Consumption of molasses in-
creased as the bahiagrass became more mature and fibrous.
There was no significant difference in response, as indicated
by average daily gain, TDN requirements for gains, cattle grades
and dressing percentages, for the steers fed cottonseed meal
compared with those fed cottonseed meal and urea.

DISCUSSION
Steers in Lot 1 obtained an average of 1.96 pounds of crude
protein daily from the supplemental feed, those in Lot 2, 2.00
pounds, with digestible protein totaling 1.14 and 1.10 pounds,
respectively. Some additional protein was obtained from the
bahiagrass, but according to Morrison(6) the digestible protein
content of the ration was below the minimum for steers of the
age and weight used. This may have accounted for the low
average daily gains made by both lots.

FATTENING CATTLE GRAZING NATIVE PASTURE
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
Three feeding trials of 120, 125 and 133 days with yearling
cattle grazing native pasture have been completed. Eight year-
ling grade Brahman steers were divided into two lots of four
each in the first and third trials and eight yearling grade Brah-
man heifers were used in the second trial.
Each pasture consisted of 40 acres of unimproved range.
In each trial Lot 1 was fed 41 percent cottonseed meal and full-
fed citrus molasses. Lot 2 was full-fed citrus molasses contain-
ing 3 percent urea, the equivalent of a 12 percent protein feed,
plus citrus meal at a level sufficient to supply the non-protein
nutrients furnished by the cottonseed meal fed Lot 1. The
cattle had access to Range Station complete mineral(2) at all
times.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Self-feeding of molasses was practiced in Trial 1, but because
of inert material in the urea the valves did not work satisfac-
torily. This made it necessary to feed the molasses daily, along
with 41 percent cottonseed meal to Lot 1 and citrus molasses
and urea to Lot 2, in the second and third trials.

TABLE 4.-FATTENING YEARLING CATTLE ON NATIVE PASTURE AND CITRUS
MOLASSES WITH SUPPLEMENTS OF COTTONSEED MEAL VERSUS 3 PERCENT
UREA IN MOLASSES.
Cottonseed
S Meal Urea**
Lot N o ........................................ 1 2
Number of trials* -.......... ... .......... 3 3
Number of cattle ................................... | 12 12
Average weights, pounds:
Initial ..........-....-...- ..- .. .........- ....- 521 521
Final ......... ... --.. .. ... ... ... .. 725 709
G ain ......... ......- ....... ... ..... ... .... 204 188
Daily gain .......-............................ ..- 1.58 1.48
Average daily ration, pounds:
Native pasture ....................-............ Ad lib. Ad lib.
Cottonseed meal ...................... ...... 1.74
Citrus m eal ...........-.. --..--..... ... --- 1.31
Citrus m classes ...--..... .....-...........-... 10.87 10.30**
U rea ....- ... ........ .--. ...- ...- ..... -..... 0.32**
M mineral ...... .....-....................- ........- ... 0.07 0.05
Total ............................... .... .. .. 12.68 11.98
Average feed per 100 pounds
gain, pounds:
Native pasture, days .................. 63 68
Cottonseed meal .......................-..... 110
Citrus m eal ...................................... 88
Citrus molasses ................. ............ 688 696
Urea .................................... ... 21.5
M ineral ........... ............ ......... .... 3.5 4.7
Total ........... ..... ............... ....... 801.5 810.2
Average TDN per 100 pounds gain,
pounds.$ .......... ......... ........ ... ..... 411 397
Average slaughter grade ...--............. Standard Standard
Average shrunk dressing percent .... 57.24 57.24
*Completion dates: Trial 1, 10-10-50; Trial 2, 8-13-51; Trial 3, 10-15-52.
** Urea 3 percent and citrus molasses 97 percent.
t Non-significant.
SNative pasture not included.
Cattle from 2 trials. Heifers fed in Trial 2 were not slaughtered.

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

Results of three feeding trials with yearling cattle grazing
native range are summarized in Table 4. Lot 1 made average
daily gains of 1.78, 1.48 and 1.48 pounds in 1950, 1951 and
1952, respectively, while Lot 2 gained 1.93, 1.27 and 1.27 pounds
per day in the same three trials. Average daily gain for the
cattle fed cottonseed meal was 0.10 pound more than those re-
ceiving urea.






Urea and Cottonseed Meal in Ration of Fattening Cattle 13

Average daily consumption of molasses varied widely in the
three trials. In Trial 1, steers in Lot 2 ate an average of 14.5
pounds molasses-urea, which is one reason for their high rate
of gain. The average daily consumption for the three trials
was 10.87 pounds of molasses for Lot 1 and 10.30 pounds of
urea-molasses for Lot 2. No particular reason can be given
for the variation, and it is of interest that even at the highest
rate there was no scouring.
Average daily supplemental feed consumption was 2.04 pounds
per 100 pounds live weight for Lot 1 fed cottonseed meal and
1.95 pounds for Lot 2 given urea. There is no significant dif-
ference between the two groups of cattle in amount of supple-
mental feed eaten and TDN per 100 pounds gain. U. S. Standard
slaughter grade and 57.24 dressing percent are typical for this
class of yearling cattle.

DISCUSSION
Native pasture did not supply much high quality feed, but the
cattle appeared to have a full paunch, indicating that they had
sufficient roughage. Average daily consumption of molasses per
steer for 100 pounds live weight was 1.74 pounds for Lot 1 and
1.67 pounds for Lot 2.
The supplemental feed furnished an average of 1.26 pounds
of crude protein daily per animal for Lot 1 and 1.43 pounds for
Lot 2. The equivalent of digestible protein was 0.71 and 0.69
pound for Lots 1 and 2, respectively. This is substantially less
than the minimum requirement of 1.18-1.32 pounds daily for
600-pound animals, recommended by Morrison(6) for fattening
yearling cattle. The urea in the molasses fed Lot 2 furnished
64 percent of the total nitrogen in the supplemental feed. The
combination of urea-molasses apparently furnished good condi-
tions for bacterial growth, resulting in efficient use of the avail-
able nitrogen as shown by TDN required for gains.

SUMMARY
DRY LOT
Four trials with steers fed individually for 120 days have
been completed. In each trial Lot 1 received cottonseed meal as
a protein supplement and Lot 2 was fed a mixture of 60 parts
cottonseed meal, 5.5 parts urea and 34.5 parts citrus pulp. Both
groups received similar amounts of hay, citrus pulp and citrus
molasses.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Fig. 3.-Steers on native pasture in 1950, fed citrus molasses
and cottonseed meal.


Fig. 4.-Steers on native pasture in 1950, fed citrus molasses and urea.






Urea and Cottonseed Meal in Ration of Fattening Cattle 15

Replacing 40 percent of the protein nitrogen in 41 percent
cottonseed meal with an equivalent amount of nitrogen as urea
in the calf ration resulted in lower gains and higher feed con-
sumption. There was a highly significant difference between
gains of calves receiving the two protein feeds in favor of those
fed cottonseed meal, while the difference in gains between year-
ling steers was non-significant.
Average daily gains of calves fed cottonseed meal ranged
from 1.88 pounds to 2.33 pounds. Those fed urea-cottonseed
meal had individual daily gains from 1.50 to 2.33 pounds. Year-
ling steers getting cottonseed meal had average daily gains from
2.08 to 2.79 pounds, while those fed urea-cottonseed meal made
daily gains of 2.17 to 2.92 pounds.

COMMON BAHIA PASTURE
Two short feeding trials with yearling and two-year-old steers
grazing common bahiagrass have been completed. There was
no significant difference in average daily gain and nutrients
required for gains by steers fed cottonseed meal and those fed
one-half the cottonseed meal and citrus molasses containing
3 percent urea. The urea-fed steers required 18 pounds less
TDN for 100 pounds gain, but there were no differences in
slaughter and carcass grades and dressing percentages.

NATIVE RANGE
Cattle fed cottonseed meal had an average daily gain of 0.10
pound more than those fed urea; however, this difference was
not significant. The urea-fed animals required 14 pounds less
TDN from the supplemental feed for 100 pounds gain, with
slaughter grade and dressing percent the same for both lots.

CONCLUSIONS
Results indicate that urea nitrogen can be used to replace
40 percent of the nitrogen in cottonseed meal in rations fed to
yearling and two-year-old cattle in dry lot, but calves fed this
proportion of urea had decreased rate of gain.
Cattle fed a combination of cottonseed meal and urea did
not gain as rapidly during the early weeks on feed, but after
60 to 90 days made faster gains than animals fed cottonseed
meal. Rate of gain of yearling steers preconditioned to urea




1C 15

16 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

before the start of experimental feeding is similar to that of
cattle fed cottonseed meal.
There were no significant differences in gains and carcass
and slaughter grades of steers fed either cottonseed meal or
cottonseed meal and urea while grazing common bahiagrass.
Yearling cattle kept on native pasture and fed cottonseed
meal and citrus molasses gained 1.51 pounds daily, while those
fed molasses containing 3 percent urea gained 1.48 pounds daily.
There was no scouring, even when high amounts of molasses
were eaten, where roughage was available.

LITERATURE CITED

1. BAKER, F. S., JR., Steer fattening trials in north Florida. Fla. Agr.
Exp. Sta. Cir. S-89. 1955.
2. BECKER, R. B., P. T. DIX ARNOLD, W. G. KIRK, GEORGE K. DAVIS and
R. W. KIDDER. Minerals for dairy and beef cattle. Fla. Agr. Exp.
Sta. Bul. 513. 1953.
3. BEESON, W. M., and T. W. PERRY. Balancing the nutritional deficiencies
of roughage for beef steers. Jour. An. Sc. 11: 501-515. 1952.
4. GALLUP, W. D., L. S. POPE and C. K. WHITEHAIR. Urea in rations for
cattle and sheep. Okla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. B-409. 1953.
5. KIRK, W. G., and GEORGE K. DAVIS. Citrus products for beef cattle.
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 538. 1954.
6. MORRISON, FRANK B. Feeds and Feeding. 22nd Ed. 1956.
7. REID, J. T. Urea as a protein replacement for ruminants. A review.
Jour. Dairy Sc. 36: 955-996. 1953.
8. ROBERTS, HARRY, and GEORGE K. DAVIS. Unpublished data, Dept. An.
Hus. and Nutr., Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta., Gainesville, Fla.
9. TILLMAN, ALLEN D. Using urea in ruminant feeds. Eastern Feed
Merchant 6: 9: 34-36. Sept. 1955.
10. WHITEHAIR, C. K., J. P. FONTENOT, C. C. PEARSON and W. D. GALLUP.
Disturbances of cattle associated with urea feeding. Okla. Agr.
Exp. Sta. Misc. Publ. M p 43:92. 1955.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Acknowledgment is made to 0. C. Coker, Harold E. Henderson, Al
Dawson, Harold McLeod, Eugene Mansolo and many others in caring for
the cattle; Betty Mosley Gause, Barbara Jean Ruth, Jackie D. Roberts,
Alice Faye Evers and Zula McLeod for keeping records and assisting in
the preparation of the manuscript; and George K. Davis for consultation
and analysis of feeds.


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