• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Credits
 Introduction
 Table of Contents
 History
 Botany
 Scale of ideal tomato
 Twelve good tomatoes
 How to improve our tomatoes
 Use of chemical analysis
 Enemies of the tomato
 Tomato
 Egg-Plant
 Irish potato
 Beans and cow peas
 Squash
 Cabbage
 Beets
 Melons
 Daphne odora
 Hydrangea














Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 21
Title: Tomato and some of its diseases
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 Material Information
Title: Tomato and some of its diseases
Series Title: Bulletin - University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 21
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Language: English
Creator: Rolfs, P. H.
Vance-Garrett Printing Co. ( Printer )
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Publication Date: 1893
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Credits
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
    History
        Page 5
    Botany
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Scale of ideal tomato
        Page 7
    Twelve good tomatoes
        Page 8
        Page 9
    How to improve our tomatoes
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Use of chemical analysis
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Enemies of the tomato
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
    Tomato
        Page 26
        Image 1
        Image 2
    Egg-Plant
        Page 27
    Irish potato
        Page 27
    Beans and cow peas
        Page 27
    Squash
        Page 28
    Cabbage
        Page 28
    Beets
        Page 29
    Melons
        Page 29
    Daphne odora
        Page 29
    Hydrangea
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
Full Text


Bulletin No. 21.


FLORIDA, LIBRARY-
OF NEV AO 0

Agricul u ral E:xperiment tation


BIOLOGICAL DEPARTMENT.




The Tomato and Some of Its Diseases.




BY P. H. ROLFS.



The Bulletins of this Station will be sent free to any address in Florida upon
application to the Director of the Experiment Station, Lake City, Fla.


The Vance-Garnett Printing. Co., Jacksonville, f1a,


October, 1893.























BOARD OF TRUSTEES.


HON. WALTER GWYNN, President................................................Sanford
W. D. CHIPLEY, Vice-President.................................. Pensacola
F. E. HARRIS, Chairman Executive Committee ........................Ocala
A. B. HAGAN, Secretary ..................... ..........................Lake City
S. STRINGER ...... ...................................Brooksville
S. J..TURNBULL...................... ...................... Monticello
C. F. A. BIELBY.............................................. ..................DeLand
STATION STAFF.
O CLUTE, M S., LL.D .......................................... .................. D director
J. N W HITNER, A M ...................................... ................ H horticulturist
P H R OLFS, M S.............. ........................... ....................... ...Biologist
A. A. PERSONS, M. S ................ ................. ... ......Chemist
WM. G. DEPAB................ ............ ................Assistant Agriculturist
C. A. FINLEY.............................. ................. Director's Secretary
L. C. WASHBURN ................. ....Superintendent Fort Myers Sub-station
J. T. STUBB................ ................Superintendent DeFuniak Sub-station













INTRODUCTION.


Growing tomatoes is one of the important and increasing
industries of Florida. To know the best varieties, the best meth-
ods of cultivation, and the best ways of fighting diseases and
insect pests means annually many dollars to the individual grow-
ers, and a large sum in the aggregate to the people of the State.
In this bulletin, No. 21, Prof. Rolfs, Biologist of the Experi-
ment Station, states some valuable points in regard to selecting
seed, growing the young plants, and their after cultivation,
founded on his observation and experience. He has for some
years made a study of the insects injurious to the tomato and of
the diseases which affect it. His work last summer led him to
the very significant discovery that the disease in Florida
known as "tomato blight' is a fungus, the mycelia of which en-
ter the tomato plant from the soil and grow within the
tissues of the plant. The discovery has already led to
methods of battling with the blight that have helped much
in holding it in check. Prof. Rolfs will continue the investiga-
tion, and it is hoped that the work of the coming year will reach
results that will enable all growers to save themselves from furth-
er loss by this disease,
O. CLUTE,
Director.
Lake City, Fla., October, 1893.






















TABLE OF CONTENTS.

PAGE
H history of the Tom ato........................................... ............. 5
Botany of the Tom ato........ ...................................... ............... 5-7
Scale of Ideal Tom ato............................................ .... ......... .......- 7-8
Twelve Good Tomatoes.................. ................. 8-9
How to Improve Tomatoes.................. ................. 10-11
Treatment Before Setting Out......................... ............... 12
Machine for Transplanting ...................................... .............. 13
Use of Chemical Anaylsis.................................... 14
How to Use Fertilizers........... ........ .... ....... 14-18
Enemies of the Tomato................... ......... ....................... 19
Boll-worm.................. .. .... ........ ............ 19
P hytoptosus................. ............... ................... ........................ 23
Nematodes................... ....... ............................. 24
Blight......................... .... ...... .............. ....... ......... 25
Black Rot.......................... .................... 36
D dropping of Buds.................................................. ............ 37














The Tomato, and Some of Its Diseases.


History.
The tomato is a native of tropical America, where it was
cultivated by the natives before Columbus sailed across the
Atlantic. The invading European carried it back with him,
and cultivated it as a curiosity. While it was cultivated as an
ornamental plant it was considered poisonous, and the name love
apple was given to it. Many of the older people now living re-
member when it was known by this name, and was considered
anything but palatable.
It was found by Dr. E. L. Sturtevant that (Md. 2d Ann.
Rep.) they were eaten by the French at New Orleans as early as
1812, and grown as vegetables in New York in 1825, while in
New England they were treated as curiosities in 1832. The
value of the crop in the United States now is several millions of
dollars annually. New Jersey, Maryland and Virginia each
raise very large crops; that of Virginia alone is estimated to be
over a million dollars annually. North Carolina and Georgia
make it an important industry. In Florida it is rapidly ap-
proaching the million-dollar line. The last crop was consider-
ably cut back by diseases from what it otherwise would have
been. There are few crops grown that will bring a cash return
in so short a time.

Botany.
There are two species of the genus Lycopersicum now in
cultivation.
1. Lycopersicum pimpinellifolium, Dum., is known as grape
tomato, currant tomato, and sometimes other names are used.
This species grows its fruit in a two-ranked raceme. The indi-
vidual berries are usually smaller than a scuppernong grape. Its














The Tomato, and Some of Its Diseases.


History.
The tomato is a native of tropical America, where it was
cultivated by the natives before Columbus sailed across the
Atlantic. The invading European carried it back with him,
and cultivated it as a curiosity. While it was cultivated as an
ornamental plant it was considered poisonous, and the name love
apple was given to it. Many of the older people now living re-
member when it was known by this name, and was considered
anything but palatable.
It was found by Dr. E. L. Sturtevant that (Md. 2d Ann.
Rep.) they were eaten by the French at New Orleans as early as
1812, and grown as vegetables in New York in 1825, while in
New England they were treated as curiosities in 1832. The
value of the crop in the United States now is several millions of
dollars annually. New Jersey, Maryland and Virginia each
raise very large crops; that of Virginia alone is estimated to be
over a million dollars annually. North Carolina and Georgia
make it an important industry. In Florida it is rapidly ap-
proaching the million-dollar line. The last crop was consider-
ably cut back by diseases from what it otherwise would have
been. There are few crops grown that will bring a cash return
in so short a time.

Botany.
There are two species of the genus Lycopersicum now in
cultivation.
1. Lycopersicum pimpinellifolium, Dum., is known as grape
tomato, currant tomato, and sometimes other names are used.
This species grows its fruit in a two-ranked raceme. The indi-
vidual berries are usually smaller than a scuppernong grape. Its









color is bright red and the fruit is more attractive than pleasant.
It is'sometimes grown for pickles, but oftener as an ornament.
2. Lycopersicum esculentum, Dum., is the species that con-
tains the varieties which include our commercial kinds.
The following are recognized as varieties by botanists:
A. Var. cerasiforme, the cherry-shaped tomatoes, may be at
first sight taken as a very large form of the currant tomato (L.
pimpinellifoliumn), but there are fewer fruits in a cluster and the
foliage is coarser. The color of the fruit may be either red or
yellow, the leaves are lighter colored and usually are smaller
than in the common market kinds, but the general shape is the
same. Green gage, peach and white apple belong to this variety.
B. Var. pyriforme contains those that are more or less pear-
shaped or oblong. There are two groups: the pear-shaped and
the oblong. King Humbert and Criterion are examples.
C. Var. vulgare. To this variety belong the different forms
of our cultivated kinds. 1st. Angular form were the first culti-
vated for market; they are not so popular now; they are flat and
very irregular, making too much waste in preparing for table.
2nd. Apple-shaped form is the one usually cultivated for market.
There are purple, red, yellow and white members in this form,
the red predominating.
D. Var. grandifolium, or large-leafed tomatoes. Mikado,
Puritan and Shah are members of this variety. They are much
prized for home market, but are too large to make a good ship-
ping tomato. The main difference between, these and members
of var. vulgare is that the leaves of this variety are much larger,
the leaflets about two pair, and the leaves of the young plants
entire. They are mostly purple, but red and yellow ones have
been grown.
E. Var. validum contains the upright forms. French up-
right or tree tomato is a representative; the fruit is red.
Briefly expressed, we have:
Fruit small in many berried racemes, leaves small, stems
slender. Lycopersicum pimpinellifolium.
Fruit larger, few in a cluster; leaves large, stems stocky.
Lycopersicum esculentum.
Fruit not large, globular, two-celled, red or yellow; foliage
light colored. Var. eerasiforme.
Fruit larger, pear-shaped or oblong; pendant, red or yellow;
foliage dark green, coarse. Var. pyrforme.










1st. Pear-shaped form. 2nd. Oblong form.
Fruit large, angular or apple-shaped, purple, red, striped,
yellow or white; foliage abundant; leaves of several leaflets,
stems stocky. Var. vulgare.
1st. Augular form. 2nd. Apple-shaped form.
Fruit large, purple, red or yellow; leaves very large, of
young plants entire; leaflets few, very large. Var. grandifolium.
Fruit medium, branches standing upright, tree-like.
Var. validum.
cf. Cornell, B. 32; Mich. B. 48; Md. 2d Ann. Rep.




Scale of Ideal Tomato.

Since the cultivation of the tomato began there has been a
constant increase in the size of the fruit and in the weight of the
herbage. The increase in size of fruit has probably gone beyond
the profitable point in some kinds, as those bearing the largest
fruits are not the most prolific bearers, nor do they give the
largest crop. Then, again, the size of the fruit is increased at the
expense of the constitution of the plant, or the power to resist dis-
eases.
The following is the scale of an ideal tomato for Florida:

Vigor of plant.................................20
Productiveness.....................................15
Shipping qualities................................15
Earliness ......................................... 10
Color.................................. .......... 10
Shape .............................................. 10
Size..................................... ......10
Flavor ............................................ 5
Cooking qualities............................... 5

By referring to the scale of the ideal tomato for Florida, it
will be seen that great stress is laid on the vigor of the plant
This point should be carefully guarded, because diseases of the
plants have caused more loss than all other causes combined. It
is easier to cultivate a field of healthy, vigorous plants than a
field of sickly ones.










Productiveness is everywhere an important quality, and one
that shows considerable variation in different kinds, and often in
different strains of the same kind.
Some tomatoes are good in every other respect, but do not
ship well. They may for some unknown cause rot earlier than
other kinds when they are subject to exactly the same conditions;
then, they may not ship well because of being soft or easily
bruised.
In some localities earliness is also an important factor; but in
localities where there are no winter frosts this point would not
scale so much.
Color, shape and size are qualities that are simply matters
of convenience and of preference. As the market value of a
vegetable depends very much on its appearance. Whatever quali-
ties go to make up its appearance must not be overlooked. The
flavor and cooking qualities are not given many points, because
these are not affected by different kinds to an extent which
injures the market value.
A brief description of some of the kinds that are popular in
Florida will be given here. There are some kinds that are quite
new and promise to be as good as any in this list, and there are
some old ones that are nearly as good as these; but the list is so
long that it cannot be given.




Twelve Good Tomatoes.
(1.) Beauty has its fruit uniformly smooth and of even size;
slightly flatter than Stone; the color is pink; good shipper and
fair flavor; stands fairly against disease; some fields suffered
from macrosporium and from blight; yield good. With some
growers it is quite a favorite. On the whole, it is one of our best
kinds.
2. Ignotum originated at the Michigan Agricultural Col-
lege, and has been offered by seedmen for a number of years. A
vigorous grower, fairly early and quite productive; a good
keeper and shipper; deep red and large on well fertilized soil;
smooth and of good flavor. It may not be the most resisting
against disease.
3. Long-keeper is another good one of the purple kind. It










is of medium size, and ripens quite evenly. Its right to this
name has been disputed, but whenever the field was free from
disease no complaint has been heard.
4. Mikado has been much praised. It is a fine tomato for
home use; a little too large to make a good shipper. The blight
is very severe on this kind.
5. Red Mikado is like Mikado, except that it is red
instead of purple.
6. Paragon is of a good size; rather late; the color red;
the fruit somewhat inclined to be angular, but generally regular;
solid, but less productive than Volunteer.
7. Peach is given because it is somewhat of a novelty;
does not bear much handling; a small pinkish tomato, with
more or less of a peach bloom and roughness; palatable, and a
decided acquisition to the table-garden; qualities good, but too
soft for shipping.
8. Perfection is highly praised in seed catalogues, but can-
not stand shipping.
9. Potato-l4af is so called because of the peculiar foliage.
It belongs to the Mikado kinds. The color is pink; fruit large,
and a good producer, but cannot stand the rough handling of
shipping.
10. Stone is quite solid on account of the thick cell walls,
consequently a good shipper. More spherical than Beauty, and
often has a scar or other irregularity at the apex. The fruit
averaged a little heavier than that of Beauty. Probably some-
what more attacked by blight than Beauty, but less by macros-
porium.
11. Volunteer is quite similar to Paragon, but more regu-
lar and more productive; a good all-round tomato.
12. Acme is another good variety. It will class well with
Beauty and with Stone. In some cases it seemed quite certain
that the so-called Acme tomatoes were really Stone.














How to Improve Our Tomatoes.

The present kinds could be much improved by selecting our
own seed, always keeping in mind the points desired. Selecting
seed from fruit that is not ripe makes the fruit ripen earlier, but
at the expense of the vigor of the plant and size of fruit.* Selecting
*E. S. Goff, Wis. Agrl. Exp. Sta. 8th Ann. Rep., p. 152.
from diseased plants produces a predisposition in the progeny to
take the disease. Selecting seed from culls or from fruit in any
way defective will tend to reproduce this character. It would
not be well to plant several varieties together if one wishes "to
raise seed. The varieties mix to such an extent that the progeny
v ill not be like either parent, and often it happens that the result
of such mixing gives a much inferior fruit. This is due to the
tendency that fruits have to revert to the ancient parent; a ten-
dency known in breeding as atavism.
The results of taking the seed for six successive generations
from tomatoes not ripe as compared with seed taken from fully
ripe tomatoes of the same variety showed that the amount of
foliage and stems by weight was less than half as much in the
plants from immature seed as from plants from ripe seed. The
comparison of the number of fruits showed those from the
immature seed more than double that of the same number of
plants from mature seed. The average weight of the individual
fruit of the immature seed was found to be about an eleventh less
than that of the mature fruit. Selecting green tomatoes for seed
had a tendency to make the fruit ripen earlier, but with this
there was a loss in firmness and in keeping qualities. Both
of these are essential elements and must not be looked upon too
lightly.
Another important pointlis that immature seed is much less
liable to germinate. Fruit growers frequently complain of par-
ticular kinds running out." From what has been said in re-
gard to breeding, it will be seen that it is quite out of the normal
for them to do otherwise. The particular surroundings will
cause some point to be fostered at the expense of others. In the
above illustration of choosing green fruit for seed, at the end of
six generations the plants from the immature seed produced










weaker vines, more fruit, smaller fruit, and the fruit matured,
on an average, twelve days earlier. The above points seem to be
important enough to found a new kind of tomato. This en-
forces the argument of home-grown seed, and the buying of seed
from a careful breeder.

HOW TO SELECT FOR SEED.

Every tomato grower should select for seed those tomatoes
that have the particular qualities that he desires. The prevail-
ing opinion that some kinds of tomatoes are more resisting to
disease than others has a foundation in fact. In selecting the
tomatoes they should be taken from healthy, thrifty plants that
have borne a good, crop of fruit in the proper season. The differ-
ent tests show that the selecting of first-ripe fruit does not tend to
increase the earliness of the progeny. Let it be stated again that
the plant in its general looks and form of fruit has more influ-
ence over the future crop than the shape, form, etc., of the indi-
vidual fruit.*
In selecting seed much care should be exercised to get the
best; this will always be found the cheapest in the end. A dol-
lar or two should not be taken into consideration when purchas-
ing seed. If one saves his own seed it is of the greatest important e
that care should be taken to save the best. The average number
of seed to a pound is 151,000. Planting the field 4x4 feet will
accommodate 2700 plants; or a pound of first-class seed would
plant 56 acres of tomatoes, or an ounce would plant 31 acres.
These figures give us somewhat of an idea how much our seed
falls below first-class. If a person saves his own seed it is not a
difficult matter to have 90 or 95 per cent. of it germinate. The
further advantage is that you know it to be the seed. Much of
the seed sold is not true to the name, and some that is true to
name is from plants that are degenerating. Again, the selecting
of your own seed will insure that the kind is more or less accli-
mated and fortified against the diseases peculiar to our State, such
as the blight, dropping of flowers, etc. It will also be noticed
from a previous discussion that by constantly choosing seed from
immature plants the quality of the fruit and general vitality of
Sthe plant is lowered.
*Md. 2d Rep., p. 40.










TREATMENT BEFORE SETTING OUT.

In parts of the State where there is danger of frosts the
plants need not be set out until they are almost large enough to
bloom. The seed should be sown in seed-beds where they have
plenty of sun and can be protected during a cold spell. Plenty
of room should be given so the seedlings will not grow spindly.
This precaution is rarely ever carried out. As soon as the plants
" cover the ground in the drill of the seed-bed they should be
transplanted to a plant-bed; here the rows should be six inches
apart and the plants four or five inches in the row. As soon as
they "cover the ground" again, transplant again. Do not
simply remove every other plant and leave half not trans-
planted; the transplanting is what does the good. This may be
objected to-as making too much work; let us see whether it
pays? Prof. L. H. Bailey, of Cornell University, has tested this
for several years, and finds that in 1891 the date of the first pick-
ing was nineteen days earlier, and, on the whole, the crop was
decidedly heavier.
A similar test was made at the Georgia Experiment Station
by Prof. Speth. The seed was sown in hot-beds. When the
plants became crowded one portion of the hot-bed was thinned until
the plants were four inches apart; another portion of the plants
was transplanted to the same distance. When the plants became
crowded again, the portion transplanted before was again trans-
planted, and the other thinned out, so as to give them exactly the
same distance. In the hot-beds the culture and fertilizer were
the same. Both sets of plants were planted out at the same time
and treated alike in the field. The ones transplanted twice were
earlier by six or eight days, and gave an increased yield of 25
per cent.*

LEGGY, OR DRAWN PLANTS,

as a rule, do not amount to much. When they are planted in
the field much valuable time is lost in setting and in waiting for
their recovery. If these must be set out it has been found better
to make a deep hole, and set in an upright position, or as near
upright as possible, and not leave so much top that it cannot
stand up well.
*Ga. Exp. Sta., B. 17.










SETTING OUT.
By the process of transplanting several times the plants are
made stocky. This gives an advantage also when it comes to
setting out in the field. The fibrous roots, in place of being long
and stringy are short, stout and matted together. The condition
of the stem is a fair index of what the roots are; if there is a
long sickly stem, you are quite sure that there is not a healthy,
heavy mat of roots. A heavy bunch of roots carries considerable
dirt with it; enough often to support the plant until new roots
are formed, and there will be scarcely any shock to the plant
from replanting. There are a number of ways for planting.
Many use the "peg and bucket" style. Every tomato grower
knows exactly what it means to have a lame back. Help for
this kind of work is often scarce and many times cannot be had.
When a person plants and waters an acre in a day he does
enough, if it is done well.

MACHINE FOR TRANSPLANTING.
Several machines have been invented to overcome this
"back-breaking" operation. A machine similar to the one
figured on the opposite page has been used at Lake City by the
tobacco growers. It is, however, equally well adapted for setting
out tomatoes, egg-plants, cabbage, sweet potatoes, or any other
vegetable. There is a decided advantage in using the machine
over the "peg and bucket."

THE OPERATION.
An opening is made, the intended quantity of water
dropped, the plant set in this water and the dirt pressed firmly
about the plant ;all done while the team is walking along. By
referring to the picture you will see the tank for carrying water.
Just above and forward of this is the driver's seat. *IBy this it will
be understood that the picture shows the machine as seen from
behind. On each side of the tank is a broad, flat wheel to keep
the machine from sinking into the soil. Just below are the seats
for two boys. The covers of the wheels and two back stays secure
them in their places. The improved machines have an attach-
ment to regulate the movements of the boys' hands in setting, so
the plants are placed at perfectly regular intervals. A drag at
the side makes a mark to guide the driver while planting the










next row. The shoe attachment is shown connected to the
machine, while the wheels are shown separately and discon-
nected behind the machine. The whole contrivance is so simple
that any tomato grower can appreciate it. The boys can do their
work easily from the first. The amount that one is able to plant
in a day depends altogether upon the conditions and the man
running the machine.* If the tomatoes be planted 4x4 feet, six
or eight acres may be planted in a single day on land in good
condition.



Use of Chemical Analysis.
A good chemical analysis of any plant makes an index of
what the plant needs from the soil and air. Now, if we have at
hand the analysis of our soil, and know what the plant obtains
from the air, we can compare these with the analysis of the'plant
and know with some certainty what should be added to the soil
to grow the plants. Often certain elements are present, but are
not in the proper combination to be appropriated, and hence may
be no more available than as though they were not in the soil at
all. The elements usually wanting in our soil are nitrogen,
phosphoric acid and potash. Too much of any one element of
plant food is not only useless but often a direct detriment.t

AMOUNT OF DIFFERENT ELEMENTS REMOVED FROM SOIL.
Chemical analysis shows that for every pound of tomato
(N. J. Exp. Sta., B. 63) removed from the ground .00152 pounds
of nitrogen is carried off. Putting the crop of an acre at 200
crates of 60 pounds each, there would be removed from the soil a
little more than 18 pounds of nitrogen. This nitrogen had
to be in some available form for the plant.
The amount of phosphoric acid in a pound of tomatoes is
.000661, a little more than one half as much by weight as nitro-
gen; or nearly two-thirds of a pound for every thousand pounds
*The machine'figured is the New Bemis, made by Stoddard Manufacturing Cor
pany, Dayton, Ohio. Prof. B. F. Moodie, President of the Florida Tobacco Growers
Association and President of the National Cigar Leaf Association, of Lake City, Fla.,
is State agent for the machine. Prof, Moodie will set up and put into operation all
planters bought of him.
tFor a fine discussion on this subject, see B. 2o, Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta., by Prof.
A. A. Persons.
















rrr
r .i_->


i
I

F ~


~B~IU










of tomatoes removed. If the crop per acre be the same as above
stated, there would be removed from every acre 7.932 pounds of
phosphoric acid; or, putting it in whole figures, it would be
8 pounds per acre. That is, 8 pounds of available phos-
phoric acid is shipped away in 200 crates of tomatoes, and must
be placed on the acre of ground again or the land be that much
poorer.
The amount of potash in every pound of tomato is .0020786.
Comparing this as we did in previous cases, we learn that for
every thousand pounds of tomato a little over two pounds of
potash is removed. Placing the yield at two hundred crates of
60 pounds, 24.96 pounds of potash are taken out of the soil and
sold. We may put this in whole numbers and say 25 pounds
are removed with 200 crates of tomatoes. Then, stating it
briefly, we remove 18 pounds of nitrogen, 8 pounds of phos-
phoric acid and 25 pounds of potash from the field with every
200 crates of tomatoes.

COMPARED WITH OTHER CROPS.
A crop of tomatoes removes twice as much potash and over
50 per cent. more nitrogen than either a crop of Irish potatoes or
sweet potatoes, and nearly twice as much phosphoric acid as Irish
potatoes, and more than four times as much as sweet potatoes.

EFFECT OF VARYING THE FERTILIZING ELEMENTS.
Numerous tests have been made to see what effect a varia-
tion in the amount of different elements of fertilizer would have
upon the qualities of the fruit. The difference is much less than
was thought it would be; indeed, different samples from the same
plots show nearly as much variation as samples from different
plots. In general, it seems that an abundance of potash has a
tendency to produce fruit with slightly less sugar and more acid;
and phosphoric acid a tendency to sweeten, while nitrogen pro-
duces luxuriant growth.*

AMOUNT OF FERTILIZER IN VINES.
The vines of an acre contain about 28 pounds of nitrogen,
4 pounds of phosphoric acid and 34 pounds of potash. This is
the amount, if it is all saved to the soil, but if the vines are
*cf. Md. B. II, p. 63.










allowed to rot in the open air, or are burned, much of the valu-
able nitrogen will be lost (Md. B. 11, p. 69).
From the foregoing it will be seen that more nitrogen and
potash are left in the field than are taken off, and about half as
much phosphoric acid. If we compare this with the stubble and
roots of cow-peas, it will be seen that the tomato vines on an acre
have 5 per cent. more nitrogen, two pounds more phosphoric acid
and twice as much potash. In fertilizing, more of the essential
elements are needed than the above figures show, because the
plants do not completely exhaust the soil in a single year. Then
the fertilizer is not all in an available form.
The above amount of fertilizer in the vines is altogether of
too much value to be lightly dealt with. Another point in favor
of making use of the vines is that it adds the much needed
organic principle to our soil. It adds what so many people con-
tend is the most important part of muck-i. e., its presence aids
the plants in appropiating the needed foods.

WHEN TO USE THE VINES.
There is probably no other time when there is more of the
organic matter present than just at the close of the shipping
season. If now these vines be turned under, and a growth of
beggar-weed be started, the ground would be covered with a
heavy coat of vegetation during the hot summer months, and in
the fall another coat of humus be ready. This should be turned
under whenever it is best for the land. There are some lands that
are not hurt but greatly benefitted by turning under a crop of
green manure; we are told, however, that it is not only better
but absolutely necessary that only dry, well-rotted vegetable mat-
ter be plowed under, because, the green manure gives a sour-
ness to the soil which it takes several years to overcome.

DO WE FERTILIZE TOO HEAVILY?

There has been much said about fertilizing tomatoes too
heavily. *From all tests made in this line, indications are that
there is little or no danger of fertilizing too heavily, but the
danger lies in fertilizing improperly. The most vigorous
vines I have seen in this State were some that received
two pounds of fertilizer to the vine, besides a lot of trash." The
*Cornell B. 21, p. 76.









fertilizer was thoroughly worked into the soil and the soil well
stirred to the depth of ten inches or more.

HOW TO USE FERTILIZER.

In using compost it should be well rotted before applying,
as the tomato plant wants a quick-acting fertilizer. Very often
the fertilizer is used in several applications. Many tests of this
procedure have been made. The average of over seventy differ-
ent tests in different years shows that the largest crop of early
tomatoes is obtained by applying the normal amount of fertilizer
at one time. That is, the plant produces a heavier crop of the
earliest pickings--the pickings that bring the money. Then it
would seem that if one has only a limited amount of fertilizer it
will pay better to apply it at one time. To use the fertilizer
along, a small amount at a time, or apply at different times, has,
in some cases, produced more fruit in the end, but in most cases
it did not do this. The ground should be in a good state of cul-
tivation, and the fertilizer thoroughly worked in and well cov-
ered. The plant should not be in direct contact with the fertil-
izer, nor should the fertilizer be in a bunch where the plant is to
stand. One need not be alarmed if most of the fertilizer is six
inches away. The plant will find it and do the better for having
to go a little way to it, and for having to sort it from among the
sand.
HOW TO TEST YOUR SOIL
All parts of our State are not alike in the demands of a fertilizer.
*It has been shown clearly by some that their soildoes not need pot-
ash as a fertilizer. The method of proving this is as simple as it is
conclusive. Three or four rows across the field, representing the
average soil, are treated with a fertilizer that has no potash, as
shown by the label, but in other respects is just as the other fer-
tilizer used. Now if these four rows prove to be as good, under
the same culture, as the remainder of the field, then it is clear
that the potash does no good there. Then, again, this same mode
of procedure could be used to test the need of phosphoric acid or
of nitrogen. tThere are soils that have a sufficient amount of the
*Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc., Pensacola meeting.
tFor a full discussion of this point, see Bulletin 20 of this section; also Florida
CiMez for Dec.-, 1893.









element in them, but do not yield it up readily enough for the
plant.
The above is a cheap and simple test, and one that has saved
money to the watchful farmer, and will save still more to others.




Enemies of the Tomato.
BOLL-WORM.
(Heliothis armigera, L.)
The tomato fruit-worm is too common and destructiveqto
need either description or drawing. The amount of damage done
to fruit last year varied considerably in different fields. As a
general rule, the new fields that were somewhat removed from
land that had been cultivated for a number of years had remark-
ably fewer worms than fields long under cultivation, or than new
fields contiguous to old fields. The amount of damage gradually
increased as the end of the shipping season approached. One
field showed a loss of one-half of the fruit at about the last pick-
ing. Other fields lost, on an average, one out of three tomatoes.
Many fields lost one-fourth of that picking.
This insect is the one that does so much damage to the cot-
ton crop each year. Much labor and money have been expended
in trying to find a suitable remedy for this pest. The small
amount of food taken from the surface of the plant it feeds on
renders the idea of poisoning hopeless. Some persons have been
bold enough, however, to try different kinds of poison. These
had some effect, but not sufficient to pay for the time and ex-
pense of applying. As a general rule, the stronger poisons killed
the greater number of worms. The idea of poisoning is clearly
out of reason in such a crop as tomatoes, and the use of such in-
secticides as kill the insect by coming in contact with it is also
hopeless, since the worm spends most of its life inside of the
tomato. This insect is rather a general feeder, but in all cases its
habits are very similar, in that it strives to eat into the portion of
the plant it uses for food.
PLANTS ATTACKED.
The greatest damage is done by it to the cotton crop. Many
cotton fields have been rendered almost worthless, and in still









more the narrow margin left for profit has been destroyed by
these pests, the boll-worms. On corn it is also a serious pest;
the worm eats into the head of the young corn and into 'the end
of the growing ear, or even into the end of a ripe ear. The gar-
den varieties of corn are especially attacked. It is not at all un-
common to have persons tell you that late corn cannot be raised
on account of the corn-worm. The .thorn-apple (Datura tatula
and D. Stramonium) is attacked and eaten into in the same way
as a cotton boll. When it attacks tobacco it is known as bud-
worm, and the remedy usually employed is hand-picking.
A good deal of complaint was made last year of a peculiar
worm in the pods of English peas (Pisum sativum). On rearing
a number of these insects sent to the college, it was found that
they were the boll-worm.
A field of fine summer, or custard, squash (Cucurbita pepo)
was so badly infested that it was not worth the trouble to haul
them to the packing house. The worms may enter this and the
opening be not visible as long as the chewings are fresh, but
after a day or two the opening becomes plainly visible.
During the meeting of the Florida State Horticiltural
Society, at Pensacola, some quinces were brought to the hall that
were eaten into by this worm; the quinces fell as soon as
entered.
DESCRIPTION OF MOTH.
The adult form of this insect is by no means well known,
nor is it commonly seen. The moth is one and a half to nearly
two inches from the tip of one fore wing to the tip of the other.
The majority raised by us in the insect cages are about one and
a half inches. The body is rather plump; about an inch long;
the antenna thread form; the color is about that of light chamois
skin. The adult itself does no harm, and is probably attracted
to the field by the nectar in the flowers. It flies in the evening
and during the night, when the eggs are laid.

LIFE HISTORY.
The egg hatches in from two to five days, depending upon
the condition of the weather. During the larval state is when
the great amount of damage is done. From the first it feeds on
the fruiting portion of the tomato. The smaller worms attack
the smaller fruit, while the full grown larvae usually seek
tomatoes about ready to ship, or that will soon ripen.










The time from the hatching of eggs to that of pupating
varies according to the conditions of the weather. During warm
weather they mature in eighteen days, while in cold weather it
often takes twenty-six days.*
DAMAGE.
The amount of damage that a single worm will do is not
definitely known, but it is certainly greater than is usually sus-
pected. It was not uncommon for a single worm to eat in and
destroy three tomatoes in a single day, while two tomatoes were
rather a normal ration; and for a large worm to stay more than
a day in one tomato was rather uncommon.
After attaining full "size, the larve find their way to the
ground, dig into it to the depth of an inch or two and turn into
a mahogany-colored chrysalis about an inch long. If they pass
into this state late in the year they remain so during the winter;
if earlier in the year, ten or twelve days are passed this way, and
then the perfect insect emerges. This in a day or two begins to
lay eggs for another generation.
REMEDIES.
Now, what concerns us most is when or how to take care of
it to best advantage.
There are two ways that may be employed; either by arti-
ficial means or by encouraging its enemies. Just a few words in
regard to the enemies. First and foremost is the common toad
(Bufo lentigunosis). He is a very unassuming fellow, makes little
noise and no great stir. But his stir happens too often for the
welfare of a good many boll-worms. The time for the worm to
travel is in the cool of the afternoon and evening, just the time
that Mr. Toad has appointed to go out to take his recreation.
The toad is a very shy animal, and if you wish to watch his
habits you must cultivate his friendship. It is almost useless to
try to slip up on him unawares; he has too good an eye and
ear. Another way is to kill and dissect them. In this way you
will find gnats, flies, beetles, grubs, and in tomato fields, larve
of various kinds, and at times moths; but the latter are rather
fewer than other insects. The lesson taught by this is that we
should not kill nor drive away toads. Cultivate their friendship.
You will be surprised how soon you can teach a toad to expect
food from you.
"~. W. Malley, B. 29, p. 17, U. S. D. A. Div., Ento. 1891.









No worm seems to be too big for Mr. Toad to tackle, and he
usually succeeds in his undertakings. It is not uncommon for
him to take hold of a tomato worm that will hang from both
sides of his mouth at once, and make him shut his eyes and get
down on his elbows to hold. But the toad sticks right to his
business, and before long he smacks his lips and chuckles all
over, feeling so good after a big feast!
By walking along the fence row and brushing the trash and
weeds, one will frequently drive up moths of the boll-worm and
of other species. Several times, in looking for material in this
way, the green lizzard, or chameleon (Anolis principalis, L.), has
anticipated the flushing of moths and, run ahead on the fence.
Their quick eyes saw the moths, and before they had fairly
alighted they were in the jaws of the agile little fellow.
The king, bird (Tyrannus tyrannus, L.), catches quite a num-
ber of the moths as they are startled by people and by cattle.
The common wasps, that build nests around in trees and shrubs
do much good in carrying off many of these larvae as they
venture from one tomato to another, and while the larvae are still
young, before they have entered the tomato.
The above are some of the natural enemies of the boll-worm
that every tomato grower can have more or less control over.
There are many other enemies that could be mentioned and
described, but they are such as would not be noticed during
ordinary work.
That the above are very efficient, no one who will take the
pains to study the matter will doubt; but that they are not suffi-
cient cannot be denied. The division of entomology of the
United States Department of Agriculture has spent much time in
trying remedies for this insect on the cotton. It is clearly out of
the question, as stated above, to use poison.

CORN AS A OATCH PLANT.

To prevent the moth from depositing her eggs on the tomato
plants, a catch plant may be planted among the tomatoes. There
is a good and efficient plant within reach of every tomato grower;
this is corn, a few stalks planted here and there throughout the
field, planting about every fifth hill in every fifth row. This
attracts the moth and the eggs are deposited on the corn. The
corn should be fed before the worms are large enough to pupate;









to allow the corn to mature would be simply planting a breeding
place for the boll-worm.*
DESTROY WORMY TOMATOES.
A very imprudent practice by some tomato growers is to pick
the wormy tomatoes and drop them in the field. It is well known
among entomologists that depriving larve of food when they are
about to pupate causes them to pupate earlier, thus this pick-
ing and dropping the tomato hastens the coming of the second
brood. Again, if the worm was not quite ready to pupate it
would simply hunt another vine, and find a tomato on this, and
repeat the work with better appetite for the exercise.
What shall we do; not pick the wormy ones? Yes, cer-
tainly pick every one of them! Take them to the packing house
and sort them; feed what wormy ones you can and the rest dump
into a deep pit and cover with eighteen inches or two feet of dirt.
Larvoe in pupating dig through five or six inches of dirt; to
make sure that none will dig out, put on plenty.
Some growers have said that when the wormy tomatoes are
not destroyed there are but few moi e wormy tomatoes at the next
crop around the packing house than there are in other parts of
the field. But it must be remembered that the greatest number
of wormy tomatoes are brought in late in the tomato season.
These worms transform, and by the time the moth comes out the
season is over; then these moths fly to the old tomato field, or
where there are other food plants. There are three or four gen-
erations of worms before the next tomato season opens, and by
that time they are pretty well scattered over your and your
neighbors' fields.
The tomato plants should all be plowed under and com-
pletely destroyed as soon as the crop has been gathered, as it was
found by actual count last year that in those fields that grew
until June 30, over half the fruit was wormy, where a month
before not one out of ten tomatoes was wormy.
PHYTOPTOSUS.
(Phytoptus, Sp.)
A very peculiar disease of the tomato has been often noticed,
and is so general that it certainly deserves attention. A number
of tomato growers pronounce this the worst disease; some say it is
*U. S. D. A. Div. Ento., B. 24, p. 32.










equal to all the others combined. It is very generally known as
mold. The trouble is caused by a minute animal that somehow,
by its presence, causes a white, fuzzy outgrowth on the plant. The
part that appears like mold is not mold at all, but an outgrowth
of the skin of the tomato vine. The term mold has been occupied
in another way, and is erroneously used for this disease, so it would
be well to use some other. In Southern Spain ashy is used. While
this may express the appearance as nearly as mold, the same objec-
tions and not too long.
Forty-three tests of fungicides and insecticides were made to
find a remedy for this pest, but, as far as could be seen, they
were all equally ineffective. The circumstances were all unfavor-
able, and so the tests cannot be pronounced failures. It is not
at all improbable that some efficient remedy will be found among
the insecticides. Some form of the sulphur insecticides seems
about'the right thing. I believe that it is.claimed that these
destroy by their fumes, and that it is not necessary for the liquid
to come in contact with the animal. This is very important, as
it is very difficult to saturate completely a branch inhabited by
phytops on account of the fine, hairy out-growth entangling so
much air that the phytops can live right along on a submerged
branch.
As soon as a branch becomes inhabited it seems to stop
bearing and do nothing but produce friz and feed phytops.
The life-history and mode of dissemination of this animal,
I think, are not known. It is probable that if these were known
it would be less difficult to control it than to cure the disease
after it has attacked the plant.
It will require some time and labor before this knowledge
can be gained, however.
NEMATODES.

A very wide-spread disease, and of many different plants, is
one known as root-knot, or root-gall, caused by H terodera radi-
cola. It is claimed by a good many careful observers that this
is not so bad now as it was a few years ago. It does not pay,
however, to plant tomatoes on land infested by this small ani-
mal. This disease may be carried from one part of the field to
another by simply taking the root of some diseased plant there
and leaving it. There are many of our common weeds attacked
by this worm, and care should be taken that these are not










dragged about. If a field is free of it, there is no danger of the
disease, if the commercial fertilizer is used, or if care be taken
not to use any roots in making compost.
BLIGHT.
HISTORY.
The blight of tomatoes in Florida is caused by a fungus
that is indigenous to the State. The term blight is used in a
number of different States for different diseases. In Mississippi
the Southern tomato blight was found by Dr. B. D. Halsted to
be caused by bacteria. In this State there seems to be little or
no confusion as to what disease shall be termed blight. Other
terms are used for this disease, but where this is the case no
other trouble is known as blight. It is probable that no consid-
able portion of the State is free from it. Often it is present with-
out the owner knowing it at all. In Lake County a field con-
tained 13 per cent. of blighted plants without the owner knowing
it. In fact, he was certain that no such thing was in his field.
However, after the blighted plants were pointed out to him, he
was able to distinguish them, and to help to compute the above
results. In Alachua County over 7 per cent. of blighted plants
were present without the owner's knowledge. Only one field of
considerable size has been seen that was free from blight, and
this was one that was in a good state of cultivation and had
been for some time. Many attempts have been made to grow
tomatoes in fence rows ;" i. e., grow them nearer the fence than
can be cultivated; nearly all such attempts have resulted in
failure, simply because weeds that propagated this disease grew
there, and, when killed, left it to attack the tomato.
In studying the disease last spring a number of fields were
found that were raising the first crop of tomatoes and were as
badly blighted as any of the older fields in the vicinity. One of
these new fields had as much as 70 per cent. of the plants
blighted before any of the fruit was shipped. At first such
cases seemed to defy all explanation, but a more thorough study
made the reason plain and certain. The disease known as
blight will flourish on a number of garden plants, and on a
number of weeds that are common to fence rows, and to old
fields and those not under cultivation.
PLANTS ATTACKED.
It is quite certain that a number of plants, on which the










disease will flourish, are still absent from the list, but a provis-
ional list, with a brief description of how the affected plants ap-
pear, will be of interest to the tomato growers. No explanation
will be here given as to the manner of proving that this is one
and the same disease, simply because it would require pages to
do so. Such plants as are merely suspected to be subject to this
disease in the field, and have not yet been proven, are omitted.
It requires weeks of careful work to settle whether a plant is sub-
ject to the blight, as the same cause acts quite differently on dif-
ferent plants.



Tomato.
When a tomato plant is attacked, if the attack is not too
heavy, it shows itself by the wilting of a single leaf near a head.
This leaf is usually the last fully developed leaf on that branch.
This is a very important point to notice as the other diseases
begin on the lowest or oldest leaves and then gradually work
upward. It sometimes happens that a plant is severely attacked.
In such cases the entire head hangs down as if suffering from
drouth, while other heads of the same plant are looking fine.
Again, it may cause the entire plant to hang down as though
" struck by lightning, as some people call it. Not because it was
thought that any such thing had happened--death is as sure,
however. Some plants, again, will be attacked very lightly, and
then live out a miserable existence. If fruit is formed, it ripens
prematurely, but usually the plant has to devote its entire ener-
gies to keeping alive.
Plants suffering from blight alone show no spots on any
part. Pulling the plant up and examining the roots reveals no
constant characters. The drooping of the leaves and the absence
of other characters is a conclusive way of telling.
If some tomato breeder has a fancy variety that should be
blighted, he can save his variety by making cuttings from the
wilted tops, if they are not too much wilted, and root these.
Cuttings may be freely taken if only they are cut eight inches
above the ground.
Every vine attacked by blight should be pulled up at once
and dried; to let it grow is only propagating the disease for an-
other year,





















2-''-;? Lii
-
",~,;-~R~`-~b~i~F~c~"~':


"



~ ~lt~~;~CjLS;




~I~Bie










Moist, warm weather is the best condition for the growth of
blight.
On the opposite page is an illustration from a photograph
taken from a field showing the dissemination of blight. Near
the bottom is the center of dispersion. If the plate contained
more of the field it would show the rest of the blighted spot to
be similar to the above portion.


Egg-Plant.
The egg-plant shows a yellowing of foliage, and the plant
looks sickly. The lowest leaves fall off and leave the stem exposed.
Finally the fruit begins to fall off.
If heavily attacked, a wilting, similar to that of the tomato,
takes place. There are no spots or other characters to tell the
blight. A typical diseased plant is shown in plate II.


Irish Potato.
The Irish Potato acts much like the egg-plant when at-
tacked by blight. The leaves are not dropped and the plant is
more tenacious of life.
The attacked plant at once sets a great number of tubers,
which rarely get larger than peas or hazel nuts. It looks rather
curious, when carefully dug, to see a number of larger tubers,
about the size of a hen's egg, at the proper distance from the
stem, and then a great lot about the size of peas clinging closely
to the stem. The potato tuber is one of the most prolific sources
to propagate the blight. It is, however, only attacked when near
the surface or on top of the ground.


Beans and Cow Peas.
The various varieties of beans (Phaseolus) and the cow pea
(Dilochos) suffer severe loss in all stages of growth. The young cow
pea, or bean, usually dies before the blight matures, but the bear-
ing plant is a fertile field for its reproduction. The cow peas and
beans act very similarly when attacked by blight. The leaves










Moist, warm weather is the best condition for the growth of
blight.
On the opposite page is an illustration from a photograph
taken from a field showing the dissemination of blight. Near
the bottom is the center of dispersion. If the plate contained
more of the field it would show the rest of the blighted spot to
be similar to the above portion.


Egg-Plant.
The egg-plant shows a yellowing of foliage, and the plant
looks sickly. The lowest leaves fall off and leave the stem exposed.
Finally the fruit begins to fall off.
If heavily attacked, a wilting, similar to that of the tomato,
takes place. There are no spots or other characters to tell the
blight. A typical diseased plant is shown in plate II.


Irish Potato.
The Irish Potato acts much like the egg-plant when at-
tacked by blight. The leaves are not dropped and the plant is
more tenacious of life.
The attacked plant at once sets a great number of tubers,
which rarely get larger than peas or hazel nuts. It looks rather
curious, when carefully dug, to see a number of larger tubers,
about the size of a hen's egg, at the proper distance from the
stem, and then a great lot about the size of peas clinging closely
to the stem. The potato tuber is one of the most prolific sources
to propagate the blight. It is, however, only attacked when near
the surface or on top of the ground.


Beans and Cow Peas.
The various varieties of beans (Phaseolus) and the cow pea
(Dilochos) suffer severe loss in all stages of growth. The young cow
pea, or bean, usually dies before the blight matures, but the bear-
ing plant is a fertile field for its reproduction. The cow peas and
beans act very similarly when attacked by blight. The leaves










Moist, warm weather is the best condition for the growth of
blight.
On the opposite page is an illustration from a photograph
taken from a field showing the dissemination of blight. Near
the bottom is the center of dispersion. If the plate contained
more of the field it would show the rest of the blighted spot to
be similar to the above portion.


Egg-Plant.
The egg-plant shows a yellowing of foliage, and the plant
looks sickly. The lowest leaves fall off and leave the stem exposed.
Finally the fruit begins to fall off.
If heavily attacked, a wilting, similar to that of the tomato,
takes place. There are no spots or other characters to tell the
blight. A typical diseased plant is shown in plate II.


Irish Potato.
The Irish Potato acts much like the egg-plant when at-
tacked by blight. The leaves are not dropped and the plant is
more tenacious of life.
The attacked plant at once sets a great number of tubers,
which rarely get larger than peas or hazel nuts. It looks rather
curious, when carefully dug, to see a number of larger tubers,
about the size of a hen's egg, at the proper distance from the
stem, and then a great lot about the size of peas clinging closely
to the stem. The potato tuber is one of the most prolific sources
to propagate the blight. It is, however, only attacked when near
the surface or on top of the ground.


Beans and Cow Peas.
The various varieties of beans (Phaseolus) and the cow pea
(Dilochos) suffer severe loss in all stages of growth. The young cow
pea, or bean, usually dies before the blight matures, but the bear-
ing plant is a fertile field for its reproduction. The cow peas and
beans act very similarly when attacked by blight. The leaves










turn yellow, hang down, and finally fall off, leaving the stalks
standing with probably a few pods clinging to them.
On the station ground some beans were planted quite
closely in the row; the blight commenced near one end and
spread both ways until in one direction the row ended, and in
the other there was a break of about two feet in the row. It
must not be inferred, however, that the contamination took
place through the leaves or vines, but it followed the roots and
spread through the soil.



Squash.
The summer squash (Cucurbita pepo) is especially liable to
its attack. -Both the fruit and the vine suffer, and probably
propagate the disease more than any other plant, except the egg-
plant. The disease is known by a general sickly look of the
plant and gradual pining away. The fruit, when attacked, soon
rots down, more from the injury which admits bacteria and fungi
inducing decay, than from blight.




Cabbage.
Cabbage, when attacked, looks like it had wilted down in a
heap. Such plants can be lifted right off their roots. Their
stems, at a line about even with the top of the ground, will be
found completely rotted, while the part only an inch above and an
inch below appears sound. This rotten place is where the blight
made its entrance, and the decay is simply a result of the injury.
The blight, before the decay has set in, has passed into the
fresher portions. ScleroHia are produced in the last stage.
There is a bacterial disease of cabbage that may be mis-
taken for this ; one that has probably not yet appeared in our State.
The tomato blight caus s the stem to rot just at the ground line,
while the bacterial disease is characterized by a rotting of the
interior of the head. "*
*H. Gaman, p. o12, Ex. Str. Bul. No. 7, U. S. D. A.










turn yellow, hang down, and finally fall off, leaving the stalks
standing with probably a few pods clinging to them.
On the station ground some beans were planted quite
closely in the row; the blight commenced near one end and
spread both ways until in one direction the row ended, and in
the other there was a break of about two feet in the row. It
must not be inferred, however, that the contamination took
place through the leaves or vines, but it followed the roots and
spread through the soil.



Squash.
The summer squash (Cucurbita pepo) is especially liable to
its attack. -Both the fruit and the vine suffer, and probably
propagate the disease more than any other plant, except the egg-
plant. The disease is known by a general sickly look of the
plant and gradual pining away. The fruit, when attacked, soon
rots down, more from the injury which admits bacteria and fungi
inducing decay, than from blight.




Cabbage.
Cabbage, when attacked, looks like it had wilted down in a
heap. Such plants can be lifted right off their roots. Their
stems, at a line about even with the top of the ground, will be
found completely rotted, while the part only an inch above and an
inch below appears sound. This rotten place is where the blight
made its entrance, and the decay is simply a result of the injury.
The blight, before the decay has set in, has passed into the
fresher portions. ScleroHia are produced in the last stage.
There is a bacterial disease of cabbage that may be mis-
taken for this ; one that has probably not yet appeared in our State.
The tomato blight caus s the stem to rot just at the ground line,
while the bacterial disease is characterized by a rotting of the
interior of the head. "*
*H. Gaman, p. o12, Ex. Str. Bul. No. 7, U. S. D. A.













Beets.
Beets are attacked in the crown and simply wilt down.




Melons.
Watermelons and nutmeg melons show the disease by a
wilting of the foliage which turns yellowish as the disease pro-
gresses. When the fruit is attacked, rotting sets in very shortly.
OBSCURE IN SOME PLANTS.
In cabbage, beets, watermelon and nutmeg-melon, the cause
of the disturbance is at first altogether doubtful. The great
number of other fungi and bacteria that take hold of the plant as
soon as they can gain an entrance, soon overwhelm the first
cause and before the above characters are fully manifest it is by
no means easy to find the blight. Fortunately these vegetables
are cheap when the marketing season is over, and it has been an
easy matter to get enough blight to inoculate two hundred cab-
bage plants and as many beets, leaving at the same time a check
plant for each inoculated plant.



Daphne Odora.
In 1892, Dr. Appell, the College physician, brought to the
laboratory two fine specimens of Daphne odora that had been
killed by some fungus. On making culture from this it was
found to be the same as the tomato blight. It had destroyed
the bark and cambium layer entirely around the stems at and
above the ground line. There was no disease whatever in the
upper limbs.













Beets.
Beets are attacked in the crown and simply wilt down.




Melons.
Watermelons and nutmeg melons show the disease by a
wilting of the foliage which turns yellowish as the disease pro-
gresses. When the fruit is attacked, rotting sets in very shortly.
OBSCURE IN SOME PLANTS.
In cabbage, beets, watermelon and nutmeg-melon, the cause
of the disturbance is at first altogether doubtful. The great
number of other fungi and bacteria that take hold of the plant as
soon as they can gain an entrance, soon overwhelm the first
cause and before the above characters are fully manifest it is by
no means easy to find the blight. Fortunately these vegetables
are cheap when the marketing season is over, and it has been an
easy matter to get enough blight to inoculate two hundred cab-
bage plants and as many beets, leaving at the same time a check
plant for each inoculated plant.



Daphne Odora.
In 1892, Dr. Appell, the College physician, brought to the
laboratory two fine specimens of Daphne odora that had been
killed by some fungus. On making culture from this it was
found to be the same as the tomato blight. It had destroyed
the bark and cambium layer entirely around the stems at and
above the ground line. There was no disease whatever in the
upper limbs.













Beets.
Beets are attacked in the crown and simply wilt down.




Melons.
Watermelons and nutmeg melons show the disease by a
wilting of the foliage which turns yellowish as the disease pro-
gresses. When the fruit is attacked, rotting sets in very shortly.
OBSCURE IN SOME PLANTS.
In cabbage, beets, watermelon and nutmeg-melon, the cause
of the disturbance is at first altogether doubtful. The great
number of other fungi and bacteria that take hold of the plant as
soon as they can gain an entrance, soon overwhelm the first
cause and before the above characters are fully manifest it is by
no means easy to find the blight. Fortunately these vegetables
are cheap when the marketing season is over, and it has been an
easy matter to get enough blight to inoculate two hundred cab-
bage plants and as many beets, leaving at the same time a check
plant for each inoculated plant.



Daphne Odora.
In 1892, Dr. Appell, the College physician, brought to the
laboratory two fine specimens of Daphne odora that had been
killed by some fungus. On making culture from this it was
found to be the same as the tomato blight. It had destroyed
the bark and cambium layer entirely around the stems at and
above the ground line. There was no disease whatever in the
upper limbs.














Hydrangea.

In the greenhouse on the college grounds some hydrangea
cuttings were put out to be rooted. Only a very small portion
of the cuttings lived; examination showed that a fungus seemed
to be the cause. The greenhouse had been used for studying
tomato blight during the summer, and the soil had been pretty
thoroughly seeded with blight. Later tests, with pure culture of
blight, showed that hydrangeas are subject to this disease.
WEEDS ATTACKED.
Desmodium molle, or beggar weed, is killed by blight, but
does not propagate it to such an extent as some other plants,.and
it is a question whether serious damage would be done for more
than one year.
The fire weed, Erachtites hieracifula, is very severely attacked,
and propagates the blight to a remarkable degree. This weed is
very common on new land and on land just being prepared for
cultivation, as well as on sparely timbered land. It is a com-
mon weed in Florida, but not at all troublesome excepting that
it makes a good fire weed. It catches fire easily and makes a
quick, hot blaze.
Another common weed, the Canada fleabane, Erigeron Cana-
dense, also called cow-tail, is severely attacked by the tomato
blight. The habitat of this weed is much the same as that of
fire weed, besides taking possession of old fields and of neg-
lected fields.
Two of the amaranths, or careless weeds (A. retroflexus, L.
A. spinesus, L.) are also killed by tomato blight.
There are many other weeds that may be added after further
study. It has already been stated that there are a number of sus-
pected hosts not mentioned here. From the above list we see
that this parasite has quite a faculty for adapting itself to differ-
ent hosts.
HOW BLIGHT WINTERS.
We have seen how this blight may live from early spring
until late fall by simply attacking one plant, and then another,










until frost comes in the fall, or until it has used up all the avail-
able material; then it simply forms a small body about the size
of a number ten shot. The color of this body varies from a dull
white to a dark brown, and is known to botanists as a sclerotium.
It is not a seed in the proper sense of the term. As soon as the
proper conditions are present, it starts again to destroy whatever
it can make use of.
WHAT IS BLIGHT?
(Sclerotium.)
In June, 1892, I discovered the cause of this disease; not,
however, until my ingenuity and almost my patience had been
exhausted. The portions that showed signs of distress had been
carefully studied under the microscope, and nothing abnormal
could be discovered. Tomato agar-culture and others tried gave
no bacteria, excepting in well advanced cases of disease, and
these cultures would not induce disease in the plant by inocu-
lation. It was quite certain that none of the species of bacteria
taken from the diseased parts and grown in the culture would
give the blight to the plant. In making culture from seedlings
a mould appeared. This was a hint in the right direction. Fol-
lowing this up, I discovered that the tomato blight is caused by
a minute fungus. After the cause had been discovered, over
eight hundred tests with the disease on tomatoes were made.
These have been carefully tabulated and show just what con-
ditions are favorable to the growth of the fungus. The work
being in a greenhouse, temperature and moisture were under
good control.
Under ordinary conditions blight cannot be seen even with
a microscope, hut by using picro-carmine as a stain, the fine
thread-like mycelia may be seen permeating the tissue of the
host. The greater amount of growth is usually in the combian
and soft adjoining tissue.
Another way of proving the presence of blight is to take
the portion of the suspected plant and place it in a moist
chamber. If the temperature is 80-95 F. in 48 hours you will
have a growth that will, in appearance, rival swan down. Fresh
material, such as a slice of potato or egg-plant fruit, placed within
a quarter of an inch will be siezed in a day. This bait may
be carried to a second dish. Now, if the work has been done
with the necessary precaution, you will have blight entirely free










from other fungi or from bacteria; or, to make certain, a second
bait may be used to catch the fungus from the first bait.
As soon as all the food material is used up the fungus
builds sclerotia.
HOW TO TREAT.
Before the cause of the blight was known many tests of dif-
ferent fungicides were made. They were applied in the usual
way, i. e., they were sprayed thoroughly over the foliage of
the tomato plants. All proved equally fruitless either to prevent
or to check the disease. As soon, however, as the nature of the
fungus was discovered, it was easily understood why the fungi-
cides did not check the blight.
All the tests show that a plant once attacked by blight is a
hopeless case, at least the part attacked. Mr. A. A. Smith, of
Lawtey, Fla., in the Farmer and Fruit Grower of May 20, 1893,
recorded a very interesting result from the treatment of this
disease with Bordeaux mixture. At the urgent requests of
tomato growers the diseased fields were visited and the disease
studied in the field. In most cases the work of destruction had
been done, and nothing was left to do but to record the fact.
After some delay a young field was found at Grand Island that
was suitable for work in this line. This was a field of late
planted tomatoes on the farm of Mr. Colbert, who willingly con-
sented to give it over for treatment. The field was divided into
eighteen plots. Twelve were treated, and six alternating with
the treated plots were left untouched, as checks.
The work labored under many and decided disadvantages.
The distance from the college and the college duties interfered
with the most diligent attention. The lateness in the season
rendered the plants less vigorous from having exhausted the fer-
tilizer and not having been cultivated for some time.
The results are therefore all the more striking in that they
are decidedly faN orable under the most adverse conditions. Other
diseases had seriously injured the field. In this discussion all
doubtful cases have been thrown out, and we will confine our-
selves strictly to the blight.
The field was carefully gone over, and every plant num-
bered. Notes were taken on each plant that showed any signs
of blight or other disease. By careful estimate it was found that
61 per cent. of the plants were blighted before being treated.
The plots were chosen so that the untreated, or checks, would










lie between the plots treated with a certain fungicide; that is, a
plot treated with Bordeaux mixture would be followed by a
check, and the check followed by another plot treated with Bor-
deaux mixture, this plot to be followed by another fungicide,
Am. Cu. Co., for instance, then followed by a check, and so on.
The spraying was done on June 1st and 2nd.
It was impossible to visit the field again until June 28th,
when notes were taken carefully. The results are shown in the
following summaries:
As before stated, the notes show that 62 per cent. of the
plants in the field, when the experiment commenced, were blight-
ed. The disease was quite generally distributed. No plot was
very much worse than any other.
June 28-The plots left as checks showed an average in-
creaFe of blight of 13- per cent. That id to say, 6 per cent. of
the plants were blighted on June 1st, and on June 28th, 191
per cent. of the untreated plants were blighted.
The first fungicide used was Bdx. Mx. No. 2.* Two plots
were sprayed. In the first, the vines below the fruit and the
ground about the plants to the distance of about six inches on all
sides of the plants were sprayed thoroughly, using about a pint
to each large plant. The plot was sprayed on June 1st, 1893.
On June 28th, as stated above, the field was again visited.
The notes show that there was 4 per cent. increase of
blighted plants. This shows that a single spraying of the stems
saved 9 1-6 per cent. of the total number of plants thus treated.
Further, the frequent rains and warm weather made this the
most advantageous time for the fungus to thrive.
Adjoining the check was a plot sprayed with the same mix-
ture made at the same time. This plot was treated in the usual
way, i. e. the mixture was sprayed over the foliage with no atten-
tion as to whether any reached the vines or not. Most of the
*Bordeau Mixture is made by dissolving 4 Ibs. of quick (not air slacked) lime in a
small quantity of water. When thoroughly slacked, add enough water to make a good
whitewash. Dissolve 6 lbs. copper sulphate (blue stone) in ten or twelve gallons of
water. Strain through a "feed bag" into a barrel that will hold about forty-five gal-
lons. Then strain the lime solution into this. If it does not pass through the bag
well, add water until it does. The object of the straining is to take out all bits of rock,
straws and other material that would clog the spray pump. Stir thoroughly and add
enough water to make forty-five gallons of the mixture. It will be noticed that this
mixture is just one-half the usual strength. Work conducted under the direction of
Prof. Galloway, chief Div. of Veg. Path. U. S. Dep. Agr., indicates that the above
formula is as good as the other, and the ccst of the material only one-half as much,
This is often spoken of as Bordeaux mixture No. 2.










mixture remained on the leaves and what ran off usually fell on
the ground some distance from the root of the plant. June 28th,
the increase of blighted plants was 16 per cent., or 22 more than
the average of the untreated plants. The amount of Bdx. Mx.
used to each plant was the same in either case. The results of
spraying the foliage were exactly the same last year The nature
of the disease was not understood at that time, so the former
method was not tried. The above facts show that it is useless to
spray tomato leaves for the prevention of blight. I mean spray-
ing as the term is usually accepted. The acts further show that
where the vines and soil near the vines were treated with Bdx.
Mx. nearly 1-10 of the entire crop was saved by a single treat-
ment under the most disadvantageous circumstances On look-
ing at it from another stand point, the loss from blight was less
than of what it was in the untreated plots.
The second fungicide tested was ammoniacal solution of
copper carbonate.*
Six plots were laid off and notes on these carefully taken.
Four plots were treated with the solution and two left for the
checks. In plots one and six the stems and ground were treated
as plot one in Bdx. Mx. In the first plot a pint of fungicide was
used to the plant. Here the blight, on June 28th, showed an
increase of 8 per cent., or a gain Irom applying the fungicide,
of 51 per cent. In the sixth plot about a quart of fungicide was
used. Only two per cent. of the plants blighted after applying the
fungicide. In plots three and four the leaves were sprayed in
the usual way. The amount of blight was 14 per cent., or
slightly more than in the checks. The above shows that Amo.
Cu. Co. is a good fungicide for the blight, but it must be applied
in heavy quantities. The conclusion as to how it should be ap-
plied is the same as for Bordeaux Mixture.
A solution of copper carbonate and ammonium carbonate
was also tried. The results of this showed a greater decrease in
the blight. In other words, the Am. Sol. of Cu. Co, as stated
above, was not quite as good as a mixture of ammonium car-
bonate and copper carbonate.t
*The am. sol. of cu. co. is made by wetting 5 oz. of copper carbonate with a
quart of water, then add 3 quarts of ammonia water; when completely dissolved
and ready to apply, add water to make 30 gallons.
JA mixture of copper carbonate and ammonium carbonate is made by mixing
3 oz. copper carbonate in a quart of water; dissolve I lb. ammonium carbonate in three
quarts of hot water; when cool, mix and stir well; dilute to 5o gallons.










Eau Celeste was used on two plots. This is the most strik-
ing result obtained. In the plot where the stems were sprayed
the increase of blight was reduced to zero, or to the lowest possi-
ble. It will be understood that not a single plot was laid off
where blight was not present. It lacked, however, 1- per cent.
of being up to the normal, or 6- per cent., i. e., there was only
5 1-6 per cent. blight in the treated plot.
The plot left as a check on June 1st had a trifle less blight
in it than the treated plot, but on June 28th there was an in-
crease of 14 per cent., or 1- above the average.
In the next plot the leaves were sprayed in the ordinary
way. This plot showed an increase of 10 per cent. of blight.
In most of the plots treated the spraying of the leaves had
no effect in checking blight, but in this plot it showed some
advantage.
Three plots were laid off to try the effect of Eau Celeste.*
The former order was followed.
In the first plot the stems were thoroughly sprayed and the
ground about them moistened. The increase of blight in the plot
was 8 per cent. The amount of blight in the plot before treat-
ment, however, was much above the average; fully 3 per cent.
The increase of blight in check was 16 per cent., so the real gain
by spraying was 8 per cent. The third plot was treated just as
the first and the result exactly the same.
Plots were laid off in the same way as Eau Celeste to try the
modified Eau Celestet, which is somewhat more expensive, but it
has the advantage of not scorching the leaves. This has more
reference to egg plant than to tomato. The results were practi-
cally the same as in the case of Eau Celeste.
The increase of blight in this was only 4 per cent., while
that of the check showed an increase of 12 per cent.
A number of other fungicides were tried but these practi-
cally fall out of the list on account of their expensiveness and of
their less efficiency.
The advantages above enumerated are not all that is derived
*Eau Celeste is made in the following manner: Dissolve two lbs. copper sulphate
(blue stone) in a gallon of water. If the copper sulphate is powdered it will dissolve
in cold water; if not pulverized, the water should be hot. Add three pints of ammonia
water; keep corked until ready to use, then dilute to fifty gallons.
tThis is made by dissolving two pounds copper sulphate in water, as stated
above. Dissolve two and one-half pounds sal soda in same amount of water. When
cool, mix the two solutions, add two quarts of ammonia and dilute to fifty gallons.









from their use. A marked advantk
plants. The fungicides keep off disea,
extent, insects.
There are also many plants attack]
succumb, but live out a miserable ex:
end of the marketing season. Other p
the crop they would bear. After spe
field, it was an easy matter to detect
would prematurely ripen. In some c
plant alone was attacked; again all
stroyed. Some plants have a greater
especially true of the common plum to
plant, on favorable soil, have withst
Plants, however, of this same variety,
etc., succumb to the first inoculation.
variety of tomatoes could be grown th
to blight than those usually cultiva
would probably lack some desirable qi
employment would be to ascertain jus
that the tomato most desires.


ge is noticed in treated
es in general and, to some

:ed by blight that do not
stence and die about the
plants are simply cut off in
ending four weeks in the
such plants. Often fruit
cases the main root of the
the latteral ones were de-
resisting power. This is
mato. Specimens of this
ood repeated inoculation.
hen not on favorable soil,
It is not improbable that a
tt would be more resisting
Led now. Such varieties
ality. A more profitable
what the conditions are


BLACK ROT.
(Macrosporium Solani.)
This disease is very widely disseminated throughout this
State and is destructive to tomatoes in many other gardening
States. From these we can get cons derable information as to
how it shall be treated.
This disease appears upon the vin rarely on the leaves, and
often on the fruit. When it is present on fruit, the flower end
usually rots, and finally a dark green, almost black felt, forms on
this. The tomato then dries up, and seemingly nothing but the
skin remains. In the Northern fruit States the disease passes the
winter in this form.
On the stems of the tomato the spots are more or less dark
colored. It has been called the "spot," "black spot" and other
names by growers. It attacks the plants mostly below the fruit.
The spots appear to be somewhat sunken.
Specimens of this disease were submitted to Prof. B. T. Gal-
loway, chief of Div. Veg. Path., by Prof. W. T. Swingle, of Eustis,
so there can be no doubt as to the identity of this fungus.
This disease has been quite destructive to, Irish potatoes in
some of the potato growing States.










Tests of various fungicides proved that Bordeaux Mx. is a
very efficient preventive, and when applied at the proper time
will protect th9 crop more or less, according to the thoroughness
of application. The.proper time to apply the fungicide is when
the flower buds begin to form, or even earlier in a warm season.
Late cold weather retards the progress, and early moist, warm
weather hastens; so the exact time cannot be stated. The fungi-
cide should be repeated every week or ten days, depending on
how rapidly it is removed by the wind and rain. The part of
the plant covered with the fungicide alone is protected.
The tests made for blight were on fields that had some black
rot, but the fungicides were applied too late in the season to pro-
duce any effect on the latter disease.

DROPPING OF BUDS.

There are several different maladies of the tomato the
causes of which are unknown. It will be of considerable interest
to watch the development of these during the coming tomato
season.
Among these troubles is one that has caused considerable
loss and attracted the attention of a considerable number of
growers.
In this trouble, the flowers, just after blooming, fall from the
vine, apparently without cause. Of course, there is a reason for
this. Some growers considered the brand of fertilizer to be at
fault, but that idea was not confirmed by further investigation.
Still, there is not enough evidence against this to overlook the
point. The frost and cold weather have also been assigned. The
argument in favor of this view has much better backing than
the former view.
The tomato grower, whose eyes are keen enough to see that
he is losing one or two of his earliest and most valuable pickings
by the falling of the early flowers, cannot be in doubt many
years as to the cause of the disorder.

ANOTHER DISEASE

that causes the crumpling and drying up of the leaves has been
observed in many places and in widely different sections. It has
been thought that it was caused by hot sun burning the leaves;









by others the brand of fertilizer has been blamed. While the
cause is obscure, the damage is decidedly obvious. Often all the
foliage will be dry and functionless, while there are still green
tomatoes on the vines. The disease grows worse as the season
advances. Often before the bearing season is over the vines are
dried up with tomatoes hanging to them.
These diseases, for which remedies are unknown, will be
studied during the coming season. And work will be continued
on those diseases mentioned above which appeared to be helped
by the applications mentioned.




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