• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Review of literature
 Materials
 Experimental procedure
 Experimental results
 Discussion of experimental...
 Summary and conclusions
 Literature cited














Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 597
Title: Feed lot performance and carcass grades of Brahman and Brahman-Shorthorn steers
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 Material Information
Title: Feed lot performance and carcass grades of Brahman and Brahman-Shorthorn steers
Series Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 597
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Peacock, F. M. (Fentress M.)
Kirk, W. G.
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Publication Date: 1958
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Bibliographic ID: UF00027648
Volume ID: VID00001
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
    Review of literature
        Page 3
    Materials
        Page 4
    Experimental procedure
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Experimental results
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Discussion of experimental results
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Summary and conclusions
        Page 15
    Literature cited
        Page 16
Full Text


Bulletin 597


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
JOSEPH R. BECKENBACH, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


Feed Lot Performance

Carcass Grades of Brahm

Brahman-Shorthorn St

FENTRESS M. PEACOCK AND W. G.


Fig. 1.-A % Brahman-/4 Shorthorn steer fed in Trial 1, slaughtered
at 370 days of age, weighing 820 pounds, with a carcass grade of U. S.
Low Good.


Single copies free to Florida residents upon request to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


July 1958


I!





















CONTENTS
Page

A CKNOW LEDGMENTS ............ ...... ............... .. ........... ......... 2

INTRODUCTION ....... ................. ............... .... .... 3

REVIEW OF LITERATURE .......... ... ........ ............ ..................... 3

M ATERIALS .-............ ......... ... ........ ........... .... ... -. .. 4

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE ...... ....-... ..... ...- ... .. ... .......... 5

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS ....... ... ... ... ............... ........ ... 9

DISCUSSION OF EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS ................................... ......... 13

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS .......... ----. .......- ....- ...- ... ... 15

LITERATURE CITED ................. ....... ............. .... ...- ....-- .... 16



















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors appreciate the assistance of the following individuals in
gathering and preparing data for this bulletin: Harold E. McLeod, Eugene
Mansolo, Sidney Albritton, Ralph Durrance, W. C. Hines and 0. C. Coker
in feeding and caring for steers; Elmer M. Hodges in taking pictures; Mrs.
Richard Roberts and Alice Faye Evers in tabulating results and typing
manuscript.








Feed Lot Performance and
Carcass Grades of Brahman and
Brahman-Shorthorn Steers

FENTRESS M. PEACOCK AND W. G. KIRK 1

INTRODUCTION
Cattle feeding has increased rapidly throughout Florida dur-
ing the past 10 years. This development has resulted from: 1,
Availability of more high quality feeder cattle; 2, larger tonnages
of Florida-produced energy feed; 3, more experience in feeding
cattle; 4, larger demand for beef by a rapidly growing popula-
tion. Feeding trials have demonstrated that large numbers of
Florida-bred cattle have the capacity to make rapid and econom-
ical gains primarily on Florida-produced feeds.
Several breeds and crosses are available in Florida for dry
lot feeding. Farmers and cattlemen are interested in the avail-
ability of these different cattle to fatten and to satisfy the ever-
growing demand for higher quality beef. With this in mind,
feeding tests with Brahman and Brahman-Shorthorn calves were
conducted. The object of these trials was to study the rate and
economy of gains and quality of beef produced by Brahman, /.
Brahman-14 Shorthorn, 1.) Shorthorn-/, Brahman and 31 Short-
horn-1i/ Brahman steers.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
There has been little information published in Florida as to
the relative value of crossbred cattle under grain feeding condi-
tions. However, Kidder and Chapman (2)2 made crossbreeding
studies at the Everglades Experiment Station by using Brah-
man, Angus and Devon cattle to determine differences in calf
weaning weights. They found the reciprocal crosses of both
Brahman-Angus and Brahman-Devon matings to be superior to
either of the purebred lines.
Gain is only one criterion of measurement. Since cattle
are sold by slaughter grade and dressing percent, these charac-
teristics also must be taken into consideration. Knapp et al.
(4, 5) made a study of slaughter calf production by using Here-
Assistant Animal Husbandman and Vice-Director in Charge, Range
Cattle Experiment Station, Ona.
SItalic figures in parentheses refer to Literature Cited.








Feed Lot Performance and
Carcass Grades of Brahman and
Brahman-Shorthorn Steers

FENTRESS M. PEACOCK AND W. G. KIRK 1

INTRODUCTION
Cattle feeding has increased rapidly throughout Florida dur-
ing the past 10 years. This development has resulted from: 1,
Availability of more high quality feeder cattle; 2, larger tonnages
of Florida-produced energy feed; 3, more experience in feeding
cattle; 4, larger demand for beef by a rapidly growing popula-
tion. Feeding trials have demonstrated that large numbers of
Florida-bred cattle have the capacity to make rapid and econom-
ical gains primarily on Florida-produced feeds.
Several breeds and crosses are available in Florida for dry
lot feeding. Farmers and cattlemen are interested in the avail-
ability of these different cattle to fatten and to satisfy the ever-
growing demand for higher quality beef. With this in mind,
feeding tests with Brahman and Brahman-Shorthorn calves were
conducted. The object of these trials was to study the rate and
economy of gains and quality of beef produced by Brahman, /.
Brahman-14 Shorthorn, 1.) Shorthorn-/, Brahman and 31 Short-
horn-1i/ Brahman steers.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
There has been little information published in Florida as to
the relative value of crossbred cattle under grain feeding condi-
tions. However, Kidder and Chapman (2)2 made crossbreeding
studies at the Everglades Experiment Station by using Brah-
man, Angus and Devon cattle to determine differences in calf
weaning weights. They found the reciprocal crosses of both
Brahman-Angus and Brahman-Devon matings to be superior to
either of the purebred lines.
Gain is only one criterion of measurement. Since cattle
are sold by slaughter grade and dressing percent, these charac-
teristics also must be taken into consideration. Knapp et al.
(4, 5) made a study of slaughter calf production by using Here-
Assistant Animal Husbandman and Vice-Director in Charge, Range
Cattle Experiment Station, Ona.
SItalic figures in parentheses refer to Literature Cited.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


ford-Brahman crosses. Results from these studies indicated
that % Hereford-l/ Brahman calves were best for slaughter.

















Fig. 2.-Purebred Brahman steers fed in Trial 2, slaughtered at 400
days of age, weighing an average of 827 pounds, with a carcass grade of
U. S. Good.

In studying the feed lot performance of Brahman-Hereford
crosses and Herefords in California, Carroll et al. (1) found that
Herefords gained at a faster rate and utilized feed more effi-
ciently than crossbred steers. Brahman-Herefords had a higher
dressing percent, while Herefords carried more finish and graded
higher. Phillips et al. (7), in crossbreeding work at the U. S.
Range Livestock Experiment Station, Miles City, Montana, found
that Shorthorn-Hereford crossbreds gained more rapidly in feed
lot and had a higher dressing percent than purebreds. They
concluded that crossbreeding offers a means of increasing pro-
duction per animal unit and should be profitable under condi-
tions where the practice is compatible with other breeding and
management practices.
MATERIALS
The purpose of the original cattle breeding project started in
1942 at the Range Cattle Station was to determine the adapt-
ability of different breeds to central Florida conditions. Since it
was not possible to use all the beef breeds, Shorthorn and Brah-
man cattle were selected. The breeding program started with
the purchase of five 2-year-old Brahman heifers 3 and a Short-
SPurchased from H. O. Partin and Sons, Kissimmee.






Feed Lot Performance and Carcass Grades


horn bull in 1942. Five additional Brahman heifers were se-
cured in each of the three years 1943, 1944 and 1945. These 20
Brahman females and the Shorthorn bull were the foundation
stock for the crossbreeding program. The first-cross females
were divided into two groups, one bred to Shorthorn bulls to
give %, Shorthorn-14 Brahman animals and the second to Brah-
man bulls to give /i, Brahman-1/ Shorthorn stock.
It was not until 1952 that enough male calves of 3, Brahman-
14 Shorthorn and :!i Shorthorn-!/4 Brahman blood were avail-
able to begin the first feeding trial to evaluate the performance
of Brahman and Brahman-Shorthorn crosses under feed lot con-
ditions. Since the purebred Brahman herd was small and some
bull calves were reserved for breeding, several Florida breeders
supplied nine purebred Brahman steer calves.5
Fifty-four of the 63 calves used in the four feeding trials were
raised at the Range Cattle Station. The cows which produced
these calves obtained practically all of their feed by grazing,
but because there were three herds, there was some difference
in pasture conditions. The calves raised at the Station were not
creep fed. All calves except three were born between January 1
and March 5 of the year they were placed on feed. All 63 calves
were well-grown and thrifty, with some variation in their condi-
tion at the beginning of each trial.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
A study to determine the relative performance of steer calves
of varying proportions of Brahman-Shorthorn blood fed in dry
lot for 140 days was initiated in October 1952. Breeding of
calves was as follows: Lot 1, 3i. Shorthorn-/4 Brahman; Lot 2,
1/, Shorthorn-l1 Brahman; Lot 3, :i. Brahman-1/ Shorthorn;
and Lot 4, purebred Brahman. Calves were selected as uniformly
as possible according to weight, age, type, condition and feeder
and slaughter grade. The calves were weaned and placed in the
feed-lot immediately.
All animals were given a preliminary feeding period of seven
to 10 days to become accustomed to the surroundings and to the
rations. This period was necessary due to change from nursing

Purchased from USDA, Beltsville, Md.
Of the 16 Brahman steers fed. 9 were donated by Brahman breeders,
one each by Norris Cattle Co., Ocala; W. H. Stuart, Bartow; L. S. Harris,
Kissimmee; C. H. Bevile. Bushnell; and Stockbridge and Blackwell, Sara-
sota; and two each by H. C. Partin and Sons, Kissimmee, and A. Duda and
Sons, Cocoa.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


in the pasture to new surroundings and changes in feeding con-
ditions. Ten days away from dam and on full-feed is the normal
length of time necessary for a calf to get back the same weight
as when weaned.
The ration fed was similar to that often used in commercial
feeding operations in central Florida. The fattening ration con-
sisted of 25 parts cottonseed meal (41 percent), 5 parts alfalfa
"I" dairy cut, 10 parts ground yellow corn and 60 parts dried
citrus pulp. Kirk and Davis (3) have shown that the economy,
availability and efficiency of citrus pulp warrants its use as the
basic energy feed in fattening beef cattle. In addition to a full ra-
tion of the concentrate mixture, each steer received 2 pounds of
citrus molasses and 3 pounds of pangola hay per day. Cod liver
oil was fed at the rate of 2 ounces per week to furnish part of the
vitamin A requirements for calves under dry lot conditions. The
average composition and TDN (total digestible nutrients) of the
three feeds are given in Table 1.

TABLE 1.-AVERAGE COMPOSITION AND TOTAL DIGESTIBLE NUTRIENTS
OF FEEDS.
|-|I | Nitro-
Feeds I Dry Crude Crude Crude Ash gen-Free TDN
Matter Protein IFiber Fat Extract I
Pangola
hay...... 90.37 7.60 30.92 2.10 4.92 44.79 42
Standard
ration 90.19 19.35 10.51 4.25 5.19 50.90 72
Citrus I
molasses 61.39 4.64 .16 4.02 52.80 50


Fig. 3.-Some 3/ Brahman-/4 Shorthorn steers fed in Trial 2, slaught-
ered at 369 days of age, with an average weight of 756 pounds and a car-
cass grade of U. S. High Good.




.r ,., H
-"rM L



U






Feed Lot Performance and Carcass Grades


Pangola hay provided the necessary roughage which is essen-
tial when citrus pulp is fed, cottonseed meal the protein, 3/" cut
alfalfa and cod liver oil the vitamin A requirements, and citrus
pulp, ground yellow corn and citrus molasses the energy nutri-
ents in the fattening rations.
Steers were hand-fed twice daily at 8:00 A.M. and 4:00 P.M.,
receiving limited amounts of hay and citrus molasses and a full
feed of standard ration. All animals were exercised twice each
week and weighed every 14 days. Slaughter grades were taken
every 28 days to determine any change in condition. The cattle
were sprayed with DDT at each weighing to control hornflies.
Animals had access to fresh water and Range Station mineral
at all times. The mineral mixture consisted of 29 pounds of
steamed bonemeal, 29 pounds defluorinated phosphate, 31.21
pounds common salt, 3.12 pounds red oxide of iron, 0.63 pounds
copper sulfate and 0.04 pounds of cobalt chloride or sulfate, 5.00
pounds cane molasses and 2.00 pounds cottonseed meal.
This study was conducted for four years, using a total of 15
calves for Lot 1 and 16 calves each for Lots 2, 3 and 4. In 1952
only three 3% Shorthorn-1/4 Brahman calves were available for
Lot 1, while each of the other lots had four calves. In 1953,
1954 and 1955, all lots had four calves each.
At the completion of each trial the steers were hauled 196
miles to the Meats Laboratory, Animal Husbandry Department,
Gainesville. They were slaughtered the following day and car-
casses were graded by a federal inspector after 48 hours in the
cooler.

Fig. 4.-Some % Shorthorn-/2 Brahman steers fed in Trial 2, slaught-
ered at 372 days of age, with an average weight of 794 pounds and a car-
cass grade of U. S. Low Choice.
-. -aa -







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


TABLE 2.-PERFORMANCE OF BRAHMAN AND SHORTHORN-BRAHMAN CROSSES
FED IN DRY LOT FOR 140 DAYS, 1952-1953.


Lot number
Breeding of steers

Number of steers
Number of days ........
Average initial age,
days --................
Average initial weight
Average final weight..
Average gain -.............
Average daily gain......
Average daily ration,
pounds:
H ay .............
Standard feed ..-.....
Citrus molasses .....-
Cod liver oil, ozs....
Complete mineral ....
Average feed eaten
per 100 pounds
gain, pounds:
H ay ...........................
Standard feed .........
Citrus molasses ........
Cod liver oil, ozs. ..
Complete mineral ...
Average TDN per 100
pounds gain,
pounds ...................
Average grades:
Feeder -...-- ...-..--
Slaughter ...... .......
Carcass .......--- ........ I


1
% Sh-4 Br

3
140

219
463
725
262
1.87


3.96
7.98
2.00
0.21
0.14



212
427
107
11.1
7.64


442

High Good
High Good
Good


2
12 Sh-/ Br

4
140

250
521
803
281
2.01


4.02
9.69
2.00
0.21
0.14



200
482
100
10.3
7.76


472

Good
High Good
Good


3 4
3 Br-1 Sh Brahman

4 4
140 140

235 221
498 463
780 734
283 271
2.02 1.94


3.98 4.00
8.73 7.75
2.00 2.00
0.20 0.20
0.14 0.13



202 206
432 400
99 103
9.9 10.3
6.90 6.64


435 I 418

Good Low Good
High Good I Low Good
Low Good High
1 Commercial


Fig. 5.-Some % Shorthorn-4 Brahman steers fed in Trial 2, slaughtered
at 384 days of age, with an average weight of 780 pounds and a carcass
grade of U. S. High Choice.







Feed Lot Performance and Carcass Grades


EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

The first 140-day feeding trial comparing the performance
of purebred Brahman and Shorthorn-Brahman steers in dry lot
was started in October, 1952. Results of this feeding trial are
given in Table 2.
Purebred Brahman steers, Lot 4, were the most efficient in
the first feeding trial, with an average of 418 pounds TDN per
100 pounds gain, but were lowest in carcass grade, averaging
High Commercial.6 Lot 2, 1 1 Shorthorn-14 Brahman, was the
least efficient in feed utilization, with 472 pounds TDN per 100

TABLE 3.-PERFORMANCE OF BRAHMAN AND SHORTHORN-BRAHMAN CROSSES
FED IN DRY LOT FOR 140 DAYS, 1953-1954.

Lot number 1 2 3 4
Breeding of steers Sh-b Br r1 Sh-V2 Br 3% Br-%1 Sh Brahman

Number of steers 4 4 4 4
Number of days .......... 140 140 140 140
Average initial age,
days ........................ 244 232 229 260
Average initial weight 524 504 476 541
Average final weight. 780 794 756 827
Average gain ......... 256 290 280 286
Average daily gain..... : 1.83 2.07 2.00 2.04

Average daily ration,
pounds:
Hay ............f...d........ 3.73 3.73 3.65 3.73
Standard feed ......... 9.85 10.13 8.05 9.48
Citrus molasses .... 1.88 1.87 1.88 1.80
Cod liver oil, ozs ... 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.29
Complete mineral .... 0.06 0.08 0.08 0.05

Average feed eaten
per 100 pounds
gain, pounds:
H ay ........................ 204 180 183 180
Standard feed ........ 551 489 451 463
Citrus molasses ....... 103 90 94 88
Cod liver oil, ozs .... 16 14 14 14
Complete mineral .... 4 4 4 4

Average TDN per 100
pounds gain,
pounds .............. 539 476 i 452 456

Average grades:
Feeder ................. Choice Low Choice Choice Choice
Slaughter .......... High Choice Low Choice High Good Good
Carcass ..... ...... High Choice Low Choice High Good Good

U. S. Commercial slaughter grade in 1953 for steers and heifers is now
known as U. S. Standard. Standard will be used to designate this grade
throughout the remainder of the bulletin.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


pounds gain, but had a carcass grade of Good. Lot 1, 3/ Short-
horn-1/ Brahman, had the lowest daily gain, 1.87 pounds, com-
pared to 2.01, 2.02 and 1.94 pounds for Lots 2, 3 and 4, respec-
tively.
Results of the second feeding trial appear in Table 3. Lot 1
had the lowest average daily gain, and these animals were least
efficient in feed utilization. Lot 2 had the highest average daily
gain of the four lots, and Lot 4 required the least TDN for 100
pounds gain. Average carcass grade favored Shorthorn blood,
being highest for Lot 1.
Data for the third feeding trial are summarized in Table 4.
There was no essential difference in average daily gains for the
four lots, ranging from 2.06 pounds for the 4% Shorthorn-14

TABLE 4.-PERFORMANCE OF BRAHMAN AND SHORTHORN-BRAHMAN CROSSES
FED IN DRY LOT FOR 140 DAYS, 1954-1955.

Lot number 1 2 3 4
Breeding of steers % Sh-/4 Br 12 Sh-/2 Br 3 Br-4 Sh Brahman

Number of steers 4 4 4 4
Number of days .......... 140 140 140 140
Average initial age,
days .......................- 258 249 265 258
Average initial weight 553 518 568 521
Average final weight.. 841 799 853 804
Average gain ............... 289 281 285 283
Average daily gain .... 2.06 2.01 2.04 2.02

Average daily ration,
pounds:
Hay .......................... 2.99 2.99 2.99 2.99
Standard feed .......... 10.72 10.59 10.35 9.84
Citrus molasses ...... 1.97 1.96 1.96 1.94
Cod liver oil, ozs..... 0.26 0.27 0.26 0.26
Complete mineral .... 0.09 0.08 0.10 0.12

Average feed eaten
per 100 pounds
gain, pounds:
Hay .......... .......... 145 149 147 148
Standard feed .......... 520 527 508 488
Citrus molasses ...... 96 97 96 96
Cod liver oil, ozs.... 13 14 13 14
Complete mineral .... 4 4 5 6

Average TDN per 100
pounds gain,
pounds .................. 481 489 474 459

Average grades:
Feeder ... ......-.- High Choice Choice High Choice Choice
Slaughter ................ Choice High Good Low Choice Good
Carcass ..................... High Good Good I Good I Low Good







Feed Lot Performanlce and Carcass Grades


Brahman to 2.01 pounds for 1., Shorthorn-:12 Brahman steers.
Results of the third feeding trial show that Brahman steers
required less TDN for gains and that /. Shorthorn-14 Brahman
graded the highest as slaughter animals and in the carcass.

TABLE 5.-PERFORMANCE OF BRAHMAN AND SHORTHORN-BRAHMAN CROSSES
FED IN DRY LOT FOR 140 DAYS, 1955-1956.

Lot number 1 2 3 4
Breeding of steers Q4 Sh-l4 Br 12 Sh-/2 Br 4 Br-' Sh Brahman

Number of steers 4 4 4 4
Number of days ........ 140 140 140 140
Average initial age,
days ........................ 275 279 267 256
Average initial weight 565 550 560 448
Average final weight.. 843 815 841 734
Average gain ......... 277 265 281 286
Average daily gain .... 1.98 1.89 2.01 2.04

Average daily ration,
pounds:
Hay ... .....3.07 3.06 3.07 3.07
Standard feed .... 10.42 9.92 9.21 8.55
Citrus molasses .... 2.00 2.00 2.00 1.95
Cod liver oil, ozs. ... 0.28 0.28 0.28 0.28
Complete mineral .... 0.10 0.09 0.11 0.08

Average feed eaten
per 100 pounds
gain, pounds:
Hay ...... 155 162 153 150
Standard feed .......... 526 524 459 418
Citrus molasses ...... 101 105 100 96
Cod liver oil, oz. 15.1 14.7 13.9 13.6
Complete mineral .... 5.0 4.9 5.7 3.8

Average TDN per 100
pounds gain,
pounds .................. 503 507 453 420

Average grades:
Feeder ....... ........... High Choice I Choice Choice Choice
Slaughter ............... High Good High Good Good IHigh Good
Carcass ..... Low Choice Low Choice Good Low Good

Results of the fourth feeding trial are summarized in Table 5.
Crossbred steers had the lowest average daily gain, with Brah-
man steers the highest. As in the third trial, Brahman steers
utilized feed most efficiently for gains, while 31, Shorthorn-1/
Brahman and 1/2 Shorthorn-1/. Brahman animals had the highest
slaughter and carcass grade.
The data from four feeding trials in which 63 steers were
fed for 140 days in dry lot are summarized in Table 6. Average







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


daily gain was 1.94 pounds for 3% Shorthorn-14 Brahman steers
and 2.00, 2.01 and 2.01 for 1/ Shorthorn-/2 Brahman, 3/. Brah-
man-1/ Shorthorn and Brahman steers, respectively.
Average daily total feed consumption per steer of hay, stand-
ard feed and citrus molasses for Lot 1 was 15.14 pounds, Lot 2-
15.49 pounds, Lot 3-14.47 pounds and Lot 4-14.46 pounds. This
is an average daily consumption of 2.29 pounds of feed per 100
pounds live weight for Lot 1, 2.34 pounds for Lot 2, 2.17 pounds
for Lot 3 and 2.25 pounds for Lot 4. Average TDN per 100
pounds gain ranged from 438 pounds for purebred Brahman
steers to 491 for %, Shorthorn-1/ Brahman animals. Pangola

TABLE 6.-SUMMARY OF PERFORMANCE OF BRAHMAN AND SHORTHORN-
BRAHMAN CROSSES FED IN DRY LOT FOR 140 DAYS, 1952-1956.

Lot number 1 2 3 4
Breeding of steers % Sh-1a Br 1 1 Sh-/2 Br 3/ Br-1 Sh Brahman

Number of steers 15 16 16 16
Number of days .......... 140 140 140 140
Average initial age,
days ..... ................ 249 253 249 249
Average initial weight 526 523 526 493
Average final weight 797 803 808 775
Average gain ............... 271 280 282 282
Average daily gain1 -. 1.94 2.00 2.01 2.01

Average daily ration,
pounds:
Hay .......... ..- ............ 3.44 3.45 3.42 3.45
Standard feed ......... 9.74 10.08 9.09 8.91
Citrus molasses .... 1.96 1.96 1.96 1.90
Cod liver oil, ozs.... 0.21 0.21 0.21 0.21
Complete mineral .... 0.10 0.10 0.11 0.10

Average feed eaten
per 100 pounds
gain, pounds:
Hay .................... 179 173 171 171
Standard feed ....... .. 506 506 463 442
Citrus molasses ........ 102 98 97 96
Cod liver oil, ozs._ 14.4 14.2 13.6 13.9
Complete mineral .... 5.16 5.17 5.40 5.11

Average TDN per 100
pounds gain,
pounds ........... 491 486 454 438

Average grades:
Feeder .--...........-.. Choice Low Choice Choice *Low Choice
Slaughter -.....----. Low Choice High Good High Good Good
Carcass -...-----.. Low Choice High Good Good 1Low Good
SNon-significant.
2Significant at 5% level of probability.
Significant at 1% level of probability.







Feed Lot Performance and Carcass Grades


hay fed the four lots furnished from 15 to 16 percent of the TDN
intake, standard feed provided 73 to 75 percent and citrus mo-
lasses 10 to 11 percent.
It is shown in Table 6 that average feeder grades for the
four lots were essentially the same, all being in the Choice grade.
The "!4 Shorthorn- Brahman steers graded Low Choice as
slaughter animals and in the carcass, and Brahman steers had
a slaughter grade of Good and a carcass grade of Low Good.
Average dressing percentages of steers fed in four trials are
given in Table 7. Upon completion of each feeding trial, the
steers were hauled to Animal Husbandry Department, Gaines-
ville, Florida, where they were slaughtered. It required ap-
proximately five and one half hours to make this 196 mile trip.
As seen in Table 7, the loss in weight ranged from 3.4 to 3.8
percent. A common practice is to deduct 3 percent from pen
weights to compensate for loss of weight in hauling.
Warm dressing percent is based on live weight at Gainesville
and warm carcass weight immediately after slaughter. Shrunk
weight is based upon live weight at Gainesville and the weight
of carcass after 48 hours in the cooler. Shrinking in the cooler
amounts to approximately 2.5 percent of the warm carcass
weight. The :3' Shorthorn-'4 Brahman steers had the highest
dressing percentages and the 1/ Shorthorn-1/- Brahman the
lowest.
TABLE 7.-AVERAGE DRESSING PERCENT OF BRAHMAN AND
SHORTHORN-BRAHMAN CROSSES.

Lot number 1 2 3 4
Breeding of steers /b4 Sh-1/ Br 'b Sh-1/ Br % Br-%/ Sh Brahman
Number of steers 15 16 16 16
Percent lost in travel 3.7 3.8 3.4 3.6
Warm dressing percent
based on Gaines-
ville live weight..; 63.02 61.45 62.72 62.06
Cold dressing percent
based on Gaines-
ville live weight.. 61.44 59.89 61.13 60.50
Cold dressing percent
based on pen live
weight ................. 59.2 57.6 59.1 58.3


DISCUSSION OF EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
Results of the 4 feeding trials are summarized in Table 6.
Steers in all lots were approximately the same age when placed
on feed. Brahman steers were from 30 to 33 pounds lighter in






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


weight initially than the other 3 lots. The average feeder grades
of the 4 lots ranged from Low Choice to Choice. All lots were
fed the same amount of hay and citrus molasses daily per steer.
Any difference in consumption of these feeds is due to refusal
which occurred from time to time. The amount of standard
feed given each lot was determined by the quantity the steers
would consume when fed twice daily.
Gains of the four lots of steers were essentially the same,
ranging from 1.94 pounds to 2.01 pounds per day. Brahman
steers required the least TDN per 100 pounds of gain and had
the lowest carcass grade. As Shorthorn blood increased, carcass
grade improved and TDN required for gains increased, being
highest for the % Shorthorn-l4 Brahman animals.
The average feeder grade indicates that all lots had the po-
tential of grading Choice. However, after 140 days on full-feed,
only the 3% Shorthorn-1/ Brahman steers averaged Low Choice
while the Brahmans graded Low Good. Lower carcass grade
and lower TDN requirement for gains indicate that the Brahman
cattle grew more and fattened less during the 140-day feeding
period than cattle having some Shorthorn breeding. Morrison
(6) has shown that less TDN are required per pound of gain
as growth than for a pound of gain as fat. As Shorthorn blood
increased in the experimental cattle, TDN requirements for gains
were higher, indicating that a larger amount of the gain was fat
rather than growth. These two factors, average TDN for 100
pounds gain and carcass grade, for each of the 4 breed groups
have been plotted and are shown in Figure 6.
There was no significant difference in daily gains between the
four lots. Brahman steers required significantly less TDN for
gain than did steers carrying increasing amounts of Shorthorn
blood at the 5 percent level of probability. There was a highly
significant difference in carcass grade in favor of the steers car-
rying Shorthorn breeding.
The dressing percentages for the four lots of cattle have been
calculated and are shown in Table 7. The value of an animal is
dependent upon the weight of carcass after 48 hours shrink in
the cooler. The amount of fill, weight of hide, offal and shrink
of carcass have to be deducted from the live weight. A 1000-
pound steer dressing 60 percent will have a 600-pound carcass,
while a steer of the same live weight dressing 58 percent will
yield 580 pounds of beef. Therefore, the steer dressing 60 per-
cent has more value on the hoof.







Feed Lot Performance and Carcass Grades


U. S. 9 U. S. Low Good TDN/
Carcass 10 U. S. Good 100 Pounds
Grade 11 U. S. High Good Gain
12 U. S. Low Choice

1-420

13 3
1- 430
12. -

12 440U


10450
3 454-
11 X2 /
460


3 470
10 T x
10 -/ x3 x
/ X3

9.!- S 480

9 B a/X2 X4 4861
,-4l 91 490
8.
+500
8
---- Breed versus TDN
Breed versus Grade
Xi X2 X3 X4
3/4 Shorthorn- 1/2 Shorthorn- 3/4 Brahman- Purebred
1/4 Brahman 1/2 Brahman 1/4 Shorthorn Brahman

Fig. 6.-Graph showing summary of performance of Brahman and
Shorthorn-Brahman crosses as related to carcass grades and TDN per 100
pounds gain.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

For dry lot feeding trials of 140 days each have been com-
pleted. Breeding of calves in the four lots was as follows: Lot
1, Shorthorn-4 Brahman; Lot 2, 1/ Shorthorn-1 Brahman;
Lot 3, 3 Brahman-/1 Shorthorn; Lot 4, purebred Brahman.
There were 15 calves in Lot 1 and 16 in each of the other three
lots. Average age of calves at beginning of trials in Lots 1, 3
and 4 was 249 days and in Lot 2, 253 days. Each breed group







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


was fed a ration of limited amounts of pangola hay and citrus
molasses and hand-fed the standard feed twice daily. The stand-
ard feed consisted of 25 parts cottonseed meal (41 percent pro-
tein), 60 parts citrus pulp, 10 parts ground yellow corn and 5
parts :" cut alfalfa. Calves were fed 2 ounces of cod liver oil
per week and had free access to a complete mineral mixture.
Lot 1 made an average daily gain of 1.94 pounds and Lots 2,
3 and 4 made 2.00, 2.01 and 2.01 pounds, respectively. Lot 1 re-
quired an average of 491 pounds TDN per 100 pounds gain, while
Lots 2, 3 and 4 required 486, 454 and 438 pounds, respectively.
The average carcass grade of Lot 1 was U. S. Low Choice; for
Lot 2, U. S. High Good; for Lot 3, U. S. Good; for Lot 4, U. S.
Low Good.
Purebred Brahman steers had the lowest carcass grade, but
were most efficient in feed utilization for gain. As the Shorthorn
breeding increased, the carcass grades became higher and effi-
ciency of feed utilization for gain decreased.

LITERATURE CITED
1. CARROLL, F. D., W. C. ROLLINS and N. R. ITTNER. Brahman-Hereford
crossbreeds and Herefords-gains, carcass yields and carcass differ-
ences. Jour. An. Sci. 14: 4:218-223. 1955.
2. KIDDER, RALPH W., and HERBERT L. CHAPMAN. A preliminary report of
weight performances of crossbred and purebred cattle at the Ever-
glades Experiment Station from 1943 to 1951. Proc. Assoc. So. Agr.
Workers, 49: 56. 1952.
3. KIRK, W. G., and G. K. DAVIs. Citrus products for beef cattle. Fla.
Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 538. 1954.
4. KNAPP, W. C., J. H. JONES, J. K. RIGGS and 0. D. BUTLER. Brahman-
Hereford crosses for slaughter calf production. Tex. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Prog. Rept. No. 1321, Series 94. 1951.
5. KNAPP, W. C., J. H. JONES and J. K. RIGGS. Brahman-Hereford crosses
for slaughter calf production. Tex. Agr. Exp. Sta. Prog. Rept. No.
1206, Series 82. 1949.
6. MORRISON, F. B. Feeds and Feeding, 22nd Ed. 1956.
7. PHILLIPS, RALPH W., W. H. BLACK, BRADFORD KNAPP, JR., and R. T.
CLARK. Cross-breeding for beef production. Jour. An. Sci. 1:3:
213-220. 1942.




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