• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Introduction
 Review of literature
 Preliminary feeding trial
 Three feeding trials
 Summary and conclusions
 Acknowledgement
 Literature cited














Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 621
Title: Value of pangola hay and silage in steer fattening rations
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027643/00001
 Material Information
Title: Value of pangola hay and silage in steer fattening rations
Series Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 621
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Kirk, W. G.
Peacock, F. M.
Hodges, E. M.
McCaleb, J. E.
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station,
Publication Date: 1960
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027643
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Title Page
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
    Review of literature
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Preliminary feeding trial
        Page 5
    Three feeding trials
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Summary and conclusions
        Page 18
    Acknowledgement
        Page 19
    Literature cited
        Page 19
        Page 20
Full Text


Bulletin 621


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
J. R. BECKENBACH, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
(A Contribution from the Range Cattle Experiment Station)










Value of Pangola Hay and Silage

In Steer Fattening Rations


W. G. KIRK, F. M. PEACOCK, E. M. HODGES and J. E. MCCALEB




Fig. 1.-Steers fed pangola silage, cottonseed meal and full-fed citrus
pulp and citrus molasses in Trial 3 made an average daily gain of 2.57
pounds and a slaughter grade of High Good.
^ -^ Y^:^^ mE g K Wm t 'WV-f,


;;,


July 1960








CONTENTS


INTRODUCTION ..............

REVIEW OF LITERATURE .........

PRELIMINARY FEEDING TRIAL .

Method of Procedure ......

Experimental Results .....-

THREE FEEDING TRIALS --...-..-

Method of Procedure -..-

Experimental Results ........

Discussion .- ......-----

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS -

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ...........-

LITERATURE CITED ........-------..


Page

.-.-.------.--.---.. 3
.-. ------. 3



.-- ---. -. .-. 5

....-.-.- ......-- 5

5



6
............................... 5

-..-..------.... .. ---.-.-. 6

--------.-.-.-. .-.... ----------- 6

...... .---.. -.. ..-- 8

---...... .----.-- ..- 14

........................--........ 18

. -............................-- 19

.....................--- .... 19


Fig. 2.-Steers fed pangola hay and cottonseed meal in Trial 3 made an
average daily gain of 1.17 pounds and a slaughter grade of Standard.








Value of Pangola Hay and Silage

In Steer Fattening Rations

W. G. KIRK, F. M. PEACOCK, E. M. HODGES and J. E. McCALEB l

INTRODUCTION
Roughage is a basic feed for beef cattle. It provides bulk
but is relatively low in digestible nutrients and feeding value.
Roughage feeds are used in a fattening ration only in amounts
necessary to furnish sufficient fiber to keep the digestive system
working properly. They must be balanced with digestible pro-
tein, energy nutrients, vitamins and minerals. Factors to be con-
sidered in preparing a fattening ration include age, weight and
breeding of cattle to be fed, method of feeding and length of
period, cost of feeds and estimated margin between initial cost
and final value of cattle when ready for market.
Pangolagrass (3)2 under good management is the most pro-
ductive grass variety in central Florida. The forage is nutri-
tious and palatable when harvested before becoming too mature.
It has been used for hay and silage more extensively than any
other grass grown in the area.
The object of the steer feeding trials reported herein was to
determine the relative value in the fattening ration of 2 Florida-
produced roughage feeds, pangola hay and pangola silage, when
combined with adequate protein and varying amounts of energy
nutrients. A preliminary feeding trial using pangola hay and
silage with both cottonseed meal and a protein mixture contain-
ing urea was completed in December 1954, with all lots given the
same amount of citrus pulp and citrus molasses. In a series of
3 feeding trials these 2 roughages were fed to each of 3 lots of
steers with all lots receiving the same amount of cottonseed
meal. Three levels of citrus pulp and citrus molasses were fed
along with each roughage.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
The Committee on Animal Nutrition of the National Research
Council (2) has outlined daily nutritional allowances and nutrient

1. Vice-Director in Charge, Assistant Animal Husbandman, Agronomist
and Assistant Agronomist, Range Cattle Experiment Station, Ona, Florida.
2. Italic figures in parentheses refer to literature cited.








Value of Pangola Hay and Silage

In Steer Fattening Rations

W. G. KIRK, F. M. PEACOCK, E. M. HODGES and J. E. McCALEB l

INTRODUCTION
Roughage is a basic feed for beef cattle. It provides bulk
but is relatively low in digestible nutrients and feeding value.
Roughage feeds are used in a fattening ration only in amounts
necessary to furnish sufficient fiber to keep the digestive system
working properly. They must be balanced with digestible pro-
tein, energy nutrients, vitamins and minerals. Factors to be con-
sidered in preparing a fattening ration include age, weight and
breeding of cattle to be fed, method of feeding and length of
period, cost of feeds and estimated margin between initial cost
and final value of cattle when ready for market.
Pangolagrass (3)2 under good management is the most pro-
ductive grass variety in central Florida. The forage is nutri-
tious and palatable when harvested before becoming too mature.
It has been used for hay and silage more extensively than any
other grass grown in the area.
The object of the steer feeding trials reported herein was to
determine the relative value in the fattening ration of 2 Florida-
produced roughage feeds, pangola hay and pangola silage, when
combined with adequate protein and varying amounts of energy
nutrients. A preliminary feeding trial using pangola hay and
silage with both cottonseed meal and a protein mixture contain-
ing urea was completed in December 1954, with all lots given the
same amount of citrus pulp and citrus molasses. In a series of
3 feeding trials these 2 roughages were fed to each of 3 lots of
steers with all lots receiving the same amount of cottonseed
meal. Three levels of citrus pulp and citrus molasses were fed
along with each roughage.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
The Committee on Animal Nutrition of the National Research
Council (2) has outlined daily nutritional allowances and nutrient

1. Vice-Director in Charge, Assistant Animal Husbandman, Agronomist
and Assistant Agronomist, Range Cattle Experiment Station, Ona, Florida.
2. Italic figures in parentheses refer to literature cited.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


content of rations for different classes of beef cattle. They sug-
gest that a 700-pound yearling steer gaining 1 pound daily re-
quires an average daily intake of 0.8 pound digestible protein
and 8.5 pounds TDN (total digestible nutrients). A steer of
the same weight and gaining 2.2 pounds daily requires 1.4 pounds
digestible protein and 13.5 pounds TDN per day. These digest-
ible protein requirements are minimum levels, to be used when
protein feeds are scarce and high priced. The protein allowance
for fattening cattle may be increased 10 to 20 percent above the
recommended minimum when protein feeds are favorably priced.
The nutritional allowances for fattening 700-pound yearling
steers as given by Morrison (8) are in close agreement with those
outlined by the National Research Council. Yearling cattle may
gain 1 pound daily under good management in the winter when
fed 14 pounds of good quality roughage and 3 pounds of concen-
trates. Cattle gaining 2.2 pounds daily will require 6 pounds of
roughage and 15 pounds concentrates a day. In each instance it
will be necessary to include sufficient digestible protein in the
concentrate feed to meet nutritional requirements.
Several series of trials testing the value of roughage feeds
grown in Florida have been completed. Shealy and Gratz (10)
in 3 feeding trials of 120 days each at the North Florida Station,
Quincy, found that steers given a uniform grain ration and all
the sorghum silage, peanut hay or cottonseed hulls they would
eat gained 1.81, 1.79 and 1.96 pounds daily, respectively. These
results indicated that the grade of cottonseed hulls is more uni-
form from year to year than either peanut hay or sorghum silage,
as the quality of these 2 by-product feeds is affected by adverse
weather during the growing and harvesting seasons.
It was shown by Shealy and co-workers (11) that steers re-
ceiving the same amount of concentrate feed and either sorghum,
napiergrass or sugarcane silage free choice made average daily
gains of 2.08, 1.81 and 1.79 pounds, respectively. The compara-
tive value of the silages in the fattening ration was 100 for
sorghum and 75 and 70 for napiergrass and sugarcane. In 3
120-day steer fattening trials at the Everglades Station, Belle
Glade, Kidder and Kirk (4) found that animals fed fresh-cut
sugarcane as roughage had an average daily gain of 1.95 pounds,
while those fed sugarcane silage gained 1.87 pounds.
Results of these trials at 3 different research stations in
Florida show that several Florida-produced roughage feeds can
be used satisfactorily in steer fattening rations.






Value of Pangola Hay and Silage Fattening Rations 5

PRELIMINARY FEEDING TRIAL
METHOD OF PROCEDURE
Each of 2 roughage feeds, pangola hay and pangola silage,
was self-fed in Trial 1 to 2 lots of 7 steers each in an 84-day
feeding period completed December 27, 1954. One lot on each
roughage received cottonseed meal, 41 percent protein, and the
second lot the same weight of a mixture made up of 50 parts
cottonseed meal, 8 parts urea (262)3 and 42 parts citrus meal.
This protein feed contained less cottonseed meal and more urea
than Kirk et al (6) fed to short-yearling steers with satisfactory
results. Citrus pulp and citrus molasses were fed in limited
amounts to each of the 4 lots. During the first 28 days, 1.98
pounds of pulp was fed daily per steer; in the second 28-day
period, 3 pounds of pulp; and in the third 28-day period, 4 pounds
of pulp. Citrus molasses was fed to all lots at a slightly higher
rate than pulp.
Cattle were fed once daily at 8:30 a.m. in unprotected dry-
lot pens. Cottonseed meal, pulp and molasses were fed in troughs,
hay in slatted feed racks and silage in rectangular feed bunks.

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
Results of Trial 1 are summarized in Table 1. Steers ate
either hay or silage readily the first day on test, with silage be-
ing eaten in larger amounts on a nutrient basis. Since all lots
received the same amount by weight of either cottonseed meal
or protein feed and equal amounts of citrus pulp and citrus mo-
lasses, any difference in nutrient intake was due to amount of
roughage eaten. The average daily TDN intakes for Lots 1 and
2 fed hay were 11.93 and 11.58 pounds, respectively, and 14.17
and 14.01 pounds for Lots 3 and 4, fed silage.
The steers in Lot 1 fed hay and cottonseed meal had a 0.25
pound higher average daily gain than those in Lot 2 which were
given hay and protein feed containing urea. Steers fed silage
and mixed protein gained 0.10 pound more per day than those
given silage and cottonseed meal. This indicates that urea was
utilized more efficiently as a precursor of crude protein when
silage, rather than hay, was the source of roughage.
Hay furnished 53 percent of the TDN for Lots 1 and 2 and
silage 58 percent for Lots 3 and 4. Steers fed hay had adequate

3. Two-sixty-two supplied by E. I. duPont de Nemours and Company,
Wilmington, Delaware.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


amounts of digestible protein in their rations, while the rations
containing silage were below the minimum requirements. Aver-
age improvement in slaughter grade was from U. S. Utility to
U. S. Standard in the 84-day feeding period.

TABLE 1.-GAINS AND FEED CONSUMPTION BY STEERS FED PANGOLA HAY
AND PANGOLA SILAGE IN TRIAL 1.

Lot number -....................... 1 2 3 4
Number of steers ......... 7 7 7 7
Days on feed ....................... 84 84 84 84

Average weights:
Initial, 10-4-54 .............. 837 830 835 849
Final, 12-27-54 ........ 1022 994 1027 1049
Gain ...... ...---... .- 185 164 192 200
Daily gain .............. 2.22 1.95 2.28 2.38

Average daily ration,
pounds:
Pangola hay ......... 14.09 13.61
Pangola silage ........... -- 56.17 56.05
Cottonseed meal .......... 2.79 2.79
Protein feed* .............. -- 2.79 -- 2.79
Citrus plup ... ... 2.98 2,98 2.98 2.08
Citrus molasses .......... 3.32 3.32 3.34 3.34
Complete mineral .......... 0.03 0.06 0.04 0.01

Total ......... ........... 23.21 22.76 65.32 65.19
Total**_ ..._-...... ..- 26.23 26.17

Average TDN. pounds:
Daily per steer ........... 11.7 11.3 13.9 13.7
Per 100 pounds gain ..... 542.0 594.0 619.0 519 0
Percent from roughage 53.0 53.0 58.0 58.0

Average ration, percent:
Crude protein .. .....11.5 12.0 8.3 8.8
Digestible protein ......... 6.9 6.8 5.1 5.0
TDN .............. 50.0 50.0 53.0 52.0

Average slaughter
grades:t ...........-..
Initial, 10-4-54 .... 4 4 4 4
Final, 12-27-54 .--- 7 7 7 7
*Protein feed: 50 parts cottonseed meal, S parts urea and 42 parts citrus pulp.
** Pangola silage reduced to same dry matter content as pangola hay.
I Slaughter grades: 4, Utility; 7, Standard.

THREE FEEDING TRIALS

METHOD OF PROCEDURE
Results obtained in Trial 1 were used as a basis in planning
rations for Trials 2, 3 and 4. Pangola hay and silage were self-
fed to 3 lots of steers each in 3 feeding trials of 120, 127 and
120 days, completed on February 15, 1956, February 14, 1957,






Value of Pangola Hay and Silage Fattening Rations 7

and February 16, 1958. The feed ingredients in each of the 6
rations are given in Table 2.

TABLE 2.-RATIONS FED IN TRIALS 2, 3 AND 4.

Lot Roughage Citrus Citrus Complete
Num- Free-Choice Protein Feed Pulp Mo- Mineral
her lasses

1 pangola hay cottonseed meal none none free-choice
2 pangola hay cottonseed meal limited limited free-choice
3 pangola hay cottonseed meal full-fed Ifull-fed free-choice
4 pangola silage cottonseed meal none none free-choice
5 pangola silage cottonseed meal limited limited free-choice
6 pangola silage cottonseed meal full-fed full-fed free-choice


Lots 1, 2 and 3 had free-choice of hay and Lots 4, 5 and 6,
silage. All lots were given equal amounts of cottonseed meal
daily. Lots 3 and 6 were full-fed citrus pulp and citrus molasses,
Lots 2 and 4 received one-half the amount of pulp and molasses
fed Lots 3 and 6, while Lots 1 and 4 were allowed only roughage
plus cottonseed meal.
Pangolagrass which had received moderate applications of a
9-6-6 fertilizer and a topdressing of ammonium nitrate was har-
vested for hay and silage when in early bloom. Hay was made
in early June under natural drying conditions. Pangola hay
was cut into 1- to 3-inch lengths by putting through a silage
cutter to eliminate waste in feeding. Grass was cut for silage

Fig. 3.-Steers fed pangola hay, cottonseed meal and limited amounts of
pulp and molasses in Trial 3 made an average daily gain of 1.77 pounds
and a slaughter grade of Low Good.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


in August and stored without wilting in a bunker-type wooden
silo, using 8 pounds of sodium metabisulfite preservative per
ton of freshly cut grass.
Cottonseed meal, 41 percent protein, was purchased as needed
from Florida feed dealers. Citrus pulp and citrus molasses,
shown by Kirk and Davis (7) to be excellent energy feeds, were
secured from Florida processors. All lots of steers had free
access to Range Station complete mineral (1). The average
composition of the feed ingredients used in Trials 2, 3 and 4
is shown in Table 3.
Ninety-six yearling steers were fed in the 3 trials, 36 in Trial
2 and 30 each in Trials 3 and 4, making a total of 16 animals in
each of the 6 lots. Brahman breeding predominated in the ex-
perimental cattle, with considerable Shorthorn blood and a trace
of Devon, Hereford, Santa Gertrudis and Charbray. All steers
were well grown but in thin flesh when placed on trial. Uniform
lots were selected, criteria used being weight, age, breeding and
feeder grade. Individual weights were taken at the beginning
and end and at 28-day intervals during each trial.

TABLE 3.-AVERAGE PERCENTAGE COMPOSITION OF FEED INGREDIENTS.
Crude I Nitrogen I
Feed Dry Pro- Ash Ether Crude Free TDN*
IMatter tein Extract Fiber Extract

Pangola hay ........ 89.92 8.92 4.79 1.84 32.22 42.04 42
Pangola silage .... 28.40 1.42 1.80 0.52 8.64 13.53 14.5
Pangola silage** 18.50 0.85 0.70 0.40 6.12 10.43 11
Cottonseed meal 90.73 42.01 5.59 2.80 13.08 27.25 70
Protein feed ........ 90.41 43.21 4.64 3.60 10.78 18.18 65
Citrus pulp .......... 87.41 5.85 4.98 2.37 14.24 59.97 71
Citrus molasses .. 60.93 4.11 3.63 0.18 53.01 50

Total digestible nutrients.
** Fed in Trial 3, 1956-57.

Cattle were fed once daily at 8:30 a.m. in unprotected outside
dry-lot pens. Cottonseed meal and citrus pulp were mixed when
fed, citrus molasses given in a separate trough, hay in slatted
feed racks and silage in rectangular feed bunks. Sufficient hay
or silage was given each morning to last 24 hours, with some
refusal at frequent intervals.

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
Results of Trials 2, 3 and 4 are summarized in Tables 4, 5
and 6. Although pulp and molasses were fed in nearly equal







Value of Pangola Hay and Silage Fattening Rations 9


amounts, the steers always ate citrus pulp before eating citrus
molasses. For this reason molasses was the feed most fre-
quently refused.

TABLE 4.-GAINS AND FEED CONSUMPTION BY STEERS FED PANGOLA HAY
AND PANGOLA SILAGE IN TRIAL 2.


Roughage fed ............
Lot number ..............
Number of steers ....

Average weights:
Initial, 10-18-55 ....
Final, 2-15-56 .......
Gain ............. .......-
Daily gain .............

Average daily ration
pounds:
Pangola hay ..........
Pangola silage ....
Cottonseed meal -.
Citrus pulp --..........
Citrus molasses ....
Complete mineral


T otal .................
Total* ..............


Average TDN,
pounds:
Daily per steer ......
Per 100 pounds gai
Percent from
roughage .........


Average grades:**
Feeder ...................
Initial slaughter
Final slaughter ....
Carcasst ................

Dressing percent,
shrunk .............


Pangola Hay
1 2
6 6


748
915
167
1.40



18.02

2.98

0.04


739
997
258
2.15



13.63

2.98
3.59
3.84
0.01


21.04 24.05


3
6


739
1057
318
2.64



9.73

2.98
7.01
7.18
0.01


26.91
I


Pangola Silage
4 5 6
6 6 6


768
956
188
1.56




57.57
2.98


0.02


60.57
22.19


748
1018
270
2.25




36.13
2.98
3.61
3.92
0.01


46.65
22.56


745
1030
285
2.42




25.59
2.98
7.17
7.28
0.01


43.03
25.97


9.62 12.25 14.71 11.27 12.36 14.88
690 572 557 722 550 615

79 47 28 82 47 28


59.46


60.18


*Silage reduced to similar dry matter content as hay.
** Feeder grades: 9, Low Good; 10, Good. Slaughter and carcass grades: 3, Low Utility;
5, High Utility; 8, High Standard; 9, Low Good; 10, Good.
f Federal grades.
I Steers in Lots 1, 2, 4 and 5 were not slaughtered at completion of feeding trial.

Those steers in Trial 2 which were given limited amounts of
pulp and molasses, Lot 2, ate 76 percent as much hay as did the
check cattle fed only hay and cottonseed meal, Lot 1, while those


1






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


full-fed, Lot 3, consumed 54 percent as much hay as the check.
Feeding limited amounts of pulp and molasses reduced silage con-
sumption to 63 percent and when steers were full-fed, silage
intake was only 44 percent of that eaten by cattle fed only silage
and cottonseed meal. Daily gains were in proportion to TDN
intake, being lowest when the ration consisted largely of rough-
age and highest when either hay or silage and the concentrates
were full-fed.
It is seen from Table 5 that average daily gain per steer was
lower in Trial 3 than in Trial 2 (Table 4) with all but Lot 6, which
had an increase of 0.15 pound. The hay fed in Trials 2 and 3
was similar in composition, but the silage used in Trial 3 con-
tained 9.90 percent less dry matter than in Trial 2, resulting in
higher consumption. Average daily TDN intake by all lots in
Trial 3 was lower than in Trial 2, accounting for a reduced rate
of gain with all except Lot 6.
Results of Trial 4 are given in Table 6. Average daily gains
for all 6 lots in Trial 4 were lowest of the 3 trials, and TDN
requirements for gains were highest.
Results of the 3 feeding trials are summarized in Table 7.
It is seen that daily gains were correlated with the roughage
to concentrate ratio, being lowest when the ration consisted of
roughage and cottonseed meal and highest when citrus pulp,
citrus molasses and roughage were full-fed in addition to cotton-
seed meal.

Fig. 4.-Steers fed pangola hay, cottonseed meal and full-fed pulp and
molasses in Trial 3 made an average daily gain of 2.08 and slaughter grade
of High Good.







Value of Pangola Hay and Silage Fattening Rations 11

Average total daily feed consumption increased as more pulp
and molasses were included in the ration. Cattle self-fed either
hay or silage and cottonseed meal, Lots 1 and 4, did not have
the digestive capacity to consume sufficient nutrients to make
gains similar to those of steers whose rations contained varying
amounts of citrus pulp and molasses.

TABLE 5.-GAINS AND FEED CONSUMPTION BY STEERS FED PANGOLA HAY
AND PANGOLA SILAGE IN TRIAL 3.


Roughage fed ..............
Lot number ............
Number of steers ........


Pangola Hay Pangola
1 2 3 4 5
5 5 5 5 5


Average weights:
Initial, 10-10-56 ....
Final, 2-14-57 ..........
G ain .............. ........-
Daily gain ...............

Average daily ration,
pounds:
Pangola hay ...........
Pangola silage ........
Cottonseed meal ...
Citrus pulp .............
Citrus molasses ......
Complete mineral _.


Total .........
Total* ........


795
944
149
1.17


789
1014
225
1.77


15.46 12.55

3.00 3.00
4.00
-- 2.88
0.03 0.02

18.49 22.45


792
|1056
276
2.08


7.82

3.00
8.02
4.66
0.02


802
970
168
1.30


789
1042
253
1.96


63.22 43.83
3.00 3.00
3.99
3.94
0.04 0.03


804
1135
331
2.57



33.98
3.00
8.02
5.20
0.03


23.52 66.26 54.79 50.23
S18.85 21.92 24.75


Average TDN,
pounds:
Daily per steer ....... 8.59
100 pounds gain ...... 732
Percent from
roughage ........... .. 76

Average grades:**
Feeder ..................... 11
Initial slaughter ...... 5
Final slaugther ........ 7
Carcassf ....................

Dressing percent,
shrunk$ ................


11.65 13.41 9.67 12.16 14.47
653 645 733 610 549

45 25 78 43 28


- 62.46


61.91


*Silage reduced to similar dry matter content as hay.
** Feeder grades: 10, Good; 11. High Good; 12, Low Choice.
Slaughter and carcass grades: 6, Low Standard; 7, Standard; 8, High Standard; 9,
Low Good; 10, Good; 11, High Good.
t Federal grades.
ISteers in Lots 1. 2, 4 and 5 were not slaughtered at completion of feeding trial.

Average TDN required for 100 pounds gain was 780 pounds
for Lot 1, fed hay, and 807 pounds for Lot 4, given silage. Feed-
ing limited amounts of pulp and molasses, Lots 2 and 5, reduced


Silage
S 6
5







12 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

TDN requirements per 100 pounds gain to 640 and 627 pounds,
respectively. The lowest TDN requirements per 100 pounds gain
were 618 and 604 pounds for Lots 3 and 6, respectively, full-fed
pulp, molasses and roughage feed.

TABLE 6.-GAINS AND FEED CONSUMPTION BY STEERS FED PANGOLA HAY
AND PANGOLA SILAGE IN TRIAL 4.

Roughage fed ............ Pangola Hay Pangola Silage
Lot number ........... 1 2 3 4 | 5 6
Number of steers .... .. 5 5 5 5 5 5

Average weights:
Initial, 10-21-57 ...... 741 720 766 762 772 750
Final, 2-18-58 .......... 842 915 1006 872 954 1009
Gain ....................... 101 195 240 110 181 159
Daily gain ................ 0.84 1.62 2.00 0.92 1.51 2.16

Average daily ration,
pounds:
Pangola hay ........... 15.57 10.13 7.29 ---
Pangola silage ...... -- 57.58 35.07 26.92
Cottonseed meal ...... 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00
Citrus pulp ............ 4.13 8.25 4.13 8.25
Citrus molasses ...... 5.15 6.19 4.07 3.90
Complete mineral .. 0.03 0.02 0.04 0.05 0.04 0.02


Total ........ ........-- 18.60 22.41 24.77 60.63 46.31 42.09
Total* .............. -- 19.04 20.98 22.65


Average TDN, pounds:
Daily per steer ........ 8.64 11.86 14.11 10.16 11.98 13.68
Per 100 pounds gain 1027 729 706 1108 794 636
Percent from
roughage ..............- 76 36 22 76 41 28

Average grades**
Feeder ....... .. ...... 10 11 10 10 10 10
Initial slaughter ..... 5 5 5 5 4 5
Final slaughter ...... 5 9 10 5 7 9
Carcasst ............ -- 9 10

Dressing percent,
shrunk ......... 61.50 59.38
Silage reduced to similar dry matter content as hay.
** Feeder grades: 10, Good; 11, High Good.
Slaughter and carcass grades: 4, Utility; 5, High Utility; 7, Standard; 9, Low Good;
10, Good.
t Federal grades.
$ Steers in Lots 1, 2, 4 and 5 were not slaughtered at completion of feeding trial.

It is seen from Table 8 that there was no significant difference
in feeding value of hay and silage in the steer fattening ration.
There was, however, a highly significant difference in perform-
ance of steers given different levels of roughage and concentrate.







Value of Pangola Hay and Silage Fattening Rations 13

TABLE 7.-SUMMARY OF 3 FEEDING TRIALS COMPARING PANGOLA HAY AND
PANGOLA SILAGE IN STEER FATTENING RATIONS.


Roughage fed .............
Lot number ...............
Number of steers .......
Days on feed ............

Average weights:
Initial .....................
F inal ......................
Total gain .............
Daily gain ..............

Average daily ration,
pounds:
Pangola hay ......
Pangola silage ......
Pangola silage* .....
Cottonseed meal ...
Citrus pulp ...........
Citrus molasses .....
Complete mineral

Total ...............---


Pangola Hay


S 1
. 16
. 122


S 760
. 901
. 141
1.15



16.44


S 2.99


S 0.03


2
16
122


749
977
228
1.86



12.22
1

2.99
3.88
3.90
0.02


. 19.46 22.99


Average feed con-
sumed per 100
pounds gain,
pounds:
Pangola hay ........... 1425 654 369
Pangola silage ...... -- 4680 1955 1186
Pangola silage* ...... -- 1423 595 361
Cottonseed meal ...... 260 161 132 233 154 125
Citrus pulp ............ -- 208 341 201 324
Citrus molasses ... 209 270 205 241
Complete mineral 3 1 1 3 1 1

Total ..................... 1688 1233 1112 |1659 11156 1052


Average TDN per 100
pounds gain,
pounds ................. 780 640 618 807 627 604


Average grades:**
Feeder ......... .. 10
Initial slaughter ..... 4
Final slaughter .... 6
Carcasst .......... ....

Average dressing
percentS .............

Silage reduced to similar average


10
4
10
9


61.03


60.47


dry matter content as hay.


**Feeder grades: 10, Good: 11, High Good.
Slaughter and carcass grades: 4, Utility; 5, High Utility; 6, Low Standard; 8, High
Standard; 9, Low Good; 10, Good.
SFederal grades.
$ Steers in Lots 1, 2. 1 and 5 were not slaughtered at completion of trials.


Pangola
5
16
122


Silage
6
16
122


765
11058
293
14 2.40


S768
i1005
237
1.9


3
16
122


764
1041
277
2.27



8.36


2.99
7.22
6.11
0.02

25.20


777
934
157
1.29




59.18
18.00
2.99


0.04

21.03


37.91
11.53
2.99
3.89
3.97
0.02

22.40


28.44
8.65
2.99
7.76
5.79
0.02

25.21






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


TABLE 8.-ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE OF GAINS BY STEERS FED PANGOLA HAY
AND PANGOLA SILAGE.

Variation Due to Degrees of Sums of Mean Square
Freedom Squares
Total ..... ..... ....... .... 95 39.03

Sub groups ... .......... 17 25.86

Years---------------------------------2 4.91--- 46*
Y ears ............. -. ........ .. 2 | 4.91 2.46**
Level .............. .......... 2 19.61 9.81**
Roughage ..-................. 1 .36 .36
Y x L ....... .. .... 4 .17 .043
Y x R ............... .......- ....... 2 .34 .17
L x R ............................. 2 .03 .015
Y x L x R ..................... 4 .44 .11

Residual error ............... 78 13.17 .169

** Significant at .01 level prox.

According to the average feeder grade data (Table 7), it is
apparent that all 6 lots of steers had the potential to grade U. S.
Good or High Good as slaughter animals. Steers fed roughage
and cottonseed meal improved only two thirds of a slaughter
grade, going from Utility to Low Standard; those fed limited
citrus pulp and molasses, in addition, improved one and two-
thirds grades to either High Standard or Low Good; and animals
full-fed roughage, pulp and molasses gained 2 full slaughter
grades, going from Utility to Good.

DISCUSSION
It is seen from Tables 4, 5 and 6 that average daily gains for
all 6 lots were highest in Trial 2, intermediate in Trial 3 and
lowest in Trial 4. The TDN requirement for 100 pounds gain
increased as rate of gain decreased, being lowest in Trial 2 and
highest in Trial 4.
Some of the variation in average daily gain and TDN require-
ment was due to differences in rainfall during the 3 trials. Total
rainfall during Trials 2, 3 and 4 was 3.08, 4.92 and 17.61 inches,
respectively. Steers were fed in outside unprotected pens with
exposed feed bunks. There was little, if any, feed refusal during
dry weather, but heavy rainfall necessitated removal of consid-
erable quantities of uneaten feed. This happened frequently in






Value of Pangola Hay and Silage Fattening Rations 15

Trial 4, especially in December 1957 and January 1958 when
monthly rainfall was 6.05 and 8.45 inches, respectively. Feed
consumption was reduced during these 2 months, and all pens
became wet and boggy with no place where the animals could
be comfortable. These 2 conditions reduced daily gains and in-
creased TDN requirements compared with Trials 2 and 3 of
the series.
The recommendations of the National Research Council (2)
concerning the nutrients required to fatten yearling cattle, to-
gether with the average results from Trials 2, 3 and 4, are given
in Table 9. It is shown that quality feeder steers weighing 800
to 1,000 pounds should make an average daily gain of 2.2 pounds
and that the maximum TDN intake is obtained when the fatten-
ing ration contains 70 to 75 percent concentrates. Steers in Lots
3 and 6 with an average weight of 903 and 912 pounds, full-fed
either hay or silage, plus citrus pulp and molasses, gained an
average of 2.27 and 2.40 pounds daily. These cattle obtained
72 to 75 percent of their TDN from concentrates and 25 to 28
percent roughages.
It is seen from Table 9 that all 6 rations had adequate total
protein but were low in digestible protein. The coefficient of
digestibility of the crude protein in hay, silage, citrus pulp and
citrus molasses, which together made up 77 to 86 percent of the
dry matter of the rations, is relatively low; that of the citrus
products being down to 25 percent (9). Cottonseed meal, which
provided 11.9 to 15.4 percent of the dry matter in the rations,
was the only feed in which the crude protein had a high coeffi-
cient of digestibility. Thus, neither cattle given a limited ration
of pulp and molasses-Lots 2 and 5-nor Lots 3 and 6-full-fed-
received sufficient digestible protein to balance the rations. All
6 lots had an average daily digestible protein deficit of approxi-
mately 0.4 pound per steer.
The ration fed Lot 1 contained an average of 46 percent TDN,
19 percent below the recommended amount, while the 57 percent
TDN ration given Lot 6 was 8 percent too low. Lots 3 and 6,
full-fed citrus pulp and citrus molasses, consumed adequate nu-
trients to give relatively good gains, while Lots 1 and 2, fed hay,
and Lots 4 and 5, fed silage, lacked the digestive capacity to
consume enough TDN to permit rapid gains. On an average
daily basis only the rations fed Lots 3 and 6 approached the
daily TDN requirements for gains according to National Re-
search Council recommendations.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


TABLE 9.-RECOMMENDED NUTRIENTS FOR FATTENING YEARLING STEERS
AND AMOUNT FED IN 3 TRIALS.


Percentage of Ration Average Daily per Anim
Lot Pounds
Num- Weight I Protein
her Steers Protein Total I
I I ( TDN Gain Feed I
Total I Dig. I Total Dig.
National Research Council Recommendations:

800 10.0 7.5 65 2.24 22 2.2 1.6
to
2.52
1000 10.0 7.5 65 2.00 26 2.6 2.0
2.25

Average Weights, Gains and Nutrients Fed in Three Trials:
Pangola Hay

1 831 10.55 7.17 46 1.15 19.5 2.05 1.39
2 862 9.85 6.06 52 1.86 23.0 2.27 1.40
3 903 9.59 5.49 56 2.27 25.2 2.42 1.37
S_______-


lal,


TDN



14.3

16.9






9.0
11.9
14.1


4 856 11.57
5 887 10.79
6 912 10.09

* On air-dry basis.


Pangola Silage*

7.79 48 1.29
6.65 53 1.94
5.80 57 2.40
____12


The average daily consumption of roughage on an air-dry
basis varied from 9.36 to 16.44 pounds for cattle fed hay and
from 8.65 to 18.0 for the silage-fed lots (Table 10). The min-
imum requirement for roughage in the ration of fattening cattle
(2) ranges from 0.5 to 0.8 pound daily per 100 pounds live weight.
All lots ate larger amounts of roughage per 100 pounds live
weight than the minimum recommended, ranging from 0.93
pound daily for Lots 3 and 6, full-fed pulp and molasses, to 1.98
and 2.10 pounds, respectively, for Lots 1 and 4, fed roughage
and cottonseed meal.
Pangola hay fed in all 3 trials and silage fed in Trials 2 and
4 were palatable and readily eaten the day the steers were placed
on feed. Silage used in Trial 3 was made from immature grass
that contained too high a percentage of water to make clean,
acid-smelling silage. This silage had an objectionable odor, but
it was eaten readily after cattle were on feed a few days.


21.0
22.4
25.2


2.13
2.24
2.42


1.43 10.4
1.38 12.2
1.39 14.5


I






Value of Pangola Hay and Silage Fattening Rations 17

TABLE 10.-ROUGHAGE CONSUMPTION AND PERCENT TDN OBTAINED
FROM EACH FEED.

Test feed ...................... Pangola Hay Pangola Silage
Lot number ................. 1 2 3 4 5 6

Roughage consumed
daily, pounds:*
Total ......... ............. 16.44 12.22 8.36 18.00 11.53 8.65
100 pounds live
weight ................. 1.98 1.42 0.93 2.10 1.30 0.93
Concentrate-to-
roughage ratios*.. 15:85 47:53 67:33 14:86 49:51 66:34
Percent TDN from
each feed:
Roughage
Pangola hay .......... 77 43 25 -
Pangola silage -- -- 80 44 28
Concentrate
Cottonseed meal ...... 23 18 15 20 17 14
Citrus pulp .............. 23 39 23 38
Citrus molasses ...... 16 21 16 20

Total ...... ...... 23 57 75 20 56 72

All feeds on air-dry basis, one pound hay equivalent to 3.288 pounds of silage.

It is seen from Table 10 that steers fed hay obtained from 25
to 77 percent of their TDN from roughage; those fed silage re-
ceived 28 to 80 percent of their TDN from this source. These
data indicate that all lots ate more than the minimum require-
ment of roughage for normal digestive activity. There was max-
imum use of roughage in Lots 1 and 4 where the ration consisted
of either hay or silage and cottonseed meal with a concentrate-
to-roughage ratio of 23 to 77 and 20 to 80. The recommended
concentrate-to-roughage ratio (2) ranges from 30:70 to 70:30.
Therefore, these 2 lots received too much roughage to permit
rapid gains; 1.15 pounds for Lot 1, fed hay, and 1.29 pounds for
Lot 4, fed silage. The concentrate-to-roughage ratios for Lots
2 and 5, fed limited amounts of citrus pulp and citrus molasses,
were approximately average for the recommended range in the 2
classes of nutrients, giving daily gains of 1.86 and 1.94 pounds.
Lots 3 and 6, full-fed pulp and molasses, had concentrate-to-
roughage ratios of 75:25 and 72:28, respectively, and average
daily gains of 2.27 and 2.40 pounds.
Steers self-fed hay and limited amounts of cottonseed meal,
pulp and molasses in Trial 1 gained an average of 2.22 pounds






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


and required 542 pounds TDN per 100 pounds gain. These cat-
tle obtained 53 percent of their TDN from hay. Kirk and co-
workers (5) showed that fattening steers with an average weight
of 889 pounds and hand-fed twice daily a ration of pangola hay,
cottonseed meal, citrus pulp and citrus molasses for 120 days
had an average daily gain of 2.30 pounds. These cattle required
459 pounds TDN, 18 percent of which came from pangola hay,
for 100 pounds gain, compared to 618 pounds for steers in Lot
3 and 604 pounds for animals in Lot 6 of the present experiment.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Three feeding trials, each with 6 lots of steers, comparing
the value of pangola hay and silage as roughage feeds in the fat-
tening ration have been completed. Lots 1, 2 and 3 were full-
fed hay and Lots 4, 5 and 6, silage. All lots received the same
amount of cottonseed meal, 41 percent protein. Lots 1 and 4
were fed roughage and cottonseed meal. Lots 2 and 5 were fed
limited amounts of citrus pulp and citrus molasses in addition
to roughage, while Lots 3 and 6 were full-fed roughage, pulp
and molasses.
Steers fed hay and cottonseed meal had an average daily
gain of 1.15 pounds and required 780 pounds TDN per 100 pounds
gain, while those fed silage and cottonseed meal gained 1.29
pounds and required 807 pounds TDN. These rations cannot
be considered satisfactory for fattening as the steers improved
only two thirds of a slaughter grade, from Utility to Low Stand-
ard, in 122 days on feed.
Steers fed a limited amount of citrus pulp and citrus molasses
in addition to hay and cottonseed meal gained an average of
1.86 pounds daily and consumed 640 pounds TDN for 100 pounds
gain. Similar steers fed the same concentrate ration with silage
replacing hay gained 1.94 pounds and required 627 pounds TDN.
These rations did not contain sufficient nutrients to promote
rapid gains, being low in both TDN and digestible protein.
Slaughter grade improved from High Utility to Low Good for
Lot 2 and from Utility to High Standard for Lot 5.
Steers full-fed both hay and a concentrate ration of citrus
pulp and citrus molasses had an average daily gain of 2.27
pounds and required 618 pounds TDN per 100 pounds gain, while
others full-fed silage plus concentrates gained 2.40 pounds daily
and required 604 pounds TDN. These gains were satisfactory,
but the rations were low in digestible protein and TDN and con-







Value of Pangola Hay and Silage Fattening Rations 19

trained too much roughage for economical utilization of nutrients
for fattening. Full-fed steers improved 2 slaughter grades, from
Utility to Good in 122 days on feed.
These trials indicated that giving steers either pangola hay
or silage free choice, even when full-fed citrus pulp and citrus
molasses, resulted in: 1, larger intake of roughage than necessary
to keep the digestive system functioning properly; 2, increased
TDN per unit of gain.
There was a highly significant difference in rate of gain and
TDN required for gains among steers receiving different levels
of roughage and concentrates, with high roughage rations re-
sulting in lower gains and less efficient feed utilization.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Acknowledgment is made to D. W. Jones, who assisted with the first
2 trials; and George K. Davis and John T. McCall for analyzing feed
samples.

LITERATURE CITED

1. Becker, R. B., P. T. Dix Arnold, W. G. Kirk, George K. Davis and R. W.
Kidder. Minerals for beef and dairy cattle. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Bul. 513R. 1953.
2. Committee on Animal Nutrition. No. IV. Nutrient requirements of
beef cattle. National Research Council Pub. 579. Wash. D. C.
Revised 1958.
3. Hodges, Elver M., D. W. Jones and W. G. Kirk. Grass pastures in
central Florida. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 484A. 1958.
4. Kidder, R. W., and W. G. Kirk. Cattle feeding in southern Florida.
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 360. 1941.
5. Kirk, W. G., E. M. Kelly, H. J. Fulford and H. E. Henderson. Feeding
value of citrus and blackstrap molasses for fattening cattle. Fla.
Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 575. 1956.
6. Kirk, W. G., F. M. Peacock, E. M. Hodges and D. W. Jones. Urea and
cottonseed meal in the ration of fattening cattle. Fla. Agr. Exp.
Sta. Bul. 603. 1958.
7. Kirk, W. G., and George K. Davis. Citrus products for beef cattle.
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 538. 1954.
8. Morrison, F. B. Feeds and feeding. 22nd Ed. p. 1087-1093. 1956.
9. Neal, W. M., R. B. Becker and P. T. Dix Arnold. The feeding value
and nutritive properties of citrus by-products. 1. The digestible
nutrients of dried grapefruit-orange refuse and the feeding value
of grapefruit refuse for growing heifers. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul.
275. 1935.







Value of Pangola Hay and Silage Fattening Rations 19

trained too much roughage for economical utilization of nutrients
for fattening. Full-fed steers improved 2 slaughter grades, from
Utility to Good in 122 days on feed.
These trials indicated that giving steers either pangola hay
or silage free choice, even when full-fed citrus pulp and citrus
molasses, resulted in: 1, larger intake of roughage than necessary
to keep the digestive system functioning properly; 2, increased
TDN per unit of gain.
There was a highly significant difference in rate of gain and
TDN required for gains among steers receiving different levels
of roughage and concentrates, with high roughage rations re-
sulting in lower gains and less efficient feed utilization.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Acknowledgment is made to D. W. Jones, who assisted with the first
2 trials; and George K. Davis and John T. McCall for analyzing feed
samples.

LITERATURE CITED

1. Becker, R. B., P. T. Dix Arnold, W. G. Kirk, George K. Davis and R. W.
Kidder. Minerals for beef and dairy cattle. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Bul. 513R. 1953.
2. Committee on Animal Nutrition. No. IV. Nutrient requirements of
beef cattle. National Research Council Pub. 579. Wash. D. C.
Revised 1958.
3. Hodges, Elver M., D. W. Jones and W. G. Kirk. Grass pastures in
central Florida. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 484A. 1958.
4. Kidder, R. W., and W. G. Kirk. Cattle feeding in southern Florida.
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 360. 1941.
5. Kirk, W. G., E. M. Kelly, H. J. Fulford and H. E. Henderson. Feeding
value of citrus and blackstrap molasses for fattening cattle. Fla.
Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 575. 1956.
6. Kirk, W. G., F. M. Peacock, E. M. Hodges and D. W. Jones. Urea and
cottonseed meal in the ration of fattening cattle. Fla. Agr. Exp.
Sta. Bul. 603. 1958.
7. Kirk, W. G., and George K. Davis. Citrus products for beef cattle.
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 538. 1954.
8. Morrison, F. B. Feeds and feeding. 22nd Ed. p. 1087-1093. 1956.
9. Neal, W. M., R. B. Becker and P. T. Dix Arnold. The feeding value
and nutritive properties of citrus by-products. 1. The digestible
nutrients of dried grapefruit-orange refuse and the feeding value
of grapefruit refuse for growing heifers. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul.
275. 1935.







20 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

10. Shealy, A. L., and L. O. Gratz. A comparison of sorghum silage, pea-
nut hay and cottonseed hulls as roughages for fattening steers.
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 320. 1938.

11. Shealy, A. L., W. G. Kirk and R. M. Crown. Comparative feeding value
of silages made from napier grass, sorghum and sugarcane. Fla.
Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 358. 1941.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs