• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Materials and methods
 Results and discussion
 Summary
 Acknowledgement
 Literature cited














Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 743
Title: Water table control and fertilization for pine production in the flatwoods
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Title: Water table control and fertilization for pine production in the flatwoods
Series Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 743
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: White, E. H.
Pritchett, W. L.
Publisher: Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida,
Publication Date: 1970
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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
    Materials and methods
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Results and discussion
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Summary
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Acknowledgement
        Page 40
    Literature cited
        Page 40
        Page 41
Full Text
November 1970


II I


II


WATER TABLE CONTROL AWI wtl g'ff.1 i
FOR PINE PRODUCTION IN THE FLATWOODSI7,
JAN 1-, T971
E. H. White and f. L. Pritchett
Iricultural Experiment Stations IL.F.A.S. Wli foFlllG Ginesville
stitute of Food and Agricultural Sciences or search


I
I,











CONTENTS


Introduction ... 3

Materials and Methods 4
Field Experiment ...... .. 4
Biomass Sampling ........... 5
Laboratory .- 6

Results and Discussion ........... 7
Height 7
Biomass ......... 8
Roots ----11
Biomass Distribution 13
Nutrient Concentrations .... 14
Nitrogen -- -14
Phosphorus 15
Aluminum .... 26
Total Element Content 26

Summary 27

Acknowledgments .. .. 40


Literature Cited







WATER TABLE CONTROL AND FERTILIZATION FOR
PINE PRODUCTION IN THE FLATWOODS
E. H. White and W. L. Pritchett1

INTRODUCTION
The flatwoods of the Southeastern Coastal Plains is an ill-
defined area of relatively flat, somewhat poorly to poorly drained
sands or sandy loams-predominately Spodosols-interspersed
with cypress ponds. These soils occupy approximately one-half
of the land area of Florida (11) and are used extensively for
forests and range land. Native vegetation consists of open
stands of longleaf pine, slash pine, or both. The undergrowth
is mainly saw palmetto, runner oak, gall berry, and wiregrass.
Soils most commonly associated with the flatwoods are the
Leon and Myakka sands. They are characterized by a thin gray
to dark gray surface underlaid by a light gray or white leached
layer, over a black to dark brown organic layer (spodic horizon)
in the 35 to 75 cm zone. They have been formed from moder-
ately thick deposits of marine sands and are generally very
strongly acid and low in nutrients. Leon and Myakka soils make
up about one-fourth of the total land area of Florida (11).
Although these soils are used mostly for pine forest production,
in recent years they have been used successfully for vegetables,
improved pastures, and citrus in central and southern Florida.
Water management is essential for the production of cultivated
crops because of the widely fluctuating water table in these soils.
Forests are relatively low-valued crops, and in the flatwoods they
are generally planted on prepared sites, but without water con-
trol. A possible exception is the recent innovation of planting
on beds. This latter practice improves young tree survival and
growth, possibly through concentration of nutrients in the root-
ing zone rather than improved moisture conditions (4). In fact,
a primary benefit from draining may be to increase the tree
nutrient by increasing the soil volume for root exploitation and
promoting mineralization of organic constituents. Large fluc-
tuations in depth of water table can be harmful to tree roots
Root pruning brought about by prolonged flooding may create

Former Post Doctorate Fellow (now Soil Scientist, Southern Forest
Experiment Station, Stoneville, Mississippi) and Professor of Soils (Soil
Chemist) Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Gainesville, respec-
tively.
"Numbers in parentheses refer to Literature Cited.








an imbalance in the root-top ratio, and toxic decomposition
products from dead roots may further limit growth (10).
Presented in this report are research results on controlling
the water table and its effect on nutrient availability and on the
growth and development of slash (Pinus elliottii var. elliottii
Engelm.) and loblolly (Pinus taeda L.) pines in the flatwoods
of the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains.

MATERIALS AND METHODS
Field Experiment
A system involving clay tile drains and a deep-well pump
was used to control the water table in two areas of Leon fine
sand. The free water level was maintained at approximately
46 cm from the soil surface in one area and 92 cm in the other
area for five years. In a third (check) area the water table was
allowed to fluctuate normally.3 These areas were separated from
each other by about 50 m to mimimize the effect of water control
in one area on that of another area. The pump was automatically
activated and water was pumped into the tiles when the water
table began to fall during dry periods. The same system of tiles
used for sub-surface irrigation was used to drain the controlled
area during periods of excess rainfall.
Rainfall at the experimental area is summarized in centi-
meters per months for the five year test period as follows:

Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sep. Oct. Nov. Dec. Total
1964 22.3 18.0 5.9 7.3 6.7 7.9 20.4 31.9 28.5 5.6 7.3 14.9 176.7
1965 4.3 16.4 13.8 3.3 0.2 29.5 16.6 21.3 16.9 4.4 2.9 12.3 141.9
1966 9.8 13.7 5.8 4.8 21.5 12.7 12.4 27.9 19.8 3.8 1.0 3.2 136.6
1967 7.9 14.2 2.1 3.7 15.7 18.1 10.6 23.5 3.3 1.0 2.4 14.7 117.3
1968 1.2 5.4 3.1 2.4 18.1 25.8 20.0 33.8 10.1 7.8 6.4 2.5 136.6

Three replications of four treatments were established in
each of the three areas, giving a total of 36 plots. Treatments
consisted of two Southern pine species, slash and loblolly, and
two application rates of diammonium phosphate (18-46-0), 0
and 392 kg/ha, in factorial arrangement. The 30 pine seedlings
were planted at a spacing of 1.2 m by 1.2 m in individual plots of

3The natural water table for the Leon soil is at depths of 38 to 76 cm
for 4 or 5 months each year, and it is within depths of 100 cm for periods
of more than 9 months during most years It rises to less than 38 cm for
less than 60 days during periods of high rainfall and recedes to depths of
more than 76 cm during some dry seasons.








6.0 m by 7.2 m in January 1964. Slash pine seedlings were half-
siblings (from the same mother tree), but the loblolly seedlings
were run-of-nursery stock. In May 1964 survival of loblolly
pine was 100 % in all plots; whereas survival of slash pine varied
from 85% to 92%-with the best survival in plots with the
water table maintained at 46 cm. At this time, all dead slash
pine seedlings in the inside (measurement) rows were replaced
by living trees taken from the outside or border rows with a
transplanting bucket. Missing trees in the border rows were
replaced by fresh nursery stock.
Annual measurements of total tree height and groundline
diameter (outside bark) were recorded on all trees of the middle
three rows of each treatment plot at the end of each growing
season. However, only those measurements made at the end of
the fifth year are presented herein. Soil samples were collected
from the 0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm depth, with a 2.5 cm diameter
tube from each fertilizer and water table treatment plot in the
loblolly pine series, at the conclusion of the experiment. Each
sample was a composite of 12 cores taken from the center of
the rows. They were used for the determination of residual
total P.

Biomass Sampling
After five growing seasons, three trees on each plot-a small,
medium, and large tree, to represent the range of diameters and
heights present-were selected from the measurement rows for
stem analysis and total tree sampling. During January 1969
each sample tree was felled at groundline. Total tree heights
were measured by tape to nearest centimeter, and diameters
(outside bark) were measured at groundline by diameter tape
and recorded to nearest tenth of centimeter for each tree. All
foliage and branches were collected separately. The boles were
cut into 1.2 m sections, and the diameters inside and outside
bark at the butt and top of each section were measured and
recorded.
Only slash pine roots were sampled. A tractor-mounted
backhoe was used to trench around each tree stump on three
sides, and the large root system was excavated using water
under high pressure from a fire hose and nozzle. The hose was
connected to an irrigation system for a continuous water supply
at approximately 60 psi pressure.
Fine root biomass in the top 15 cm of soil was estimated on
an area basis by sampling as follows. Two 0.184 square meter







sample areas were established in an undisturbed part of each
slash pine plot. These small sample plots were located in the
center of a square formed by four adjacent trees. The surface
litter was carefully raked away, and a small trickle of water
from a garden hose was allowed to flow onto the sample area.
Only one quarter of each 0.184 square meter plot was sampled
at any one time. A jacknife was used to loosen the soil and to
collect all pine roots less than 0.5 cm diameter to a depth of
15 cm. Progress downward was at the rate of a few millimeters
at a time. This method was very laborious but resulted in a
minimum loss of fine roots.

Laboratory
All tree components were dried to a constant weight of 65 C,
and the dry weight was recorded. Discs were cut from the top
of each bolt, redried, and weighed with bark on. The bark was
then removed, and the discs were redried and reweighed. A
ratio was used to calculate the weights of bolewood and bole-
bark for each tree.
Large roots (more than 0.5 cm in diameter) were separated
into lateral roots and taproots. Fine roots were separated from
soil particles by washing and decanting through wire screens
Sand cheese cloth. Corrections in fine root biomass for soil par-
ticles not removed in washings were made on the basis of ash
weights.
Branches, bolewood, and large root components were chipped
in a hammer mill and subsampled for further treatment. All
components were ground separately in a Wiley mill to pass a
40-mesh sieve.
Subsamples were analyzed for N by the macro-Kjeldahl pro-
cedure (3, 6). Other subsamples were ashed overnight at 450 C,
and the ash was dissolved in dilute HCI for analysis. Aliquots
of these solutions were analyzed for P by the molybdophosphoric
blue method (6) ; K by a Beckman DU flame spectrophotometer
(6) ; Mg, Ca, Al, Mn, and Zn by a Perkin-Elmer 303 atomic
absorption spectrophotometer. Lanthanum oxide was used in
the Mg and Ca determinations to supress interference (1). .
Soil total P was determined by heating at 520 C for 4 hours
and then digesting with 12 N HC1 on hot plate, according to
procedure of Murphy and Riley (7).
Standard statistical methods have been used to analyze the
field and laboratory results (2, 12).








RESULTS AND DISCUSSION


Mensurational data from the experiment are given in Table
1, and the significance of the differences is indicated in Table 2.


Height

Fertilization alone significantly increased the height of both
slash and loblolly pines by an average of 12.5% and 17.3c%,
respectively, over all water table levels. However, response to
fertilizer was greatest on the uncontrolled water table, with the
second greatest response on the 46-cm water table. The per-
centage increases in height of fertilized trees over non-fertilized


6
slash Unfertilized

Fertilized
slash
5




4 ....---


46 92 FLUCTUATING
WATER TABLE DEPTH (CM)
Figure 1.-The effects of fertilization on heights of slash and loblolly
pines grown on 46- and 92-cm and fluctuating water tables.








trees in plots with fluctuating and 46- and 92-cm water tables
were 25.3%, 10.6%, and 6.0% for slash pine and 26.9%, 18.4%,
and 9.5% for loblolly pine.
The greatest increase in height growth was related to water
table depth rather than to fertilization. Maximum growth oc-
curred on the 46-cm water table (Figure 1, Tables 1, 2). The
percentage increases in height of trees on the 46- and 92-cm
water tables over trees on the fluctuating water tables were
44% and 35% for slash and 75% and 38% for loblolly.
The loblolly pine response was impaired by serious tip moth
attack during the second and third years after planting. Slash
pine was little affected by this insect.

Biomass
Tree diameters and heights ayexclosely_ correlated, and they
are both good estimators of the rights of tree part (Table 3).
The formula, logarithm dry weight = Bo+B1 (logarithm
groundline diameter) + B2 (logarithm tree height), was used
/ to estimathethe weights of the uncut trees i the plots. Diameter
Sgroundline (outside bark) was used in place of diameter breast
high because some trees were less than 1.4 meters tall. The
constants, regression coefficients, correlation coefficients, and

Table 1.-Summary of the mensurational survey of fertilized and non-
fertilized 5-year-old slash and loblolly pines growing on three water table
treatments.
Treatments
Species Fertilizeda Water Tableb Height Diametere Volumed Stems
cm m cm cu m/ha no./ha
Slash No Fluctuating 3.24 7.4 28.4 7623
Slash Yes Fluctuating 4.06 8.9 50.4 7623
Slash No 46 4.99 9.9 72.8 7175
Slash Yes 46 5.52 10.6 115.0 8072
Slash No 92 4.70 9.8 66.5 7175
Slash Yes 92 4.98 9.7 72.1 8072
Loblolly No Fluctuating 1.97 4.5 6.3 6726
Loblolly Yes Fluctuating 2.50 4.9 9.8 5830
Loblolly No 46 3.58 8.0 38.0 7175
Loblolly Yes 46 4.24 8.7 49.6 7175
Loblolly No 92 2.95 6.9 24.4 7623
Loblolly Yes 92 3.23 7.1 25.2 7175
aFertilized at beginning of second year with 392 kg/ha of diammonium phos-
phate.
bDepth from surface to water table where controlled.
eDiameter outside bark at groundline.
dCalculated by stem analysis.







standard errors are presented in Table 3. Biomass data of the
various tree components are given by treatments in Table 4.
Fertilization significantly increased the .bove-ground total bio-
mass of slash pine an average of 33%c over that of nonfertilized
trees. The application of fertilizer increased loblolly pine above-
ground biomass an average of only 20%. This is somewhat in
contrast to the effects of fertilizers on the heights of the two
species, as the per cent increase in height as a result of fertili-
zation was greater for loblolly than for slash pine. However,
more than twice as much biomass was produced by slash pine
as by loblolly on the Leon fine sand, regardless of the treatment.
Response to fertilizers in terms of biomass production on
the various water table areas was similar to that observed for
height. Fertilizers resulted in a 81(K increase in slash pine bio-
mass in the fluctuating water table area, a 37%c increase in the
46-cm water table area, and 10 ; increase in the 92-cm water
table area. The greatest actual weight increase resulting from
fertilization was in bolewood production, and the increase in
foliage production was next greatest for both species. The aver-
age percentage increases resulting from fertilization for slash
pine components were 41%, 28%, 28%, and 27% for foliage,
bolewood, branches, and bolebark, respectively.
The foliage weight from loblolly pine was only about half
that of slash pine, and the increase in foliage weight by fer-
tilizing this former species averaged 18%. On the other hand,
the percentage increase from fertilizers in loblolly bolewood pro-
duction was almost as great as that for slash pine, although
slash pine bolewood production was still almost twice that of
loblolly under all conditions in this experiment.
The effect of water table levels on above-ground biomass was
highly significant (Tables 2, 4) and much greater than the effect
of fertilization. Controlling water table levels at 46 and 92 cm
increased slash pine biomass production over that on the fluc-
tuating water table by 124% and 122%, respectively. Loblolly
biomass increases were even greater than those of slash pine,
with 375% and 189% increases for 46 and 92-cm water table
levels, respectively. In terms of biomass production, loblolly
pine responded much more on a percentage basis to water table
control than did slash pine, while slash responded more to fer-
tilization than did loblolly. This may indicate that slash pine is
more sensitive to nutrient additions and loblolly more sensitive
to high water tables. Ecologically, slash pine is the dominant
pine species on these wet, poorly drained, low fertility Leon














Table 2.-Mean squares from the analysis of variance of the effects of water table control and fertilization on mensurational
data and biomass of 5-year-old slash and loblolly pines.

Degrees of Above-ground Fine Total
Source of Variation Freedom Height Diameter Volume Biomass Roots Roots
x102 x10' x108 x10

Water tables (W) 2 8.165** 24.788** 60.45** 182.30** 0.23 3.23**
Blocks w/i water tables 6 0.103 0.542 1.35 1.59 0.42 0.17
Fertilizers (F) 1 2.392** 2.717 18.52** 43.00* 31.90** 1.36*
Species (S) 1 20.461** 68.145** 157.50** 406.20** -
S x F 1 0.007 0.045 7.53 13.61 -
W x F 2 0.138 0.497 4.40 6.56 0.32 0.18
W x S 2 0.136 2.046 2.74 4.90 -
W x S x F 2 0.038 0.289 1.32 1.15 -
Error 18 0.221 1.111 2.19 7.46 0.43 0.19

denotes statistical significance at the 95% confidence level.
** denotes statistical significance at the 99% confidence level.








Table 3.-Regression coefficients, standard errors, and R Values for esti-
mating weights of tree components.a
Species Component B, B, B2 S.E. R

Slash Foliage 0.628 1.038 2.045 .148 .85
Slash Branches -0.259 2.843 0.360 .094 .94
Slash Bolebark 0.898 1.571 0.902 .069 .94
Slash Bolewood 0.887 1.564 1.557 .067 .96
Slash Lateral 0.094 2.392 0.000 .185 .79
roots
Slash Tap roots 0.158 1.799 1.384 .110 .93
Loblolly Foliage 0.772 1.732 0.949 .170 .90
Loblolly Branches 0.675 1.767 0.871 .170 .90
Loblolly Bolebark 0.907 1.473 0.744 .144 .90
Loblolly Bolewood 1.046 1.569 1.338 .106 .96
aEquation of form Log Y = B, + Bi (Log Xi) + B2 (Log X2) where Y = tree
component dry weight grams; X, = diameter outside bark at groundline cm;
X2 = total tree height in meters.

soils. This may explain the difference in magnitude of response
to water table control between the two species. Nutritionally,
loblolly pine is considered a more nutr:ent demanding species
than slash pine, and the amount of applied fertilizer may have
been only minimal for loblolly pine. Response to water table
treatments by tree components was similar to that of fertili-
zation, as the greatest biomass increase was in foliage weights
and the second greatest was in holewood. Average percentage
increases in slash pine biomass of tree components were 140%,
135 %, 109%, and 91% for foliage, bolewood, branches, and bole-
bark, respectively, for the 46-cm water table over production on
the fluctuating water table; and 95%, 88%, 74%, and 62% for
foliage, bolewood, branches, and boleba:rk, respectively, on the
92-cm water table. It is significant that the major increases
were in bolewood-a usable portion of the tree. J

Roots
Because of the poor general growth of the loblolly pine on
this site, only slash pine roots were sampled. Roots of the latter
were subdivided into fine roots (<0.5 cm diameter), lateral
roots, and taproots. Fine roots were sampled only in the top
S15 cm of the soil profiles.
Fine root production in the surface soil was increased 145%
by fertilization (Tables 2, 4). In contrast to above-ground bio-














Table 4.-The effect of water table control and fertilization on biomass (kg/ha) of 5-year-old slash and loblolly pines.
Species Fertilized Water Above-ground Biomass Root Biomass
Table Bole- Bole- Total
Depth Foliage Branches bark wood Total Fine Lateral Top Total Tree
cm kg/ha x 10-' -kg/ha x 102 kg/ha x 102
Slash No Fluctuating 26.7 17.7 35.7 78.4 158.8 19.2 9.9 19.1 48.2 207.0
Slash Yes Fluctuating 50.6 32.2 58.9 146.2 288.0 41.6 15.7 35.9 93.2 381.2
Slash No 46 74.9 45.0 78.6 222.9 421.4 18.1 19.2 54.3 91.7 513.0
Slash Yes 46 111.2 59.4 102.0 305.6 578.3 49.7 24.1 74.2 148.1 726.3
t Slash No 92 70.4 42.8 73.9 200.7 387.8 17.8 19.0 49.2 86.0 473.8
Slash Yes 92 80.6 43.7 79.9 221.4 425.6 43.6 18.8 53.6 116.0 541.6
Loblolly No Fluctuating 10.7 8.4 7.8 21.2 48.1 -
Loblolly Yes Fluctuating 14.4 11.3 9.8 30.5 66.0 -
Loblolly No 46 52.2 40.3 29.6 114.1 236.2 -
Loblolly Yes 46 65.6 50.4 36.6 153.5 306.0 -
Loblolly No 92 35.7 27.9 22.2 77.2 163.1 -
Loblolly Yes 92 36.3 28.3 22.2 79.4 166.2 -








mass and height growth, the greatest increase (174%) was on
the 46-cm water table, with the 92-cm water table second
(145%), and the fluctuating water table third (117%).
Water table control by itself had no significant effect on fine
root production in the top 15 cm of the soil profile. This is in
marked contrast to the large increases in both height and above-
ground biomass associated with water table control.
Total root biomass was significantly increased 58% by fer-
tilization (Tables 2, 4). As with above-ground biomass, the per-
centage increases by fertilization were in the order: fluctuating
water table, > 46-cm water table, > 92-cm water table. These
increases amounted to 93%, 62 C, and 35c%, respectively.
Maintaining the water table at 46 and 92 cm increased total
root biomass by 69% and 43 C over that of the fluctuating water
table.
Measurements of the taproots indicated that roots extended
downward in the soil profiles an average of 36 cm on fluctuating
water tables, 56 cm on 46-cm water tables, and 107 cm on 92-
cm water tables. It was apparent from these measurements and
field observations during excavations that the spodic horizon,
which typifies Leon soils, offered little resistance to root pene-
tration once water table levels are lowered and controlled.
Lateral root extension was greater on the fluctuating water
table plots than on controlled water table plots. Several lateral
roots were found to extend 6 to 7 m on trees from the un-
controlled water table area. In general, the root systems of trees
on fluctuating water tables tended to be flat and shallow in de-
velopment, while root systems of trees on controlled water tables
developed downward in the soil profile.

Biomass Distribution
Above-ground biomass distribution of the two species was
similar and is shown in Table 5. The increase in per cent dry
matter as branches for loblolly over slash pine is a reflection of
the extensive branching caused by early tip moth damage to the
loblolly pine. There was a decrease in bolebark per cent and a
corresponding increase in bolewood per cent with increase in
tree size.
Biomass distribution of component parts of slash pine, in-
cluding the root systems, is presented in Table 6. Approximately
80c% of the biomass was in the above-ground portion with 2",
in root systems. Fertilization slightly decreased the percentage



















O
I ~I
0






-

S 0 ::::: :::: ::: fert ili zed

0o fertilized




0 10 20 30 40
TOTAL P (PPM)

Figure 2.-Total P concentrations at three depths in Leon fine sand five
years after fertilizing loblolly pine with 392 kg/ha of diammonium phosphate.


above-ground biomass while increasing the proportion of roots.
The greatest change was in fine root biomass.
In all measures of productivity and on all treatments, slash
pine outproduced loblolly pine (Tables 1, 2, 3, and 4).

Nutrient Concentrations

The effects of water table control and fertilization on con-
centrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Al, Mn, and Zn by tree com-
ponents are presented in Tables 7-14. The analyses of variances
for the element concentrations are summarized in Table 15.
Nitrogen.-Foliar N levels were not increased by fertiliza-
tion but were significantly increased in both species by water
table control. Nitrogen levels in other tree components were
generally unaffected by treatments. There were significant dif-
ferences between species, with blolly ne having a higher N
concentration than slash pine.








Nitrogen concentrations in slash pine components averaged
1.01%, 0.:2 0.32%, and 0.18% in foliage, branches, bolebark,
and bolewood, respectively, and 0.66-, 0.27%, and I'i in
fine, lateral, and tap roots.

Phosphorus.-Foliar P levels were significantly increased by
fertilization in both species. However, values are near minimal
for optimum growth of slash pine (9). Water table control did
not significantly influence foliar P levels. This was in contrast
to the foliar N concentrations where water tables were con-
trolled. These increases apparently resulted from greater min-
eralization of N and P from soil organic matter. However, since
Leon soils generally have little capacity for P retention (3),
much of the mineral P is leached from the root zone (Figure 2).
There were large differences between species, with loblolly
generally containing higher P levels than slash pine. There were
several significant interactions with bolebark and bolewood P
levels (Table 15). These reflect the large increase in biomass
of slash associated with water table control as contrasted with
only a minimal fertilizer response. It may also indicate that
bolebark and bolewood are sensitive indicators to changes in P
levels on various sites.



Table 5.-The effect of water table control and fertilization on above-
ground biomass distribution of 5-year-old slash and loblolly pines.

Water Table Bole- Bole-
Species Fertilized Depth Foliage Branches bark wood

cm -- per cent of total
Slash No Fluctuating 17 11 23 49
Slash Yes Fluctuating 18 11 20 51
Slash No 46 18 11 19 52
Slash Yes 46 19 10 18 53
Slash No 92 18 11 19 52
Slash Yes 92 19 10 19 51
Loblolly No Fluctuating 22 18 16 44
Loblolly Yes Fluctuating 22 17 15 46
Loblolly No 46 22 17 13 48
Loblolly Yes 46 21 16 12 51
Loblolly No 92 22 17 14 47
Loblolly Yes 92 22 17 13 48
















Table 6.-The effect of water table control and fertilization on total biomass distribution of 5-year-old slash pine.

Water Table Bole- Bole- Roots Above-
Fertilized Depth Foliage Branches bark wood Fine Lateral Tap ground Roots

cm per cent of total per cent of total

No Fluctuating 13 9 17 38 9 5 9 77 23
e Yes Fluctuating 13 8 15 38 13 4 9 74 26

No 46 15 9 15 43 3 4 11 82 18
Yes 46 15 8 14 42 8 3 10 79 21

No 92 15 9 16 42 4 4 10 82 18
Yes 92 15 8 15 41 8 3 10 79 21









Table 7.-The effect of water table control and fertilization on N concentrations in components of 5-year-old slash and loblolly
pines.


Species Fertilized


Slash
Slash


Slash
Slash
Slash

Slash


Loblolly
Loblolly

Loblolly
Loblolly

Loblolly
Loblolly


Water Table
Depth Foliage
cm

Fluctuating 0.88
Fluctuating 0.95


Fluctuating 1.10
Fluctuating 1.02


1.20
1.20

1.25
1.24


Branches


0.32
0.31

0.32
0.31

0.34
0.31

0.38
0.35

0.40
0.41

0.40
0.42


Bole-
bark



0.29
0.28

0.28
0.29

0.32
0.41

0.40
0.41

0.39
0.41

0.38
0.45


Bole-
wood



0.19
0.19

0.18
0.18

0.20
0.18

0.22
0.17

0.18
0.17

0.17
0.19


Roots
Lateral Tap


0.69
0.60

0.66
0.67

0.78
0.60


0.28
0.28


0.19
0.20

0.20
0.22










Table 8.-The effect of water table control and fertilization on P concentrations in components of 5-year-old slash and loblolly
pines.
Water Table Bole- Bole- Roots
Species Fertilized Depth Foliage Branches bark wood Fine Lateral Tap
cm %


Fluctuating
Fluctuating

46
46

92
92


0.092
0.102

0.086
0.091

0.101
0.099


Fluctuating 0.102
Fluctuating 0.121


0.097
0.102

0.110
0.119


0.050
0.054

0.057
0.060

0.055
0.057

0.052
0.049

0.062
0.063

0.059
0.061


0.026
0.032

0.022
0.028

0.028
0.030

0.032
0.034

0.031
0.035

0.032
0.036


0.039
0.045

0.034
0.034

0.036
0.035

0.039
0.033

0.030
0.032

0.031
0.040


0.134
0.182

0.106
0.109

0.112
0.114


0.088
0.074

0.061
0.079

0.067
0.058


0.049
0.064

0.062
0.066

0.052
0.062


Slash
Slash

Slash
Slash

Slash
Slash


Loblolly
Loblolly

Loblolly
Loblolly

Loblolly
Loblolly









Table 9.-The effect of water table control and fertilization on K concentrations in components of 5-year-old slash and loblolly


pines.


Species



Slash
Slash

Slash
Slash

Slash

Slash


Loblolly
Loblolly

Loblolly
Loblolly

Loblolly
Loblolly
Loblolly


Foliage Branches


Water Table
Fertilized Depth
cm

No Fluctuating
Yes Fluctuating

No 46
Yes 46

No 92
Yes 92

No Fluctuating
Yes Fluctuating

No 46
Yes 46

No 92
Yes 92


0.154
0.132

0.144
0.133

0.131
0.119

0.148
0.117

0.158
0.168

0.154
0.139


0.303
0.311

0.344
0.365

0.368
0.319

0.335
0.268

0.340
0.362

0.360
0.350


Fine



0.155
0.100

0.102
0.082

0.092
0.079


Roots
Lateral



0.122
0.140

0.083
0.076

0.090
0.080


Bole-
bark



0.031
0.029

0.026
0.022

0.029
0.022

0.049
0.032

0.028
0.037

0.044
0.038


Bole-
wood
-%-


0.111
0.089

0.084
0.077

0.072
0.064

0.107
0.068

0.076
0.077

0.086
0.082


Tap



0.099
0.116

0.081
0.071

0.076
0.050











Table 10.-The effect of water table control and fertilization on Ca concentrations in components of 5-year-old slash and loblolly
pines.


Water Table
Fertilized Depth
cm


Foliage Branches


Fluctuating 0.336
Fluctuating 0.335


0.200
0.247

0.230
0.226


Fluctuating 0.304
Fluctuating 0.403


0.300
0.263

0.293
0.313


Species



Slash
Slash


0.351
0.376

0.239
0.259

0.248
0.279

0.329
0.365

0.306
0.262

0.329
0.352


Slash
Slash

Slash
Slash


Bole-
wood


0.145

0.145

0.140

0.100

0.107

0.106
0.112


Roots
Lateral



0.144
0.164

0.124
0.101

0.112
0.112


Bole-
bark



0.219
0.214

0.187
0.174

0.169
0.200

0.266
0.291

0.286
0.297

0.348
0.399


0.302
0.337

0.337
0.295

0.363
0.419


Loblolly
Loblolly

Loblolly
Loblolly

Loblolly
Loblolly


0.078
0.087

0.058
0.059

0.063
0.066


0.206
0.185

0.144
0.113

0.134
0.169










Table 11.-The effect of water table control and fertilization on Mg concentrations in components of 5-year-old slash and lob-


lolly pines.


Species



Slash
Slash

Slash
Slash

Slash
Slash

Loblol!v
Loblolly

Loblolly
Loblolly

Lobiolly
Loblolly


Water Table
Fertilized Depth Foliage
cm

No Fluctuating 0.147
Yes Fluctuating 0.154

No 46 0.131
Yes 46 0.134

No 92 0.097
Yes 92 0.099

No Fluctuating 0.182
Yes Fluctuating 0.183

No 46 0.197
Yes 46 0.174

No 92 0.132
Yes 92 0.137


Branches



0.064
0.061

0.061
0.057

0.060
0.060

0.069
0.068

0.071
0.076

0.074
0.067


Roots
Lateral



0.093
0.094

0.070
0.080

0.076
0.067


Bole-
bark



0.044
0.039

0.037
0.034

0.036
0.034

0.061
0.053

0.042
0.045

0.038
0.044


Bole-
wood

- %

0.058
0.055

0.050
0.046

0.044
0.043

0.056
0.048

0.044
0.043

0.041
0.043


Tap



0.042
0.046

0.044
0.043

0.038
0.040


Fine



0.138
0.162

0.131
0.154

0.128
0.169











Table 12.-The effect of water table control and fertilization on Al concentrations in components of 5-year-old slash and loblolly
pines.


Water Table
Fertilized Depth
cm


Foliage Branches


Bole-
bark


Bole-


Roots


wood Fine Lateral Tap
ppm


Fluctuating 372
Fluctuating 436


Fluctuating 317
Fluctuating 492


Species


Slash
Slash

Slash
Slash

Slash
Slash


489
663

1516
1589

2189
1599


Loblolly
Loblolly

Loblolly
Loblolly

Loblolly
Loblolly









Table 13.-The effect
lolly pines.


Species


of water table control and fertilization on Mn concentrations in components of 5-year-old slash and lob-


Water Table
Fertilized Depth
cm


Slash
Slash

Slash
Slash

Slash
Slash


Foliage Branches


Fluctuating 174
Fluctuating 136


No Fluctuating 229
Yes Fluctuating 179


Loblolly
Loblolly

Loblolly
Loblolly

Loblolly


92 120


Loblolly Yes 92 123


Bole-
bark


Bole-
wood


Roots
Lateral










Table 14.-The effect of water table control and fertilization
pines.


on Zn concentration in components of 5-year-old slash and loblolly


Water Table Bole- Bole- Roots
Species Fertilized Depth Foliage Branches bark wood Fine Lateral Tap


l-pll


Slash No Fluctuating 30 21 10 11 15 15 9
Slash Yes Fluctuating 27 18 9 12 16 14 9

Slash No 46 19 15 7 9 16 8 6
Slash Yes 46 22 14 8 11 16 10 6

" Slash No 92 20 17 8 8 36 11 7
Slash Yes 92 19 24 9 8 23 11 6

Loblolly No Fluctuating 36 29 17 22 -
Loblolly Yes Fluctuating 30 30 13 12 -

Loblolly No 46 21 19 11 9 -
Loblolly Yes 46 20 21 11 8 -

Loblolly No 92 19 22 13 10 -
Loblolly Yes 92 20 22 14 10 -


II








Table 15.-Summary of the analysis of variance of the effect of water
table control and fertilization on element concentrations in tree components
of 5-year-old slash and loblolly pines.

Source of Variation N P K Ca Mg Al Mn Zn


Foliage
Water table (W)
Water table x Block
Fertilizer (F)
Species (S)
SxF
WxF
WxS
WxSxF

Branches
Water table (W)
Water table x Block
Fertilizer (F)
Species (S)
SxF
WxF
WxS
WxSxF

Bolebark
Water table (W)
Water table x Block
Fertilizer (F)
Species (S)
SxF
WxF
WxS
WxSxF

Bolewood
Water table (W)
Water table x Block
Fertilizer (F)
Species (S)
SxF
WxF
WxS
WxSxF

Fine Roots
Water table (W)
Water table x Block
Fertilizer (F)
WxF

Lateral Roots
Water table (W)
Water table x Block
Fertilizer (F)
WxF

Tap Roots
Water table (W)
Water table x Block
Fertilizer (F)
WxF


** ** ** ** ** **


**
** **


**
*::: :r**

**
S* **


** **
** .i+ ** *

**
** *


** ** **:

**
** ** ** **
**
**
* **:


**
** **
**
**
o*



:*



**
**
1'
**


** *


** ** *


* *


** *


* denotes statistical significance at the 95% confidence level.
** denotes statistical significance at the 99% confidence level.






Aluminum-Foliar Al levels were significantly increased by
both fertilization and water table control. This was a reflection
on increased rooting depth on deeper water tables permitting
roots to grow in the spodic horizon which contains considerable
Al (5). A large increase in Al concentrations in fine roots was
noted without a corresponding large increase in other tree com-
ponents, indicating a lack of transport of Al from those roots
(Table 12). Aluminum levels in several tree components were
significantly decreased by water table control as a result of a
large biomass and a dilution effect (13).
Fertilization significantly increased foliage levels of P, Ca,
and Al while decreasing foliage concentrations of Mn. Nitrogen,
K, Mg, and Zn foliage concentrations were not affected (Tables
7-15).
Water table control significantly increased foliar levels of N,
K, and Al while decreasing foliage concentrations of Ca and Mn.
Levels of other elements were not affected (Tables 7-15).
Fertilization decreased concentrations of N, K, and Mn in
fine roots, while increasing levels of P, Ca, and Mg in this part
of the tree. Levels of Al and Zn were not affected by the diam-
monium phosphate fertilizer. Maintaining the water table at 46
or 92 cm resulted in increased fine root levels of N, Ca, Al, and
Zn and decreased concentrations of P, K, and Mn when com-
pared to plants grown on a fluctuating water table (Tables 7-
15).
Fertilization had no effect upon elemental concentrations in
lateral roots. Water table control increased levels of Al while
decreasing concentrations of K, Ca, Mg, Mn, and Zn. Nitrogen
and P levels were not affected (Tables 7-15).
The changes in element concentrations following fertilization
and water table control generally reflected increased biomass
production of tops and root systems. The larger root systems
were able to exploit a larger soil volume made available by water
table control and thus were able to acquire more elements. At
the same time increased biomass due to both fertilization and
water table control resulted in dilution effects as described by
Tamm (13).

Total Element Content
The formula, logarithm element weight = Bo + B1 (loga-
rithm diameter groundline) + B2 (logarithm tree height), was
used to estimate the total element content of the uncut trees in








the stands. The constants, regression coefficients, correlation
coefficients, and standard errors are given in Table 16.
Total element contents of the various tree components by
treatments are presented in Tables 17-24. The contents of ele-
ments in the tree components generally differed among the
treatments in the same order as did the biomass (Table 4).
Using the fertilized slash pine of the 46-cm water table level
as an example, the distribution percentages of total element con-
tents among tree components are presented in Table 25. The
major portions of elements taken up were concentrated in the
above-ground biomass. An exception was that 43% of the total
Al content of 21.6 kg/ha was in the root systems. Fertilized
slash pines on the 46-cm water table accumulated a total of
578 kg/ha of elements.
The total uptake of elements, expressed as kilograms per
hectare, for the two species is given in Table 26. Only the above-
ground components are included for loblolly pine. Plots fer-
tilized with 392 kg diammonium phosphate/ha received a total
of 83 and 90 kg/ha of N and P, respectively. The total uptake
data (Table 26) indicates that fertilization accounted for a max-
imum uptake of 89 and 12 kg/ha of N and P, respectively. Since
the root systems of trees on fertilized plots were larger than
those of unfertilized trees, the difference in uptake may be ex-
plained by exploitation of a larger volume of soil by fertilized
trees.
The additional uptake of P in the fertilized plots as com-
pared to that in unfertilized plots represents only 13% of the
applied P. It is probable that much of the remaining P fer-
tilizer has leached from the active phosphate-absorbing root
zone, because Leon soil generally has little phosphorus absorp-
tion capacity in the surface 20 cm (5, 8). Total P analyses of
soil samples taken at 0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm depths at the
conclusion of the experiment indicated that on the average less
than 10 kg/ha of the applied P remains in the surface 20 cm
(Figure 2). The rapid loss of phosphorus fertilizer from the
A1 horizon would help explain the minimal fertilizer response
on plots where the foliar P values are near the deficient level.

SUMMARY
Both fertilization and water table control significantly in-
creased height and biomass of slash and loblolly pines planted
on a Leon soil. The effects of the treatments were additive. The
growth response to fertilizer (392 kg diammonium phosphate/








Table 16.-Regression coefficients, standard errors, and R values for
estimating total elemental content of tree components.a
Species Component Element Bo Bi B1 S.E. R

Slash Foliage N 0.192 1.388 2.215 .169 .85
P 3.543 1.080 2.075 .146 .86
K 4.078 0.887 2.368 .157 .85
Ca 4.038 1.505 1.369 .161 .80
Mg 3.700 1.511 1.403 .157 .81
Al 3.151 0.632 2.820 .188 .82
Mn 3.150 1.090 1.255 .149 .77
Zn 2.022 1.491 1.328 .157 .80


Slash Branches








Slash Bolebark








Slash Bolewood








Loblolly Foliage


1.351 2.713 0.385
2.438 2.683 0.657
2.867 2.915 0.239
3.490 3.025 -0.348
2.705 2.706 0.279
1.754 2.612 0.974
1.860 3.042 -0.759
1.329 2.772 -0.082

2.381 1.425 1.014
3.268 1.622 0.913
3.088 2.475 -0.115
4.505 1.407 0.618
3.696 1.610 0.478
3.111 1.328 1.819
2.668 1.787 -0.247
1.734 2.202 0.113

2.127 1.751 1.335
3.579 1.716 1.149
3.649 2.605 0.277
4.408 1.594 0.832
3.864 1.777 0.817
3.217 0.724 1.915
2.799 2.046 0.000
1.581 2.556 0.561

2.735 1.812 1.025
3.783 1.762 0.944
4.161 1.783 1.131
4.388 1.631 0.852
4.010 1.778 0.825
3.378 1.857 1.050
3.240 1.491 0.736
2.395 1.570 0.680


Loblolly Branches N 2.259 1.786 0.856 .172 .90
P 3.359 1.823 0.927 .169 .91
K 3.674 1.883 0.975 .195 .89
Ca 4.372 1.643 0.674 .168 .89
Mg 3.491 1.839 0.808 .172 .91
Al 2.761 1.923 0.984 .206 .89
Mn 2.765 1.479 0.656 .208 .82
Zn 2.277 1.590 0.669 .212 .83
aEquation of the form Log Y = Bo + B1 (Log Xi) + B2 (Log X2) where
Y = element content in grams; X1 = diameter outside bark groundline cm;
X2 = total tree height in meters.


.100 .92
.107 .92
.123 .90
.130 .86
.109 .91
.126 .91
.120 .86
.134 .85

.090 .90
.136 .82
.223 .65
.173 .66
.154 .72
.132 .87
.166 .62
.143 .79

.099 .92
.098 .91
.126 .87
.099 .88
.099 .89
.261 .62
.116 .81
.125 .89

.188 .89
.175 .90
.197 .89
.191 .87
.164 .91
.289 .80
.171 .87
.149 .90








Table 16, continued.
Species Component Element B. B, B2 S.E. R


Loblolly Bolebark


Loblolly Bolewood








Slash Lateral Roots


Slash


2.475
3.296
3.384
4.412
3.670
3.213
2.815
2.120

2.351
3.555
3.841
4.683
3.790
2.746
2.854
2.409

-0.260
-0.713
-0.654
-0.275
-0.343
2.038
2.688
1.922

1.229
2.824
3.621
3.453
2.783
1.954
2.896
1.758


Tap Root


1.440
1.478
1.449
1.494
1.352
1.717
1.177
1.266

1.528
1.590
1.671
1.259
1.501
1.671
1.270
1.296

2.177
2.030
2.095
1.851
1.723
2.700
2.492
2.265

1.993
2.335
1.929
1.632
1.926
1.687
1.656
1.653


0.773
0.974
0.870
0.629
0.712
0.957
0.371
0.688

1.289
1.331
1.369
0.894
1.258
1.367
1.186
1.091







-1.965
-0.910

1.423
0.730
0.406
0.976
1.189
1.951
-0.982
0.523


.128 .93
.207 .81
.191 .76
.120 .89
.153 .88
.238 .81
.169 .55
.176 .76


ha) was minimal, while controlling water table levels at 46 and
92 cm resulted in relatively large growth increases over that
obtained on a fluctuating water table.
Response to fertilizer increased with decreasing water table
depth. The best growth of both species was made where the
water table was controlled at 46 cm. Furthermore, better growth
was obtained on both the 46- and 92-cm water tables than on the
fluctuating water table.
Slash pine made better growth and yield than loblolly pine
on all water table conditions on this site.
Fertilization and water table significantly influenced the up-
take and distribution of elements. These reflected both biomass
changes and the larger soil volumes exploited by the more ex-
tensive root systems.









Table 17.-The effect of water table control and fertilization on total N content in tree components of 5-year-old slash and lob-
lolly pines.


Species


Water Table
Fertilized Depth
cm

No Fluctuating
Yes Fluctuating

No 46
Yes 46

No 92
Yes 92

No Fluctuating
Yes Fluctuating

No 46
Yes 46

No 92
Yes 92


Bole- Bole- Roots
Foliage Branches bark wood Fine Lateral Tap
kg/ha

25 6 9 15 13 3 3
51 10 15 27 24 4 7

87 14 20 41 12 5 11
124 18 26 55 33 6 14

75 13 19 37 14 5 10
85 13 20 40 26 5 10

12 3 3 4 -
16 4 3 5 -


Slash
Slash

Slash
Slash
Slash

Slash

Loblolly
Loblolly

Loblolly
Loblolly

Loblolly
Loblolly
Loblolly


7










Table 18.-The effect of water table control and fertilization on total P content in tree components of 5-year-old slash and lob-


Water Table
Fertilized Depth
cm


Foliage Branches


Bole-
bark


Bole-
wood
-kg/ha


Roots
Lateral Tap


Fluctuating 2.5
Fluctuating 4.7


Fluctuating 1.1
Fluctuating 1.5


lolly pine.


Species


Slash
Slash

Slash
Slash

Slash
Slash


Loblolly
Loblolly

Loblolly
Loblolly

Loblolly
Loblolly









Table 19.-The effect of water table control and fertilization on total K content in tree components of 5-year-old slash and lob-
folly pine.
Water Table Bole- Bole- Roots
Species Fertilized Depth Foliage Branches bark wood Fine Lateral Tap
cm kg/ha

Slash No Fluctuating 8 2 1.0 8 3 1 2
Slash Yes Fluctuating 16 4 2.0 13 4 1 3

Slash No 46 26 6 2.0 18 2 2 4
Slash Yes 46 37 7 2.0 23 4 3 5

Slash No 92 23 5 2.0 17 8 2 4
Slash Yes 92 27 6 2.0 17 4 2 4

Loblolly No Fluctuating 3 1 0.2 2 -
Loblolly Yes Fluctuating 5 2 0.3 2 -

Loblolly No 46 18 6 1.0 10 -
Loblolly Yes 46 23 7 1.0 12 -

Loblolly No 92 12 4 0.7 6 -
Loblolly Yes 92 12 4 0.7 6 -










Table 20.-The effect of water table control and fertilization on
lolly pines.
Water Table
Species Fertilized Depth Foliage Branches
cm

Slash No Fluctuating 8 6
Slash Yes Fluctuating 13 10

Slash No 46 20 12
Slash Yes 46 26 15
CO
SSlash No 92 18 12
Slash Yes 92 20 12

Loblolly No Fluctuating 3 3
Loblolly Yes Fluctuating 4 4

Loblolly No 46 15 11
Loblolly Yes 46 18 14

Loblolly No 92 10 8
Loblolly Yes 92 10 8


total Ca content in tree components of 5-year-old slash and lob-


Bole-
bark



7
11

13
17

13
14

2
3

8
10

6
6


Roots
Lateral Tap


Bole-
wood
kg/ha

10
18

23
30

22
24

4
5

13
17

10
10











Table 21.-The effect of water table control and fertilization on total Mg content in tree components of 5-year-old slash and lob-
lolly pines.


Water Table
Fertilized Depth Foliage

cm


Branches


Bole-
bark


--


Bole- Roots
wood Fine Lateral Tap
;g/ha


Fluctuating 4
Fluctuating 7


Species



Slash
Slash

Slash
Slash

Slash

Slash


Loblolly
Loblolly

Loblolly
Loblolly

Loblolly
Loblolly


Fluctuating 2
Fluctuating 2










Table 22.-The effect of water table control and fertilization on total Al content in tree components of 5-year-old slash and lob-


Water Table
Fertilized Depth Foliage
cm


Fluctuating 1.0
Fluctuating 2.1


Species



Slash
Slash

Slash
Slash

Slash
Slash

Loblolly
Loblolly

Loblolly
Loblolly

Loblolly
Loblolly


lolly pines.


Fluctuating 0.6
Fluctuating 0.8


Roots
Lateral


Bole-
wood
kg/ha

0.5
0.8

1.2
1.6

1.0
1.2


Branches



0.2
0.5

0.7
1.0

0.7
0.7

0.1
0.2

0.8
1.0

0.5
0.5


Bole-
bark



1.1
2.1

3.2
4.5

2.9
3.2

0.3
0.4

1.4
1.7

0.9
1.0










Table 23.-The effect of water table control and fertilization on total Mn content in tree components of 5-year-old slash and lob-
lolly pines.


Species


Slash
Slash

Slash
Slash

Slash
Slash


Loblolly
Loblolly

Loblolly
Loblolly


Loblolly No
Loblolly Yes


Water Table
Fertilized Depth
cm


Foliage


Fluctuating 0.36
Fluctuating 0.59


Fluctuating 0.17
Fluctuating 0.21


Branches


0.08
0.13

0.15
0.18

0.15
0.15

0.05
0.06

0.19
0.23


Bole-
bark


Bole- Roots
wood Fine Lateral Tap
-kg/ha


0.08
0.10

0.11
0.14

0.12
0.12

0.03
0.03

0.07
0.09


0.08
0.13

0.06
0.12

0.05
0.16


0.16
0.22


0.14
0.24


92 U.48 0.14 0.06 0.22 -
92 0.48 0.14 0.06 0.22 -










Table 24.-The effect of water table control and
lolly pines.


Water Table
Fertilized Depth
cm

No Fluctuating
Yes Fluctuating


Fluctuating
Fluctuating

46
46

92
92


fertilization on total Zn content in tree components of 5-year-old slash and lob-


Species


Foliage Branches



0.06 0.03
0.12 0.06

0.16 0.07
0.22 0.09

0.15 0.07
0.16 0.07

0.03 0.02
0.03 0.03

0.10 0.08
0.12 0.10

0.08 0.06
0.08 0.06


Bole-
wood
kg/ha

0.08
0.15

0.22
0.28

0.20
0.21


Fine



0.03
0.07

0.03
0.08

0.03
0.10


Roots
Lateral


0.02
0.02

0.02
0.02


Bole-
bark



0.03
0.05

0.06
0.08

0.06
0.06

0.01
0.01

0.03
0.04

0.03
0.03


0.02
0.03

0.07
0.13

0.07
0.07


0.04
0.04


Slash
Slash

Slash
Slash

Slash
Slash


Loblolly
Loblolly

Loblolly
Loblolly

Loblolly
Loblolly















Table 25.-The distribution of total element content in tree components of 5-year-old fertilized slash pine on 46-cm water table.

Total


Element Foliage Branches


Bole- Bole-
bark wood
per cent of total


Roots
Fine Lateral


Above-
ground Root
Tap Biomass Biomass
per cent --


N
oo P
K
Ca
Mg
Al
Mn
Zn










Table 26.-The effects of water table control and fertilization on total elemental uptake of 5-year-old slash and loblolly pine.a


Water Table
Fertilized Depth N
cm

No Fluctuating 74
Yes Fluctuating 138


K Ca Mg Al Mn
kg/ha


Species



Slash
Slash

Slash
Slash

co Slash
Slash

Loblolly
Loblolly

Loblolly
Loblolly

Loblolly
Loblolly


aSlash pine data include total plant contents, while loblolly pine data include only


Fluctuating 21
Fluctuating 29


above-ground components.








Fertilization increased fine root production in the surface
S15 cm of the soil profile. These fine roots accumulated large
levels of Al as a result of root expansion into the spodic horizon.
Very little of the Al was translocated into the above-ground
biomass.
Total elemental uptake data indicated that a maximum of
13% of the applied P fertilizer can be accounted for in the 5-
year-old tree biomass.
Fertilizing slash and loblolly pines with diammonium phos-
phate will not adequately substitute for water table control in
flatwood soils, such as this Leon fine sand. A small growth in-
crease may be obtained from fertilization of these soils without
any water control. However, water table treatments that con-
fined the root systems to the surface soils (46-cm and fluctuating
water tables) resulted in the greatest response to fertilizers.



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This work was supported in part by the Cooperative Research in Forest
Fertilization (CRIFF) program. The authors are indebted to Dr. W. K.
Robertson for his assistance in devising the system of harvest of tree roots,
to Dr. L. C. Hammond for the installation of the irrigation-drainage sys-
tem, and to Mr. F. R. Humphreys for the soil analyses.


LITERATURE CITED

1. Analytical Methods for Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. 1966.
Perkin-Elmer Inst. Div., Norwalk, Conn.

2. Biomedical Computer Program. 1965. Univ. Coll. at Los Angeles, Calif.

3. Black, C. A., D. D. Evans, J. L. White, L. E. Ensminger, and F. E.
Clark. 1965. Methods of Soil Analysis. No. 9 in the series Agronomy
ASA, Inc., Madison, Wise.

4. Haines, L. W., and W. L. Pritchett. 1965. The effect of site prepara-
tion on the availability of soil nutrients and on slash pine growth. Soil
and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 25:356-364.

5. Humphreys, F. R., and W. L. Pritchett. 1970. Phosphorus adsorption
and movement in some forest soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. (in
press).

6. Jackson, M. L. 1958. Soil Chemical Analysis. Prentice-Hall, Engle-
wood Cliffs, N. J.

7. Murphy, J., and J. P. Riley. 1962. A modified single solution method
for the determination of phosphate in natural waters. Anal. Chim.
Acta. 27:31-36.








Fertilization increased fine root production in the surface
S15 cm of the soil profile. These fine roots accumulated large
levels of Al as a result of root expansion into the spodic horizon.
Very little of the Al was translocated into the above-ground
biomass.
Total elemental uptake data indicated that a maximum of
13% of the applied P fertilizer can be accounted for in the 5-
year-old tree biomass.
Fertilizing slash and loblolly pines with diammonium phos-
phate will not adequately substitute for water table control in
flatwood soils, such as this Leon fine sand. A small growth in-
crease may be obtained from fertilization of these soils without
any water control. However, water table treatments that con-
fined the root systems to the surface soils (46-cm and fluctuating
water tables) resulted in the greatest response to fertilizers.



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This work was supported in part by the Cooperative Research in Forest
Fertilization (CRIFF) program. The authors are indebted to Dr. W. K.
Robertson for his assistance in devising the system of harvest of tree roots,
to Dr. L. C. Hammond for the installation of the irrigation-drainage sys-
tem, and to Mr. F. R. Humphreys for the soil analyses.


LITERATURE CITED

1. Analytical Methods for Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry. 1966.
Perkin-Elmer Inst. Div., Norwalk, Conn.

2. Biomedical Computer Program. 1965. Univ. Coll. at Los Angeles, Calif.

3. Black, C. A., D. D. Evans, J. L. White, L. E. Ensminger, and F. E.
Clark. 1965. Methods of Soil Analysis. No. 9 in the series Agronomy
ASA, Inc., Madison, Wise.

4. Haines, L. W., and W. L. Pritchett. 1965. The effect of site prepara-
tion on the availability of soil nutrients and on slash pine growth. Soil
and Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 25:356-364.

5. Humphreys, F. R., and W. L. Pritchett. 1970. Phosphorus adsorption
and movement in some forest soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. (in
press).

6. Jackson, M. L. 1958. Soil Chemical Analysis. Prentice-Hall, Engle-
wood Cliffs, N. J.

7. Murphy, J., and J. P. Riley. 1962. A modified single solution method
for the determination of phosphate in natural waters. Anal. Chim.
Acta. 27:31-36.








8. Neller, J. R., D. W. Jones, N. Gammon, Jr., and R. B. Forbes. 1951.
Leaching of fertilizer phosphorus in acid sandy soils as affected by
lime. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Cir. S-32.

9. Pritchett, W. L., and W. R. Llewellyn. 1966. Response of slash pine
to phosphorus in sandy soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 30:509-519.

10. Pritchett, W. L., and W. H. Smith. 1968. Fertilizing slash pine on
sandy soils of the lower coastal plain. Third N. Amer. Forest Soils
Conf., Raleigh, N. C. (in press).

11. Smith, F. B., R. G. Leighty, R. E. Caldwell, V. W. Carlisle, L. G.
Thompson, Jr., and T. C. Mathews. 1967. Principal soil areas of Flor-
ida. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 717.

12. Steele, R. G. D., and J. H. Torrie. 1960. Principles and Procedures of
Statistics. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., N. Y.

13. Tamm, C. 0. 1960. Nutrient uptake and growth after fertilization in
Sweden. 7th Int. Cong. Soil Sci. Proc., Madison, Wise. 4:347-354.




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