It may be well to state for the information of all concerned that
the bulletins are only designed to give publicity to what actually trans-
pires on the station. I am not publishing a newspaper nor the views
and theories of newspaper writers, but facts as they develop. I
am not publishing them in the interest of other States but for Florida.
The bulletins of other States have been of service to me, but to
give the progress of agriculture in other Stations, or States, except
as it may affect Florida, would be to. invade the province of the news-
paper. They are not written nor published to gratify the truly scien-
tific alone, but mainly for the agricultural classes. Hence, I avoid
as much as possible, tables and technicalties. which to some are con-
fusing, write plainly, giving details as to methods and cultivation on
all subjects that all may understand. The Florida farmer can rest
assured that what I report in the bulletins issued from this station is
correct and not exaggerated.
The line of experiments and investigations and analyses as laid
down in Section 2 of Hatch Act establishing Experimental Stations,
has been carefully and extensively pursued in every respect, with one
exception, to.wit: the physiology of animals, their diseases and rem-
edies for the same. In due course of time I hope to have a skilled
veterinary surgeon who will be able to give this department his undi-
It will be seen from Section 4 that I am forced to send bulletins
to every farmer who applies for them and to every newspaper pub-
lished in the State as far as the means of the station will admit of.
The design of this section was to assist the farmer and give him the
facts as they occur. It is gratifying also to state that the applications for
bulletins come by every mail both for back numbers and future issues,
and it is a matter of regret that back numbers of several editions are
exhausted. Beginning two years ago without a mailing list, it now re-
quires an issue of over 7,000 copies to supply the demand, while letters
from all over the State are constantly received appreciating the work
the Station is doing and encouraging its officers in renewed efforts in
behalf of our agricultural interests. I give below the sections of Hatch
Act referred to above, which I hope all interested parties and espec-
ially newspaper writers will read carefully:
"SEc. 2. That it shall be the object and duty of said Experiment
Stations to conduct original researches or experiments on the physiol-
ogy of plants and animals; the diseases to which they are severally sub-
ject, with the remedies for the same; the chemical composition of plants
at their different stages of growth; the comparative advantages of rota-
tive cropping as pursued under a varying series of crops, the capacity
of new plants or trees for acclamation; the analysis of soils and water;
the chemical composition of manures, natural or artificial, with experi-
ments designed to test their comparative effects on crops of different
kinds; the adaptation and value of grasses and forage plants; the com-
position and digestibility of the different kinds of food for domestic
animals; scientific and economic questions involved in the production
of butter and cheese; and such other researches or experiments bearing
directly on the agricultural industry of the United States as may in
each case be deemed advisable, having due regard to the varying con-
ditions and needs of the respective States and Territories.
"SEC. 4. That bulletins or reports of progress shall be published at
said stations at least once in three months, one copy of which shall be
sent to each newspaper in the. States or Territories in which they are
respectively located, and to such individuals actually engaged in farm-
ing as may request the same, and as far as the means of the station
will permit. Such bulletins or reports, and the annual reports of said
stations shall be transmitted in the mails of the United States free of
charge for postage, under such regulations as the Postmaster-General
may from time to time prescribe." JAS. P. DEPASS, DIRECTOR.
The experiment in Irish potatoes last year embraced seven varie-
ties that were generally planted in Florida. An effort was made this
year to secure the same kinds of seed, with others, but the market only
supplied the Beauty of Hebron and Burbank.
These were tested on land which for two years was planted in
garden vegetables in the fall and spring and tob icco in the summer.
The land was fairly good, springy but well tiled. The plot hav-
ing had clean culture for two proceeding crops there was but little
grass upon it.
It was prepared by bedding out rows four feet apart. The
water furrow was opened and then fertilized. With six-inch bull
tongue manure was covered and with same plow furrow was reopened.
This mixed the soil and fertilizer.
The potatoes were cut as nearly as possible with two eyes to each
piece and put in drill without reference as to whether the eyes were up
or down. A bed of four furrows with turn plow covered the seed.
February 25th the beds were sided with turn plow and dirt thrown
back. March 4th the middles were brolkn out by turn plow and on
the 20th of March a twelve-inch sweep was run between the beds.
By April ioth new potatoes were as large as hen and goose eggs, and
by the ioth of May the crop was matured. They were dug the 2nd of
June and did not suffer by remaining in the ground, but the season
It would be difficult to determine which of the two varieties were
the finer potato as to size and appearance.
Five experiments were made as to fertilizer. Bowker's or
Strowbridge Vegetable Manure, Mapes and Paine's Potato Food were
brought in competition with each other, together with compost No. i
and No. 2, made on the station.
The results can be seen by the following statement:
FIRST PART OF FIRST PLOT of seven rows, three of which were
planted with Burbank and fertilized with compost No. i at the
rate of 5,200 pounds to the acre, costing $15.21. Value, per
ton, $5.85. Yield, 183 bushels.
SECOND PART OF FIRST PLOT.-Four rows planted in Beauty of
Hebron. Same compost and quantity as above. Yield, 162
PLOT 2-Ist Part.-Three rows. Fertilized with compost, No. 2,
two tons per acre. Cost, per acre, $15.64. Cost, per ton, $7.82.
Burbank. Yield, 166 bushels.
Second Part.-Four rows, Beauty of Hebron. Same compost.
Yield. 274 bushels.
PLOT 3--Ist Par.--Burbank. Fertilized with Bowker's Vegetable
Manure, 832 pounds per acre. Cost, per acre, $17.47. Cost,
per ton, $42-delivered. Yield, per acre, 263 bushels.
Part 2.-Beauty of Hebron. Yield, 238 bushels.
FOURTH PLOT-ISt Part.-Burbank. Mapes fertilizer. Cost, per
ton, delivered, $4400; 832 pounds per acre. Cost, per acre,
$18.50. Yield, 243 bushels.
Part 2.-Beauty of Hebron. Yield, 217 bushels.
FIFTH PLOT, Part I.-Burbank. Paine's Potato Food, 832 pounds
per acre. Cost, per acre, $12.48 Per ton, $30. Yield, 208 bushels.
Part 2.-Beauty of Hebron. Yield, 196.
The land selected was the eastern slope of a dry and sandy hill.
The plot was prepared the same as above and planted the same day,
the 31st of January. It was worked, gathered at the same time, and
fertilized the same way. It was the exact counterpart of No. I in
every respect, except the land was poor and thirsty. With the excep-
tion of 1-27 of an acre the plot was in fruit trees and they had the
mastery. The potatoes among them did nothing worth speaking
of, but the trees finely. Where there were no trees the stand was
poor, but the potatoes very large. The fertilizer used was compost
No. i. The yield per acre, 55 bushels.
The only difference between this plot and No. I, was that the
rows were three feet apart and fertilized with compost No. i at the
rate of one ton per acre. It was planted March 2oth, and the yield
in round numbers was 190 bushels to the acre.
The vines on plots i and 3 were luxuriant, of a deep green, but
not over-grown, and the stand almost perfect. The potatoes grew
and matured evenly. On second plot the vines were of good size,
but light green.
The object had in view in placing so much more compost per acre
than the commercial fertilizer was to get as near as possible an equit-
able proportion of each as to cost and production. It will be seen that
the cost of compost is less, but when the handling of it is considered
the difference will not be worth mentioning. It is a clear deduction
therefore that in making potatoes commercial fertilizers are the best so
far as easy work is concerned, since the labor of making and handling
the composts is greater, and then the compensation is not sufficient to
warrant their use, unless they improve the land more than commer-
cial fertilizers, which is an unsettled question. It would appear that
if plot 3 had been fertilized in the ratio as No. i was, the yield would
have been much larger. But this or the best method can only be set-
tled by repeated trials.
Experiment No. 2 was made to test two points, viz : ist.-If pota-
toes planted among fruit trees and highly fertilized would be a success;
the result is against it. 2d.-The effect of Station composts on high
and dry soil. The result was better than expected, and I propose to
prepare one especially another year for such land.
The potato crop is easily and cheaply made, so far as the item of
work is concerned, and when the land is well drained and moist, for
when dry it cannot be relied on, it is a sure crop. Heavy fertilizing
is an absolute necessity. It is wasting money to plant even rich soil
without liberal fertilization.
The crop ought to be a profitable one every year to Florida, if a
sufficient quantity can be raised to the acre, whether the northern
crop be a large one or not, since it matures at a time when the north-
ern potato has lost its flavor and is not so palitable.
In the spring of r889 I found a small plot of crimson clover,
growing luxuriantly on one of the richest spots of the Station, which
had been highly fertilized. It inspired the hope that this annual, a
native of Southern Europe, had found a home in our State. I pur-
chased several bushel of seed and distributed them in various sections
of the State, besides experimenting with them myself in a number of
ways. I failed to secure anything like a stand, and this was the uni-
form experience of others. Supposing the seed defective I tried those
raised on the Station with like results. Repeated trials have been
Southern rye and oats do measurably well on our ordinary pine
lands without fertilizer, but they do not grow rank enough to furnish
a good pasture. When broadcast the stand of rye is not thick enough.
This in some places is caused by the flea beetle and grasshouper, but
generally by improper covering, grass stuble and too small an amount
of seed per acre. Rye, unlike oats, does not require deep covering,
but the field must be c'ear of clods, weeds and grass stubble.
The following experiments in rye begin a series to determine the
best method of furnishing green forage with it during the winter
months. The land selected was the oldest and poorest on the farm
and said to be an old Indian field. For over thirty years it had been
planted in various field crops without fertilizer. Lying on the slope
of a hill and being sandy, with clay at least ten feet below the surface,
it was subject to washing by heavy rains and has thus suffered on two
occasions within the past two years. Peas and corn planted on it did
not pay the expenses of the crops. I made this selection with the ob-
ject in view that if so poor a piece of land would prove profitable it
would not only encourage any farmer or fruit grower who owned simi-
lar land to follow the experiment,but that it would induce those who
had better soil to try it and thus reap a more luxuriant harvest.
Three plots were planted as follows:
The first consisted of one acre. The land was broken up the
6th of October by a New South plow about four inches deep. It was
then harrowed smooth by a Clark's cutaway harrow. Deep furrows
were opened twenty-four inches apart. In these the manure was
drilled as follows: One-half with 2,200 pounds of green stable manure,
and the other half with 2,800 pounds of green cow manure. There
was also placed in these drills 200 pounds nitrate of soda, ioo pounds
of acid phosphate ioo pounds of co tonseed meal and ioo pounds of
kainit. The drills were then covered and re opened by a four-inch
bull tongue. One bushel of seed was sowed and covered by the same
plow, when the whole plot was leveled by a two-horse wooden roller.
Rating the seed at $2 per bushel and the hands and horses at $i per
day each, the cost was $25. The season was dry at the time and
continued so, with but little rain for several months. I began cutting
for feed on the 29th of November, when the rye was about eight
inches high, using a reap hook, until the 2d of February, going over
the patch one and a half times. There was cut off this acre io,ooo
pounds. Had I continued cutting, and it would have admitted of
three, as much more would doubtless have been reaped. But having
other pastures coming in and desiring to note whether the first and sec-
ond cutting would seed, I ceased and obtained an average yield of
seed on unfertilized Florida soil. No other work was done on this
plot after seeding.
The second plot was seeded the 28th of October. It was
prepared by cross-harrowing with cutaway harrow instead of plow-
ing. Half the patch was laid off as above and the same formula used,
excepting the nitrate of soda, but it was not rolled. The other half
had manure broadcast harrowed in, then sowed broadcast and har-
owed again That portion which was drilled grew off more readily
and luxuriantly, producing to all appearances three times as much
as that which was broadcast. This plot was pastured by seven
grown cattle and two colts, and lasted two months. There was
nearly one and three-fourths acres in the plot. By cross harrowing
the cost is grealy lessened. On light land Clark's cutaway harrow, as
late as the 28th of October, broke down, cut up and covered, by the
time seed were harrowed, fennel and other weeds six feet high. The
cost of this plot outside of stable manure, was $12.50.
As late as the roth of January I sowed another plot. It was
flushed with turn plow. One bushel seed was sowed broadcast
and harrowed in with Clark's cutaway harrow. No fertilizer was
used. The land had been planted in peas the past summer and was
in better condition than the other plots. The stand was good. The
seasons were moderately fair, but the growth slow. It was grazed by
both cows and colts, but did not respond as readily after being pas-
tured as that which was sowed earlier and fertilized. The experiment
suggests that pastures can be planted in rye at intervals as late as the
middle of January with profit to the stock raiser.
From the above the inferences may be drawn:
Ist.. That rye planted in drills pays better than broadcast.
2d. That green food for winter and spring use can be easily and
cheaply made on old and poor land.
3d. That a plot of Y8 of acre sowed in October, and others in
November and December, and richly fertilized as in plot i or 2, will
furnish ample green forage for a horse and cow through winter and
4th. That it is very injurious to pasture rye when the soil is
light and sandy. The cattle pull up a great deal and kill much by
walking over it.
5th. That from this experience I am convinced that much better
results would have been obtained by drilling one foot apart instead of
6th. This feed produced a good flow of milk and made the but-
ter firm with an exceedingly rich color and flavor, and was a great
relish to both horses and cows.
1. SOFT MARL PHOSPHATE AS A FERTILIZER.
2. COMPARATIVE VALUE OF RAW FINELY POW-
DERED PHOSPHATE AND OF SUPERPHOSPHATE
AS A FERTILIZER.
3. A SUPERPHOSPHATE FROM A LOW GRADE ROCK
CONTAINING MUCH ALUMINA.
4. MUCK: COMPOSITION AND UTILIZATION OF.
BY J. M. PICKEL.-ANALYSES BY J. J. EARLE.
1. SOFT MARL PHOSPHATE AS A FERTILIZER.
We receive frequent inquiries as to the value of raw (unacidulated)
phosphate rock as a fertilizer. As there is evidently much confusion
and obscurity of thought on this subject, we cannot, perhaps, do better
than give one of these letters and subjoin such information on the
points of inquiry as is at hand :
"I mail you to day a package of soft marl phosphate, dried and
partially ground, which is what I want analyzed, as it is in the shape
we intend putting it on the market, but ground much finer. The other
sample was just as it came from the ground, green. You cannot do
the people of Florida a greater service, or one that will be more appre-
ciated, than by giving us a full and complete analysis, showing every-
thing this material contains, in exact proportions, what percentage is
soluble now, exposed to sun and rain, in the ground, when the present
insoluble part will become soluble, what foreign matter is required to
make a complete fertilizer, cost, etc., of same, the real value of this
material ground fine as compared with commercial fertilizers-say
Mapes' at $43 per ton-and the best way of preparing it cheaply.
The purchase of costly commercial fertilizers is the curse of the State,
and with the raw material at our doors we ought to make it available.
We want to know just what this soft marl phosphate, when calcined
andground to an impalpable powder, is worth to the farmer and fruit
The questions asked here, with such answers as we are able to
give, are as follows:
i. What is this substance composed of? It is composed of
W after . .. .. . 9.62
Sand and insoluble matter . .. 24.42
Alumina .. . . . 17.14
Ferric oxide . . . 0.50
Calcium carbonate. . . . 2.50
Tri-calcium phosphate . ... ... .43-55
Aluminium phosphate. . .... 1.97
2. What percentage is soluble now, exposed to sun and rain ?
This has reference to the percentage of phosphate now soluble.
This is a question which cannot be answered with precision. The
finer the rock is pulverized the faster will it become disintegrated and
the more quickly will it become available as plant food. The action
of the air, rain, soil, etc., are never ceasing. And to this is added
the dissolving and assimilating power which the rootlets of plants
themselves undoubtedly possess. Hence in the course of time the
phosphate will all be taken up by the plants. Less than one-half of
one per cent. of the phosphoric acid in this rock is soluble, according
to the conventional method of determining solubility, in pure distilled
water; and a fraction over 0.89 per cent. is what is conventionally
All phosphates in their natural form are difficultly and slowly
soluble in water or weak acids. Phosphates from different sources
differ greatly in the degree of solubility. The following quoted from
Storer will show this :
"Dietrich and Koenig acted upon various phosphates with carbonic
acid water applied in such manner that the materials were soaked in
a half saturated solution of it for forty eight hours, and the residue
from this treatment.was digested in saturated carbonic acid water for
twelve weeks." The results were as follows:
Per cent. of After 48 hours' action of hal After 12 weeks with
phospho- saturated carbonic acid saturated carbonic
ricacidin water, one part of phos acid water, one part
MATERIAL. the mate- phoric acid dissolved in of phosphoric acid
rial. parts of the liquid. dissolved in parts of
Estramadura phosphorite. 37.20 90,900 90,900
Iahn phosphorite ......... 14.80 60,ioo 6o, oo
Peruvian Guano........... 13.70 2,440 1,230
Raw Bonemeal ............ 16.63 18,8oo 5.9So
Stearns' Bonemeal........ 21.79 21,100 5,630
Bone ash.................. 37-57 25,250 7,350
It will thus be seen that from about 1,000 to 90,000 parts of the
carbonic acid water are necessary to dissolve one part of phosphoric
This difference of solubility is due to many things-difference in
physical aggregation (whether compact or porous, fine or coarse
grained), the materials with which the phosphate is mixed or asso
ciated, the kind of phosphate (phosphates of lime, magnesium, iron
and aluminium all differing in solubility). The Estramadura and the
Lahn phosphorites are mineral phosphates and much less soluble
than the guano and bone phosphate. Voelcker found that one
part of pure freshly prepared and still moist tricalcium phosphate dis-
solves in 12,610 parts of water; whereas, one part of similarly pre-
pared magnesium phosphate requires only 4,900 parts of water.
Phosphate of iron is less soluble than phosphate of lime, and phosphate
of alumina less than either. Warington has found that one part of
pure phosphate of lime requires 1,785 parts of carbonic acid water to
dissolve it; Pierre found that 12,500 parts of carbonic acid water are
required to dissolve one part of phosphate of iron. Carbonic acid
water is water saturated with carbonic acid gas; such water bears re-
semblance to rain water, which always contains carbonic acid absorbed
from the atmosphere. It will thus be seen that phosphate in its natural
state is exceedingly slowly soluble and available as a plant food.
Superphospate, that is, phosphate which has been dissolved with acid,
is easily and quickly soluble in water and is immediately available to
Tests of the solubility of all the leading varieties of Florida phos-
phate are to be made in our laboratory at the earliest opportunity.
3. When will the present insoluble part become soluble ?
The answer to this question is implied in what is said under 2.
The action of rain, air, soil, heat, etc., is constantly but exceedingly
slowly dissolving the phosphate. which as it becomes soluble may be
taken up by the plant. This solvent action may be, and often is, so
slow that the plant may not be able to get enough phosphate, and the
result is stunted growth.
4. What foreign matter is required to make a complete fertilizer
of this material?
Before this question can be answered we must answer another:
"What is a complete fertilizer ?" In a broad and general way we may
define a complete fertilizer as one which contains all of the chemical ele-
ments necessary to plant growth, each element in sufficient quantity
and in a sufficiently soluble condition to meet the demands of the
plant. To be economical, no element should be present in excess of
the needs of the plant. It is generally accepted as settled that the
elements necessary to plant growth are oxygen, hydrogen, carbon,
phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, sulphur.
If a single one of these elements is lacking the plant will not grow.
Chlorine, sodium, and silicon are always found in plants; but the
weight of evidence seems to be that, although they may be of ad-
vantage in some cases, they are not necessary. Other elements still,
among them manganese and aluminium, are sometimes found in plants.
These elements are, of course, not offered to the plant in the elemental
form, but always as compounds; oxygen and hydrogen, as water main-
ly; carbon, phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium, calcium, magnesium,
iron, sulphur in the form of salts, known as carbonates, phosphates,
sulphates, nitrates, chlorides and other rarer compounds; carbon also
in union with oxygen, as carbonic acid gas in the air, and nitrogen in
union with hydrogen, as ammonia.
In preparing a fertilizer it is not necessary to direct one's attention
to all these elements, for the reason that most of them are always abund-
antly present in the atmosphere and in the soil. Ville, the great Frerch
agriculturist, defines a complete manure, therefore, as one containing
nitrogenized matter, phosphate of lime, potassa, and lime. With these
four substances together, of course, with what is already in air and
soil, it is always possible to produce fine crops, he claims. Accepting
this as true (and it doubtless is true in all except rare cases), the
"foreign" substances required to make a complete fertilizer of this ma-
terial are, nitrogenized matter and potassa. Among the principal forms
of nitrogenized matter are the various nitrates, sulphate of ammonia,
muck, barnyard manure, urine, cottonseed meal, oil cake and in a
word all refuse animal and vegetable substances. The sources of pot-
ash are numerous, kainit and ashes being among the most important.
As to the proportions in which potash, nitrogen and this marl
phosphate should be mixed to make a complete fertilizer, no general
rule can be given. If they were mixed in such proportions as to con-
tain 12 to 15 per cent. of phosphoric acid, 2 to 4 per cent. of nitrogen
and about the same quantity (2 to 4 per cent.) of potash, the result
would not differ very widely from the common run of "complete com-
mercial fertilizers," except in this: the commercial fertilizer usually
contains about io per cent. of phosphoric acid easily and immediately
soluble in water, whereas this mixture would contain none such. It
should be borne in mind, however, that it is not well to compound a
fertilizer by mixing an exceedingly difficultly soluble plant food, such as
tricalcic phosphate, with exceedingly soluble ones, such as kainit and
the nitrates. The insoluble phosphate had better be applied separately
to the land in large quantities as a fine powder. This application
should take place many months before the planting of the crop to be
benefitted thereby, and the potash and nitrogen (if in easily soluble
forms) applied as the crop is growing or at the time of planting.
Florida muck is, much of it, rich in nitrogen. The composting
of raw finely ground phosphate with muck, and the application of this
compost in large quantities where it can be cheaply made is to be
recommended as an experiment likely to give good results. This
compost would, of course, need to be supplemented by the applica-
tion from time to time, as needed, of some form of potash. If the phos-
phate used in this compost contains considerable carbonate of lime,
all the better.
5. What is the real value of this material groundfine as compared
with commercial fertilizers, say Mapes' at $43?
Mapes' fertilizer, say his Fruit and Vine Manure, is a complete
fertilizer, containing about 7 per cent. of soluble, 3 per cent. of insol-
uble phosphoric acid, 3 per cent of nitrogen, 12 per cent. of potash.
It would probably be difficult to find a soil so sterile that it could not,
by the judicious use of this or any other similar fertilizer, be made to
produce good crops. On the other hand, no soil deficient in potash
and nitrogen could, by the use of this material alone, be made to yield
a crop at all. In other words, phosphate cannot take the place of
other elements of plant food. It is, therefore, not pertinent to com-
pare phosphate with a complete fertilizer.
2. COMPARATIVE VALUE OF RAW FINELY POW-
DERED PHOSPHATE AND OF ACIDULATED
PHOSPHATE AS A FERTILIZER.
A most important question is this: "What is the value, as a fer-
tilizer, of raw finely powdered phosphate, as compared with superphos-
phale?" By RAW FINELY powdered phosphate is meant either the soft or
hard rock phosphate reduced to a fine powder, and by superphosphate
is meant this powder treated with acid and the phosphate in it ren-
dered easily soluble. As the result of a series of most carefully con-
ducted experiments, Prof. Wagner, of Darmstadt, Germany, con-
cludes that the phosphoric acid in coprolite powder possesses 9 per
cent., that in bone meal, 10 per cent. of the value of that in superphos-
phate. The phosphate in coprolite powder and Florida rock is, from a
chemical standpoint, practically the same.
The price of phosphoric acid varies from about 2 to about 8 cents
a pound. In dissolved bone-black it costs about 8 cents a pound, in
dissolved South Carolina rock about 6 cents, in raw finely powdered
South Carolina rock about 2 to 3 cents. The Connecticut Experiment
ment Station has made a series of valuable experiments with these forms
of phosphoric acid. The report says: "That the the more expensive
forms are also the ones most quickly available to plants may readily
be admitted, but it is a question whether the cost prices stand always in
direct relation to the agricultural value; that is, on land deficient in
phosphates, will $5 per acre spent in buying dissolved bone-black, for
instance, yield a greater or less return in the long run than the same
money spent for South Carolina rock or other raw phosphates, seeing
that more than twice as much phosphoric acid can be bought for the
same money in some of the cheaper forms, as can be bought in dis-
In carrying out experiments to answer this question, all the
plots were supplied liberally with nitrogen and potash; some plots
received no other fertilizer. The effect of equal money value of the
following phosphates were compared on the other plots:
Plot A-42 cts. worth (32 lbs.) of dissolved bone-black contain-
ing 5.I lbs. phosphoric acid.
Plot B-42 cts. worth (56 lbs) of Grand Cayman's phosphate,
containing 16.5 lbs. of phosphoric acid.
Plot C-No phosphate.
Plot D-42 cts. worth (67Ylbs.) of Thomas-slag, containing 13.2
lbs. of phosphoric acid.
Plot E-42 cts. worth (7olbs.) ground S. C. phosphate rock, con-
taining I7.5 lbs. of phosphoric acid.
Plot F-No phosphate.
Grand Cayman's phosphate is a phosphatic rock, containing
considerable iron and alumina, from an island of that name. Thomas
-slag is a phosphatic byproduct of the steel manufacture. These
phosphates and the S. C. rock received no treatment except that of
pulverizing. Dissolved bone-black is one of the best forms of solu-
ble or superphosphates. The experiments extended over three years.
No phosphates were used after the first year. Indian corn was grown
each year. Putting the products of the plots which received no phos-
phate equal to 1oo, the results were as follows :
SEASON OF 1887.
Sound Soft Total
ears. ears. Stover. crop.
No phosphate . .... .. oo 100 oo0 100
Dissolved bone-black . 144 67 102 III
Grand Cayman's phosphate . ... 141 64 121 119
Thomas-slag. . ....... 140 57 107 110
South Carolina rok. k.. ........ .. .118 66 99 too
SEASON OF 1888.
No phosphate ... .. . oo ioo ioo 100
Dissolved bone-black. .. .... .. 1 77 112 io6
Grand Cayman's phosphate . 137 73 125 121
Thomas-slag.. ........ .. 140 65 135 125
South Carolina rock .. .. 127 80 118 115
SEASON OF 1889.
Sound and soft ears
No phosphate.. ... ............. oo
Dissolved bone-black . . .. . oo
Grand Cayman's phosphate. .. ... . 145
Thomas-slag. . ........... . 1. 56
South Carolina rock. ............. .129
These results are stated as follows: 1887-"In that season and
on that land $5.00 would have paid about equally well whether it was
spent for dissolved bone-black, Grand Cayman's phosphate or Thomas
-slag." "An equal money value of ground South Carolina rock
produced less than half as much increase of sound ears as the other
phosphates and no increase at all of stover."
i888-"South Carolina rock made considerably larger percent-
age increase than the year before, showing that it was slowly becom-
ing available in the soil." "The seasons and the land being such as
they were, $5.00, if invested in 1887 in Grand Cayman's phosphate
or Thomas-slag, would have yielded, in 1887, as much income as if
invested in dissolved bone black, and in 1888 would have yielded a
much larger income." "Where dissolved bone-black was applied in
1887 there was not quite sufficient phosphoric acid left in the soil
from this application to meet the requirements of the crop for 1888."
1889.-"The stover was so damaged by continuous wet weather
and blight, that it was not thought worth while to weigh it." Hence
only the ears remain for comparison. "The investment made in
Thomas-slag, Grand Cayman's phosphate and South Carolina rock in
1887 was still paying considerable dividends in 1889, while the in-
vestment in dissolved bone-black had ceased to yield any returns
On this particular piece of land and in these three seasons, Thomas-
slag and Grand Cayman's phosphate have been more profitable than
There is no reason, known to the writer, why it may not be
safely assumed that Florida phosphates will act very similarly to
South Carolina and Grand Cayman.
To sum the phosphate question up in a word, the matter stands
I. for immediate and quick results the superphosphates are con-
ceded to be the best as a general rule.
2. If equal sums of money are invested in finely ground raw phos-
phate and in superphosphate, the returns from the raw phosphates will
in the long-run exceed, in many, if not all cases, the returns from
3. It must be borne in mind that the above are general
statements. The soils and seasons are all important factors; and what is
true of one soil and one season may not prove true of another soil and
3. SUPERPHOSPHATE FROM A LOW GRADE ROCK
CONTAINING MUCH ALUMINA.
We are often asked as to the practicability of converting low
grade phosphates with high per cent. of iron or aluminium, by means
of sulphuric acid, into superphosphate. Last winter a rock which
Moisture . ... 1.77 per cent.
Insoluble matter. . 36.90 "
Phosphoric acid, total .. ... .21.49 equivalent to
46.91 tricalcic phosphate.
Phosphoric acid soluble in water 15
Ferric oxide . .... .. 0.44
Alumina . . .. .136 "
Lime ............. 28.oo "
was finely pulverized and treated with sulphuric acid according to the
Four parts by weight of the powdered rock; three parts by weight
of sulphuric acid, 1.5 specific gravity.
The acid was chemically pure. After mixing and standing two
days it analyzed,
Moisture at 1150 C ... .... ..... 22.32 per cent.
Total phosphoric acid ... ... . 12.50 "
Phosphoric acid soluble n winer . 11.31 "
Reverted phosphoric acid. . ... o.11 "
Citrate insoluble phosphoric acid . ... .o8 "
Another but much larger portion treated according to the same
formula analyzed, after standing 89 days,
Moisture at 1150 C. . . 18.1o per cent.
Total phosphoric acid .... ...... 12.50 "
Phosphoric acid soluble in water . .. 7.56 "
Reverted phosphoric acid . . ... 3.43 "
Citrate insoluble phosphoric acid. . .. 1.80 "
It will be observed that, when freshly made, the superphosphate
contained 11.31 per cent. of phosphoric acid soluble in water and only
o. II per cent. of reverted; but after standing three months (89 days), the
water soluble had dropped to 7.56 per cent. and the reverted risen to
3.43 per cent.
By reverted phosphoric acid is understood acid which, having once
been made easily soluble in water, has "reverted," or gone back, to a
form no longer soluble in water (or rather no longer easily soluble in
water). "Reversion" is due in part, so it is believed, to the presence
of iron and aluminium; hence in part the objection to iron and alumi-
nium in phosphate. Another objection to them is that they tend to
render the superphosphate sticky, and thus prevent their readily drying
out and becoming pulverulent. In this particular case the drying-out
process was slow, and even to the last the goods was somewhat moist,
not so much so, however, as to prevent the possibility of its being
sacked and shipped.
In the commercial valuation of fertilizers, phosphoric acid soluble
in water is estimated at about 8 cents a pound, reverted at 7 4 cents,
and the raw (or non-acidulated), as it occurs in finely ground rock, at 2
cents. At these rates, aton of our superphosphate (three months old) is
worth $18.70. The rock from which this superphosphate was made con-
tained in round numbers 47 per cent. of phosphate. A 75 per cent.
rock would have given a goods containing 18 to 20 per cent. of
water-soluble phosphoric acid. Where there is long transportation
and consequently much freight, it would be far better for the farmer
to buy the high grade goods, thus avoiding the cost of transporting
an unnecessarily large amount of useless dirt.
Our rock produced a superphosphate containing 7.56 per cent.
water-soluble phosphoric acid. This is too low a percentage to
permit its being used for compounding a complete fertilizer. The
admixture of the necessary potash and nitrogen would produce a goods
containing not more, perhaps, than 3 or 4 per cent. of water-soluble
As long as the high grade phosphates are abundant, the low grades
can have only a local and limited use. There are, however, on the
market "acid phosphates" or superphosphates of no higher grade
than this one (7.56 per cent. of soluble phosphoric acid), but the
farmer who buys them pays freight on too much useless matter.
In a previous bulletin (No. 7) a number of annalyses of muck
from various parts of the State was given. Several additional analy-
ses are subjoined here. Opinions, in this State, vary widely as to
the value of muck. A sufficient explanation of this difference of
opinion may be found in the widely varying character of muck. One
muck will differ from another, not only as to the quantity of fertilizer
constituents, but also as to physical condition, that is, stage or degree
of disintegration and decomposition. A careful study of the analyses
given in this bulletin will be of use. In the table, following, is given
the maximum, minimum and average per cent. of nitrogen, phos-
phoric acid and potash in eight samples of muck from various parts of
the State, and, by way of comparison, in twenty one samples of barn-
yard manure (analyzed at the Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment
Nitrogen is valued at about 8 cts. in hair, horn shavings and
coarse fish-scrap; at 15 cts. a pound in cotton-seed meal; at 17 cts.
in ammoniates and in dry, fine-ground fish, meat and blood; potash
at about 4Y cts.; and phosphoric acid at 2 cts. in fine-ground phos-
phate rock and 8 cts. when soluble in water. Nitrogen is thus the
most costly plant food pound per pound that the farmer has to buy.
There are in Florida muck beds containing great quantities of nitro-
gen. Whether or not this nitrogen can be economically made avail-
able, and the best methods of making it available, are question-
worthy of most careful study.
Muck (wet)............. 88.956 11.22 49.45 68.15 10.74 3039 68.0 0.31 20.16 2.88 0.44
Barnyard manure (wet).. 21 ...... ...... 9.77...... ..... 21.87 ........... 8.36 0.67 0.36
Muck (dry)................ 8............ .. 87.88 19.10 68.39 80.90 2.81 31.60 4.00 0.85
Barnyard manure (dry).. 21 .. .. .... ........... ....... *72.31 ...... ..... *7.66 ..... ......
i i a)
1.11 0.77 0.004 0.14 0.24
0.411 0.88 0.130 0.40 0.75'
2.63 0.90 0.03 0.17 0.37
*1.35 .... *1.32 ......
0.10 56.68 .13 16.94
0.28 ... ...... 94
0.20 66.55 1.17' 25.18
*0.93 .. ...... *23.89
Calculated from the wet.
Valuation per ton, reckoning Nitrogen at o1 cents a pound, Phosphoric Acid at 2 cents and Potash at 5 cents:
Barnyard manure, wet-Maximum, $2.52 Minimum, $0.70 Average, $1.33
Muck, wet............... 5.82 .89 2.40
Barnyard manure, dry ...... ...... 4.39
M uck, dry............... 8.07 2.18 '' 5.51
ORGANIC MATTER.-The muck, after being freed of moisture, is burnt at a low red heat; the loss in weight is reck-
oned as organic matter.
ASH -The residue after burning is called the ash, but is in this case not a true ash, containing, as it does, the sand,
mud, etc., mixed in with the muck.
Close inspection of this table and the analyses which follow be-
low will reveal these facts, namely:
i. The muck contains a great deal more nitrogen and much
less potash and phosphate than the barn-yard manure.
2. The muck contains comparatively much nitrogen but is defi-
cient in potash and phosphate. Hence in the use of muck as a fer-
tilizer, one should expect that it would need to be supplemented by
potash and phosphate.
3. The quantity of moisture in the muck runs from about ten to
about fifty per cent.; even after it has been taken from the ponds
and thrown up in heaps to dry, it will still, as it is usually hauled to
the fields, contains more than fifty per cent. of moisture as a general
4. The quantity of nitrogen is not, as at first thought one might
be inclined to suppose, always proportional to the quantity of or-
ganic matter; that is, it does not always follow that the greater the
quantity of organic matter the greater will be the quantity of
J (a) Organic matter 29.82 per cent. Nitrogen 1.17 per cent.
Examples: ((b) 96.96 I.i6 "
S(c) '" 19.10 0.85 "
(d) 77.98 0.94 "
Muck (a) and muck (b) contain practically the same quantity of
nitrogen, but there is nearly three and one-half times as much or-
ganic matter in (b) as in (a).
5. Fifteen samples of our muck, when perfectly dry, contained
between 56 and 97 per cent. of organic matter; twelve ot the fifteen
contained from two to four per cent. of nitrogen, three less than
two per cent., and one less than one per cent. Five samples contained
less than 55 per cent. of organic matter, four of which contain between
one and two per cent. of nitrogen and one less than one per cent.
As is well known, plants of different kinds and different
parts of the same plant contain different amounts of plant food. In
the perfectly dry state, pea vines for example contain about two per
cent. of nitrogen; wheat straw only about one per cent. One would
naturally expect that a muck if formed by the disintegration of the
former would contain more nitrogen than if by that of the latter.
6. These considerations will in part explain the fact that
most of our mucks which contain a high per cent. of organic matter
in advanced stage of decomposition contain also a high per cent.
(more than two per cent.) of nitrogen, and that
7. There are among our mucks several which, though contain
ing a high per cent. of organic matter, seemingly far advanced in
disintegration, nevertheless have a low percentage of nitrogen (less
than two per cent.).
In judging of the value of a muck three things, at least, are to be
taken into account: i. The kind or kinds of plants from which
formed. 2. The quantity of organic matter in the muck, and 3. The
stage of decomposition.
As to the best methods of using muck, opinions differ somewhat.
It should be remembered that in addition to its value as a fertihzer
purely, is, what some regard as of more importance, its value as a
mulch. As stated before, its content of potash and phosphate is gen-
erally too small to be of consequence; it is its nitrogen that gives
it importance. The nitrogen, however, is in a very insoluble, in-
active form; still there is little doubt that as the process of
oxidation and decay goes on, much. if not all, of the nitrogen
gradually and slowly becomes available; and it is not impossible
that if a good quality of muck is spread upon a field in large quan-
tity, it may furnish all the nitrogen needed. Whether or not this
is an economical source of nitrogen depends, of course, among
other things, on the labor and cost of placing it upon the field,
and is to be determined for each farm for itself.
When it is desired to render the nitrogen speedily available,
composting is resorted to. Just what takes place in the compost
heap is only partially understood. This much, however, is known:
a process of heating and fermentation takes place whereby the vege-
table tissues are disintegrated and the insoluble nitrogen converted
into soluble forms (nitrates and nitrites). The conditions favorable
to this process are moisture, warmth (about 980 to o100 Fahren-
heit), contact with oxygen of the air (hence the value of turning
over the heap occasionally), exclusion of too much light. Substances
whose presence in the compost heap favor the process are: all easily
putrescible animal or vegetable matter (such as barn-yard manure,
cottonseed meal, urine, the offal from slaughter houses, blood, flesh, fish-
scrap); alkalies (potash, soda, lime); carbonate of lime (wood ashes.
finely ground and unburnt oyster shells, marl, rotten limestone).
Here in Florida the so-called soft phosphates or finely ground phos
phates of any kind that contain a large per cent. of carbonate of
lime, would seem specially to recommend themselves in this con-
As to the proportion of muck that should be mixed with these
substances, no fixed rule can be given, for the reason, among oth-
ers, that muck is so variable in quality. Some use only so much vege-
etable or animal matter as is barely sufficient to bring about the com-
plete fermentation ot the muck; for example, one part of barn yard ma-
nure to one, two, three, four or five parts of muck. In the case
of the alkalies and carbonate of lime, too large a proportion pre-
vents fermentation entirely. There are mucks that will of them-
selves, without addition of foreign matter, ferment if thrown up in
Twenty tons of well fermented barnyard manure per acre would
not be regarded a large application; filty or sixty tons per acre are
sometimes applied on vegetable gardens near the large cities. Simi-
larly, if full benefit of muck is to be reaped, it should be applied in
In view of the large quantity and in many cases high quality of
the muck in this State, the conditions most favorable to nitrification
(conversion of the insoluble into soluble nitrogen) are worthy of care-
lul and extended investigation, and it is hoped that experiments in
this line can be undertaken at no very distant day.
TABLE SHOWING PERCENTAGE OF FERTILIZER CON-
STITUENTS IN WET AND DRY MUCK.
SAMPLE NUMBERS. 297 298 299 601 592 595
Water,.................. 84.30 59.57 88.95 11.22 22.45 85.15
Ash................. 2.25 22.90 0.31 38.90 9.40 3.00
Organic Matter.......... 13.45 17.53 10.74 49.88 68.15 11.85
100.00 1 0 100.00 100. 00 .100.00 100.00
Nitrogen................. 0.62 0.66 0.44 2.41 2.88 0.49
Insoluble Matter....... 0.86 19.91 0.13 35.52 7.94 2.51
Phosphoric Acid......... 0.06 0.11 0.01 0.07 0.10 0.01
Potash................... 0.01 0.02 0.004 .02 0.02 0.005
Soda..................... 0.0 0.03 0.014 0.13 0.05 0.014
41 51 Average.
29.13 14.83 49.45
15.60 68.90 20.16
55.27 16.27 30.39
100.00 100.00 100.00
0.66 0.70 1.11
8.36 56.68 16.49
0.22 0.24 0.10
S0.13 0.77 0.14
S0.75 1.68 0.33
W ater........ ....... ..... ...... ... ....
Ash........ .............. 14.33
Organic Matter......... 85.67
Soda... ......... .......
298 299 6
43.82 12.12 20.21
56.18 87.88 79.79
00.00 100.00 100.00
1.64 4.00 2.72
49.24 1.17 39.99
0.28 0.07 0.08
0.05 0.04 0.03
0.07 0.13 0.15
293 and 294. MUCK.
Samples sent on by G. Jackson, Apopka, Fla. Mr. Jackson says
of this muck that the bed is on the north side of Bear Lake, is three or
four miles long, 200 feet wide and from one to four feet deep; that there
are bays in the lake where the muck is much deeper; that they have
drained the lake about three feet; that he has grown some very fine
potatoes, cabbage, beans and onions on the muck, and that wherever
he has applied it as a fertilizer it has made good growth.
W ater . . .
A sh . . .
Organic matter . ..
Nitrogen . . .
Equivalent to ammonia .
(a) is the wet muck; (b) is the muck dried perfectly by artificial
Valuation per ton: 293--wet $1.40, dry $3.88; 294-wet $1.48,
dry $3 38. In this valuation nitrogen only is taken into account and
at o1 cents a pound. This number is perhaps too large; 7 or 8 cents
a pound would be more nearly correct.
295 and 296. MUCK.
Samples of H. G. Hastings, Interlachen, Fla. No account of
its source or use.
Water . . .. 69.55
Ash . ..... . 3.75 12.31
Organic matter . ... 26.70 87.69
Nitrogen .. ........ .. 0.85 2.87
Equivalent to ammonia ..... .06 3.49
Value per ton: 295,-wet $. 70, dry $5.74; 296
-wet $2.04, dry
Samples of David McClardy, Lake Worth, Fla. Bed 40 acres
in extent, situated at the north end of little Lake Worth, one mile
from ocean beach.
Analysis. Wet. Dry.
Water . . ... .84.30
Ash . . . .. 2.25 14.33
Organic matter . .. 13 45 85.67
Nitrogen. . . 0.62
Equivalent to ammonia . .. 0.75
A partial analysis of the ash of this muck to ascertain the per
cent. of potash and phosphoric acid gave:
Sand and insoluble matter .. . .38.27
Phosphoric acid. . . . 2.57
Potash . . . . .40
Soda .... .. . . 1.04
A ton of this muck contains, wet, 45 pounds of ash, 1.16 pounds
of phosphoric acid and .18 pounds of potash; dry, 286.6 pounds of
ash, 7.36 pounds of phosphoric acid, 15 pounds of potash.
Value per ton:
Nitrogen . .. 12.4 lbs. at ioc.
Phosphoric acid .16 lbs. at 2c.
Potash ... o. 18 lb. at 5c.
$1.24 78.4 lbs. at ioc.
.02 7.36 lbs. at 2C.
.01 1.i5 lbs. at 5c.
Sample of C. D. Wood, Archer, Fla. Mr. Wood says of this
muck: "It was taken from a muck bed situated in a dense hammock
and surrounded by hard wood trees of a large size. It covers about
five acres and is from three to five feet deep. It is covered with water
during the wet season but entirely dry now (May 8, '91). When
taken out it pulverizes readily and mixes with the soil. I have been
using it around orange trees for three years with excellent results as
far as producing a gobd healthy growth and giving to the tree a dark
green color. But I am inclined to believe there is some element lack-
ing for fruit making, as the large trees, when I use it and nothing else,
do not bear well."
The element or elements lacking in this, as in almost all muck,
are phosphoric acid and potash.
Water ............. 59.57
Ash . . . 22.90
Organic matter . .. 17-53
Nitrogen . . .
Equivalent to ammonia . .
The ash contains:
Sand and insoluble matter . .
Phosphoric acid . . .
Potash . ...
Soda . . . .
The quantity of fertilizer elements in a
their value, is:
Nitrogen ... .13.2 lbs. at ioc., $1.32.
Phosphoric acid 2.29 lbs. at 2c., 0.04.
Potash ... 0.37 lb. at 5c., 0.02.
Total value per ton. . $1.38
. . 86.93
. 0 50
ton of this muck, with
32.8 lbs. at ioc.,
5.7 lbs. at 2c.,
0.9 lb. at 5c.,
Sample of J. R. Hurst, Lake Helen, Fla. No account of its
occurrence or use.
Water. . .
Ash . .
Organic matter .
88.95 per cent.
Nitrogen . 0.44 "
Equivalent to ammonia 0.54 "
2.81 per cent.
The ash contains
Sand and insoluble matter .. 41.66 per cent.
Phosphoric acid. . . 2.50
Potash . . . 1.32
Soda ......... .... 4.62
The quantity of fertilizer ingredients in a ton and their value is:
Nitrogen at io cents, 8.8 lbs., $0.88; 8o.o lbs., $8.00
Phosphoric acid at 2 cents, 0.15 lbs., .003; 1.4 lbs., 0.03
Potash at 5 cents, 0.08 lbs., o.oo04 0.7 lb., 0.04
Sample by C. W. Brown, Huntington, Fla. Mr. Brown says of
this muck: "It is in a grass pond of some eight or ten acres, is cov-
ered with two feet of water and about the same of common muck and
grass roots. The depth of the deposit is unknown, have only dug on
the edge of pond to any extent, have used it on grove, spreading it
broadcast and then penning cattle on it. The result is the grove is
the best looking one in this section. People wonder why it has come
on so well."
Water .. ...
Ash . .
Organic matter .
10.40 per cent.
70.18 per cent.
Nitrogen ..... 1.05
Equivalent to ammonia 1.72
Value per ton, nitrogen, at o1 cents,
$1.10; 23.4 lbs., $2.34.
6oi. SAMPLE OF G. T. LAWLER, HUDSON, PLA.
Mr. Lawler says: "The pond covers 8 or io acres and the
muck is in great masses like islands and is from two to four feet in
thickness. The bottom of the pond also seems to be covered with it.
In the rainy season, when the water gets high, it floats ashore and is
left there when the water goes down. It is strange that, although there
are numerous ponds around here, mine is the only one that has any
muck in it. I have used it on my orange grove (a small one of five
acres) and I find it very good. I spread it in a circle around the trees.
I have used no other fertilizer but the leaves and grass from the woods
about my place, and I do not know of any trees of their age that can
approach mine in size and thrift. About three years ago some small
boys killed a young alligator near the pond and I buried it in the muck
pile; about three weeks after that I went down to get some muck and
-dug into the place where it was buried and found only the bones
bleached as white as chalk. It also draws the skin on the
hands if you handle it. The soil in my grove is sandy, but is under-
laid with clay, or what we call clay for want of a better name. It is
a bright yellow color and when fresh dug has the smooth soapy feel of
clay, but when it dries it crumbles toa sandy powder. It seems to be
good for trees, for my best trees are where it is nearest the surface."
This muck was neither acid or alkaline in reaction.
Water. . .. . 11.22 per cent.
Ash . 38.90 "
Organic matter . .. 49.88 "
Nitrogen . . 2.41 "
Equivalent to ammonia .. 2.93 "
The ash contains-
oo.oo per cent.
Sand and insoluble matter . ... 91.30
Phosphoric acid ... . . 0.19
Potash. . . o.06
Soda . ... . . 0.34
The quantity of fertilizer constituents in a ton and their value are-
Nitrogen at io cts 48.2 lbs. $4.82
Phosphoric acid at 2 cts 1.4 .028
Potash at 5 cts ..... 0.4 .020
Total valuation per ton .... .$4.87
W after . . .. 22.45 per cent.
Ash . . . 9.40 "
Organic matter . . 68 15 "
Nitrogen . . .. .2.88 "
Equivalent to ammonia .... 3.51 "
The ash contains-
o.00 per cent.
12 12 "
S 100.00 "
" 4.52 "
Insoluble matter .. .. .. .84.48 per cent.
Phosphoric acid .. .... i1. t "
Potash . . . 0.25 "
Soda.. . ..... 0.53 "
The fertilizer constituents in a ton and their value are-
Nitrogen at io cts .. 57.6 lbs. $5.76
Phosphoric acid at 2 cts 2.0 .04
Potash at5 cts ...... .4 .02
Total valuation per ton .. ... $5.82
41. MUCK (salt or tide-water muck).
Water .. .. .... ..... 29.13 per cent.
Ash . . 15.60 "
Organic matter .... .. ..55.27 "
Nitrogen .. .... 0.66 "
The fertilizer constituents and their value are-
Nitrogen at 10 cts .. 13.2 lbs. $1.32
Phosphoric acid at 2 cts 4.4 .09
Potash at 5 cts . .. 2.6 .13
Total valuation per ton .. .. $1.54
74.2 lbs. $7.4Z
o.oo per cent.
From a river island; to be regarded rather as river mud than
Water ............. 14.83 per cent.
Ash ... .. .. 68.90 "
Organic matter . .. 16.27 "
Nitrogen . .. ... 0.70
The fertilizer constituents in a ton and their valu;
Nitrogen at io cts. ... 14.0 lbs. $1.40
Phosphoric acid at 2 cts. .. 4.8 .o1
Potash at 5 cts .... 15.4 -77
Total valuation per ton ..... $2.27
Samples from a saw-grass pond.
Water ..... . 85.15 per cent.
Ash . ....... 300 "
Organic matter ... .. 1.i85 "
Nitrogen . . 0.49 "
oo.oo per cent.
80 90 "
17.o lbs. $1.70
oo.oo per cent.
The fertilizer constituents in a ton and their valuation are-
Nitrogen at 10 cts ... .9.8 lbs. $0.98 66.0 lbs.
Phosphoric acid at 2 cts 0.2 0.004 1.4 "
Potash at 5 cts. .... 0.1 .005 0.6 "
Total valuation per ton . $o.99
Sample from a pond situated on high pine land near Barberville,
W after . . .. 15.75
Ash . . 34.70
Organic matter .... --. 49-55
Nitrogen . . 2.06
Valuation per ton (nitrogen alone) $4.12
Sample of J. D. Green, Sea Side, Fla.
per cent. oo.oo per cent.
(9" 41.19 "
" 58.81 "
S 2.45 "
Analysis. Wet. Dry.
Water. . . .30.42 per cent. oo.oo per cent.
Ash ......... 42.11 60.52 "1
Organic matter. ........27.47 39.48 3'
100.00 i00.00 "
Nitrogen . . 0.47 0.67 "
Valuation per ton (nitrogen alone). $0.94 $1.34
600. BAT GUANO (sent by H. L. Reed, Macclenny, Fla.).
Moisture .......... 16.90 per cent.
Ash. . .. .. ... 7.45 per cent.
Organic matter .. .. 75.65 per cent.
100oo.oo per cent.
Nitrogen . . ..... 11.34 per cent.
Phosphoric acid ... ... 2.67 per cent.
Potash . . .... i.o8 per cent.
Valuation per ton,
Nitrogen at io cents; 223.8 pounds ... .$22.38
Phosphoric acid at 2 cents; 53 4 pounds .. 1.07
Potash at 5 cents; 21.6 pounds . ... 1.08
289. RICE HULLS (sent by J. E. Cole, Glen St. Mary, Fla.).
Mr. Cole desired to know their probable value as cattle food.
Moisture .. . 12.58 per cent.
Ash . . . II.6o per cent.
Crude fat ....... 5.88 per cent.
Crude fiber . . 20.58 per cent.
Crude protein .. .... . 7.25 per cent.
Nitrogen free extract . .. 42.00 per cent.
True albuminoids. . . 7.00 per cent.
The indications are that this is an excellent cattle food. These
hulls contained a considerable quantity of broken grains of rice.
Bulletins mailed free to any farmer or fruit grower on application.
Any Sub-Alliance in the State can receive bulletins by forward-
ing names, either on postal'cards or by letter, to
JAS. P. DEPASS, DIRECTOR,
Lake City, Florida.