• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Frontispiece
 Table of Contents
 Introduction and review of...
 Fattening cattle in dry lot
 Summary and conclusions
 Acknoledgements
 Literature cited
 Historic note






Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station ; 641
Title: Utilizing bagasse in cattle fattening rations
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 Material Information
Title: Utilizing bagasse in cattle fattening rations
Series Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station ; 641
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Kirk, W. G.
Peacock, F. M
Davis, G. K.
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Publication Date: 1962
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Frontispiece
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
    Introduction and review of literature
        Page 5
    Fattening cattle in dry lot
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Summary and conclusions
        Page 14
    Acknoledgements
        Page 15
    Literature cited
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Historic note
        Page 17
Full Text

4 d


fv :


Utilizing Bagasse

In Cattle

Fattening Rations


W. G. KIRK 0 F. M. PEACOCK 0 G. K. DAVIS


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA 0 AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS 0 GAINESVILLE
Bulletin 641 J. R. BECKENBACH, Director February 1962

































Figure 1. Grade Brahman steers (above) fed ammoniated bagasse, cotton-
seed hulls, cottonseed meal, citrus pulp and alfalfa pellets. (Table 6, Lot 10.)




Figure 2. Grade Brahman steers (below) fed cottonseed hulls, cottonseed
meal, citrus pulp and alfalfa pellets. (Table 6, Lot 9.)





















CONTENTS
Page


INTRODUCTION ........................ ...... .............. 5


REVIEW OF LITERATURE ................. ................. ........... 5


FATTENING CATTLE IN DRY LOT ........................................ ................... 6


M ethod of Procedure .................................................... ....... 6


Experimental Results ...........-.......... ...-- .--- --................-.. 7

D discussion ................................................................ 11


SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS .................--........--....--- .....------- 14


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .............................................. ..... ................. 15


LITERATURE CITED ................................-----------. -------- 15








UTILIZING BAGASSE IN CATTLE
FATTENING RATIONS

W. G. KIRK, F. M. PEACOCK and G. K. DAVIS 1
Range Cattle Experiment Station
Ona, Florida

Bagasse, the fibrous residue of sugar cane stalks which re-
mains when the juice is pressed out, constitutes one of the prin-
cipal by-products of the cane sugar industry. It is composed
of hard strong fibers of the outer cortex and the inner pith which
contained the juice. Since approximately 1 pound of bagasse
accumulates for every pound of sugar, large quantities must be
disposed of as waste material wherever cane sugar is produced.
Formerly, almost its only use was as fuel at the sugar mills,
but in recent years a variety of agricultural and industrial
products using bagasse have been developed. With much of the
pith and fines removed, bagasse is now used as chicken litter,
as well as for making paper and insulating material. Because
of its absorptive value, pith is added to cattle feeds as a carrier
of blackstrap molasses. In 1952 feeding experiments were started
to determine the value of bagasse in beef cattle rations.
Roughage is an important part of all cattle rations. On a
nutrient basis, however, roughage is frequently the most ex-
pensive ingredient in Florida fattening rations. Although Flor-
ida produces much grass, there are periods each year when
forage is lacking. Heavy rainfall prevents the production of
enough hay in the summer, while labor costs and lack of equip-
ment keep silage-making at a minimum.
Bagasse, in several forms and in combination with a variety
of other feed ingredients, has been used in a series of fattening
trials at the Range Cattle Station to determine: (1) its value as
roughage in fattening rations; (2) the preparation and treat-
ment necessary to improve palatability and increase feed value.

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Fresh sugar cane has been used as feed for livestock ever
since cane was first grown. In recent years, sugar cane has been
ensiled (12)2 and cut as feed (7) for wintering beef cows and
1Vice-Director in Charge and Assistant Animal Husbandman, Range
Cattle Station, Ona; Animal Nutritionist, Main Station, Gainesville.
SFigures in parentheses refer to Literature Cited in the back of this
Bulletin.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


in steer fattening rations. The possibility of using sugar cane
bagasse as a feed for cattle has been investigated in many coun-
tries of the world. The results of a number of studies have indi-
cated that it takes more energy to digest bagasse than is obtained
from it by the animals. Henke (6) stated that steers fed un-
treated bagasse for 164 days had an average daily gain of 1.07
pounds, while those fed the control ration gained 1.43 pounds
and the lot given an alkali-treated bagasse ration gained 1.32
pounds daily. Wayman et al (13) found that steer gains in-
creased as bagasse was reduced from 30 to 10 parts of the rations
and molasses increased from 50 to 70 parts, with all lots fed
the same protein and mineral supplements. Brown et al (2)
reported in 1954 that bagasse was distinctly inferior to native
grass hay, rice straw and cottonseed hulls for wintering beef
cattle when the roughage made up 62.5 percent of the total ration
fed. Perry and co-workers (11) found that ground corn cobs,
sugar cane bagasse and cottonseed hulls were more valuable as
sources of roughage in an all-pelleted ration for fattening lambs
than oat mill feed, soybean mill feed and sun-cured alfalfa. As-
cording to Camp (3) range cows fed 3 to 5 pounds daily of a
supplement containing 40 percent of either peanut hulls or sugar
cane pulp broiler-house litter produced growth healthy calves.
Fonseca (5) found that yearling Hereford heifers fed a mini-
mum protein ration plus pangolagrass hay, citrus pulp and mo-
lasses gained 1.24 pounds daily. Replacing the hay and molasses
with Camola (4 parts bagasse pith and 10 parts molasses) gave
daily gains of 0.86 pound. By reducing the protein 50 percent
and feeding a mixture of equal parts by weight of 9 percent
equivalent protein ammoniated bagasse and molasses plus Camola
and citrus pulp, gains were reduced to 0.30 pound daily.

FATTENING CATTLE IN DRY LOT
Method of Procedure.-Several exploratory trials to test the
feeding value of sugar cane bagasse as a roughage feed have been
completed at the Range Cattle Station. Most of the bagasse feeds
were processed especially for the trials. The composition of the
different bagasse products is given in Table 1.
Cattle were all raised at the Range Cattle Station with 69
steers being used in 7 trials and 20 heifers in 2 trials. Brahman
blood predominated although some cattle had considerable Short-
horn breeding. Twenty-six were short yearlings when placed
on feed and 63 were 1.5 to 2 years of age. Uniform lots for each






Utilizing Bagasse in Cattle Fattening Rations


trial were selected. Criteria used were weight, age, breeding
and feeder grade. Slaughter data were obtained on all cattle.
TABLE 1.-COMPOSITION OF BAGASSE PRODUCTS.
I I I I I
Bagasse Dry Crude Ash I Crude Fat NFE ITDN*
Products Matter Protein Fiber I_
Whole ................ 89.75 1.75 2.73 35.88 0.85 48.45 20
Chicken litter ...... 92.30 2.63 2.00 41.35 0.65 45.67 20
Pith .............. ... 90.00 1.69 14.31 28.82 1.23 43.95 20
Camola ....... 78.91 1.73 11.03 8.69 0.41 57.05 42
Ammoniated ...... 91.89 11.66 3.12 39.31 1.01 36.79 20
Pith 75 parts and
molasses 25
parts ................ 90.04 4.31 5.01 24.23 0.35 56.14 28

Estimated for bagasse.

Roughage consisted of several bagasse products, pangolagrass
hay and cottonseed hulls. Cattle were fed adequate total and
digestible protein to balance their rations. Citrus pulp and cane
or citrus molasses were fed to supply energy in the first series of
5 trials plus ground yellow corn in the last 4 trials. In the early
trials, cod liver oil was used as a source of vitamin A and later
either alfalfa meal or alfalfa pellets. Cattle had access to Range
Station complete mineral and this mineral was also added to
the mixed feed rations in several trials. The mineral contained
28.00 pounds steamed bonemeal, 28.00 pounds defluorinated super-
phosphate, 31.21 pounds common salt, 3.12 pounds red oxide of
iron, 0.63 pound copper sulfate, 0.04 pound cobalt chloride or
sulfate, 2.00 pounds cottonseed meal and 7.00 pounds blackstrap
molasses.
There was a preliminary feeding period with most trials to
accustom the cattle to the experimental rations. Individual
initial and final weights and weights at either 14 or 28-day inter-
vals were taken for all cattle.

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
The results of 9 exploratory feeding trials started in March
1952 and completed in July 1960 to test the feeding value of
bagasse products are summarized in Table 2. The feeding periods
ranged from 109 to 144 days with the available bagasse feed de-
termining the length of several trials.
The experimental mixtures fed the different lots of cattle
are briefly described below with the feed ingredients given in
Table 2.




TABLE 2.-SUGAR CANE BAGASSE IN CATTLE FATTENING RATIONS.


Feed Required per 100 Pounds Gain


Lot Daily Hay Bagasse Molasses C.S. Citrus Urea Alfalfa 1 Corn TDN
No. Gain I I Meal I Pulp IMeal


Bagasse pith 70 parts and cane molasses 30 parts:
1* 2.41 199 P- 66 106 312 414
2* 2.38 67 140 60 107 315 409
Camola (4 parts pith and 10 parts cane molasses):

3** 2.68 140 186 112 412 532
Camola
4** 2.64 84 74 185 119 449 554
5** 2.58 36 103 256 121 394 543
Ammoniated bagasse replacing part of hay, C.S. hulls and C.S. meal:
SAmmoniated
6* 2.32 154 -- 279 140 425 605
7* 2.09 88 138 282 135 428 606
8* 2.19 10 206 308 118 439 596
C.S. Hulls
9** 2.34 221 233 500 24 618
10** 2.29 131 252 249 555 30 684
11** 2.07 481 210 478 30 5 594
Bagasse combined with C.S. meal or a urea-protein feed and alcohol:
S Hay Fines
12** 1.96 66 234 217 203 107 81 464
13** 1.70 78 262 233 120 200 19 91 500
Ethyl
Alcohol
14** 1.94 66 237 154 116 254 17 43 -458
Chicken litter bagasse fed with C.S. meal and urea-protein feed:
Chicken Litter [ Alfalfa
15** 2.66 52 186 I 140 363 47 186 522
16** 2.42 58 200 | 75 450 15 50 200 584
One trial.
** Two trials.






Utilizing Bagasse in Cattle Fattening Rations


Lot 1 was fed pangolagrass hay and molasses for 120 days,
while bagasse pith-molasses mixture given Lot 2 replaced two-
thirds of the hay and nearly all the molasses. Cottonseed meal
and citrus pulp were fed at the same rate to both lots.
In 2 trials of 120 and 115 days, Lot 3 was fed hay and mo-
lasses, while Camola (4 parts bagasse pith and 10 parts cane
molasses) replaced part of these feeds in the ration fed Lots 4
and 5. The same amount of cottonseed meal was fed daily per
steer with all 3 lots full-fed citrus pulp.
In 1 trial of 113 days, Lot 6 received hay and cottonseed meal,
while with Lot 7, ammoniated bagasse replaced 50 percent of
the hay and 13 percent of the cottonseed meal in the ration; with
Lot 8 this feed replaced 94 percent of the hay and 21 percent
of the cottonseed meal. All 3 lots were hand-fed giving as much
of their respective rations as they would eat.
In 2 trials of 121 and 109 days, the mixed ration given Lot
9 consisted of cottonseed hulls and meal, citrus pulp and alfalfa
pellets. Ammoniated bagasse replaced 50 percent of hulls and
14 percent of cottonseed meal for Lot 10 and all the hulls and
28 percent of cottonseed meal for Lot 11. All 3 rations were
self-fed.
The composition of bagasse pellets fed in 2 trials is given
in Table 3. Bagasse pith and chicken litter bagasse were used
in the pellets, both being put through a 8/8-inch screen before
pelleting. The plan was to feed pellets free-choice. In addition,
Lots 12 and 13 were fed 4 pounds citrus molasses daily per
animal. Lot 14 received a mixture of 2 pounds molasses and
1 pound 95 percent ethyl alcohol which contained twice as much
energy as molasses. However, in the first trial, Lots 12 and 13
refused considerable molasses, while Lot 14 ate the molasses-
alcohol mixture readily. Extended paunch was apparent in all
animals by the 40th day, but cattle did not appear to be in dis-
tress. One animal died of bloat on the 86th day of trial. Feed-
ing 2 pounds of hay daily per animal for the remainder of the
120-day trial eliminated bloat and increased rate of gain.
In the second trial, pellets were fed free-choice for 144 days
with the same daily allowance of hay to each lot. Citrus mo-
lasses was fed at the rate of 2.67 pounds daily per animal to






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Lots 12 and 13 and a mixture of 1.33 pounds molasses and 0.67
pound ethyl alcohol to Lot 14. Feeding hay throughout the
trial eliminated any indication of bloat.

TABLE 3.-COMPOSITION OF BAGASSE PELLETS.

Ingredients Lot 12 Lot 13 Lot 14


Sugar cane bagasse .................. 34.5 34.5 34.5
Blackstrap molasses .................-... 10 10 10
Cottonseed meal ......... .............. 30 16 17
Citrus pulp ................................-..... .....- 12.5 24 35
Corn feed meal ................................. 12 12 -
Urea .............-.........-.. ....... ....... ... 2.5 2.5
Complete mineral .... ................. 1 1 1


Percent nutrients:
Crude protein ............................. 16.3 17.8 17.2
Dig. crude protein .................... 11.2 10.9 10.7
TDN ....... .......... 51.0 50.0 49.0
Crude fiber ....................................... 20.6 20.5 21.7


BTU per pound ...............................


7057


6894


Off-colored chicken litter bagasse was


ground through a 1/2-


inch screen before being mixed in the rations which were self-fed
in 2 trials of 120 days each. The composition of the rations is
given in Table 4.

TABLE 4.-COMPOSITION OF THE RATIONS.

Lot 15 Lot 16


Sugar cane bagasse ...........................- 20 20.0
Cottonseed meal ............................. 15 7.5
Urea ..................-..- ....- ...... ---- 1.5
Citrus pulp .............................. ..... 39 45.0
Corn meal ................................ .... .- 20 20.0
Alfalfa pellets ......................................... 5 5.0
Mineral ............... ....................... 1 1.0


Percent digestible protein .................. 7.7 7.7
Percent TDN ..................-............ 60.7 60.0
Percent fiber ...........--............... ... ...16.7 16.7







Utilizing Bagasse in Cattle Fattening Rations


Cattle in the first trial were fed an average of 77 pounds of
silage at the beginning, while in the second trial, 5 pounds of
pangolagrass hay were fed daily per animal at the beginning of
the trial and gradually decreased to 0.5 pound daily during the
last 30 days.
All cattle were slaughtered at the end of the feeding trials.
The grade and slaughter data are summarized in Table 5.

TABLE 5.-SLAUGHTER GRADES AND DRESSING PERCENT.

No. I Sex Slaughter Grades Carcass Dressing
Cattle I Initial | Final Grade Percent*
No bagasse:

16 Steers Utility Good Low Good 60.62

Fed bagasse:

53 Steers Utility Good Low Good 60.23
20 Heifers Utility I High Standard Standard 59.86

Based on weight at packing plant and shrunk carcass weight.

Improvement in slaughter grade during feeding was 12
grades for the steers and 11/3 grades for the heifers with carcass
grades 1/3 lower than slaughter grades. Bagasse feeding did
not affect slaughter or carcass grade. Dressing percent was
normal for the quality of steers and heifers fed.
Discussion.-The results of feeding trials to determine the
value of bagasse in cattle rations have application in all countries
wherever sugar cane is grown and cattle are raised. A belt 300
both north and south of the equator under adequate moisture,
warm temperature and suitable soil conditions produces much of
the world's sugar with by-products of bagasse and molasses.
The disposal of bagasse under present conditions is an expensive
operation, and the need for cattle feed is great. If suitable feeds
containing bagasse can be prepared at a reasonable cost, both
the sugar and cattle industries would benefit.
Analyses of sugar cane bagasse products show them to be
high in crude fiber and NFE (nitrogen-free extract) and low in
crude protein and fat. Bagasse is low in TDN, containing an
average of 20.5 percent according to Morrison (9). Bagasse
supplies the necessary roughage, if not ground too finely to







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


maintain the digestive system of fattening cattle in good work-
ing order.
The rations fed contained adequate total and digestible pro-
tein, according to the recommendations of the National Research
Council (10), for fattening yearling and older cattle. It is seen
from Table 3 that bagasse pellets contained from 10.7 to 11.2
percent digestible protein, more than sufficient to meet the needs
of the fattening cattle. The mixed bagasse rations given in
Table 4 contained 7.7 percent digestible protein.
TDN, in the rations fed the different lots, ranged from 49
percent for Lot 11 to 64 percent for Lot 1. Minimum TDN con-
tent of rations, as recommended by the National Research Coun-
cil (10), is 65 percent for fattening yearlings and 62 percent for
2-year-old cattle. The rations contained sufficient TDN to pro-
mote rapid gains during the first 70 days of feeding, but as
cattle put on flesh and improved in slaughter grade, rate of gain
decreased because of the low digestible energy content of the
feed.
Bagasse pith is separated from the whole bagasse by passing
over 2 screens, the first to remove the coarse outer stalk cover-
ing and the second to remove the fines. It is low in nutrients,
dusty and bulky. Pith is not easy to process and does not mix
readily with other feeds. This can be overcome, however, by
mixing with 15 to 25 percent blackstrap molasses. In this way,
2 by-products of the sugar industry can be combined to make
a feed that supplies roughage and digestible nutrients. Pith
can be mixed with high protein and energy feeds to make a
balanced ration which yearling and older cattle consume readily
with good and economical gains.
In the first trial, Lots 1 and 2, it was indicated that there
was no significant difference in rate and economy of gains when
bagasse pith was used to replace two-thirds of the hay in the
fattening ration.
Camola (4 parts bagasse pith and 10 parts cane molasses)
packed in a mass when it was stored in sacks for several weeks
and in warm weather became sticky. For these 2 reasons, Camola
did not mix well with other feeds so that the ration could be
self-fed. Increasing the pith and decreasing the molasses con-
tent would help to correct this. Camola was palatable, readily
eaten by fattening steers and can be considered a good feed.
In 2 trials in which Camola was tested, the same amount of
cottonseed meal was fed daily per steer with all 3 lots full-fed







Utilizing Bagasse in Cattle Fattening Rations


citrus pulp. It is seen from Table 2 that gains and TDN per
100 pounds gain were similar when hay and molasses were fed,
Lot 3, when about one-half the hay, Lot 4, or three-fourths of the
hay, Lot 5, was replaced with bagasse pith in Camola.
The ammoniation of bagasse pith is an expensive operation
since heavy equipment is necessary to develop the necessary
pressure, to control heating and provide for the introduction of
ammonia. An equivalent protein content of 12.8 percent was
obtained by Bourne (1), but the product was not stable and
the ammonia content gradually decreased. In the ammoniation
some of the pith was broken down, resulting in a dusty product.
Ammoniated bagasse, at the present time, does not appear to
be an economical feed.
It is seen from Table 2 that when ammoniated bagasse is
used to replace part of both roughage and cottonseed meal in the
fattening ration gains are reduced, but there was little difference
in TDN requirements for gains.
The response to replacing part of the cottonseed meal with
equivalent amounts of urea in rations containing bagasse was
similar to that obtained when other rations containing urea were
used for fattening cattle (8). Gains were slower at the begin-
ning of the trial when urea was included in the ration, with a
gradual increase in rate of gain toward the end of the trial.
Ethyl alcohol is too expensive to feed cattle; however, it
was the only grade available for the feeding trials. The original
plan in feeding bagasse pith and alcohol was to incorporate them
with other ingredients to make a complete ration and feed as
pellets. The flash point of alcohol was too low to permit its
being included in pellets. Ethyl alcohol was considered to have
twice the energy of citrus molasses. Alcohol was prepared for
feeding by mixing 4 parts alcohol, 1 part water and 8 parts mo-
lasses. The water gave a miscible mixture, preventing the alco-
hol from caramelizing the molasses. Cattle consumed 1 pound
of alcohol and 2 pounds molasses daily, but there was daily
refusal by the cattle fed 4 pounds each of this same molasses.
In the next trial, only 0.67 pound of alcohol and 1.33 pounds of
molasses were fed since the cattle were younger and weighed less.
Drori and Loosli (4) stated that ethyl alcohol appeared to
be an effective supplement to a ration containing low protein
roughage when liberal molasses and urea were fed without in-
cluding corn or other cereal in the ration. In the present trials,






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


when alcohol was fed, ground corn was eliminated from the ration,
but citrus pulp was increased.
Chicken litter bagasse is put up in 100-pound bales which
makes it easy to handle. Grinding in a hammer mill with a 1/2-
inch screen permits mixing with other feed ingredients, and
the ration can be self-fed. Cattle fed a ration containing 30
percent of ground off-colored chicken litter bagasse did not
develop any digestive disturbance. The crude fiber content of
pith is 30 percent and that of chicken litter bagasse over 40
percent. In other trials when unground pith was the only source
of roughage, no digestive disturbance occurred, and cattle made
good gains.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Bagasse accumulates in large amounts wherever cane sugar
is produced. Nine fattening trials have been completed to de-
termine the value of different bagasse products as a source of
roughage in balanced rations.
Bagasse pith and bagasse fines are bulky, dusty and unpala-
table to cattle. However, the addition of 15 to 25 parts of
molasses improves palatability and increases nutrient content.
Camola (4 parts bagasse pith and 10 parts cane molasses)
is palatable but does not mix with other feeds. In 2 trials the
check steers fed hay and molasses gained 2.68 pounds daily.
When Camola replaced one-half and three-fourths of the hay
and all the molasses, daily gains were 2.54 and 2.58 pounds.
In 2 trials steers fed a ration of cottonseed hulls, cottonseed
meal, citrus pulp and alfalfa pellets had an average daily, gain
of 2.34 pounds. When ammoniated bagasse replaced 50 percent
of hulls and 14 percent of cottonseed meal, daily gains were 2.28
pounds. When all the hulls and 28 percent of the cottonseed
meal were replaced with ammoniated bagasse, daily gains were
reduced to 2.07 pounds.
Cattle given free-choice of pellets with an average of 34.5
percent bagasse and adequate cottonseed meal, plus hand-fed
molasses and hay, gained 1.96 pounds daily, while those fed
pellets containing cottonseed meal and urea, plus hay, molasses
and 0.84 pound ethyl alcohol daily, gained 1.94 pounds daily
with both lots requiring similar TDN for gains.
Self-feeding ground chicken litter bagasse in a balanced
ration resulted in an average daily gain of 2.66 pounds when
cottonseed meal was fed and 2.42 pounds when one-half the






Utilizing Bagasse in Cattle Fattening Rations


protein of cottonseed meal was replaced with urea. Average
daily consumption of bagasse per animal was 5.2 pounds for
Lot 15 and 4.9 pounds for Lot 16, showing that the mixed feed
containing 20 percent bagasse was palatable.
The results of the series of feeding trials indicate that cattle
fed balanced rations containing 20 to 30 percent bagasse made
rapid and economical gains during the first 70 days on test.
However, as cattle improved in slaughter grade, rate of gain
decreased because of the low energy content of the rations.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Camola fed in 2 trials was supplied by Godchaux Sugars, Inc.,
New Orleans, Louisiana, through the courtesy of the late Dr.
L. G. Joyner, Director of Research. U. S. Sugar Corporation,
Clewiston, Florida, through the cooperation of Dr. B. A. Bourne
and Mr. S. L. Crochet, furnished bagasse pith and off-colored
chicken litter for several feeding trials. Newport Industries
Company, Clewiston, Florida, permitted the use of their equip-
ment in the preparation of ammoniated bagasse. Celetox Cor-
poration and Bauer Brothers, Springfield, Ohio, cooperated in
the preparation of ammoniated bagasse for 1 trial. Sugar Re-
search Foundation, New York, N. Y., supported the research
with a grant to prepare and to purchase feed. Jackson Grain
Company, Tampa, Florida, ground the bagasse, mixed and pel-
leted the feed used in 2 trials and mixed feed for a third trial.
Mandis Dairy, Avon Park, Florida, gave the use of their equip-
ment to grind bagasse.
The cooperation of all these firms was most helpful and was
much appreciated.
LITERATURE CITED
1. BOURNE, B. A. Some experiences with ammoniating large quantities
of sugar cane pith for cattle feeding tests. The Sugar Jour. 18:
24-25. 1956.
2. BROWN, PAUL B., A. A. DAMON, JR., C. B. SINGLETARY and E. H. VER-
NON. Comparison of roughages for winter feeding and maintenance
of beef cattle. Jour. An. Sci. 13:1006-1007. 1954.
3. CAMP, ARTHUR A. Broiler-house litter as livestock feed. Tex. Agr.
Progress Vol. 5:4:17. 1959.
4. DRORI, DAVID, and J. K. LOOSLI. Effect of ethyl alcohol and starch on
digestibility of nutrients and on nitrogen retention at two levels
of urea feeding. Agric. and Food Chem. 7:1:50-53. 1959.






Utilizing Bagasse in Cattle Fattening Rations


protein of cottonseed meal was replaced with urea. Average
daily consumption of bagasse per animal was 5.2 pounds for
Lot 15 and 4.9 pounds for Lot 16, showing that the mixed feed
containing 20 percent bagasse was palatable.
The results of the series of feeding trials indicate that cattle
fed balanced rations containing 20 to 30 percent bagasse made
rapid and economical gains during the first 70 days on test.
However, as cattle improved in slaughter grade, rate of gain
decreased because of the low energy content of the rations.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Camola fed in 2 trials was supplied by Godchaux Sugars, Inc.,
New Orleans, Louisiana, through the courtesy of the late Dr.
L. G. Joyner, Director of Research. U. S. Sugar Corporation,
Clewiston, Florida, through the cooperation of Dr. B. A. Bourne
and Mr. S. L. Crochet, furnished bagasse pith and off-colored
chicken litter for several feeding trials. Newport Industries
Company, Clewiston, Florida, permitted the use of their equip-
ment in the preparation of ammoniated bagasse. Celetox Cor-
poration and Bauer Brothers, Springfield, Ohio, cooperated in
the preparation of ammoniated bagasse for 1 trial. Sugar Re-
search Foundation, New York, N. Y., supported the research
with a grant to prepare and to purchase feed. Jackson Grain
Company, Tampa, Florida, ground the bagasse, mixed and pel-
leted the feed used in 2 trials and mixed feed for a third trial.
Mandis Dairy, Avon Park, Florida, gave the use of their equip-
ment to grind bagasse.
The cooperation of all these firms was most helpful and was
much appreciated.
LITERATURE CITED
1. BOURNE, B. A. Some experiences with ammoniating large quantities
of sugar cane pith for cattle feeding tests. The Sugar Jour. 18:
24-25. 1956.
2. BROWN, PAUL B., A. A. DAMON, JR., C. B. SINGLETARY and E. H. VER-
NON. Comparison of roughages for winter feeding and maintenance
of beef cattle. Jour. An. Sci. 13:1006-1007. 1954.
3. CAMP, ARTHUR A. Broiler-house litter as livestock feed. Tex. Agr.
Progress Vol. 5:4:17. 1959.
4. DRORI, DAVID, and J. K. LOOSLI. Effect of ethyl alcohol and starch on
digestibility of nutrients and on nitrogen retention at two levels
of urea feeding. Agric. and Food Chem. 7:1:50-53. 1959.







16 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

5. FONSECA, HERNAN A. The nutritive value of sugarcane bagasse pith
in cattle rations. Masters thesis, Univ. of Fla., Gainesville. 1957.
6. HENKE, L. A. Hawaii Agr. Exp. Sta. Bi. Rep., P. 30. 1950-52.
7. KIRK, W. G., and R. N. CROWN. Sugarcane silage, shocked sugarcane
and carpetgrass as roughages for beef cattle. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Bul. 373. 1942.
8. KIRK, W. G., F. M. PEACOCK, E. M. HODGES and D. W. JONES. Urea
and cottonseed meal in the ration of fattening cattle. Fla. Agr.
Exp. Sta. Bul. 603. 1958.
9. MORRISON, FRANK B. Feeds and feeding. The Morrison Publishing
Co., Ithaca, N. Y. 22nd ed. 1956.
10. Nutrient requirements of beef cattle, National Research Council Pub.
579, Wash. D. C. Revised 1958.
11. PERRY, T. W., W. M. BEESON, M. H. KENNINGTON and CLAUDE HARPER.
Pelleted complete mixed rations for feeder lambs. Jour. An. Sci.
18:1264-1270. 1959.
12. SHEALY, A. L., W. G. KIRK and R. M. CROWN. Comparative feeding
value of silages made from Napier grass, sorghums and sugarcane.
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 358. 1941.
13. WAYMAN, OLIVER, ISAAC I. IWANAGA, L. H. HENKE and HOWARD J.
WEETH. Fattening steers on sugar cane by-products. Hawaii Agr.
Exp. S'ta. Circ. 43. 1953.



7









HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






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