• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Introduction
 General and economic characteristics...
 The Florida model
 The input-output model
 Input-output multipliers
 Summary and implications
 Direct, interdependence, and indirect...
 Data sources for estimating...
 Selected bibliography
 Back Cover














Group Title: Bulletin - Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 758
Title: Interindustry analysis of the Florida economy
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027577/00001
 Material Information
Title: Interindustry analysis of the Florida economy
Series Title: Bulletin - Florida Agricultural Experiment Station ; 758
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Farler, Carl.
Tyner, Fred H.
Publisher: Agricultural Experiment Stations, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida,
Publication Date: 1973
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027577
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    List of Tables
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
    General and economic characteristics of the state
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    The Florida model
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
    The input-output model
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
    Input-output multipliers
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Summary and implications
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
    Direct, interdependence, and indirect coefficients matrices
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
    Data sources for estimating transactions
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
        Page 96
        Page 97
        Page 98
        Page 99
        Page 100
        Page 101
        Page 102
        Page 103
        Page 104
        Page 105
        Page 106
    Selected bibliography
        Page 107
        Page 108
        Page 109
    Back Cover
        Page 110
Full Text

An Interindustry Analysis

of the Florida Economy
CARL FARLER AND FRED H. TYNER


AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
J. W. SITES, DEAN FOR RESEARCH
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA, GAINESVILLE


OCTOBER 1973


ULLETIN 758


11. tio












AN INTERINDUSTRY ANALYSIS
OF THE

FLORIDA ECONOMY




Carl Farler and Fred H. Tyner


Carl Farler was formerly Research Associate in the
Economics Department.
Fred H. Tyner was formerly Associate Professor of
Economics.


Food and Resource
Food and Resource


This public document was promulgated at an annual cost
of $4,221.21, or $1.05 cents per copy to make available
information on the economic interdependencies among in-
dustries in Florida.










CONTENTS


Page
INTRODUCTION ..................... -----............. 1
Need for Study ..... --- ---- --------................. 1
Objectives _..---... ..... ... ............--. ------ --- -------- 2
General Plan of the Study ...................................- ... 2

GENERAL AND ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF
THE STATE .......... ............................ -----. 3
Population .....--...............-----------........ 3
Income .. .. .. .. ...- 6
Employment ...................- ...........--- --- -- 9
Major Economic Activities .. ...... ............................. 10
Agriculture .... ...................- ----- -------.. 10
Mining ... :.... .... ...............----.. ....... -- 13
M manufacturing ........ .......... ----.. ...-..-. ....-.....- i 14
Trade ... .. .. 17
Services ............. ------ ....----........- ...... .. .. 23
Government .......................-- ... ---- ..- .. 27
Other Economic Activities .... ...... ........ ..... ...... ..-... 29
Construction .......... ....... .... ..... .. ..... ...... -- .. 29
Transportation, Communication, and Public Utilities ......... 29
Finance, Insurance, and Real Estate ....- ......-...- ..... 30
Sum mary -... ..- ..... ........ ... ... -...- ... --. .-- ---- 30
THE FLORIDA MODEL ... .. ... ........... -- ...... .... 31
Sector Aggregation (Delineation) .................. ....... ...-- --. .-- 32
The Agricultural Sectors .................. ................. ....-.... 32
The M ining Sectors .. ... ..... .... ....- .. .. 34
The Construction Sector .....-...... .......... .... -- ..--- -34
The Manufacturing Sectors ...............-- ..... ...... .. ...- 34
The Services and Related Industries Sectors -................ 34
The Endogenous and Exogenous Sectors .............. .... 35
Gross Outputs ........ ... .... ................... ..- ------ 35
Transactions Among Sectors ........... ........... ...... .. ... 38
THE INPUT-OUTPUT MODEL ..... ............................ .... 52
Basic Input-Output Concepts ........... .................. 53
Example of Direct and Indirect Effects .... ........ ............. 53
INPUT-OUTPUT MULTIPLIERS ......... .....................-.... 55
Output Multipliers ........... ............... ........ .. ..- .....- ----- 55
Income Multipliers ..................... ..... ...-- ... ..- --58
Employment Multipliers .............................. ............ ...-. .. 61
SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS .....................................- 64
Sum m ary ... ...... ... .... .. ......- ...-- -. 64
Implications .... ... -- -.. ...- -- -. 66








CONTENTS (Continued)


APPENDIX A. Direct, Interdependence, and Indirect
Coefficients Matrix ......... ............... .......... 67
APPENDIX B: Data Sources for Estimating Transactions .......... 93
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY ..... .............................. .... 107




LIST OF TABLES

No. Page

1. Estimated total resident population of Florida, other southeastern
states, and the United States, and rank among all states as of
July 1, 1960-1969. (Population figures in thousands) ........ 4
2. Estimates by age group of the total resident population in
Florida, 1960 to 1969 ........... .. ......... .. .... ......... 7
3. Total personal income by primary class and source of wages
and salaries, Florida, 1960 and 1967 ............................ 8
4. Personal income received by civilians for participation in
production, by major source, Florida, 1967 .... 10
5. Total employment in non-agricultural establishments, by
industry division, Florida, 1961 and 1967 .................. 11
6. Estimated average realized gross and net income per farm, Florida
other southeastern states, and the United States: 1960, 1965,
1966, 1968, and 1969 .... ..... ....... ......... 12
7. Cash receipts from farm marketing by major source, Florida,
1958-1969 .... .... ..... ...... ....................... 14
8. Cash receipts from farm marketing by type of commodity,
Florida, 1967 ........ ..... ................. ..... 15
9. Quantity and value of specified minerals produced,
Florida, 1965-1967 ... ...... ........... ....... ...... .. ...... 16
10. Value of shipments, 1967, and value added by manufacturing
industries, Florida, 1963 and 1967 .... ... ........ ....... ...... 18
11. Number of manufacturing establishments by group, Florida, 1967 20
12. Total volume of retail sales by major kind of business,
Florida: 1954, 1958, 1963, and 1967 ....... ................... .. 22
13. Number of wholesale trade establishments and sales by kind
of business group, Florida, 1963 and 1967 .................... 24
14. Numbers and receipts of selected service establishments by
kind of business group, Florida, 1963 and 1967 .......... 26
15. Number of governmental units, Florida, 1967 ... 27
16. Civilian government employment, Florida, 1967 ................... 28
17. State and local direct government expenditure by function,
Florida, 1967 (in millions of dollars) .. ........ .. 28
18. Sectors in the Florida model ... ...... ..... ............ .... 33
19. Gross outputs for Florida agriculture, forestry and fisheries, 1967 36
20. Gross output estimates by manufacturing sector, Florida, 1967 37
21. Gross outputs for utilities and services industries, Florida, 1967 .... 38
22. Transactions matrix, Florida, 1967 .... ......................... 42
23. Florida net export industries, 1967 ... .... .......... ........ 51









LIST OF TABLES (Continued)

No. Page
24. Industry sector production short of State needs, Florida, 1967 ------i 51
25. Effects of a $1.00 increase in final demand for output of
the printing and publishing sector .................................... 54
26. Output multipliers by sectors, Florida, 1967 --...................... 57
27. Income multipliers, Florida, 1967 ........ ..............- ...-..... 59
28. Estimated changes in the employment resulting from a $1,000
change in output and the derived employment multipliers,
Florida, 1967 .................. .......... ......-.... .... ....... 62
Appendix Table 1. Technical coefficients matrix, Florida, 1967 ...... 69
Appendix Table 2. Interdependence coefficients matrix, Florida, 1967 77
Appendix Table 3. Indirect coefficient matrix, Florida, 1967 ............... 85
Appendix Table 4. Detailed sector classification used to estimate
transaction flows, Florida, 1967 ................-.........----.. 101







INTRODUCTION
Need for Study
A cursory look at the Florida economy in 1968 compared
with 30 years ago illustrates the diversification and change in
economic activity that has taken place since World War II. A
growing and changing agriculture has been supplemented by
rapid expansion in tourism, manufacturing, governmental in-
stallations, and service industries. The number of tourists vis-
iting Florida annually has increased from 2.5 million in 1945
to 20 million in 1968 [25].1
Government and service industries have shown relative
gains as contributors to personal incomes while manufacturing
and agriculture have remained relatively unchanged. Personal
incomes increased approximately 30% during the four-year pe-
riod 1964-67, from $12,982 million to $17,101 million. At the
same time, population growth has occurred at one of the fastest
rates in the nation-from 2,771,305 people in 1950 to a popula-
tion of 6,203,000 in 1968. To accommodate the rapid growth in
population and economic activity, state government expenditures
for Florida increased 78% during the 1960-67 period-from
$765 million to $1,363 million.
The above changes have not been evenly distributed over the
geographic areas of the state. Some counties have actually lost
population and are in a relatively declining economic position
[43]. Development programs at state and local levels to assist
these lagging areas are greatly handicapped by a lack of infor-
mation and understanding of the complex economic interrela-
tionships within the economy. Both primary and secondary
effects emanating from changes in any sector of the economy
need to be understood and appraised as they relate to develop-
ment programs.
As changes continue to occur in the future, one can expect
the interindustry relationships at both the primary and second-
ary level to adjust accordingly. The adjustments will have ef-
fects on existing patterns of economic activity as well as the
geographic distribution of this activity. In order to make de-
velopment planning more effective, the expected changes in the
agricultural and non-agricultural mix of economic activity (as
reflected through output, employment, and income generation)
need to be ascertained. A state-wide study of the economic in-
terdependencies among industries provides a basis for a better
SNumbers in brackets refer to Literature Cited at the end of this report.







understanding and planning of economic development strategies
than can individual industry or commodity analysis alone.

Objectives

The general objective of this study was to analyze the struc-
tural interdependence of the Florida economy. More specifically,
the objectives of the study were to: (1) develop an input-output
model to determine the interrelationships in the Florida econ-
omy, (2) measure the impact of changes in economic activity
due to changes in the level of activity in any particular sector,
(3) determine and measure the direct and indirect components
of these changes, (4) compute income, output, and employment
multipliers for each endogenous sector in the model, and (5)
make projections of the probable level of economic activity as it
relates to alternative policy or development plans.

General Plan of the Study
The basic model used in the study was the open Leontief (or
"input-output") model. The theoretical model and the division
of total economic activity in Florida into sectors is discussed
briefly later in this report.
Data for the study were collected from secondary sources,
with most of the data available in published form from official
publications. In order to make the data comparable, the year
1967 was used as a base. (This was the latest year for which
data from both the Census of Business and the Census of Man-
ufactures were available.)
Data on input structure, sales, gross output, value added,
and final demand were generated for each sector in the model.
Coefficients and certain other input data were developed from
the Fortune national input-output study [28] for 1963.
Adjustment of national coefficients to a more aggregate level
for use with state data required considerable information oni the
nature of the Florida economy. Some of the economic charac-
teristics of the Florida economy are presented in the next section
of this report.
One major section of this report is entitled "The Florida
Model." It covers the delineation of 48 economic sectors, includ-
ing a table showing transactions among the sectors. Tables of
direct (or technical) coefficients and "interdependence coeffi-
cients" may be found in the Appendix.
The major analytical section is entitled "Input-Output Mul-
tipliers." The multiplier concept is used to reflect the impact








of a change in the demand for the output of one sector upon the
total economy. Multipliers discussed relate to impacts on out-
put, income, and employment.
The foregoing remarks will, hopefully, give the reader a bet-
ter feel for what is meant by the stated objective "to analyze the
structural interdependence of the Florida economy." The report
is lengthy and includes numerous tables and numbers. This is
unavoidable. However, the concepts of input-output analysis
and multipliers are simple and straightforward. As input-out-
put is a fairly common procedure, technical details are omitted.
The interested reader is referred to the cited references for
greater detail regarding the technique of analysis.
It is hoped that materials presented will provide a better
understanding of the kinds of economic activity taking place in
Florida, and will provide useful information for evaluating the
likely effects of further economic development.

GENERALAND ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE STATE
The location of Florida as the southern-most tip of a large
land mass and its attendant mild climate and abundant rainfall
have been important in its development. The large concentra-
tion of the U.S. population in the eastern half of the country
provides ample markets for Florida's tourist, citrus, and winter
vegetable industries.
Population
Population characteristics of a state or region give some
clues to the structure of its economy. The descriptive analysis
that follows is an attempt to picture the important elements of
Florida's population, income, and employment as they were in
1967, the year for which the most recent complete set of data
is available.
Estimated total residential population in Florida in 1967 was
6,035,000 [26]. The state ranked as the ninth most populous
(Table 1), and had one of the fastest growth rates in the nation.
The U.S. population increase from 1960 to 1967 was approxi-
mately 10 %, whereas Florida's population increased nearly twice
as fast during the same period. The state is largely urban, with
only 26.1% of its total population classified as rural in 1960.2
However, these statistics do not tell the whole story. North
2 The census definition of rural resident is "persons living in open country
or in communities of less than 2,500 people." See Tyner's study [43] for
further discussion.













Table 1.- Estimated total resident population of Florida, other southeastern states, and the United States, and rank
among all states as of July 1, 1960-1969.
(Population figures in thousands)

Year Alabama Arkansas FLORIDA Georgia Kentucky Louisiana Mississippi
Pop. Rank Pop. Rank Pop. Rank Pop. Rank Pop. Rank Pop. Rank Pop. Rank

1960 3,276 19 1,792 31 4,997 10 3,958 16 3,045 22 3,263 21 2,185 29
1961 3,326 19 1,817 32 5,205 9 4,027 15 3,071 22 3,300 20 2,224 29
1962 3,342 20 1,875 31 5,392 9 4,108 15 3,099 22 3,371 19 2,276 28
r 1963 3,383 20 1,907 31 5,532 9 4,206 15 3,124 22 3,410 19 2,291 28
1964 3,431 21 1,939 31 5,654 9 4,304 15 3,163 22 3,493 19 2,304 28
1965 3,494 21 1,947 31 5,802 9 4,401 15 3,172 22 3,559 19 2,325 28
1966 3,524 21 1,963 32 5,914 9 4,462 15 3,181 22 3,624 19 2,339 28
1967 3,533 21 1,972 32 6,035 9 4,490 15 3,201 22 3,663 19 2,344 28
1968 3,522 21 1,983 32 6,210 9 4,579 15 3,224 23 3,710 19 2,349 28
1969a. 3,531 21 1,995 32 6,354 9 4,641 15 3,232 23 3,745 19 2,360 28









Table 1. Continued.

Year North Carolina South Carolina Tennessee Virginia West Virginia United States
Pop. Rank Pop. Rank Pop. Rank Pop. Rank Pop. Rank Pop.
1960 4,576 12 2,395 26 3,577 17 3,987 14 1,856 30 179,992
1961 4,680 12 2,424 26 3,630 17 4,098 14 1,837 30 183,057
1962 4,736 11 2,450 26 3,690 17 4,187 14 1,823 32 185,890
1963 4,786 11 2,498 26 3,742 17 4,288 14 1,815 33 188,658
1964 4,861 11 2,528 26 3,805 17 4,371 14 1,823 33 191,372
Q 1965 4,943 11 2,564 26 3,847 17 4,435 14 1,820 33 193,815
1966 4,987 11 2,607 26 3,878 17 4,481 14 1,815 33 195,936
1967 5,059 11 2,638 26 3,936 17 4,541 14 1,807 33 197,863
1968 5,131 11 2,669 26 3,952 17 4,604 14 1,819 33 199,846
1969a 5,205 11 2,692 26 3,985 17 4,669 13 1,819 33 201,921


provisional
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the United States, published annually, and
Current Population Reports, Series P-25 No. 414 and 430.








and west Florida was growing at only a 13.5 % rate in the 1960-
67 period, and more than 51% of the resident population of this
area of Florida in 1960 was classified as rural. (The non-rural
or urban population of the state is located primarily in the
coastal Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas (SMSA's) of
Miami, Fort Lauderdale, Jacksonville, Tampa-St. Petersburg,
and the central Florida area around Orlando.)
The age distribution of the resident Florida population
showed little change during the 1960-67 period. Although all
age groups had absolute increases, the relative percentage of
those under 5 years and from 45 to 64 years has declined
(Table 2).
Income
Levels of family income give some indication of the standards
of living in an area. Compared with 1960 national figures, the
median income of families and related individuals in Florida
showed considerable disparity. The U.S. median income of
families and related individuals was $4,791, whereas Florida's
median income for families and related individuals for the same
period was $3,815. [44] There was not only a wide difference
in the state and national median incomes but also a considerable
variation between counties within the state. County median in-
comes for families and related individuals ranged from a high
of $4,439 in Brevard County to a low of $1,929 in Holmes
County. Of Florida's 67 counties, 56 were below the state figure.
Total personal income in Florida nearly doubled between
1960 and 1967, increasing from $9,746 million to $17,507 mil-
lion [55]. Nationally, personal income increased 57% during
this period.
Personal income on a per capital basis gives some indication
of economic opportunity within an area. Personal income per
capital in the U.S. in 1967 averaged $3,162. This was an increase
of $1,206 over the average in 1960, or a 54% increase. For the
same period, Florida per capital personal income rose from
$1,950 to $2,901-an increase of 49% [55]. Although Florida
had the highest per capital personal income of any southeastern
state in 1967, it was still in a relatively declining position with
respect to the nation as a whole. Only two counties-the Miami-
Dade SMSA and Brevard County-exceeded the 1967 national
per capital personal income average of $3,162. Only Brevard,
Dade, Broward, Duval, Palm Beach, Hendry, Lafayette, and
Monroe counties exceeded the state per capital personal income
average of $2,901 [55].








Table 2.- Estimates by age groups of the total resident population in Florida, 1960 to 1969.

Age groups April 1, July 1, July 1, July 1, July 1, July 1, July 1, July 1, July 1, July 1,
1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969a
(census)

....------------------------------------ (1,000) ----------------------------------------


Total
Under 5 years
5 to 17 years
18 to 44 years
45 to 64 years
65 years and over

14 years and over
18 years and over
21 years and over


4,952
541
1,140
1,698
1,019
553


3,558
3,270
3,088


5,205 5,392 5,532 5,654 5,802 5,914 6,035 6,210 6,354
569 581 585 585 585 573 559 551 2,135
1,215 1,279 1,332 1,385 1,425 1,464 1,504 1,550 NA
1,783 1,843 1,885 1,914 1,988 2,021 2,072 2,131 3,372
1,044 1,063 1,074 1,084 1,101 1,117 1,133 1,154 NA
594 626 655 686 703 739 767 824 846


3,741 3,876 3,979 4,069 4,180 4,273 4,382 4,539 NA
3,421 3,532 3,614 3,684 3,792 3,877 3,972 4,108 4,219
3,215 3,311 3,380 3,449 3,531 3,600 3,674 3,817 3,920


NA=Not Available
preliminary estimate

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Current Population Reports, Series P-25, Nos. 354, 420, and 437.










Another indication of economic development potential is the
source of personal income. Table 3 shows total personal income
by primary class in Florida for 1960 and 1967. Wages and



Table 3.--Total personal income by primary class and source of
wages and salaries, Florida, 1960 and 1967.

Item 1960a 1967
Income Percent Income Percent
of of
total total


Wages and salariesb
Farms
Mining
Contract construction
Manufacturing
Transportation, communication
and public utilities

Wholesale and retail trade
Finance, insurance, and
real estate

Service trades and professions
Government
Other industries
Other labor income
Proprietor's income
Property income
Transfer payments
Total personal income


($ mil.)
(6,002)
112
42
578


(%) ($ mil.)


(59.7)
1.1
.4
5.7


(10,753)
171
56
775


(59.7)
.9
.3
4.3


873 8.6 1,811 10.0

502 5.0 887 4.9

1,370 13.6 2,147 1.9

374 3.7 604 3.3

848 8.4 1,710 9.4
1,268 12.6 2,548 14.0
34 .3 43 .2
(176) (1.7) (468) (2.5)
(1,384) (13.8) (1,757) (9.7)
(1,626) (16.2) (3,176) (17.6)
(852) (8.5) (1,861) (10.3)
9,843 100 17,507 100


aunrevised
bTotal personal income excludes contributions for social insurance, by
definition, but the figures for wages and salaries in this table include these
contributions because it is not possible to take them out of the distributions
by source. For this reason, the totals for each primary class will not add to
total personal income. The percentages shown were calculated relative to ithe
sum of the income figures in the table, not as a proportion of "Total personal
income."

Source: U. S. Department of Commerce, Office of Business Economics,
Survey of Current Business, August 1963 (1960 data), August 1968
(1965 data), August 1969 (1966 to 1968 data).








salaries made up the largest portion in both years, supplying
59.7% of total personal income. Property income was the sec-
ond largest source in 1960 and 1967, contributing 16.2% and
17.6% of the total, respectively. Proprietor's income made up
13.8% of total personal income in 1960 and was the third larg-
est contributor, but this percentage had dropped to 9.7% in
1967 and was fourth (behind transfer payments) as a source
of income. Transfer payments totaled $1,861 million in 1967
and made up 10.3% of total personal income.
Within the wage and salary segment of total personal in-
come, government was the largest source of personal income in
1967 with $2,548 million. Wholesale and retail trade had been
the largest source of personal income in 1960 with $1,370 mil-
lion. Wages and salaries in wholesale and retail trade as a
source of personal income declined from 13.6% in 1960 to 11.9%
of the total in 1967.
Another statistic helpful in evaluating economic develop-
ment is the personal income of an area from participation in
its various production activities. Table 4 gives the sources of
production income by civilian workers in 1967. The largest
source of civilian production personal income was the wholesale
and retail sector. Out of a total personal income from produc-
tion activities of $12,099 million, the wholesale and retail sector
produced $2,499 million (20.7%). Services and professions,
manufacturing, and civilian government were major contrib-
utors with $2,340 million, $2,020 million, and $1,902 million
personal income generated, respectively.

Employment

Many changes have taken place in employment statistics in
recent years. The civilian labor force in Florida was 1,997,250
in 1963. Over the period of four years to 1967, the labor force
had increased to 2,324,240 (by 16.4%). Of the total labor force,
approximately 215,800 in 1963 and 284,040 in 1967 were agri-
cultural labor. Table 5 shows the average monthly employment
in non-agricultural establishments for 1961 through 1967 by
industry division. All industries show an increase in numbers
employed. As would be expected from the personal income
sources discussed earlier, wholesale and retail trade was the
largest employer, with government, services, and manufactur-
ing following in that order.
Percentage employment by industry is also presented in
Table 5. Although the percentage changes by industry are









Table 4.- Personal income received by civilians for participation
in production, by major source, Florida, 1967.

Source Amount Portion of total

($ mil.) (%)
Agriculture 475 3.9
Mining and fisheries 85 0.7
Contract construction 934 7.7
Manufacturing 2,020 16.7
Wholesale and retail trade 2,499 20.7
Finance, insurance, and
real estate 822 6.8
Transportation, communication
and public utilities 992 8.2
Service trades and professions 2,340 19.3
Other private industry 30 0.2
Civilian government payrolls 1,902 15.7

Total a 12,099 99.9 b

a Includes wages and salaries, other labor income, and proprietor's income.
bDoes not equal 100 % due to rounding
Source: Estimates made by the Bureau of Economic and Business Re-
search, University of Florida, Gainesville.

small, they do indicate the direction of change in economic
activity as it relates to employment. The government sector
showed the largest percentage increase over the 1961-67 period.
In 1961 this sector made up 17.4%o of non-agricultural employ-
ment. By 1967 government accounted for 19.0% of non-agri-
cultural employment.

Major Economic Activities

Agriculture
The production of agricultural commodities in Florida is of
major importance to the state's economy, and has shown steady
growth in value of output and income. Florida is the leading
state in the Southeast in terms of agricultural net and gross
income per farm [46] (Table 6.)
Many of the changes affecting agriculture in other states
are also occurring in Florida. The number of farms is declining






Table 5.-Total employment in non-agricultural establishments, by industry division, Florida, 1961 and 1967.

Industry division 1961 1967
Employment Portion of total Employment Portion of total

(1,000) (%) (1,000) (%)
Mining 8.6 .6 9.2 .5
Contract construction 109.8 8.3 128.7 7.0
Manufacturing 210.9 15.8 292.8 16.1
Transportation, communication,
and other public utilities 100.7 7.5 128.4 7.0

Wholesale and retail trade 362.1 27.1 481.4 26.5
Finance, insurance, and
real estate 85.0 6.3 106.8 5.9
Service and miscellaneous 224.5 16.8 326.8 17.9
Government 232.3 17.4 349.6 19.0
Total 1,333.9 100 1,816.4 100




aAll industries are classified according to the Standard Industrial Classification Manual, 1957.
Source: State of Florida, Department of Commerce (formerly Florida Industrial Commission), Florida Employment Statistics,
published monthly.








Table 6.- Estimated average realized gross and net income per farm, Florida, other southeastern states, and the
United States: 1960, 1965, 1966, 1968, and 1969.


1960 1965 1966 1968 1969
Gross Net Gross Net Gross Net Gross Net Gross Net


----------- ------------- (dollars) -------------------------------------------------------
5,102 1,995 7,583 2,796 8,195 2,927 8,868 2,962 10,136 3,614
7,150 2,678 11,463 4,117 13,626 5,697 14,675 5,023 16,171 5,438
16,711 6,895 25,646 10,435 28,247 10,961 37,150 14,756 41,332 16,510
7,756 2,644 12,694 4,514 13,972 5,070 15,103 5,008 16,635 5,834
4,245 1,756 5,844 2,452 6,227 2,489 7,364 3,036 8,349 3,472
5,535 2,095 8,682 3,231 10,326 4,109 13,347 5,388 13,416 4,817


" Mississippi
North Carolina
South Carolina
Tennessee
Virginia
West Virginia

United States


4,806 1,814
5,847 2,698
4,837 1,737
3,684 1,380
5,598 1,785
3,255 992


8,503 3,463 9,243 3,769 10,717 4,336 10,899 4,087
7,572 3,021 8,676 3,725 8,751 3,356 9,994 4,253
7,267 2,654 7,990 3,082 8,704 2,696 9,517 3,046
5,272 2,013 5,631 1,972 6,098 2,027 6,766 2,406
7,230 2,281 7,662 2,278 8,533 2,294 9,429 2,720
3,677 841 3,871 845 4,198 624 4,599 735


9,614 2,962 13,452 4,190 15,358 5,044 16,741


4,841 18,384 5,401


State


Alabama
Arkansas
FLORIDA
Georgia
Kentucky
Louisiana


Note: Excludes changes in inventories, and represents income of farm operators.
Source: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Farm Income, .'i.., Estimates, 1949-1968, and Farm Income
Situation for 1969.








and farms are getting larger. From 1940 to 1964 the number
of farms in Florida decreased from 62,248 to 40,541, of which
more than half were classified as commercial in 1964. The aver-
age size of farms in 1964 was 380 acres, but commercial farms
were considerably larger at 580 acres per farm. The number
of workers employed in Florida agriculture has not followed
the national trend downward, with total agricultural employ-
ment increasing from 215,800 in 1963 to 284,040 in 1967.
Total cash receipts from farm marketing gives an indica-
tion of the income contribution of agriculture. The value of
cash receipts from farm marketing has increased in almost
every year during the period 1958-69. The crops sector, with
its large vegetable and citrus component, generates the major
part of farm market receipts (Table 7).
The importance of Florida's large citrus production to agri-
cultural income is readily apparent from the 1967 cash receipts
data in Table 8. The importance of citrus and other agricul-
tural raw products as generators of further economic activity
will be discussed in a later section of this report. Dairy prod-
ucts, cattle and calves, greenhouse and nursery products, sugar-
cane, vegetables, and poultry and eggs are other important
sources of income to Florida's farmers.
Mining

Mining as an economic activity in Florida has shown only
a small amount of growth in recent years. Value of mineral
production (including crude petroleum and natural gas) has
increased slightly from 1965 to 1967-from $249 million in 1965
to $310 million in 1967 [59]. The largest contributor to the
production value in the mining sector was phosphate rock, with
an estimated value of $175 million in 1967. Crushed limestone,
clays and petroleum, and natural gas produced most of the re-
maining value (Table 9.)
In 1961, mining employed 8,600 persons (0.6% of non-agri-
cultural employment). In 1967, 9,200 persons were employed in
mining (0.5%), but only 8,000 persons were employed in min-
ing by 1969. On a place of work basis, personal income earned
from mining in 1967 in Florida was $56 million-the smallest
contribution to personal income by a major industry in Florida
[26]. The raw material supplied by the mining sector does,
however, provide the basis for further processing. The phos-
phate rock mining activity in Florida is the largest in the U.S.
and supplies a large part of the world phosphate needs.









Table 7.-Cash receipts from farm marketing by major source,
Florida, 1958-1969.

Year Total Crops Livestock and
livestock products

.---.....--..... ---.-. --.----. ----- ($1,000) ------------------------------

1958 724,900 502,300 222,600
1959 824,600 605,800 218,800
1960 779,111 569,186 209,925
1961 869,386 656,464 212,922
1962 914,520 695,252 219,268

1963 905,498 680,796 224,702
1964 1,004,001 773,313 230,688
1965 996,595 746,944 249,651
1966 1,039,497 736,773 302,724
1967 1,129,098 808,812 320,286

1968 1,232,543 895,952 336,591
1969 1,335,300 961,600 373,600

Note: Rounding to the nearest $50,000 was done for the years 1958, 1959,
and 1969.
Source: Florida Department of Agriculture, Florida Agricultural Statistics,
published annually.


Manufacturing
Manufacturing activity is increasing in Florida, both from
the standpoint of number employed and value added by manu-
facture. In 1963, 211,900 persons were employed in manufac-
turing. Value added was $2,352 million; by 1967, 281,100 per-
sons were employed and value added had increased to $3,683
million. The relative position of manufacturing as a provider
of employment has remained practically unchanged with 15.8%
of all employment supplied by manufacturing in 1961 and 16.1%
in 1967.
The relative importance of the many industries classified
under manufacturing activity can be seen in Table 10. Those
industries that further process raw materials produced in the
agricultural, forestry, and mining sectors are clearly dominant.










Table 8.--Cash receipts from farm marketing
modity, Florida, 1967.


by type of com-


Commodity Cash receipts Commodity Cash receipts


CROPS

Citrus

Oranges

Grapefruit

Tangerines

Tangelos

Limes

Vegetables and melons

Tomatoes

Sweet corn

Green peppers

Celery

Snap beans

Watermelons

Potatoes

Cucumbers

Cabbage

Escarole

Lettuce

Eggplant

Other

Field Crops

Sugarcane

Tobacco


($1,000)



246,528

62,634

10,346

5,419

3,036


77,640

27,038

22,722

20,893

20,059

17,356

16,873

12,254

10,059

4,306

2,988

2,751

23,554


57,103

32,145


Corn

Peanuts

Soybeans

Cotton

Other

Other fruits and nuts

Strawberries

Avocados

Pecans

Tung nuts

Other

Forest products a

Greenhouse and nursery

LIVESTOCK AND PRODUCTS

Dairy products

Cattle and calves

Poultry and eggs

Eggs

Broilers

Other

Other Livestock

Hogs

Honey and beeswax

Other


($1,000)

12,056

8,689

6,569

978

4,335


5,790

2,373

1,152

695

4,269

3,899

81,426


112,819

120,994



53,995

10,546

3,657


13,002

2,897

2,376


a Relates only to sales from farms.
Source: Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, unpublished data.








Table 9.-Quantity and value of specified minerals produced, Florida, 1965-1967.

Mineral and unit 1965 1966 1967
Quantity Value Quantity Value Quantity Value

($1,000) ($1,000) ($1,000)
Clays
(1,000 short tons) 651 9,752 762 11,408 756 11,574
Lime
(1,000 short tons) 101 1,558 135 1,966 155 2,425
Natural gas
(1,000,000 cu. ft.) 107 14 212 30 123 18
Peat
(1,000 short tons) 19 109 12 91 22 155
Petroleum, crude
(1,000 42-gal. barrels) 1,464 (D) 1,799 (D) 1,568 (D)
Phosphate rock
(1,000 long tons) 21,563 141,258 (D) (D) (D) (D)
Sand and gravel
(1,000 short tons) 7,298 6,377 7,403 6,417 6,912 6,479
Stone
(1,000 short tons) 35,730 41,148 35,023 38,167 33,971 38,723
Value of items not disclosed 49,104 237,368 250,423

Total 249,320 295,447 309,797

(D) Withheld to avoid disclosing individual company confidential data.
aCement, magnesium compounds, natural gas liquids, rare-earth metal-concentrates, staurolite, titanium concentrates,
zircon concentrates, and values indicated by the symbol (D).
Source: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, Minerals Yearbook-Area Reports: Domestic.


r








From the standpoint of value of shipments, value added, and
numbers employed, the food and kindred products sector is the
state's largest manufacturing industry, shipping nearly two
billion dollars worth of goods in 1967. This sector alone em-
ployed 44,300 workers in 1967. The two next largest sectors
from the standpoint of value shipped are chemical and allied
products and paper and allied products with $947.9 million and
$629.9 million shipped, respectively, in 1967. Both these indus-
tries are dependent to a large extent on the natural resource
base of the large forestry industry. Table 11 shows the number
of manufacturing establishments by major industry groups and
employment size in Florida for 1967. More than 70% of Flor-
ida's manufacturing establishments are small, employing be-
tween 1 and 19 employees. Twenty-three per cent of the estab-
lishments employed between 20 and 99 employees, and only 7%
employed 100 or more.


Trade
Earlier statements about the climatic and geographical loca-
tion of Florida having relevancy to its economic development
apply particularly to the trade and service industries. Wholesale
and retail trade is the largest type of employer of non-agricul-
tural workers in Florida, employing 481,400 workers (or 26.5%
of the state total) in 1967 [24]. Wholesale and retail trade as
a source of personal income on a place of work basis is second
only to government. In 1967, employees working in government
earned $2,548 million while those working in wholesale and re-
tail trade earned $2,147 million [26].
Establishments primarily engaged in selling goods to cus-
tomers for personal, household, or farm use are classified as
retail. The number of establishments in this group has shown
a steady increase, with 49,547 retail establishments in Florida
in 1958, 53,293 in 1963, and 58,727 in 1967 [47]. Gross sales
increased from $5,840 million in 1958 to $10,280 million in 1967
[47]. Gross sales of retail establishments by major kind of bus-
iness and percentage change for the years 1954-1967 are shown
in Table 12. Food stores are still Florida's leading retail estab-
lishments in terms of dollar sales. However, the general mer-
chandising group of department, variety, and miscellaneous
merchandising is the fastest growing, increasing gross sales by
300% during the 1954-67 period. This group had the third larg-
est absolute sales in 1967 with $1,383 million.










Table 10.-Value of shipments, 1967, and value added by manufacturing industries, Florida, 1963 and 1967.

Industry 1963 1967
Employees Value added Employees Value added Shipments

($ mil.) ($ mil.) ($ mil.)
Food and kindred products 39,600 499.7 44,300 627.2 1,873.1
Tobacco manufacture 5,400 35.3 5,600 44.0 90.8
Textile mills 1,100 7.0 2,000 12.5 30.7
Apparel 10,600 54.1 16,600 105.4 182.0
Lumber and wood products 12,000 68.5 12,100 94.9 204.9
Furniture and fixtures 6,700 46.5 7,400 62.3 115.9
^ Paper and allied products 13,600 204.6 16,300 290.9 629.9
Printing and publishing 16,300 154.6 20,300 224.9 331.8
Chemicals and allied products 18,100 346.9 20,700 466.1 947.9
Petrol products 800 8.4 800 8.9 29.8
Rubber and plastic products 1,500 12.5 3,600 34.2 67.0
Leather and leather products 1,800 9.7 2,600 16.1 27.5
Stone, clay, and glass products 12,600 142.6 12,500 184.9 349.0
Primary metal industry 2,300 30.8 3,000 43.7 99.7







Table 10. Continued.


Industry 1963 1967
Employees Value added Employees Value added Shipments

($ mil.) ($ mil.) ($ mil.)
Fabricated metal industry 14,200 130.8 19,600 225.5 502.8
Machinery except electrical 6,900 94.2 12,500 211.1 378.3
Electrical machinery 15,100 153.3 24,400 280.1 413.4
Transportation equipment 16,700 132.5 25,000 265.6 448.6
Inst. and related products 2,200 NA 3,200 42.0 65.6
Miscellaneous manufacturing 3,100 22.5 4,000 34.7 59.2
Ordnance and accessories 11,300 NA 24,600 407.7 475.1

Total, all industries 211,900 2,352.0 281,100 3,682.7 7,323.0


NA= Not available.


Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Manufacturing Census, 1967 Area Report.








Table 11.-Number of manufacturing establishments by group, Florida, 1967.


Number of establishments with
SIC 1 to 19 20 to 99 100 Total
code Industry group employees employees employees
and over

19 Ordnance and accessories 7 5 13 25
20 Food and kindred products 415 254 122 791
21 Tobacco manufacturers 21 15 12 48
22 Textile mill products 19 13 3 35
23 Apparel and related products 243 169 44 456
24 Lumber and wood products,
except furniture 919 113 25 1,057
25 Furniture and fixtures 262 98 16 376
26 Paper and allied products 39 47 35 121
27 Printing and publishing 813 143 28 984
28 Chemicals and allied products 262 104 28 391
29 Petroleum and coal products 27 14 0 41





Table 11. Continued.


Number of establishments with
SIC 1 to 19 20 to 99 100 Total
code Industry group employees employees employees
and over

30 Rubber and plastics products 94 37 6 137
31 Leather and leather products 22 14 7 43
32 Stone, clay, and glass products 393 132 24 549
33 Primary metal industries 35 21 10 66
34 Fabricated metal products 420 170 39 629
35 Machinery, except electrical 426 103 17 546
36 Electrical machinery 116 49 39 204
37 Transportation equipment 262 102 29 393
38 Instruments and related
products 66 17 6 89
39 Miscellaneous 299 52 4 355
- Administrative and auxiliary a 109 37 14 160


Total 5,269 1,709 521 7,499




aRepresents central administrative offices and auxiliary units, such as warehouses, research laboratories, and maintenance
locations.
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Census, County Business Patterns: Fla., published annually.








Table 12. Total volume of retail sales by major kind of business, Florida: 1954, 1958, 1963, and 1967.

Kind of business Volume of sales Percent increase
1954a 1958 1963 1967 1954-67

-.-.......-...-.....-...... .----- --- --- ($1,000) ------------ ----------------

Food stores 912,968 1,365,294 1,885,169 2,322,000 154
Eating, drinking places 353,683 459,963 572,210 817,494 131
General merchandise group 345,754 558,776 887,343 1,383,436 300
Apparel, accessories stores 287,775 371,593 395,923 514,954 79
Furniture, home furnishings,
appliance dealers 230,340 327,122 357,647 481,592 109
Automotive group 779,435 1,092,913 1,618,141 2,099,184 169
Gasoline service stations .. 713 426,848 605,480 763,670 184
Lumber, building materials, hardware,
farm equipment dealers 306,757 410,572 333,848 436,239 42
Drug stores, proprietory stores 139,335 220,148 286,460 430,234 209
Other retail stores 322,952 503,414 614,112 884,876 174
Nonstore retailers 66,705 102,975 123,384 146,655 120

Total 4,014,417 5,839,618 7,679,717 10,280,334 156


years 1958, 1963,


aRevised as of 1958 U.S. Census of Business for comparability of data.
Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, U.S. Census of Business: Retail Trade, for the
and 1967.







Wholesale trade consists of those establishments primarily
engaged in selling goods to retailers; to institutions, industrial,
commercial, and professional users; or to other wholesalers.
Gross sales of wholesale trade has paralleled that of retail trade
in Florida. Total sales in 1967 were $10,303 million (up from
$3,373 million in 1954). The number of establishments also
followed a like trend, increasing from 5,254 in 1954 to 9,650 in
1967 [58]. The number of establishments has not increased as
fast as gross sales-increasing by only 84% while gross sales
increased 205%. Average value of sales per establishment was
$622,953 in 1954, increasing to $1,484,368 in 1967. Table 13
gives the number of establishments and amount of gross sales
by major kind of business for 1963 and 1967. Trends in whole-
sale trade are similar to retail trade. The groceries and related
products group had the largest number of establishments as
well as the largest sales in 1963, but was second to machinery,
equipment, and supplies in number of establishments in 1967.
Groceries still had the largest sales in 1967 with sales totaling
$2,469 million.
Services
The service industry is important to the Florida economy in
more ways than performing a secondary or tertiary function
for the more basic activities of agriculture, forestry, mining,
and manufacturing. Much like trade, many of the business ac-
tivities have characteristics associated with export industries.
The census classifies selected services as being comprised of:
(1) hotels, rooming houses, camps, and other lodging places;
(2) personal services; (3) business services; (4) automobile
repair, automobile services, and garages; (5) miscellaneous re-
pair services; (6) motion pictures; (7) amusements and recre-
ation services (except for motion pictures). Other services can
be added to this list. A large segment of the service industry
includes professional services such as legal services, medical and
dental services, and educational services.
Adequate statistics are not available on the latter three cate-
gories, but an examination of census data and other sources
show the importance of selected services to the Florida economy.
The number of service establishments as well as gross receipts
from service businesses have been increasing (Table 14). All
seven business groups have shown an increase in number of es-
tablishments and gross business receipts. Another way of look-
ing at the service industry is to examine its contribution to
personal income. Service trades and professions, which would










Table 13.- Number of wholesale trade establishments and sales by kind of business group, Florida, 1963 and 1967.

Kind of business Number of establishments Sales
1963 1967 1963 1967

----.------------ .1 000 ---


Motor vehicles, automotive equipment
Drugs, chemicals, allied products
Dry goods apparel
Groceries and related products
Farm products-raw materials
Electrical goods
to
Hardware, plumbing, heating equipment,
and supplies
Machinery, equipment, supplies

Metals, minerals (ex. petroleum
products and scrap)
Petroleum and petroleum products
Scrap, waste products
Tobacco, tobacco products


1,044
350
188
1,630
96
578


437
1,459


1,533,457
374,698
(D)
2,469,111
176,146
854,685


1,151
399
186
1,645
104
627


483
1,742


174
807
140
65


1,096,439
288,925
90,841
1,887,280
96,264
558,954


235,317
638,348


232,253
741,305
36,969
152,927


302,853
978,791


298,025
941,023
(D)
166,953












Table 13. Continued.


Kind of business Number of establishments Sales
1963 1967 1963 1967


Beer, wine, distilled alcoholic
beverages 183 199 504,662 730,733
Paper, paper products, except
wallpaper 249 291 109,081 180,633

Furniture, home furnishings 242 252 131,329 211,310
Lumber, construction materials 546 487 410,634 439,394
Other miscellaneous products 736 898 275,282 453,509

Total 8,896 9,650 7,486,810 10,302,824

(D) Withheld to avoid disclosure.
Source: U. S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, U. S. Census of Business, Wholesale Trade, Florida, for the years
1963 and 1967.










Table 14.--Numbers and receipts of selected service establishments by kind of business group, Florida, 1963 and
1967.

Kind of business group Number of establishments Receipts
1963 1967 1963 1967

.---.----------- ($1,000) -------- ----

Hotels, motels, tourist courts, camps 6,812 7,523 383,811 593,070
Personal services 12,825 15,593 274,387 383,614
Miscellaneous business services 5,897 7,969 312,143 583,919
Automobile repair, automobile
services, garages 4,333 4,547 180,735 253,802
Miscellaneous repair services 5,372 5,512 126,971 157,695
Motion pictures 439 483 45,624 66,374
Amusements, recreation services
(except motion pictures) 3,813 4,731 168,402 236,769

Total 39,491 46,358 1,492,073 2,275,243

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, U.S. Census of Business: Selected Services, Florida, for 1963 and 1967.








include all those mentioned previously, contributed $1,710 mil-
lion in wages and salaries in 1967. This was 9.4% of all personal
income that year and was an increase from 8.4% in 1960. The
contribution of all services to personal income in 1967 on a place
of work basis was $2,305 million and ranked third behind gov-
ernment and trade.
As an employer, all service industries ranked third in 1961
behind trade and government, employing 224,500 persons (or
16.8% of all non-agricultural employees). Services still ranked
third in 1967 (employing 326,800 persons), but had increased
its percentage of all non-agricultural employment to 17.9 % [24].

Government
Government is usually considered as being functional at
three levels-federal, state, and local. For purposes of this re-
port, the three levels are aggregated into one sector. However,
general characteristics of each will be presented at this time in
order to show the relative importance of each as they relate to
the economic structure of the state.
Table 15 shows that 828 total governmental units were oper-
ating in Florida in 1967. Of these, 383 were municipalities and
310 were special districts. There were 67 county governmental
units and also 67 school districts.
Government was the second largest employer in Florida in
1967, employing approximately 349,600 persons (or 19 % of total
non-agricultural employment). This compared with 232,300 per-
sons employed in 1961 (or 17.4%). Table 16 lists civilian gov-
ernment employment by level in October 1967.
Local government was by far the largest civilian employer
in the state, employing 223,000 persons. Federal and state gov-
ernments employed nearly the same number of persons in 1967-
67,000 and 61,000 respectively. Of the 67,000 persons employed
by the Federal government, 31,221 were working on defense-
related jobs, 18,282 for the postal service, 4,037 for the Veterans
Administration, and 13,460 in "other" Federal government jobs.


Table 15. Number of governmental units, Florida, 1967.

Total units Counties Municipalities School Special
districts districts

828 67 383 67 310








Table 16. Civilian government employment, Florida, 1967.

Total employment a Federal State Local

351,000 67,000 61,000 223,000

a Full and part time as of October 1967.
Source: Facts and Figures on Government Finance, 15th Edition, Tax
Foundation, Inc., page 25.



In 1967, Federal Internal Revenue collections from Florida
totaled $2,448 million. Of this amount, $2,242 million was from
income and employment taxes. Federal aid to Florida the same
year totaled $380.2 million. Of this amount, $370.4 million went
to state and local governments and $9.8 million went to indi-
viduals and institutions.
Total governmental expenditures at the state and local level
(including funds from Federal sources) was $2,609 million in
1967 (Table 17). Local governments spent $1,727 while the
state government spent $882 million [16].


Table 17.--State and local direct government expenditure by
function, Florida, 1967.
Amount
Function ($ million)

Education 972
Highway 439
Health 252
Public welfare 149
Police and fire 133
General control a 117
Other 548

Total 2,609

a Includes financial administration.

bSewage, other sanitation, local parks and recreation, interest on depart-
ment and other general expenditures.
Source: Facts and Figures on Government Finance, 15th Edition, Tax
Foundation, Inc., 1969, page 128.








State and local tax collections have increased substantially
over the past several years. In 1942, total tax collections of state
and local governments was $116 million (or $53.80 per person).
By 1967 taxes collected had increased to $1,646 million (or
$274.60 per person). This represents an increase of more than
1,300% in total taxes and an increase of more than 400% in
per capital taxes collected during the period.
As a source of personal income, government at all levels was
the largest contributor on a place of work basis in 1967. Per-
sonal income from government that year totaled $2,548 million
[16].
Other Economic Activities
There is another group of industries that are important to
the Florida economy. The bulk of the growth of these industries
is tied directly or indirectly to the growth in Florida's resident
and tourist populations and to a lesser (but still important) ex-
tent to the more basic economic activities. Some of the charac-
teristics of each will be discussed briefly.

Construction
Total value of construction contracts in Florida in 1967 was
$2,038 million. Of this amount, $555 million was for non-resi-
dential purposes, $1,175 million for residential purposes, and
$308 million for non-building purposes [53]. The value of new
construction and repair construction contracts are both included
in these figures.
As a source of personal income from wages and salaries,
construction has shown a steady increase from 1960 to 1967,
rising from $578 million to $775 million. This generated 5.7%
of total personal income in 1960, but by 1967 only 4.3% of total
personal income was accounted for by the construction industry
[56].
The construction industry employed 109,800 persons (or
8.3% of total non-agricultural employment) in 1961. By 1967,
128,700 persons were employed (or 7.0%) [24]. From the
standpoint of both employment and personal income from wages
and salaries, the construction industry is growing relatively
slower than the rest of the economy.

Transportation, Communications, and Public Utilities
This group of activities is quite similar to construction in
their absolute contribution to employment and personal income.







In 1960, 5.0% of total personal income (or $502 million) came
from wages and salaries in these industries. By 1967 this had
increased to $887 million and remained at approximately 4.9%
of total personal income. Employment for these activities totaled
100,700 (or 7.5% of total non-agricultural employment) in 1961.
In 1967, employment had risen to 128,400 and comprised 7.0%
of total employment [24].

Finance, Insurance, and Real Estate
The finance, insurance, and real estate sector is not a large
contributor to personal income from wage and salary sources.
Like construction, transportation, communications, and public
utilities, this sector has grown in absolute terms but not as fast
as the rest of the economy. Total wage and salary personal
income in 1960 was $374 million (or 3.7% of total personal in-
come). In 1967, $604 million in personal income from wages
and salaries (or 3.3%) came from this source.
This sector employed 85,000 persons in 1961. By 1967, the
number employed had increased to 106,800. However, the sec-
tor's relative share of total non-agricultural employment had
declined from 6.3% to 5.9% during the period [24].

Summary
The descriptive information presented in this section pro-
vides a statistical picture of the components of Florida's econ-
omy in 1967 and also some of the relative changes that have
taken place over the past several years. This is only what the
surface of the economy appears to be, not how the internal
working parts are constructed or how they mesh with each other.
The descriptive information tells us where people are employed
and what their personal incomes are by major economic activity.
Such information is useful in developing a model that will real-
istically depict all segments of the economy that are important
to its development.
From the standpoint of numbers employed, wholesale and
retail trade was by far the largest employer in the state. In
1967, 481,400 persons were employed in this industry. Other
large employers in terms of numbers employed were government
(349,600), services and professions (326,800), manufacturing
(292,800), and agriculture (284,040).
Personal income by primary class has shown some shift in
recent years. Wages and salaries made up 59.7% of total per-
sonal income in 1960 and 1967. The second largest source in








both years was property income. In 1960, proprietors' income
made up 13.8% of total personal income and transfer payments
made up 8.5%. By 1967, this ordering had been reversed with
transfer payments making up 10.3 % of the total and proprietors'
income only 9.7%.
A better indication of economic importance might be per-
sonal income earned on a place of work basis. The rank order
of importance as a source of income changes somewhat under
this classification. In 1967, government was the largest source
of personal income (contributing $2,528 million), wholesale and
retail trade was second (with $2,498 million), and the service
industry was third (with $2,305 million).
All the economic activities discussed have shown absolute
increases in numbers employed and personal incomes generated
over the past seven years. Some activities have grown much
faster than others. This does not mean that the faster growing
activities are more important to the Florida economy. As will
be presented in the following sections, all economic activity is
related in varying degrees to other economic activities. A better
understanding of the relationships among and between various
sectors is the purpose of the input-output and multiplier analysis
that follows.
THE FLORIDA MODEL
A chapter such as this would normally follow an explanation
of the method of analysis. For readers unfamiliar with input-
output, however, the ideas of industry delineation, sectoring,
data requirements, and related calculations which are discussed
in this chapter should provide a useful introduction to the con-
cepts of input-output analysis.
The basic steps in constructing the Florida model can be
stated simply as: (1) delineating those industries which make
up the Florida economy; (2) aggregating those industries into
homogeneous sectors;3 (3) data collection on gross outputs and
input structure; (4) calculation of sales to final demand; and
(5) adjusting the model for net exports and net imports.
A general understanding and adequate knowledge of the
major industries in Florida is about the only criterion available
for prescribing what industries should be included in a model
of this type. Those industries of major economic importance to
Florida have been discussed in the preceding section of this
8 It is impractical to group industries into perfectly homogeneous sectors.
A considerable amount of subjectivity must enter into the classification
scheme.








study. All are included in the model in various degrees of ag-
gregation.
Data for the model were on a state-wide basis and were for
the year 1967. In the few cases where it was not possible to use
1967 data, the exceptions are noted. Prohibitive cost and time
limitations precluded the development and use of primary data;
therefore, all data used in the model are from secondary sources.
The recent development of data banks in some state govern-
ments and university departments of agricultural economics
should help considerably in future studies of this type if data
are stored in a usable format.

Sector Aggregation (Delineation)
The initial classification scheme for data collection purposes
divided the Florida economy into 55 sectors. Due to data limi-
tations and other aggregation problems, the final delineation
presents the Florida economy as a 48 sector model. The defini-
tion of each sector was partially prescribed by official statistical
reporting practices or the existing classification of secondary
data sources. The model consists of six agricultural production
sectors, three mining sectors, one construction sector, 22 manu-
facturing sectors, 12 service or related sectors, and four final
demand sectors. The sector classification and S.I.C. codes are
listed in Table 18, and the components of each sector are de-
tailed in the Appendix. The processing sectors are endogenous
to the mode, while the final demand sectors are exogenous.4

The Agricultural Sectors
Some 50 different agricultural commodities are produced
commercially in Florida. Considering the overall data problem
involved in a 48 sector model, data for the agricultural sector
were the most complete. Initial data were collected on almost
all of the important commodities produced in the state. In most
cases, good control figures on outputs and values were available
from USDA or state statistical reporting sources. However,
data limitations on input requirements by classes of commodities
prohibited the inclusion of the detailed commodity sectors in
the final model. Also, it is questionable whether increased reli-
ability could have been achieved with the more detailed sector
classification scheme.
4 In this usage, endogenous means "within" the model and exogenous means
"outside" or "taken as given." The model assumes that levels of final de-
mand are fixed, but output of the processing sectors can be varied.








Table 18.-Sectors in the Florida model.


S.I.C. code


Processing sectors


.013 Livestock and livestock products
Part .0122 Citrus products
.0123 Vegetable products
.011, .014, .019 Other products
.08, .09 Forestry and fisheries
.07, part .098 Agricultural forestry and fisheries services
Part 17 Repair construction
13, part 14 Metal ore mining, petroleum and natural
gas
14 Stone and clay mining and quarrying
147 Chemical fertilizer and fertilizer material
mining
19 Ordnance and accessories
203 Canned and frozen veg., fruits and seafoods
Part 20 Other food and kindred products
21 Tobacco manufacturers
22 Textile mill products
23 Apparel
24 Lumber and wood products
25 Furniture and fixtures
26 Paper and allied products
27 Printing and publishing
28 Chemical and allied products
29 Petroleum products
30 Rubber and plastic products
31 Leather and leather products
32 Stone, clay, and glass products
33 Primary metal industries
34 Fabricated metal industries
35 Machinery (except electrical)
36 Electrical machinery
37 Transportation equipment
38 Instruments and related products
39 Miscellaneous manufacturing
40, 41, 42, 44, Transportation and warehousing
45, 46, 47
48 Communications
49 Electric, gas, water, and sanitary utilities
50 Wholesale and retail trade
60, 61, 62, Finance and insurance


63, 64
65, 66, 67
70
72, 75, 76
73
78, 79
80, 81, 82
84, 86
Part 17


Final demand
sectors
Households
Government
Exports
Imports


Real estate and rental
Hotels and lodging
Personal and repair services
Business services
Amusements, recreation, and motion pictures
Medical, educational, non-profit organization,
legal services
Other economic activity and new construction


---








The final model included: (1) livestock and livestock prod-
ucts, (2) citrus products, (3) vegetable products, (4) other
agricultural products, (5) forestry and fisheries, and (6) agri-
culture, forestry, and fisheries services.

The Mining Sectors
The mining industry makes up a relatively small part of
Florida's economy but it does have some important subsectors.
The final model delineates three components of the mining in-
dustry. The smallest segment is the metal ores, petroleum, and
natural gas sector. This sector is expected to show considerable
future growth with the discovery of a new oil field at Jay in
Northwest Florida, new offshore drillings in the Gulf of Mexico,
and preliminary exploration of the Big Cypress Swamp in the
Everglades. The second mining sector is made up of stone, and
clay mining and quarrying, and serves as a base for further
processing in the state. The largest mining sector is chemical
fertilizer and fertilizer materials mining and is made up mostly
of phosphate rock mining. This sector serves a world market
for phosphate and is a large net exporter.

The Construction Sector
The only construction sector is comprised of repair and
maintenance construction. Although new construction is im-
portant, lack of input data and the inadequacy of the national
input coefficients for this sector resulted in it being aggregated
with "other economic activity" where it lost much of its an-
alytic value.

The Manufacturing Sectors
The manufacturing industries are presented at the two digit
S.I.C. code level with the exception of canned and frozen vege-
tables, fruits, and seafoods, which is a three digit classification.
This was done in order to isolate the large citrus juice manu-
facturing industry in the state. Although the output of some
of these two digit sectors is relatively small (leather, petroleum,
textiles), they are included as separate sectors. See Table 20
for a complete listing of the manufacturing sectors.

The Services and Related Industries Sectors
The services and related industries are aggregated into 12
sectors; wholesale and retail trade; transportation and ware-
housing; communications; utilities, finance and insurance; ieal








estate and rental; hotels and lodging; personal and repair serv-
ices; business services; amusements, recreation, and motion pic-
tures; medical, educational, legal, non-profit organizations; and
other economic activity and new construction.
The Endogenous and Exogenous Sectors
The above 44 sector delineations for the model represent the
endogenous or processing sectors. Four final demand sectors
were also delineated. They are households, government, exports,
and imports-the autonomous or exogenous sectors of the model.
For the detailed S.I.C. classification and data source for each
sector specified, see Appendix Table 4.
Gross Outputs
Development of gross output totals for the various indus-
trial sectors required a broad array of statistical sources. In
general, agricultural sector outputs are computed from official
USDA documents. The figures presented in Farm Income Esti-
mates, 1948-68 were used as control totals for the broad agri-
cultural and forestry groupings. State statistical reports from
the Crop Reporting Service and the Florida Department of
Agriculture plus many of the cost studies done in the Depart-
ment of Agricultural Economics [46] were helpful in allocation
of outputs to the final sectors used in the model. The major
statistics used in estimating gross output of agriculture were
cash receipts adjusted for government payments, change in
inventories, home consumption, net rent to non-farm landlords,
and gross rental value of farm dwellings. Table 19 shows gross
output for each of the agricultural sectors in the model. A more
detailed explanation of how these estimates were constructed
is found in the Appendix. Total agriculture, forestry and fish-
eries output in 1967 was estimated at $1,321 million.
Output estimates for the mining sectors are primarily from
the Mineral Year Book [59] and other state reports [26]. Gross
output estimates are stated in annual value produced. Chemical
fertilizer materials was by far the largest producer with ap-
proximately $211 million of output. Of this total, an estimated
$175 million was phosphate and $36 million crushed limestone.
Metal ores, crude petroleum, and natural gas together had a
value of production of approximately $75 million. Disclosure
of individual operations precludes a further breakdown of out-
put. The gross output of stone and clay was estimated at $22
million and was comprised primarily of sand and gravel, clays,
and industrial lime.














Table 19.-Gross outputs for Florida agriculture, forestry and fisheries, 1967.
Forest Ag. forest
Sector Livestock Citrusa Vegetable Other & & fisheries
Fisheries service


Cash receipts from marketing
Government payments
Value of home consumption
Gross rental value of building
Less non-farm rent
Total


--.- ------------------------- ($1,000) -------------- ---------
320,286 324,927 259,370 220,616 74,100 -
0 0 0 17,600 0 -
4,622 549 1,562 376 21 -
10,650 10,762 8,625 7,350 112 -
4,320 4,360 3,496 2,972 45 -
331,238 331,879 266,061 242,963 74,158 74,391


aOutput values for citrus are stated in on-tree prices. Therefore, the figures are not exactly comparable to the other agri-
cultural sectors. For example, pick and haul cost would need to be made to make citrus comparable to vegetable gross output.
These costs are accounted for in the transportation and household sectors of the model.
bAgriculture and fisheries services were obtained from separate sources, primarily 1965 Census of Agriculture and personal
consultations with industry people.









Table 20.-Gross output estimates by manufacturing sector, Florida, 1967.

Industry sector Gross output
($1,000)
Other food and kindred products 1,243,900
Chemical and allied products 947,900
Paper and allied products 629,900
Canned, cured, frozen fruit, vegetable, and seafood 629,200
Fabricated metal products 502,800
Ordnance and accessories 475,100
Transportation equipment 448,600
Electrical machinery 413,400
Machinery (except electrical) 378,300
Stone, clay, and glass products 349,000
Printing and publishing 331,800
Lumber and wood products 204,900
Apparel 182,000
Furniture and fixtures 115,900
Primary metal industries 97,000
Tobacco manufacturers 90,800
Rubber and plastic products 67,000
Instruments and related products 65,600
Miscellaneous manufacturers 59,200
Textile mill products 30,700
Petroleum products 29,800
Leather and leather products 27,500

Total $7,320,300

Total value of contract construction in Florida in 1967 was
$2,038 million [26]. Of this amount, an estimated $497 million
was for maintenance and repair construction. It was assumed
that the national 1966 ratio of new construction to maintenance
and repair construction applied to the 1967 Florida construc-
tion industry. The new construction gross output of $1,541
million is aggregated with the "other economic activity" sector.
Manufacturing industries represent the largest number of
sectors in the model. Gross output estimates for these sectors
are stated in terms of unadjusted value of shipments. The pri-
mary source for these estimates was the 1967 Census of Manu-
factures [48]. Table 20 presents gross output estimates by
sector for 1967. The gross output estimate for all manufactur-
ing in Florida in 1967 exceeded $7,000 million.









Gross output estimates for wholesale and retail trade are not
stated in terms of gross sales but in gross margins. Gross mar-
gins as estimated from Internal Revenue reports [61] were
$5,572 million in 1967, representing the largest gross output of
any sector in the model.
Output estimates for the remaining sectors were derived
from several sources. Outputs were measured in terms of gross
receipts (except for new construction which was measured as
value of new contract construction). Transportation and ware-
housing data came from Internal Revenue and Census Reports
[61, 49]. Communications, utilities, finance and insurance, and
real estate and rental gross output estimates are from Internal
Revenue sources [61]. The remaining service sectors made use
of the 1967 Census of Business [54], Internal Revenue reports
[61] and Survey of Current Business [56]. Table 21 lists gross
output estimates for utilities and services.

Table 21.-Gross outputs for utilities and services industries, Florida, 1967.
Industry sector Gross output

($1,000)
Finance and insurance 1,705,574
Other economic activity and new construction 1,545,000
Transportation and warehousing 1,506,000
Medical, educational, legal, and non-profit organizations 1,203,600
Electric, gas, water, and sanitation services 923,600
Personal and repair services 795,100
Communication 615,700
Hotel and lodging 593,100
Business services 583,900
Real estate and rental 345,736
Amusements and recreation 303,100


Transactions Among Sectors
The basis for analysis of the input-output model rests on the
interindustry flows data presented in the transactions table.
This table presents the flows of goods and services in dollar
terms between and among the endogenous or intermediate users
of these goods and services and the final demand sectors. At the
same time, the input structure of each of the endogenous sectors
is ascertained.








The basic document used in establishing these interindustry
flows was the 1966 Fortune magazine's "Input-output Portfolio"
[28]. The Fortune national transaction table is an updated ver-
sion of the 1963 national input-output study by the U.S. Depart-
ment of Commerce, Office of Business Economics. The national
table was also expanded to 106 sectors. An explicit assumption
of the Florida model is that the technical relationships in the
national 1966 Fortune model were applicable to the Florida econ-
omy in 1967.
The first step in adjusting the Fortune model to Florida was
to aggregate the 108 sectors endogenous to that model into the
44 sector Florida model presented previously. In the case of
agriculture, the Fortune agriculture sectors had to be disaggre-
gated from two to six sectors.
One technique (see Curtis and Waldrop's study) [13, p. 11]
in aggregating a national model to a state model is to sum and
average the national technical coefficients to the state classifica-
tion and premultiply by gross sector outputs to derive state in-
terindustry flows of goods and services. A different procedure
which yields similar results is to sum the aggregated sector
transactions flows, re-compute technical coefficients for these
aggregated sectors, and then premultiply by sector outputs. This
is the procedure followed for the Florida model, except for the
agricultural sectors. The interindustry flows for these sectors
were obtained from budget studies, cost and return studies, and
other data sources. Where data were not sufficient to determine
input allocations, the national coefficients were used as controls.
The unique citrus and subtropic fruit commodities produced in
Florida precluded putting too much reliance on the highly aggre-
gated agricultural sectors in the Fortune model. One would also
expect some variation from the technical relations5 in the service
industries of the national as compared with the Florida model.
The absence of sufficient input structure data for these sectors
for Florida leads to a weakness in the accuracy of the inter-
industry flows as they are presented. This weakness is also
present in the multipliers obtained from the coefficient matrices
to be presented later.
The transactions matrix for the Florida economy is pre-
sented in Table 22. The row entries represent in dollars the

"To use technical coefficients for the service industries in itself is highly
questionable. The problem is compounded where national technical co-
efficients must be used to represent transactions of a highly specialized set
of service industries such as those found in Florida's tourist-oriented
economy.








amount of sales by the producing sector named at the left to the
purchasing sector named at the top of each column. Conversely,
the inputs purchased by each sector named at the top of each
column can be read down the column showing what dollar
amounts of input were purchased and from which sector.
For example, the citrus products sector had sales in 1967 of
$4,480,000 to itself; $3,360,000 to vegetable producers; $3,360,-
000 to the other agriculture sector; and so on. The figure for
total sales to intermediate Florida customers was $105,490,000.
Sales to final demand for direct personal consumption were
$18,708,000; and $207,681,000 worth of citrus was exported out-
side the state for a total final demand of $226,389,000.
To produce the $331,879,000 worth of gross output, citrus
producers required a group of inputs. These are presented in
Table 22 as the citrus sector column (column 2). Citrus pro-
ducers purchased $16,137,000 worth of inputs from the live-
stock sector; $4,480,000 from themselves; $3,360,000 from vege-
table producers; $3,360,000 from other agricultural producers;
and so on. Total intermediate input purchases from Florida
producers amounted to over $110 million. Citrus producers
were net importers of inputs worth nearly $20 million. The value
added or primary inputs (including federal, state, and local
taxes) was $201,626 million. This represents wages and salaries,
profits, proprietors' incomes, rents, dividends, indirect taxes,
and depreciation of capital equipment.
The export column and import row of the transactions
matrix gives an indication of the self-sufficiency of Florida in
producing goods and services consumed within the state. The
export column was computed by taking gross output estimates
for each sector in the model and subtracting intermediate de-
mand plus the household and government components of final
demand. If the difference was positive, the resultant figure in-
dicated a net export position. Exports are important to the Flor-
ida economy and can be viewed in much the same manner as
national exports are viewed in a national economy. As would
be expected, agriculture is a large net exporter (as well as some
not so obvious sectors such as wholesale and retail trade and
ordnance and accessories).
Table 23 lists those sectors which were net exporters in 1966
and the amount of surplus production above state needs. Many
of the large exporting sectors are associated with the state's
tourist and travel industry (i.e., wholesale and retail trade,
transportation and warehousing, hotels and lodging, personal
and repair services). Military procurement of much of the aero-








space and aircraft output accounts for the large net export po-
sition of the ordnance and accessory sector. The orange juice
industry (both canned and frozen) no doubt accounts for the
bulk of exports in the canned, cured, and frozen fruit, vege-
table, and seafood sector. The unique winter fruit and vegetable
industry in Florida supplies much of the U.S. and world winter
markets, and accounts for the large exports found in the agri-
culture sectors.
Imports into Florida are also a net figure. If the require-
ments in domestic demand (both intermediate and final) are
greater than total gross output for a given sector, then the dif-
ference is considered as imported. The problem of allocating
these imports is met by assuming that imports for any given
sector are distributed among the other sectors in the model in
the same proportion as domestic purchases. By this procedure,
each importing sector's net export cell is reduced to zero, and
the difference is added to imports in the appropriate sector.
After all important adjustments are made, the sector sums are
taken to yield the net imports by purchasing sector. In the sum-
mation process, the identity of what out-of-state industries are
being imported from is lost, but an additional element of eco-
nomic structure is gained-namely the dollar value of imports
needed to satisfy domestic demand by sectors. It is implied in
the above discussion that input requirements are met from local
sources as long as output is available. It is also assumed that
where state output is not sufficient to satisfy state requirements,
each industry will distribute its input requirements proportion-
ally between state production and imports of the particular
good [38].
It follows from above that each sector in the model will be
a net importer. (See the net import row of the transactions table
for each sector's imports.) For example, wholesale and retail
trade was by far the largest net importer of goods and services
($415 million). Stone and clay mining was the smallest im-
porter of inputs with nearly $2 million. These figures show the
import market for out-of-state industries and should not be
confused with the Florida industries that are not producing
enough to meet state needs. Those sectors that fall short of
meeting output requirements for Florida domestic demand are
presented in Table 24. By coincidence, the number of deficient
sectors is equal to the number of surplus sectors presented
earlier.
Manufacturing industries represent the bulk of net imports,
with the food and kindred products sectors alone requiring










Table 22.--Transactions matrix, Florida, 1967.


Livestock &
livestock Citrus Vegetable
I Item products products products
(1) (2) (3)

- -$1,000 -- -----
1 Livestock S livestock prod. 18,892 16,137 12,094
2 Citrus products 4,480 3,360
3 Vegetable products 3,360 2,520
4 Other agricultural products 45,524 3,360 7,818
5 Forestry 6 fishery products .
6 Agr. forestry F fishery services 4,945 1,298 4,611
7 Metai ore r crude pet. & nat. gas .
8 Stone 6 clay mining 6 quarry 155 124
9 Chem. fert. S fert. material mining 2,274 106
10 Maintenance & repair const. 23,158 974 8,975
11 Ordnance & accessories .
12 Canned, cured & frozen foods. .
13 Other food & kindred prod. 47,702 66 53
14 Tobacco manufacture .
15 Textile mill products 23 50 40
16 Apparel
17 Lumber & wood products 166 537 12,410
18 Furniture o fixtures .
19 Paper S allied products 165 132 15,324
20 Printing 6 publishing 57 28 22
21 Chemical & allied products 761 46,463 45,626
22 Petroleum products 31 160 153
23 Rubber plastic products 81 240 '164
24 Leather 6 leather products
25 Stone, clay & glass products 66 132 106
26 Primary metal industry .
27 Fabricated metal products 698 243 194
28 Machinery (except electric) 99 1,232 924
29 Electrical machinery 69 69 55
30 Transportation equipment 115 95 73
31 Instruments & related products .
32 Miscellaneous manufacturing
33 Wholesale 6 retail trade 10,499 5,043 3,032
34 Transportation warehousing 4,005 11,003
35 Communications 695 960 771
36 Elec., gas, water, san. services 2,704 2,209 1,782
37 Finance 6 insurance 2,913 11,767 20,007
38 Real estate & rental 1,283 1,226 984
39 Hotel & lodging .
40 Personal & repair service 794 662 532
41 Business services 375 6,819 5,527
42 Amusement, rec., motion picture. .
43 Med., educ., other non-profit orgn. 1,845 164 132
44 Other econ. activity, new & const. 122 99 79


45 Total intermediate inputs 167,787 110,398 158,601
46 Net imports 61,942 19,855 18,821
47 Value added or primary inputs 101,509 201,626 88,639
48 Gross output 331,238 331,879 266,061










Table 22.--Continued.


Forestry &
fishery
products
(5)


12,041
3,360
2,520
7,772

2,793

113
97
1,190


49

37

393

97
21
11,491
140
149
9
72

156
924
50
67


2,793
3,025
704
1,627
3,011
898

485
5,046

120
72


61,322
24,365
157,276
242,963


Agr. forestry Metal ore Stone Chem. fert.
& fishery & crude pet. & clay mining & fert. material
services & nat. gas & quarry mining
(6) (7) (8) (9)


2,241
2,840
2,130
2,130
1,170
963



14


549

79



829

96
43
123



27
769

328

30
1,489
1,081
148
14
1,370
535


2,939

37
22


5,776
9,733
7,281
7,281

81



89


175

78



364

22
6
23



382




6
200
497
288
52
237
217


140

44
111


$1,000 --







2,649

7
37




3

73

30
6
638
20
65

67
116
351
1,254
188
28
3

1,088
2,538
37
728
705
2,404
15
75
1,218

60
1,028


14
83
9
27








219
5
270
31
132

1,486
70
17
1,614
30
32
2
2
1,380
364
36
547
242
167
20
4
123

20
201


21,996 33,083 15,431 7,147 65,925
7,090 4,605 8,633 1,809 10,529
45,072 36,703 51,040 13,944 135,246
74,158 74,391 75,104 22,900 211,700


I 0


45
46
47
48


Other
agricultural
products
(4)


450
1,662
13,527
105


11

7

68

1,164

6,605
92
280

105
907
350
7,367
648
183
17
12
5,250
12,638
381
8,785
1,227
632
169

893

168
2,222


I _I


I _









Table 22.--Continued.


Maintenance Canned, Other food Textile
I 0# & Ordnance & cured & & kindred Tobacco mill
repair const. accessories frozen foods products manufacture products
(10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15)


1,862

49




6

12,001
360
1,889
42
29,440
526
597

19 ,593
4,000
25,548
2,287
5,566

186
415
40,380
9,597
547
795
1,442
297

795
1,096

297
1,591


760
8,741



5
86
462

2,232
648
1,615
51
3,453

1,757
6,104
8,325
52,117
22,921
35,584
4,661
342
13,730
4,988
1,742
1,805
2,993
520
380

3,141

473
10,119


45 161,204 189,755 3
46 39,491 121,903
47 296,605 163,442 1
48 497,300 475,100 6


- -- $1,000

49,223
12,278
35,960
11,127




2,202

20,007
27,624
25

95
815

26,426
972
4,089
50


26,111

65,070

174


90
26,300
39,199
1,573
3,523
3,271
2,845
440
2,768
20,204

626
4,404


87,491
48,757
92,952
29,200 1,


211,576
26,788
6,834
19,610
6,068


65
124
4,229

10,448
107,505

304
226
1,410

20,524
2,028
7,960
245
805

6,717
150
21,910
373
432


179
42,790
45,029
2,860
6,717
6,219
1,559
621
5,099
41,106

1,114
1,865


17,760





90


296
6,917
2

125

2,179
155
1,870
2
42


22
258
9
6


29
1,289
1,107
36
90
190
35
36
27
2,538

90
326


241


1,771





15


26

1,399
26
1

371
21
2,855
3
82
3
61
4
37
144
4
2
6
42
1,249
699
55
273
181
51
46
-18
156

30
107


611,489 35,526 10,005
253,891 12,667 11,438
378,530 42,607 9,257
243,910 90,800 30,70.0











Table 22.--Continued


Lumber Paper & Chemical
& wood Furniture allied Printing & & allied
I 0# Apparel products & fixtures products publishing products
(16) (17) (18) (19) (20) (21)


I I


2,529





91




5,894
9,432


1,219
156
2,129
4
84
123

4
217



8
870
6,388
1,437
509
546
1,128
576
436
36
101
18
199
1,474


35,608
70,777
75,615
182,000


101,378
15,270
88,252
204,900 1


23,338




102




7
68
44,502
356
1,823
510
3,257
76
309
4
860
123
1,898
717
170
56

77
8,073
8,933
450
116
1,106
348
327
1,372
619

183
1,598


- $1,000 -










46


273

669
21
9,685
2,595
2,445
49
2,202
11
1,053
38
2,700
1,310
6,763
1,066
193
56
96
247
6,420
2,271
533
625
579
384
220
197
999

115
1,216


45,077
19,730
51,093
15,900


589
755
2,393
62

1,515

514
148
25,250
45
176,057
4,323
21,227
292
2,464
12
2,771
165
6,356
3,212
612

78
145
23,621
22,613
1,637
9,637
3,779
1,015
629
503
4,203

626
12,346


1,128
132



50


96
60,022
33,021
4,578
13
112


87
639
1,227
207
172
358
248
8,295
4,844
4,081
1,426
3,152
3,524
431
331
9,066

362
9,290


329,594 146,892 488,882
31,003 21,947 83,631
296,303 162,961 375,387
629,900 331,800 947,900


124


663
664

3,492
492
14,976
1,421

1,232
7,743

188
143
1,458

28,342
2,032
245,032
1,503
2,803

9,479
2,001
16,001
7,393
593
33
709
273
26,541
28,531
3,317
14,502
8,341
2,602
568
947
31,810

942
21,991


45
46
47
48


I I










Table 22.--Continued.


Rubber & Leather & Stone, clay Primary Fabricated
I O0 Petroleum plastic leather & glass metal I metal
products products products products industry products
(22) (23) (24) (25) (26) (27)


10,761
51
2
44


10

2
2
4

154

1,025
106
3

68
1
506
8
10

,1
3
318
1,588
41
491
199
71

32
384

26
131


21
80
67


7

660
57
92
9
770
166
12,562
8
675
26
730
62
946
368
172
65
44
77
2,204
1,494
207
716
395
214
87
26
1,021

73
696


$1,000 -



8


8

94
34
187
4
462
96
528
1
412
1,340
107
2
182
16
24
1
20
22
855
387
77
115
189
61
66
11
384

30
2,450


52
52

395
8,257
802
139


122

81
32
2,091
126
14,378
509
13,331
155
849
6
37,552
316
4,066
1,221
1,091
24
87
191
11,482
17,554
1,116
10,644
3,350
781
488
S907
3,054

347
5,828


4,569
88
29
378
9

10

9
21
88

309
85
1,405
27
67

1,066
5,246
2,076
1,794
526
76
12
20
3,389
3,668
279
2,143
648
101
89
39
464

89
2,871


71
26

351
100



59
137
2,239
656
4,625
603
5,178
121
790
19
3,921
30,592
32,500
20,413
6,718
2,124
1,108
304
17,698
8,396
1,458
3,519
3,620
885
653
653
3,608

450
3,871


45 16,042 24,797 8,180 141,476 31,690 157,466
46 6,997 8,868 7,704 20,514 24,789 141,008
u7 6,761 33,335 11,616 187,010 43,221 204,326
48 29,800 67,000 27,500 349,000 99,700 502,800










Table 22.-Continued.


26
79

416
189

19

13
103
765
82
1,437
226
1,361
74
1,165
29
2,458
9,280
14,576
56,139
11,861
3,078
531
229
15,245
4,274
2,042
1,929
2,458
1,016
453
302
3,239

338
3,820


264


413
4,423



29
125
769
2,965
5,332
319
6,201
39
1,986
32
6,821
7,847
16,991
11,864
47,937
1,174
2,011
202
16,536
5,456
1,488
2,273
1,736
1,098
537
124
6,559

452
6,986


986
7,043



350
95
1,343
617
1,435
192
3,140
51
2,473
17
4,441
8,182
22,938
17,674
9,106
38,462
1,474
155
12,829
7,043
1,211
2,198
1,659
482
224
134
5,338

401
1,659


45

28


13
1,272

66

53
45
42
133
1,338
22
1,443
5
188
18
879
700
1,860
2,053
2,581
490
1,699
77
3,109
767
249
216
341
201
78
19
1,082

59
852


29
29
30
30


3

165
5

42
2
168
30
977
51
3,439
233
2,255
8
587
151
455
958
1,678
455
588
78
32
991
3,907
941
307
284
497
251
100
82
831

59
668


7,243



45,134
557
2,228
16,477

519
1,013
7,671
1,211
46,248
10,995
14,487
2,140
4,119
215
13,930
224
11,757
14,487
7,359
6,174
1,622
1,926
90,268
23,402
58,507
109,770
92,496
87,786
13,373
21,173
171,598
5,572
5,545
191,680


45 139,252 160,989 153,352 22,023 21,396 1,088,906
46 59,669 73,023 127,636 9,933 11,718 414,951
17 179,379 179,388 167,612 33,644 26,086 4,068,243
48 378,300 413,400 448,600 65,600 59,200 5,572,100










Table 22.--Continued.


Elec., gas, Finance

I O Transportation Communi- water, san. & Real estate Hotel &
warehousing cations services insurance & rental lodging
(34) (35) (36) (37) (38) (39)


376
376
376
376




54,216

451
1,963

211
45
975

1,807
2,584
3,765
3,189
3,201
29
451
818
2,486
6,626
4,501
8,552
501
607
43,824
94,878
11,596
6,325
30,421
13,212

35,692
13,559
1,054
1,328
43,372


16,562




93



554
5,124
61
49
114


297
169

5,992
106

248
3,632
1,046
8,681
3,386
3,509
4,005

923
8,582
16,747
551
8,866


- $1,000

i


46,521


25,121




11

75

738
158
554
537
114

1,015
316
5,762
554
449
32
6,107
80
10,436
17,178
1,939
167,541
4,525
689

1,015
6,105

643
122,931


7,674




398



8,186
19,753
682
294
945




341
118
236

442
16,543
15,178
26,094
7,845
345,193
39,286

5 ,287
41,342
341
8,996
57,987


3,082
2,005
2,005
2,005
2,005
34
490
18

32,668
34
34
156

16
42
112
25
103
239
691
104
74
7
138
35
,127
587
192
72
29
20
5,946
2,177
1,279
1,382
11,408
2,084
1,451
622
4,440
518
206
4,528


1,719


357

1,652
1,779
166
559
7,947
254
13,700
345
1,023
69
2,787
71
1,360
1,542
11,875
144
2,738
3,707
25,681
4,448
3 ,143
11,328
9,726
8,264
17,318
5,693
9,746

590
11,802


45 393,743 89,297 421,146 603,161 83,190 161,533
46 136,034 21,850 45,905 132,413 12,449 70,652
47 976,223 504,553 456,549 970,000 250,097 36,0,915
48 1,506,000 615,700 923,600 1,705,574 345,736 593,100





10,654




343
48


397
750
7,314
188
7,959

13,993

10,941
11,290
9,949
41,877
727
46
66,311
7,314
5,406
14,550
20,354
9,062

13,119
9,511

712
13,039


64



242
831
60
10
27
111





21
353
1,362
3,819
1,212
1,677
2,242
7,001
4,594


7,251
71,167
302
5,213


Table 22.-Continued.


I- 0#


Personal
& repair
service
(40)


116
35


1,985
108,157
105
129
468


94

21,545
81
202
1,286
1,581
10,568
2,802
57,222
6,014
7,298
6,673
3,036
2,919
8,859
817
115
27,618


Med., educ.,
other non-
profit orgn.
(43)


Amusement,
Business rec., motion
services picture
(41) (42)

. - $1,000 -

359




181



525 6,819


45 275,854 270,250 114,918 284,128 1,159,158
46 135,755 49,819 20,503 98,803 244,428
47 383,491 263,831 167,679 820,669 141,414
48 795,100 583,900 303,100 1,203,600 1,545,000


I


158


120
120




36,830

1,323
4,066

421
656
194

5,777
13,630
26,599
184
1,001
23
361

994
120
836
417
7,058
1,451
22,868
6,499
10,230
22,025
14,322
25,067
5,897
2,647
19,475
4,453
15,930
32,376


--L


Other econ.
activity, new
& const.
(44)





3,296
3,296
3,296
9,888

328
8,836

24,720
4,017
309
23,772
1,233

47
71,889
9,066
17,458
15,111
16,377
1,315
2,950
119
125,145
19,137
168,832
37,698
33,726
2,193
2,699
2,270
148,783
126,999
3,862
13,441
16,531
2,213
19,930
9,733
51,848
2,472
4,458
149,865










Table 22.--Continued.


Total
intermediate Personal
sales consumption
(45) (46)


1 282,721
2 105,490
3 42,629
4 158,065
5 54,883
6 22,149
7 70,058
8 22,524
9 32,793
10 312,711
11 26,584
12 36,032
13 240,662
14 8,177
15 14,717
16 14,591
17 199,035
18 18,982
19 466,974
20 224,133
21 571,050
22 12,531
23 44,215
24 2,400
25 288,401
26 99,241
27 456,187
28 289,523
29 187,679
30 142,422
31 36,263
32 19,018
33 772,101
34 559,100
35 219,471
36 448,880
37 651,736
38 230,198
39 68,118
40 115,797
41 516,399
42 103,159
43 49,347
44 769,392
9,006,538

45
46


I-0#


Government
(47)


Net
exports
(48)


48,144
18,708
38,080
38,000



376
60

8,449
220,760
992,951
82,623
15,585
166,115
5,865
90,737
41,158
101,812
199,291
15,742
21,472
24,436
17,667
267
33,303
24,120
159,892
198,258
18,467
38,216
2,832,291
377,779
210,507
408,532
707,379
108,929
49,062
210,386
42,973
159,192
1,134,444
153,041
9,015,069

3,010,383


- $1,000 -

373


284

853
5,046
0
0
92,985
87,298
3,696
10,297
0
398
1,294
0
6,181
3,127
5,855
34,123
1,527
1,313
664
0
192
13,310
42,938
65,829
107,920
10,870
1,966
49,763
13,649
22,180
20,473
6,255
6,609
7,677
5,402
24,528
0
19,809
440,000


,114,634
341,398


Total
final
demand


207,681
185,352
46,614
19,275
51,389


178,847
91,604
352,769
368,712






118,641

143,436



42,932


21,719




1,917,945
555,472
163,542
45,715
340,204

468,243
463,515

40,749

182,567


48,517
226,389
223,432
84,898
19,275
52,242
5,046
376
178,907
184,589
448,516
593,168
1,003,248
82,623
15,983
167,409
5,865
96,918
162,926
107,667
376,850
17,269
22,785
25,100
60,599
459
46,613
88,777
225,721
306,178
29,337
40,182
4,799,999
946,900
396,229
474,720
1,053,838
115,538
524,982
679,303
67,501
199,941
1,154,253
775,608


Total
gross
output


331,238
331,879
266,061
242,963
74,158
74,391
75,104
22,900
211,700
497,300
475,100
629,200
1,243,910
90,800
30,700
182,000
204,900
115,900
629,900
331,800
947,900
29,800
67,000
27,500
349,000
99,700
502,800
378,300
433,400
448,600
65,600
59,200
5,572,100
1,506,000
615,700
923,600
1,705,574
345,736
593,100
795,100
583,900
303,100
1,203,600
1,545,000


25,143,214


1


I I _I










Table 23.-Florida net export industries, 1967.
Industry sector Amount of net export Rank

($1,000)
Citrus production 207,681 8
Vegetable production 185,352 9
Other agricultural products 46,614 17
Forestry and fisheries products 19,275 22
Agricultural and forestry and
fisheries services 51,389 16
Chemical fertilizer material mining 178,847 11
Maintenance and repair construction 91,604 15
Ordnance and accessories 352,769 6
Canned, frozen, cured fruits,
vegetable, and seafoods 368,712 5
Paper and allied products 118,641 14
Chemical and allied products 143,436 13
Stone, clay, and glass products 42,932 19
Machinery (except electrical) 21,719 21
Wholesale and retail trade 1,917,945 1
Transportation and warehousing 555,472 2
Communications 163,542 12
Electric, gas, water, utilities 45,715 18
Finance and insurance 340,204 7
Hotels and lodging 468,243 3
Personal and repair services 463,515 4
Amusements, recreation, motion pictures 40,749 20
Other economic activity and new
construction 182,567 10

Total net exports 6,006,293


Table 24.-Industry sector production short of State needs, Florida, 1967.
Industry sector Amount deficient

($ Mil.)
Other food and kindred products 1,238
Transportation equipment 847
Real estate and rental 813
Petroleum products 575
Apparel 419
Primary metal industries 396
Business services 343
Textile mills 233
Electrical machinery 181
Livestock and livestock products 174
Rubber and plastic products 151
Miscellaneous manufacturing 146
Tobacco manufacturing 136
Leather and leather products 115
Instruments and related products 92
Printing and publishing 55
Lumber and wood products 48
Fabricated metal products 45
Furniture and fixtures 44
Metal ores mining, crude petroleum, and natural gas 31
Stone and clay mining and quarrying 21
Medical, educational, legal, non-profit organizations 6

Total net imports 6,109









$1,238 million of imports to become self-sufficient. It is obvious
from looking at the transactions table that Florida would also
require considerable imports of petroleum products and trans-
portation equipment, especially automobiles. The large deficit
position of real estate and rental is due to the non-resident
ownership of much Florida real estate and rental property. The
import figure for this sector does seem excessively large, but
lack of adequate control figures for this sector precludes adjust-
ment. For this reason, this figure should be used with some
caution.

THE INPUT-OUTPUT MODEL
Input-output in its modern form was first developed by Pro-
fessor Wassily Leontief in the 1930's [34]. Its genesis, however,
goes back to the eighteenth century and the works of Francois
Quesnay [33] and later Leon Walras [39]."
Input-output analysis has been used by economic analysts
in the past two decades primarily as a tool of regional analysis.
Input-output analysis can also be considered as a social account-
ing system. Unlike the national income and product accounts
or the flow of funds accounts, input-output allows a high degree
of disaggregation among the economic sectors of the economy
[11].
The interest in and publication of numerous national studies
have led regional analysts to develop input-output as a major
new tool in the analysis of state economies. One of the earliest
state studies using input-output analysis was the Utah study by
Moore and Petersen in 1955 [38]. State studies have since been
completed on such economically diverse states as Oklahoma,
West Virginia, Washington, Mississippi, Maryland, Kentucky,
Oregon, and New Mexico.7
Input-output studies have proven useful in ascertaining how
state economies are structured and in indicating what develop-
ment possibilities might exist. State planning departments as
well as the Economic Development Administration of the U.S.
Department of Commerce have made extensive use of the tech-
nique in studying development strategies for deprived areas.
I A complete bibliography of U.S. input-output related studies can be found
in Input-Output Bibliography, 1963-1966, United Nations, Statistical
Papers, Series M, No. 46, pp. 27-37. Major theoretical source books on the
subject of input-output include: [33, 34, 12, 37, and 32].
7 See reference section at the end of this report for author, title, and date
of these state studies.







Basic Input-Output Concepts
Input-output is basically a method of organizing economic
information into a descriptive accounting framework. Mathe-
matical treatment of the system then serves as an analytical
device. The term "input-output" itself denotes the basic eco-
nomic fact that one industry's sale is at the same time some
other industry's purchase.
The model consists of three basic components: (1) the trans-
actions table which is the base of the model, (2) the direct co-
efficients matrix which is derived from the transactions matrix,
and (3) the interdependence matrix which is derived from the
direct coefficients matrix.
Once the transactions matrix (the table of flows of goods and
services among sectors) is completed, the next step is to proceed
with the formal input-output analysis. The two additional ma-
trices are derived as follows:s (1) the technical coefficients
matrix is obtained by converting all elements of the transactions
matrix to ratios; (2) the interdependence coefficients matrix is
derived by inverting a matrix obtained from the technical co-
efficients matrix; and (3) output, income, and employment mul-
tipliers are calculated. The meaning of the technical and inter-
dependence coefficients will be discussed briefly in this section.
The multiplier analysis is discussed in the following chapter.

Example of Direct and Indirect Effects
It will be helpful to consider what kind of information the
direct coefficients and interdependence coefficients matrices pro-
vide. Briefly stated, there are three kinds of effects to be con-
sidered: (1) direct, (2) indirect, and (3) total. The direct
effects (aij's) are from that matrix, and have already been dis-
cussed. Indirect effects are the summation of the second, third,
and later round effects. These indirect effects can not be deter-
mined separately-they must be measured as the difference be-
tween combined and direct effects. The combined or total effects
are provided by the interdependence coefficients matrix (the
cai's).
We can gain a clearer conception of the information provided
in the multiplier section-as well as a better understanding of
the structural relations among sectors-by the following ex-
ample. Table 25 shows the relation between printing and pub-

'A simplified explanation is given in this section. For a more detailed
explanation see the cited references on input-output analysis. The matrices
derived are presented in Appendix A.







Table 25.-Effects of a $1.00 increase in final demand for output of the
printing and publishing sector.
Indirect
Sector & Number Total effect Direct effect effect
Maintenance and repair const. (10) .0104 .0034 .0070
Lumber and wood products (17) .0187 .0000 .0187
Paper and allied products (19) .2868 .1809 .1059
Printing and publishing (20) 1.1225 .0995 1.0230
Chemical and allied products (21) .0384 .0138 .0246
Stone, clay and glass (25) .0079 .0000 .0079
Fabricated metal industry (27) .0145 .0019 .0126
Machinery (except elect.) (28) .0121 .0037 .0084
Wholesale & retail trade (33) .0526 .0250 .0276
Transportation & warehousing (34) .0380 .0146 .0234
Communications (35) .0206 .0123 .0083
Elec., gas, water, utilities (36) .0159 .0043 .0116
Finance and insurance (37) .0212 .0095 .0117
Real estate and rental (38) .0153 .0106 .0047
Business services (41) .0402 .0273 .0129
Other econ. activity and new
construction (44) .0522 .0280 .0242
All other sectors combined .0357 .0078 .0279
Total 1.8030 .4426 1.3604
Source: Appendix Tables 1, 2, and 3.

lishing (sector 20) and the sectors with which it has the
greatest interaction. The economic effects portrayed in the table
presume that final demand for the output of the printing and
publishing sector has increased by one dollar.
The largest increase in output will be in that sector where
final demand increased (printing and publishing). The output
of printing and publishing will increase by the $1.00 needed to
supply final demand plus an additional $.1225.
As would be expected, a large input (180) will be needed
directly from paper and allied products. The direct effect upon
other supplying sectors is rather small, with 3 worth of output
called forth from wholesale and retail trade, business services,
and other economic activity. In addition, increased output will
be indirectly called forth in the amount of 11 from paper and
allied products, 3 from wholesale and retail trade, 2Z each from
chemical and allied products, printing and publishing, lumber
and wood products, transportation and warehousing, and other
economic activity and new construction.
Also required, but not shown in Table 25, will be seven
cents worth of imports from outside the state. (Direct import
coefficients can be read directly from the technical coefficients
matrix in the Appendix).
Total output from a $1.00 increase in final demand for out-
put from printing and publishing (found by summing down the







total effect column of Table 25) is $1.80. Total output require-
ments for any change in final demand for any of the sectors in
the Florida model can be secured by the use of Appendix Tables
1, 2, and 3. Multiplier analysis based on these tables can be use-
ful in projections of income, output, and employment in the eco-
nomic sectors under consideration. Partial analysis of these
structural components is considered in the following section.

INPUT-OUTPUT MULTIPLIERS
Economy and sector multipliers derived directly from input-
output analysis are useful analytic devices. The usual multi-
pliers deal with output, income, and employment. The multi-
pliers are heir to all the limitations and assumptions bound up
in the coefficients from which they are derived. Nevertheless,
they do have a certain amount of predictive or forecasting power
if used with reason. Also, there seems to be no better analytic
technique in general use that will produce sector multipliers at
the level of industry classification currently being used in most
state or regional interindustry studies.
Basically, input-output multipliers indicate what effect a
change in demand for the output of a given sector will have on
the total output, income, or employment in an economy. Output
multipliers indicate how output changes in the economy due to
a change in a given sector's output. Income multipliers measure
the effect of a change in a sector's income on the income of the
rest of the economy. The effect of an employment change on
employment in the rest of the economy is indicated by the em-
ployment multiplier. Multipliers for the Florida economy are
presented below.

Output Multipliers
Output multipliers, as the name implies, indicate changes in
output of the economy due to changes in final demand for the
output of a given sector. The sector output multipliers are com-
puted from the interdependence matrix presented in Appendix
Table 2. By adding down a column, the sum of the cells within
the matrix represents the output multiplier for the sector named
at the top of the column.
For example, a $1.00 increase in final demand for the output
of the citrus products sector will call forth a total output in-
crease of $1.59. The bulk of this amount is generated within the
citrus producing sector by interaction among and between the
firms making up this sector. Examination of the coefficients in







Column 2 of Appendix Table 2 reveals that 20 of the $1.59 out-
put comes from the chemical and allied products sector. In like
manner, 60 is generated by interaction with livestock; 5 is by
interaction with finance and insurance; 3 by interaction with
business services; 30 by interaction with industries in the whole-
sale and retail trade sector; 20 by interaction with utilities and
also with other agricultural product industries; and 1 by inter-
action with vegetables, chemical fertilizer and fertilizer mining,
maintenance and repair, other food and kindred products, paper
and allied products, fabricated metal products, communications,
machinery (except electrical), transportation and warehousing,
and other economic activity, respectively.
Output multipliers for the other sectors of the economy in
the model can be computed and interpreted in the same way.
Table 26 presents the sector output multipliers for the Florida
economy in 1967, as calculated from the interdependence matrix
presented in Appendix Table 2. The largest output multiplier
in the Florida model was "other economic activity and new con-
struction." As mentioned previously, however, the aggregation
of these two activities seriously violated the general rules of ag-
gregation, and input coefficients at the national level were a
very crude measure of the interindustry relationships present
in Florida. The multiplier of 2.23 for this sector indicates an
increase of $2.23 in total output will occur if output demand in-
creases by $1.00 in the "other economic activity and new con-
struction" sector.
The second largest sector output multiplier is vegetable prod-
ucts, with a multiplier of 2.04. For each dollar increase in output
demand of the vegetable sector, $2.04 of output will be generated
within the economy. The interindustry table shows how this in-
creased output is distributed among the sectors. $1.01 will be
generated within the vegetable industry, 25 by chemical and
allied products (primarily fertilizers and pesticides), and 11
from finance and insurance firms to- help produce the crop. Also,
large outputs will be needed from paper and allied products
(100 for containers and shipping labels), lumber and wood prod-
ucts (7 for shipping crates and containers), and lesser output
changes from livestock, maintenance and repair, agricultural
services, wholesale and retail trade, and others.
Other sectors with large output multipliers are canned, cured,
frozen vegetables, fruits, and seafood manufacturers (sector
12) ; paper and allied products (sector 19) ; chemical and allied
products (sector 21) ; other food and kindred products (sector








Table 26.-Output multipliers by sectors, Florida, 1967.
Sector Output multiplier
1. Livestock and livestock products 1.82
2. Citrus products 1.59
3. Vegetable products 2.04
4. Other agricultural products 1.43
5. Forestry and fisheries 1.49
6. Agr. forestry, and fisheries services 1.75
7. Metal ores, crude petroleum and natural gas 1.32
8. Stone and clay mining and quarrying 1.50
9. Chemical fertilizer and fertilizer material mining 1.50
10. Maintenance and repair construction 1.52
11. Ordnance and accessories 1.64
12. Canned, cured, frozen veg., fruits, and seafoods 2.00
13. Other food and kindred products 1.84
14. Tobacco manufactures 1.61
15. Textile mill products 1.53
16. Apparel 1.29
17. Lumber and wood products 1.82
18. Furniture and fixtures 1.64
19. Paper and allied products 1.96
20. Printing and publishing 1.80
21. Chemical and allied products 1.93
22. Petroleum products 1.77
23. Rubber and plastic products 1.65
24. Leather and leather products 1.53
25. Stone, clay, and glass products 1.68
26. Primary metal industry 1.50
27. Fabricated metal products 1.49
28. Machinery (except electrical) 1.58
29. Electrical machinery 1.63
30. Transportation equipment 1.53
31. Instruments and related products 1.54
32. Miscellaneous manufacturing 1.60
33. Wholesale and retail trade 1.34
34. Transportation and warehousing 1.41
35. Communications 1.24
36. Electric, gas, water, sanitary services 1.83
37. Finance and insurance 1.58
38. Real estate and rental 1.38
39. Hotel and lodging 1.44
40. Personal and repair services 1.54
41. Business services 1.77
42. Amusements, recreation and motion pictures 1.62
43. Medical, educ., legal, non-profit organizations 1.39
44. Other economic activity and new construction 2.23
Economy output multiplier 1.62



13) ; livestock products (sector 1) ; and lumber and wood prod-
ucts (sector 17). Large multipliers for these sectors indicate a
high degree of interaction with other sectors in the model. Also,
a small degree of the influence of imports is reflected in the out-
put multiplier. To the extent that inputs must be purchased
from outside the state, the multipliers are affected downward.
Small multipliers indicate a lack of interdependence between
the particular sector and other sectors within the state. Com-







munications had the smallest output multiplier, with $1.24 of
total output generated for each dollar increase in demand for
output from the communication sector.
If we assume that final demand in all 44 sectors increased
simultaneously by one dollar, this change in demand would gen-
erate a change in total output of $71.29. Dividing this total by
the number of sectors (44) indicates that, on the average, a
$1.00 change in demand will generate $1.62 in output. This
figure is the "average economy output multiplier" and is pre-
sented at the bottom of Table 26.
Income Multipliers
The basic economic fact that income is generated by an in-
crease in output serves as a basis for the income multiplier. The
concept of generating income multipliers from input-output
studies was first developed by Hirsh [30].
Corresponding to the direct and indirect component of out-
put, there is also a direct and indirect component of income
which can be attributed to each sector in the economy. The
direct income effect is that portion of primary inputs which is
attributable to households in the form of wages, salaries, divi-
dends, proprietor's income, and rents. For each sector in the
Florida model, the primary input row entry is named at the top
of the column in the transaction matrix (Table 22).o
The direct income effects by sector (ratio of primary inputs
to gross output) are presented in column 1 of Table 27. Using
the gross income criteria discussed below, the direct income
effects are quite large for some sectors. The communication
sector and wholesale and retail trade had the largest direct ef-
fect with .82 and .73, respectively. A relatively large portion of
the inputs for these sectors is represented by wages, salaries,
dividends, rents, and tax payments. On the other hand, petro-
leum products had a direct income effect of only .23-indicating
a capital intensive sector with 23 of each dollar of direct output
going to households as gross income. The other entries in column
1 of Table 27 can be interpreted similarly.
The direct and indirect income effects, (column 2, Table 27)
are the total changes in income generated by a $1.00 change in
For the Florida model, no attempt was made to allocate primary inputs to
households, government, or savings. In effect, the primary input figures
presented represent a rough approximation of gross income before taxes.
To the extent that these figures are overstatements of income, the income
multipliers will be biased upward. However, since no account of the in-
duced effect of household spending is being accounted for, the multipliers
should not be overly affected by this accounting procedure.






Table 27.-Income multipliers, Florida, 1967.
(2) (3) (4)
(1) Direct & In- Type I
Direct indirect direct income
income income income multi-
Sector effect effect effect plierd
1. Livestock & livestock prod. .3065 .7069 .4004 2.31
2. Citrus products .6075 .8794 .2719 1.45
3. Vegetable products .3332 .8227 .4895 2.47
4. Other agr. prod. .6473 .8544 .2071 1.32
5. Forestry & fisheries .6078 .8551 .2473 1.41
6. Agr. forestry & fisheries ser. .4934 .8617 .3683 1.75
7. Metal ores, crude pet. & nat. gas .6796 .8522 .1726 1.25
8. Stone & clay mining &
quarrying .6089 .8700 .2611 1.43
9. Chem. fert. & fert. material
mining .6389 .9022 .2633 1.41
10. Maint. & repair const. .5964 .9597 .3633 1.61
11. Ordnance & accessories .3440 .6378 .2938 1.85
12. Canned, cured, frozen veg.,
fruits & seafoods .3067 .8067 .5000 2.63
13. Other food & kindred products .3043 .6819 .3776 2.24
14. Tobacco manufacturing .4692 .7985 .3293 1.70
15. Textile mill products .3015 .5631 .2616 1.87
16. Apparel .4155 .5570 .1415 1.34
17. Lumber and wood products .4307 .8493 .4186 1.97
18. Furniture and fixtures .4408 .7531 .3123 1.71
19. Paper and allied products .4275 .8740 .4465 2.04
20. Printing and publishing .4911 .8703 .3792 1.77
21. Chemical and allied products .3960 .8206 .4246 2.07
22. Petroleum products .2269 .6807 .4538 3.0
23. Rubber and plastic products .4975 .7998 .3023 1.61
24. Leather and leather products .4224 .6491 .2267 1.54
25. Stone, clay, and glass products .5358 .8801 .3443 1.64
26. Primary metal industry .4335 .6857 .2522 1.58
27. Fabricated metal products .4064 .6433 .2369 1.58
28. Machinery (except electrical) .4742 .7560 .2818 1.59
29. Electrical machinery .4339 .7325 .2986 1.69
30. Transportation equipment .3736 .6215 .2479 1.66
31. Instruments and related prod. .5129 .7746 .2617 1.51
32. Miscellaneous manufacturing .4406 .7352 .2946 1.67
33. Wholesale and retail trade .7301 .8922 .1621 1.22
34. Transportation & warehousing .6482 .8639 .2157 1.33
35. Communications .8195 .9419 .1224 1.15
36. Electric, gas. water, san. ser. .4943 .8613 .3670 1.74
37. Finance and insurance .5687 .8714 .3027 1.53
38. Real estate & rental .7233 .9268 .2034 1.28
39. Hotel & lodging .6085 .8326 .2241 1.37
40. Personal & repair services .4823 .7608 .2785 1.58
41. Business services .4518 .8478 .3960 1.88
42. Amusements, rec. & motion
pictures .5532 .8819 .3287 1.59
43. Med., educ., legal, non-
profit orgn. .6818 .8789 .1971 1.29
44. Other econ. activity & new const. -
Economy multiplier' 1.69
aThe primary input row of the technical coefficients matrix represents
gross income before taxes per dollar change in output.
bThe column sum of each column entry is the interdependence matrix
times the direct primary or direct income effect listed in row (1) above.
cColumn 2 minus column 1 above.
'Column 2 divided by column 1.
,'The economy multiplier is the sum of the income multiplier divided by
the number of sectors. Sector 44 was not included due to unreliability of
the national coefficients in computing the Florida coefficients.
59







output. This effect is measured by determining how output
changes in each sector as a result of a one dollar change in final
demand and how this output change affects income. It is as-
sumed that consumption expenditures remain at the same level
despite changes in household income which is generated by this
output change. To compute the direct and indirect income ef-
fects, each column entry in. the interdependence coefficients
matrix for the Florida economy was multiplied by the primary
input row entry for that sector in the technical coefficients ma-
trix. By summing the column results of this multiplication
process, we derive the direct and indirect income effects by
sector. To isolate the indirect effects, column 1 of Table 27 is
subtracted from column 2. The difference is, by definition, the
indirect income effect and is presented as column 3.
The largest indirect income effects are found in those indus-
tries with a high degree of interaction with other Florida in-
dustries. Canned, cured, and frozen vegetables, fruits, and sea-
foods (sector 12) had the largest indirect effect of .50, while
communications (sector 35) and wholesale and retail trade (sec-
tor 33) had the smallest indirect effects. Other sectors having
large indirect income effects are vegetable products, petroleum
products, chemical and allied products, paper and allied prod-
ucts, lumber and wood products, and livestock products.
Type I income multipliers for each sector in the Florida
model are presented as column 4 of Table 27.'" Type I multi-
pliers do not take into account the induced income generated by
increased household expenditure resulting from a change in in-
come from increased output. Although this omission tends to
bias the income multiplier downward, the effect is somewhat
offset by using gross income estimates which tend to bias the
multipliers upward. The income multipliers are computed by
dividing the direct and indirect income effects for a given sector
by its direct income effect. The result is an estimate of the direct
and indirect change in gross income to households in the econ-
omy per dollar change in direct income payments to households
by sector.
As can be seen from column 4, Table 27, the petroleum prod-
ucts sector has the largest income multiplier-primarily because
of its large indirect effect on income. For each one dollar in-
crease in sector income, $3.00 of gross income is generated in the
economy. Large income multipliers are also associated with the

"' Other economic activity and new construction sector income effects and
multipliers are not presented.







canned, cured, and frozen vegetables, fruits, and seafood sector;
vegetable production; livestock production; other food and kin-
dred products; paper and allied products; chemical and allied
products; lumber and wood products; and business services. One
would expect the citrus sector to also display a large multiplier.
Examination of the appendix will reveal that much of the in-
come generated in this sector is in picking, packaging and haul-
ing the crop [41, 29]. Since on-tree prices were used in esti-
mating the output, pick and haul costs are allocated primarily to
the orange juice manufacturing industry which is part of the
canned, cured, frozen vegetables, fruits, and seafoods sector.
The large multiplier for this latter sector reflects these costs.

Employment Multipliers
Employment multipliers are related to a change in sector
output. Peterson and Moore [38] developed the input-output
employment multipliers in their Utah studies. This multiplier
can be defined as the change in total employment due to a one
unit change in employment for a given sector. There is a basic
assumption that a linear relationship exists between output and
numbers employed in a given sector. This relationship may not
necessarily hold for some sectors with excess capacity or rapidly
changing technologies.
Total effects of changes in final demand on employment can
be divided into direct employment and indirect employment ef-
fects. Direct employment effects are computed as the ratio of
numbers employed to a unit of gross output. For exposition
purposes, the unit of output measure for the Florida model is
$1,000. Sector employment for each of the sectors in the model
(except the six agricultural sectors and the "other economic ac-
tivity" sector), expressed as a ratio to total sector outputs, is
presented as column 1 of Table 28. Lack of adequate employ-
ment figures for the disaggregated agriculture sectors precluded
estimating employment multipliers for these sectors.
The medical, educational, legal, and nonprofit organization
sector had the largest direct change in employment per $1,000
output. The direct change in employment in this sector is .1
person employed per $1,000 increase in output (or one person
per $10,000 increased output). One would expect a large direct
income effect in this sector, as it is highly specialized with con-
siderable supportive staff. Examination of column 1, Table 28,
shows this to be the case. The metal ores, crude petroleum, and
natural gas mining sector has the smallest direct change effect.








Table 28.-Estimated changes in the employment resulting from a
$1,000 change in output and the derived employment multipliers, Florida,
1967.


I-O# Sector


c


Agriculture
Metal ores, crude pet., &
nat. gas
Stone, & clay mining, &
quarrying
Chem. fert. & fert. material
mining
Maint. & repair construction
Ordnance & accessories
Canned, cured, frozen veg.,
fruits, & seafoods
Other food & kindred products
Tobacco manufacturers
Textile mill products
Apparel
Lumber and wood products
Furniture & fixtures
Paper & allied products
Printing and publishing
Chemical and allied products
Petroleum products
Rubber & plastic products
Leather and leather products
Stone, clay and glass products
Primary metal industry
Fabricated metal products
Machinery (except electrical)
Electrical machinery
Transportation equipment
Instruments & related products
Miscellaneous manufacturing
Wholesale and retail trade
Transportation & warehousing
Communications
Electric, gas, water, san. ser.
Finance and insurance
Real estate & rental
Hotel & lodging
Personal & repair services
Business services
Amusements, rec. & motion
pictures
Med., educ., legal, non-profit
organ.
Other econ. activity &
new const.


Direct
hangea
(1)


.0107

.0624

.0333
.1159
.0518

.0264
.0223
.0617
.0651
.0912
.0591
.0638
.0259
.0612
.0218
.0268
.0537
.0945
.0358
.0309
.0390
.0330
.0590
.0557
.0488
.0676
.0864
.0477
.0605
.0209
.0488
.0682
.0968
.0757
.0713

.0735

.1208


Direct &
indirect
change
(2)


.0245

.0847

.0529
.1399
.0814

.0607
.0474
.0797
.0846
.1078
.0940
.0945
.0620
.0947
.0545
.0479
.0779
.1178
.0632
.0501
.0602
.0584
.0889
.0818
.0736
.0946
.1018
.0703
.0746
.0471
.0770
.0914
.1195
.1045
.1095

.1133

.1416


Indirect
change
(3)


.0138

.0223

.0196
.0240
.0296

.0343
.0251
.0180
.0195
.0166
.0349
.0307
.0361
.0335
.0327
.0211
.0242
.0233
.0274
.0192
.0212
.0254
.0299
.0261
.0248
.0270
.0154
.0226
.0141
.0262
.0282
.0232
.0227
.0288
.0382

.0398

.0208


Employ-
ment
multi-
plierd
(4)


2.29

1.36

1.59
1.21
1.57

2.30
2.13
1.29
1.30
1.18
1.60
1.48
2.39
1.55
2.50
1.79
1.45
1.25
1.77
1.62
1.51
1.77
1.51
;1.47
1.51
1.40
1.18
1.47
1.23
2.25
1.58
1.34
1.23
1.38
1.54

1.54

1.17


Economy employment multiplier


aRatio of total employment to total gross output by sector
bThe column sum of each column entry in the interdependence matrix
times the direct change of column (1) above.
cColumn (2) minus column (1)
dColumn (2) divided by column (1)


1.59







Only .01 person is employed per $1,000 increase in output of this
sector. This is to be expected with a capital intensive industry
like mining.
Direct and indirect changes in employment reflect the effects
in all sectors of a change in final demand in a given sector. The
direct and indirect change is computed by multiplying each col-
umn entry in the interdependence coefficients matrix by the
direct employment changes for the industry named at the left.
The column sum of these computations represent the direct and
indirect employment changes necessary per $1,000 change in
final demand. These changes are presented as column 2 in Table
28 and reflect the degree of interdependence of each sector
named at the left with the rest of the economy in addition to
the direct labor requirements. By subtracting column 1 from
column 2, the indirect employment change is ascertained. This
is presented as column 3 and reflects the interdependence or de-
gree of interaction present in the economy by sectors as it affects
employment. The largest indirect change is found in amuse-
ments and business services. Other sectors with large indirect
changes are printing and publishing; chemical and allied prod-
ucts; canned, cured, and frozen vegetables, fruits and seafood;
lumber and wood products; paper and allied products; and fur-
niture and fixtures.
Sector employment multipliers, are shown as column 4 of
Table 28. They are computed by dividing the direct employment
change (column 1) into the direct and indirect employment
change (column 2). Each sector multiplier shows the amount
of additional employment created throughout the economy of
Florida when the sector specified increases employment by one
unit.
Chemicals and allied products had the largest employment
multiplier. For each increase in employment of one person in
this sector, a total employment increase in the economy of 2.5
persons is indicated. The high degree of interaction of the
chemical sector with the rest of the economy accounted for the
large multiplier in this sector. Other sectors exhibiting large
employment multipliers are paper and allied products; canned,
cured, and frozen vegetables, fruits, and seafoods; other food
and kindred products; metal ores, crude petroleum, and natural
gas; and electric, gas, and water utilities.
The employment multiplier for the economy was also com-
puted. This is an average multiplier and indicates that a one
person change in employment in the "average" sector in Florida
will change total employment by 1.59 persons within the state.







It does not account for the employment effects of the agricul-
ture sectors or other economic activity sector which were ex-
cluded from the computations, nor does it indicate what employ-
ment effects are on those industries outside the state which are
supplying Florida with imports.


SUMMARY AND IMPLICATIONS

Summary
The basic purpose of this study was to estimate the struc-
tural interdependence of the Florida economy. This was accom-
plished by the use of an input-output model. Secondary data
sources were used to formulate a 48-sector model for the calen-
dar year 1967, the year of the latest manufacturing and business
censuses. Forty-four of these sectors were endogenous while
the four final demand sectors were exogenous. The 44 endo-
genous (processing) sectors were comprised of six agricultural
producing sectors, three mining sectors, one construction sec-
tor, 22 manufacturing sectors, and 12 service and professional
sectors. The final demand (exogenous) sectors were personal
consumption, government, imports and exports.
Descriptive data show the Florida economy to be somewhat
diversified but with a great deal of dependence on government,
tourism, manufacturing, and agriculture for employment and
income. Florida ranks high among the southern states in in-
come, education, and employment opportunities, but is consider-
ably below the national average in income per capital.
The major empirical results of the study are presented in
the transactions matrix, the technical coefficients matrix, and
the interdependence coefficients matrix. The transactions matrix
presents industry sector flows of goods and services within
Florida and its exports and imports. At the same time, industry
sector input structures are revealed. The basic document for
ascertaining these flows was the Fortune 1966 input-output port-
folio, aggregated to the Florida industry sector classification.
Not only were the flows aggregated but new technical coefficients
were derived for use in estimating the technical coefficients for
the Florida model. These coefficients adjusted for imports are
presented as the technical coefficients matrix (Appendix Table
1). The interdependence coefficients, which measure the total
effects of a change in final demand (both direct and secondary)
for the output of a sector on the rest of the economy, were de-
rived from the technical coefficients matrix.








The implications for development policy formulation can best
be seen by examination of the multipliers. These multipliers--
output, income, and employment-were derived from the tech-
nical and interdependence coefficients matrices and employment
ratios.
Output multipliers indicated how output in each sector
changed as a result of a $1.00 change in final demand for a given
sector. The other economic activity and new construction sector
showed the largest output multiplier of 2.23, followed closely
by the vegetable production sector and canned, cured, frozen
vegetables, fruits, and seafood. Communications had the small-
est output multiplier of 1.24. The output multiplier for the
economy was 1.62, indicating that on the average for every dollar
change in final demand, $1.62 worth of output is generated in
the Florida economy.
Gross income multipliers for each sector indicate the change
in the economy due to household income changes for a particular
sector. Petroleum products had the largest income multiplier
of 3.0. This was due primarily to the large degree of inter-
dependence of most all sectors with petroleum products. Nearly
as large and much more important in absolute terms is the
canned, cured, frozen vegetable, fruits and seafoods sector with
an income multiplier of 2.63. Other basic sector industries such
as livestock products, vegetable products, other food and kindred
products, paper and allied products, and chemical and allied prod-
ucts also were characterized by large gross income multipliers.
The economy income multiplier of 1.69 indicates that on the
average, for each one dollar change in household income, $1.69
of total income is generated throughout the economy. This does
not include income generated by the induced effects of additional
personal consumption by households from increased incomes.
Small income multipliers were associated with the communica-
tions sector, wholesale and retail trade, metal ores mining, real
estate, and medical, education, legal, and non-profit organization
sectors.
Employment multipliers indicate the total changes in em-
ployment throughout the economy resulting from a one unit
change in employment in a sector. For the Florida model they
do not take into account the effect of the six agricultural sectors
or the "other economic activity" sector due to data limitations.
They also fail to reflect the induced effect from household spend-
ing. The largest employment multiplier of 2.50 was found in the
chemical and allied products sector. The economy employment








multiplier of 1.59 indicates that, on the average, each man year
of employment created by a sector will generate a total of 1.59
man years throughout the economy. The smallest employment
multiplier was in the medical, educational, legal, non-profit or-
ganization sector. The multiplier of 1.17 in this sector shows
very small secondary effects from employment changes. Whole-
sale and retail trade and apparel manufacturing also had very
small employment multipliers of 1.18.

Implications
A careful examination of the multiplier analysis reveals the
importance of a high degree of interdependence between local
industries in the state's economy. The greater this interaction,
the larger the generative effect of a change in final demand on
the important variables such as income, output, and employ"-
ment. Development policies aimed at increasing employment
and incomes need to be considered in light of what the total
effect of such policies will be. The multipliers should enable
policy makers to better understand the complex reverberations
taking place in the economy from an autonomous change brought
about by program implementation.
The highest income and employment multipliers are asso-
ciated with those industries which (1) produce raw material
for further processing; (2) have large export markets, or (3)
further process raw material produced within the state. This
does not mean they are the most important industries nor that
they produce the greatest output, however.
It should be remembered that the data used in this study
were from secondary sources and that adjusted national coeffi-
cients were used as a base. Much more work is needed at the
county and area level to ascertain actual interindustry flows of
goods and services. Also, the 48-sector Florida model is still
highly aggregated. Hundreds of different industries are aggre-
gated into only a few-therefore, sector coefficients are only
averages for all industries within a sector. The same parallel
holds geographically. Personal services coefficients may be quite
different in the Miami Beach area as compared with Lafayette
County in north Florida. Further study is needed on regional
differences within the state and regional coefficients need to be
generated to accurately reflect these differences.







APPENDIX A: DIRECT, INTERDEPENDENCE,
AND INDIRECT COEFFICIENTS MATRICES

Technical or Direct Coefficients Matrix

The usefulness of the transaction table is limited somewhat
to examining aggregate economic relationships between econom-
ic sectors in the Florida economy. Input purchasing patterns
can be looked at only in aggregate dollar amounts. A more use-
fll analytic device would be to state these input purchases in
percentage units for easier analysis. The technical coefficients
matrix (Appendix Table 1) represents the data in the transac-
tions table (Table 22) converted to a percentage basis.
Column figures in Table 22 for each sector listed at the top
of the column indicate how much that sector purchases from
each sector named at the left. By dividing the figures represent-
ing these purchases by the total amount of purchases, the result
represents the decimal (or fractional) purchases by sector. These
decimal amounts would then show the distribution of a given
sector's purchases from all other sectors. The sum of these frac-
tional purchases of course would have to equal 1.0000. Since
total inputs by definition must equal total output, these frac-
tional numbers represent input per unit of output. Appendix
Table 1 presents the technical coefficient matrix for the Florida
economy in 1967 as derived from the transaction data presented
in Table 22. Since the technical coefficients are relevant only to
the processing sectors, they are not shown for final demand. For
forecasting purposes one must assume that these coefficients are
not changing over the forecast period.
The following example is given to show how the technical
coefficients matrix should be used. Input-output sector 5 (for-
estry and fisheries products) column read from top to bottom
can be interpreted as follows: If forestry and fisheries indus-
tries increase their output by $100, the direct and immediate
effect will be for some industries to increase output to meet the
input needs of forestry and fisheries. Some other industries will
not be directly affected at all. By reading down column 5 we see
that forestry and fisheries will need to purchase inputs worth
$3.02 from the livestock sector, $3.83 from citrus; $2.87 from
the vegetable sector; $2.87 from other agriculture products;
$1.58 from itself; and so on.
The total amount of input purchases from Florida producers
equals $29.66. In addition, $9.56 worth of inputs will be im-
ported from outside the state. Of the $100 increase in output,








$6;0.78 will come directly from primary sources such as worker's
wages and salaries, profits, taxes, dividends, and proprietors
incomes. The $60.78 can also be viewed as the value added
within the forestry and fisheries sector. The other entries in
the technical coefficient matrix can be interpreted similarly.


Interdependence Coefficients Matrix
One of the basic objectives of this study was to ascertain the
interindustry structural relationships in the Florida economy.
The attainment of this objective should enable us to answer the
question often asked: If final demand for a certain industry's
output changes by a given amount, what will be the effect of
this change on output levels of other industries in the economy?
Appendix Table 2 allows us to trace these effects for each sector
specified in the matrix. Not only are the direct effects (see Ap-
pendix Table 1) taken into account but also the indirect effects.
Like the waves from a tossed pebble, the effects do not stop with
the direct effects. Each directly affected industry in turn affects
its own input supply industries. These industries, in turn, affect
their supply industries. All those changes occurring after the
initial direct changes represented in Appendix Table 1 are called
the indirect effects. The interdependence coefficients in Appen-
dix Table 2 reveal both the direct and indirect effects. The differ-
ence in technical coefficients of Appendix Table 1 and the inter-
dependence coefficients of Appendix Table 2 represents the
indirect effect as shown in Appendix Table 3.
To further clarify the relations of Appendix Tables 1, 2, and
3, it is stressed that: (1) the direct effects are in Appendix
Table 1, (2) the indirect effects are in Appendix Table 3, and (3)
the combined effects are in Appendix Table 2. (Indirect effects
can not be determined separately-they must be measured as
the difference between combined and direct effects.)









Appendix Table l.--Technical coefficients matrix, Florida, 1967.



Livestock &
livestock Citrus Vegetable
I-0# Item products products products
(1) (2) (3)


1 Livestock & livestock prod. .0570 .0486 .0455
2 Citrus products .0000 .0135 .0126
3 Vegetable products .0000 .0101 .0095
4 Other agricultural products .1374 .0101 .0294
5 Forestry & fishery products .0000 .0000 .0000
6 Agr. forestry & fishery services .0149 .0039 .0173
7 Metal ore & crude pet. & nat. gas .0000 .0000 .0000
8 Stone 6 clay mining & quarry .0000 .0050 .0050
9 Chem. fert. & fert. material mining .0000 .0069 .0040
10 Maintenance & repair const. .0699 .0029 .0337
11 Ordnance & accessories .0000 .0000 .0000
12 Canned, cured 6 frozen foods .0000 .0000 .0000
13 Other food & kindred prod. .1440 .0002 .0002
14 Tobacco manufacture .0000 .0000 .0000
15 Textile mill products .0001 .0002 .0002
16 Apparel .0000 .0000 .0000
17 Lumber & wood products .0005 .0016 .0466
18 Furniture 6 fixtures .0000 .0000 .0000
19 Paper & allied products .0005 .0004 .0576
20 Printing & publishing .0002 .0001 .0001
21 Chemical 6 allied products .0023 .1400 .1715
22 Petroleum products .0001 .0005 .0006
23 Rubber and plastic products .0002 .0006 .0006
24 Leather & leather products .0000 .0000 .0000
25 Stone, clay & glass products .0002 .0004 .0004
26 Primary metal industry .0000 .0000 .0000
27 Fabricated metal products .0021 .0007 .0007
28 Machinery (except electric) .0003 .0037 .0035
29 Electrical machinery .0002 .0002 .0002
30 Transportation equipment .0003 .0003 .0003
31 Instruments & related products .0000 .0000 .0000
32 Miscellaneous manufacturing .0000 .0000 .0000
33 Wholesale & retail trade .0317 .0152 .0114
34 Transportation warehousing .0121 .0000 .0414
35 Communications .0021 .0029 .0029
36 Elec., gas, water, san. services .0082 .0067 .0067
37 Finance & insurance .0088 .0355 .0752
38 Real estate & rental .0039 .0037 .0037
39 Hotel lodging .0000 .0000 .0000
40 Personal & repair service .0024 .0020 .0020
41 Business services .0011 .0205 .0208
42 Amusements, rec., motion picture .0000 .0000 .0000
43 Med., educ., other non-profit orgn. .0056 .0005 .0005
44 Other econ. activity, new & const. .0004 .0003 .0003


45 Total intermediate inputs .5065 .3326 .5961
46 Net imports .1870 .0598 .0707
47 Value added or primary inputs .3065 .6075 .3332








Appendix Table l.--Continued.


Other Forestry Agr. Metal ore Stone Chem. fert.
agri- 6 forestry & crude 6 clay & fert.
I-0# cultural fishery & fishery pet. & mining 8 material
products products services nat. gas quarry mining
(4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)


.0496
.0138
.0104
.0320
.0000
.0115
.0000
.0005
.0004
.0049
.0000
.0000
.0002
.0000
.0002
.0000
.0016
.0000
.0004
.0001
.0473
.0006
.0006
.0000
.0003
.0000
.0006
.0038
.0002
.0003
.0000
.0000
.0115
.0125
.0029
.0067
.0124
.0037
.0000
.0020
.0208
.0000
.0005
.0003


.0302
.0383
.0287
.0287
.0158
.0130
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0002
.0000
.0000
.0074
.0000
.0011
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0112
.0000
.0013
.0006
.0017
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0004
.0104
.0000
.0044
.0000
.0004
.0201
.0146
.0020
.0002
.0185
.0072
.0000
.0000
.0396
.0000
.0005
.0003


.0776
.1308
.0979
.0979
.0000
.0011
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0012
.0000
.0000
.0024
.0000
.0010
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0049

.0003
.0001
.0003
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0051
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0001
.0027
.0067
.0039
.0007
.0032
.0029
.0000
.0000
.0019
.0000
.0006
.0015


.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0353
.0000
.0001
.0005
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0010
.0000
.0004
.0001
.0085
.0003
.0009
.0000
.0009
.0015
.0047
.0167
.0025
.0004
.0000
.0000
.0145
.0338
.0005
.0097
.0094
.0320
.0002
.0010
.0162
.0000
.0008
.0137


.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0006
.0036
.0004
.0012
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0096
.0002
.0118
.0014
.0058
.0000
.0649
.0031
.0007
.0705
.0013
.0014
.0001
.0001
.0603
.0159
.0016
.0239
.0106
.0073
.0009
.0002
.0054
.0000
.0009
.0088


____ 1- ________ _________ ________ _______


.2526
.1003
.6473


.2966
0956
.6078


.4447
.0619
.4934


.2055
.1149
.6796


.3121
.0790
.6089


.0000
.0000
.0000ooo
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0021
.0079
.0639
.0005
.0000
.0000
.0001
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0003
.0000
.0055
.0000
.0312
.0004
.0013
.0000
.0005
.0043
.0017
.0348
.0031
.0009
.0001
.0001
.0248
.0597
.0018
.0415
.0058
.0030
.Q008
.0000
.0042
.0000
.0008
.0105


.3114
.0497
.6389


I I I I









Appendix Table l.--Continued.


Mainte-
nance 6
repair
const.
(10)


.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0037
.0000
.0001
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0241
.0007
.0038
.0001
.0592
.0011
.0012
.0000
.0394
.0080
.0514
.0046
.0112
.0000
.0004
.0008
.0812
.0193
.0011
.0016
.0029
.0006
.0000
.0016
.0022
.0000
.0006
.0032


Ordnance
6 acces-
sories
(11)


.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0016
.0184
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0002
.0010
.0000
.0047
.0014
.0034
.0001
.0073
.0000
.0037
.0128
.0175
.1097
.0482
.0749
.0098
.0007
.0289
.0105
.0037
.0038
.0063
.0011
.0008
.0000
.0066
.0000
.0010
.0213


Canned,
cured &
frozen
foods
(12)


.0000
.0782
.0195
.0572
.0177
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0035
.0000
.0318
.0439
.0000
.0000
.0002
.0013
.0000
.0420
.0015
.0065
.0001
.0000
.0000
.0415
.0000
.1034
.0000
.0003
.0000
.0000
.0001
.0418
.0623
.0025
.0056
.0052
.0045
.0007
.0044
.0321
.0000
.0010
.0070


I-0#


Other
food 6
kindred
products
(13)

.1701
.0215
.0055
.0158
.0049
.0000
.0000
.0001
.0001
.0034
.0000
.0084
.0864
.0000
.0002
.0002
.0011
.0000
.0165
.0016
.0064
.0002
.0006
.0000
.0054
.0001
.0176
.0003
.0003
.0000
.0000
.0001
.0344
.0362
.0023
.0054
.0050
.0013
.0005
.0041
.0330
.0000
.0009
.0015


Tobacco
manu-
facture
(14)

.0000
.0000
.0000
.1956
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0010
.0000
.0000
.0033
.0762
.0000
.0000
.0014
.0000
.0240
.0017
.0206
.0000
.0005
.0000
.0000
.0002
.0028
.0001
.0001
.0000
.0000
.0003
.0142
.0122
.0018
.0010
.0021
.0004
.0004
.0003
.0280
.0000
.0010
.0036


Textile
mill
products
(15)

.0079
.0000
.0000
.0577
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0005
.0000
.0000
.0008
.0000
.0456
.0008
.0000
.0008
.0121
.0007
.0930
.0001
.0027
.0001
.0020
.0001
.0012
.0047
.0001
.0001
.0002
.0014
.0407
.0228
.0018
.0089
.0059
.0017
.0015
.0006
.0051
.0000
.0010
.0035


45 .3242 .3994 .6158 .4916 .3913 .3259
46 .0794 .2566 .0775 .2041 .1395 .3726
47 .5964 .3440 .3067 .3043 .4692 .3015









Appendix Table l.--Continued.


Apparel
(16)


.0000
.0000
.0000
.0139
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0005
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0324
.0518
.0000
.0000
.0067
.0009
.0117
.0000
.0005
.0007
.0000
.0000
.0012
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0048
.0351
.0079
.0028
.0030
.0062
.0032
.0024
.0002
.0006
.0001
.0011
.0081


Lumber
& wood
products
(17)


Furniture
6
fixtures
(18)


4 4-


.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.1139
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0005
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0003
.2172
.0017
.0089
.0025
.0159
.0004
.0015
.0000
.0042
.0006
.0093
.0035
.0008
.0003
.0000
.0004
.0394
.0436
.0022
.0006
.0054
.0017
.0016
.0067
.0030
.0000
.0009
.0078


.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0004
.0000
.0000
.0024
.0000
.0058
.0002
.0836
.0224
.0211
.0004
.0190
.0001
.0091
.0003
.0233
.0113
.5840
.0092
.0017
.0005
.0008
.0021
.0554
.0196
.0046
.0054
.0050
.0033
.0019
.0017
.0086
.0000
.0010
.0105


Paper 6
allied
products
(19)


.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0009
.0012
.0038
.0001
.0000
.0024
.0000
.0008
.0002
.0401
.0001
.2795
.0069
.0337
.0005
.0039
.0000
.0044
.0003
.0101
.0051
.0010
.0000
.0001
.0002
.0375
.0359
.0026
.0153
.0060
.0016
.0010
.0008
.0067
.0000
.0010
.0196


I-O#


Printing
6 pub-
lishing
(20)


Chemical
6 allied
products
(21)


I


45 .1956 .4948 .3889 .5232 .4427 .,5158
46 .3889 .0745 .1702 .0492 .0661 .0882
47 .4155 .4307 .4408 .4275 .4911 .3960


1 -~


.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0034
.0004
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0002
.0000
.0000
.0003
.1809
.0995
.0138
.0000
.0003
.0000
.0000
.0003
.0019
.0037
.0006
.0005
.0011
.0007
.0250
.0146
.0123
.0043
.0095
.0106
.0013
.0010
.0273
.0000
.0011
.0280


.0001
.0000
.0000
.0007
.0007
.0000
.0037
.0005
.0158
.0015
.0000
.0013
.0082
.0000
.0002
.0002
.0051
.0000
.0299
.0021
.2585
.0016
.0030
.0000
.0100
.0021
.0169
.0078
.0006
.0000
.0007
.0003
.0280
.0301
.0035
.0153
.0088
.0027
.0006
.0010
.0336
.0000
.0010
.0232







Appendix Table l.--Continued.


Rubber
Petro- 8
leum plastic
products products
(22) (23)


.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.3611
.0017
.0001
.0015
.0000
.0000
.0003
.0000
.0001
.0001
.0001
.0000
.0052
.0000
.0344
.0036
.0001
.0000
.0023
.0000
.0170
.0003
.0003
.0000
.0000
.0001
.0107
.0533
.0014
.0165
.0067
.0024
.0000
.0011
.0129
.0000
.0009
.0044


.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0003
.0012
.0010
.0000
.0000
.0001
.0000
.0099
.0009
.0014
.0001
.0115
.0025
.1875
.0001
.0101
.0004
.0109
.0009
.0141
.0055
.0026
.0010
.0007
.0011
.0329
.0223
.0031
.0107
.0059
.0032
.0013
.0004
.0152
.0000
.0011
.0104


Leather
&
leather
products
(24)


I


Stone,
clay &
glass
products
(25)


.0000
.0000
.0000
.0003
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0002
.0001
.0000
.0000
.0003
.0000
.0034
.0012
.0068
.0001
.0168
.0035
.0192
.0000
.0150
.0487
.0039
.0001
.0066
.0006
.0009
.0000
.0007
.0008
.0311
.0141
.0028
.0042
.0069
.0022
.0024
.0004
.0140
.0000
.0011
.0891


Primary
metal
industry
(26)


Fabri-
cated
metal
products
(27)


45 .5383 .3701 .2975 .4054 .3179 .3132
46 .2348 .1324 .2801 .0588 .2486 .2804
47 .2269 .4975 .4224 .5358 .4335 .4064


.0000
.0000
.0000
.0001
.0001
.0000
.0011
.0237
.0023
.0004
.0000
.0000
.0003
.0000
.0002
.0001
.0060
.0004
.0412
.0015
.0382
.0004
.0024
.0000
.1076
.0009
.0117
.0035
.0031
.0001
.0002
.0005
.0329
.0503
.0032
.0305
.0096
.0022
.0014
.0026
.0088
.0000
.0010
.0167


.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0458
.0009
.0003
.0038
.0001
.0000
.0001
.0000
.0001
.0002
.0009
.0000
.0031
.0009
.0141
.0003
.0007
.0000
.0107
.0526
.0208
.0180
.0053
.0008
.0001
.0002
.0340
.0368
.0028
.0215
.0065
.0010
.0009
.0004
.0047
.0000
.0009
.0288


.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.oo0O
.0000
.0001
.0001
.0000
.0007
.0002
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0001
.0003
.0045
.0013
.0092
.0012
.0103
.0002
.0016
.0000
.0078
.0608
.0646
.0406
.0134
.0042
.0022
.0006
.0352
.0167
.0029
.0070
.0072
.0018
.0013
.0013
.0072
.0000
.0009
.0077


I









Appendix Table l.--Continued.


Instru- Miscel- Whole-
Machinery Elec- Transpor- ments S laneous sale 8
I-0# (except trial station related manufac- retail
electric) machinery equipment products turning trade
(28) (29) (30) (31) (32) (33)


.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0001
.0002
.0000
.0011
.0005
.0000
.0001
.0000
.0000
.0003
.0020
.0002
.0038
.0006
.0036
.0002
.0031
.0001
.0065
.0245
.0385
.1484
.0314
.0081
.0014
.0006
.0403
.0113
.0054
.0051
.0065
.0027
.0012
.0008
.0086
.0000
.0009
.0101


.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0006
.0000
.0000
.0010
.0107
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0001
.0003
.0019
.0072
.0129
.0008
.0150
.0001
.0048
.0001
.0165
.0190
.0411
.0287
.1160
.0028
.0049
.0005
.0400
.0132
.0036
.0055
.0042
.0027
.0013
.0003
.0159
.0000
.0011
.0169


.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0022
.0157
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0008
.0002
.0030
.0014
.0032
.0004
.0070
.0001
.0055
.0000
.0099
.0182
.0511
.0394
.0203
.0857
.0033
.0003
.0286
.0157
.0027
.0049
.0037
.0011
.0005
.0003
.0119
.0000
.0009
.0037


.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0007
.0000
.0004
.0000
.0000
.0002
.0194
.0000
.0010
.0000
.0008
.0007
.0006
.0020
.0204
.0003
.0220
.0001
.0029
.0003
.0134
.0107
.0284
.0313
.0393
.0075
.0259
.0012
.0474
.0117
.0038
.0033
.0052
.0031
.0012
.0003
.0165
.0000
.0009
.0130


.0000
.0005
.0005
.0005
.0005
.0000
.0000
.0001
.0000
.0028
.0001
.0000
.0007
.0000
.0028
.0005
.0165
.0009
.0581
.0039
.0381
.0001
.0099
.0026
.0077
.0162
.0283
.0077
.0099
.0013
.0005
.0167
.0660
.0159
.0052
.0048
.0084
.0042
.0017
.0014
.0140
.0000
.0010
.0113


I I


45 .3681 .3894 .3418 .3357 .3614 .1954
46 .1577 .1766 .2845 .1514 .1979 .0745
47 .4742 .4339 .3736 .5129 .4406 .7301


.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0013
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0081
.0001
.0004
.0030
.0000
.0001
.0002
.0014
.0002
.0083
.0020
.0026
.0004
.0007
.0000
.0025
.0000
.0021
.0026
.0013
.0011
.0003
.0003
.0162
.0042
.0105
.0197
.0166
.0158
.0024
.0038
.0308
.0010
.0010
.0344









Appendix Table l.--Continued.


I-0#


Personal
6 repair
service
(40)


1 .0000
2 .000
3 .0000
4 .0000
5 .0000
6 .0000
7 .0000
8 .0000
9 .0000
10 .0134
11 .0000
12 .0000
13 .0000
14 .0000
15 .0004
16 .0001
17 .0000
18 .0000
19 .0005
20 .0009
21 .0092
22 .0002
23 .0100
24 .0000
25 .0176
26 .0000
27 .0138
28 .0142
29 .0125
30 .0527
31 .0009
32 .0001
33 .0834
34 .0092
35 .0068
36 .0183
37 .0256
38 .0114
39 .0000
40 .0165
41 .0120
42 .0000
43 .0009
44 .0164


Business
services
(41)


Amusement,
rec.,
motion
picture
(42)


Med.,
educ.,
other non-
profit orgn.
(43)


L .1- I. I.


.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0009
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0002
.0001
.0000
.0000
.0034
.1852
.0002
.0002
.0008
.0000
.0000
.0002
.0000
.0369
.0001
.0003
.0022
.0027
.0181
.0048
.0980
.0103
.0125
.0114
.0052
.0050
.0152
.0014
.0002
.0473


.0012
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0006
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0225
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0002
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0008
.0027
.0002
.0000
.0001
.0004
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0001
.0012
.0045
.0126
.0040
.0055
.0074
.0231
.0152
.0000
.0000
.0239
.2348
.0010
.0172


.0001
.0000
.0000
.0001
.0001
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0306
.0000
.0011
.0034
.0000
.0003
.0005
.0002
.0000
.0048
.0113
.0221
.0002
.0008
.0000
.0003
.0000
.0008
.0001
.0007
.0003
.0059
.0012
.0190
.0054
.0085
.0183
.0119
.0208
.0049
.0022
.0162
.0037
.0132
.0269


Other
econ. ac-
tivity, new
& const.
(44)


.0000
.0021
.0021
.0021
.0064
.0000
.0002
.0057
.0000
.0160
.0026
.0002
.0154
.0008
.0000
.0000
.0465
.0059
.0113
.0098
.0106
.0009
.0019
.0001
.0810
.0124
.1093
.0244
.0218
.0014
.0017
.0015
.0963
.0822
.0025
.0087
.0107
.0014
.0129
.0063
.0336
.0016
.0029
.0970


45 .3469 .4628 .3791 .2361 .7503
46 .1707 .0853 .0676 .0821 .1582
47 .4823 .4518 .5534 .6818 .0915








Appendix Table l.--Continued.


Transpor-
tation
ware-
housing
(34)


Communi-
cations
(35)


Elec., gas,
water, san.
services
(36)


.II.I


.0000
.0002
.0002
.0002
.0002
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0360
.0000
.0003
.0013
.0000
.0001
.0000
.0006
.0000
.0012
.0017
.0025
.0021
.0021
.0000
.0003
.0005
.0017
.0044
.0030
.0057
.0003
.0004
.0291
.0630
.0077
.0042
.0202
.0088
.0000
.0237
.0090
.0007
.0009
.0288


.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0269
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0002
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0009
.0083
.0001
.0001
.0002
.0000
.0000
.0005
.0003
.0000
.0097
.0002
.0000
.0004
.0059
.0017
.0141
.0055
.0057
.0065
.0000
.0015
.0139
.0272
.0009
.0144


.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0504
.0000
.0000
.0272
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0001
.0000
.0008
.0002
.0006
.0006
.0001
.0000
.0011
.0003
.0062
.0006
.0005
.0000
.0066
.0001
.0113
.0186
.0021
.1814
.0049
.0007
.0000
.0011
.0066
.0000
.0007
.1331


Finance
8
insurance
(37)

.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0045
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0002
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0048
.0116
.0004
.0002
.0006
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0002
.0001
.0001
.0000
.0003
.0097
.0089
.0153
.0046
.2024
.0230
.0000
.0031
.0242
.0002
.0053
.0340


I. 4 4 t r


I II


.2614
.0903
.6482


.1450
.0355
.8195


.4560
.0497
.4943


.3536
.0776
.5687


Real
estate
8 rental
(38)

.0089
.0058
.0058
.0058
.0058
.0001
.0014
.0001
.0000
.0945
.0001
.0001
.0005
.0000
.0000
.0001
.0003
.0001
.0003
.0007
.0020
.0003
.0021
.0002
.0040
.0010
.0037
.0170
.0006
.0002
.0001
.0001
.0172
.0063
.0037
.0040
.0330
.0060
.0042
.0018
.0128
.0015
.0006
.0131


Hotel
6
lodging
(39)

.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0029
.0000
.0000
.0006
.0000
.0028
.0030
.0003
.0009
.0134
.0004
.0231
.0006
.0017
.;0001
.0047
.0001
.0023
.0026
.0200
.0002
.0046
.0063
..0433
.0075
.0053
.0191
.0164
.0139
.0292
.0096
.0164
.0000
.0010
.0199



.2724
.1191
.6085


.2406
.0360
.7234








Appendix Table 2.--Interdependence coefficients matrix, Florida, 1967.



Livestock F
livestock Citrus Vegetable
I-0# Item products products products
(1) (2) (3)

1 Livestock S livestock prod. 1.1028 .0566 .0561
2 Citrus products .0089 1.0152 .0169
3 Vegetable products .0047 .0113 1.0125
4 Other agricultural products .1618 .0200 .0416
5 Forestry & fishery products .0017 .0010 .0085
6 Agr. forestry & fishery services .0186 .0053 .0191
7 Metal ore & crude pet. & nat. gas .0013 .0021 .0027
8 Stone & clay mining & quarry .0007 .0010 .0013
9 Chem. fert. fert. material mining .0006 .0109 .0050
10 Maintenance & repair const. .0823 .0106 .0450
11 Ordnance & accessories .0001 .0001 .0002
12 Canned, cured & frozen foods .0016 .0004 .0005
13 Other food S kindred prod. .1747 .0114 .0124
14 Tobacco manufacture .0000 .0000 .0000
15 Textile mill products .0002 .0003 .0004
16 Apparel .0001 .0001 .0001
17 Lumber 6 wood products .0057 .0054 .0693
18 Furniture & fixtures .0002 .0002 .0004
19 Paper & allied products .0102 .0143 .0992
20 Printing & publishing .0048 .0087 .0120
21 Chemical & allied products .0272 .1997 .2531
22 Petroleum products .0005 .0010 .0014
23 Rubber and plastic products .0010 .0016 .0026
24 Leather & leather products .0000 .0000 .0000
25 Stone, clay F glass products .0070 .0052 .0092
26 Primary metal industry .0020 .0017 .0028
27 Fabricated metal products .0136 .0084 .0146
28 Machinery (except electric) .0045 .0099 .0125
29 Electrical machinery .0025 .0018 .0032
30 Transportation equipment .0012 .0009 .0015
31 Instruments & related products .0004 .0005 .0007
32 Miscellaneous manufacturing .0003 .0003 .0004
33 Wholesale & retail trade .0569 .0311 .0421
34 Transportation warehousing .0299 .0137 .0689
35 Communications .0067 .0090 .0119
36 Elec., gas, water, san. services .0174 .0162 .0203
37 Finance & insurance .0209 .0525 .1071
38 Real estate & rental .0077 .0074 .0102
39 Hotel F lodging .0006 .0007 .0012
40 Personal & repair service .0053 .0036 .0059
41 Business services .0161 .0332 .0399
42 Amusements, rec., motion picture .0004 .0005 .0007
43 Med., educ., other non-profit orgn. .0069 .0015 .0022
44 Other econ. activity, new & const. .0106 .0149 .0245








Appendix Table 2.--Continued.


Other Forestry Agr. Metal ore Stone Chem. fert.
agri- 6 forestry 6 crude 6 clay & fert.
I-0# cultural fishery & fishery pet. & mining & material
products products services nat. gas quarry mining
(4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)


.0594
.0169
.0126
1.0437
.0008
.0132
.0014
.0007
.0019
.0125
.0001
.0002
.0106
.0000
.0003
.0000
.0047
.0001
.0082
.0068
.0758
.0009
.0012
.0000
.0031
.0010
.0053
.0080
.0014
.0009
.0003
.0002
.0227
.0214
.0075
.0130
.0224
.0062
.0005
.0035
.0284
.0004
.0012
.0093


.0426
.0429
.0320
.0396
1.0168
.0151
.0007
.0002
.0008
.0078
.0002
.0002
.0156
.0000
.0013
.0000
.0044
.0001
.0243
.0110
.0238
.0008
.0023
.0000
.0022
.0012
.0046
.0167
.0016
.0055
.0003
.0007
.0317
.0238
.0090
.0051
.0334
.0106
.0006
.0017
.0483
.0005
.0012
.0093


.1050
.1371
.1023
.1218
.0013
1.0064
.0009
.0004
.0022
.0156
.0001
.0003
.0201
.0000
.0012
.0000
.0091
.0001
.0207
.0042
.0621
.0005
.0011
.0000
.0030
.0013
.0104
.0044
.0012
.0006
.0002
.0002
.0195
.0213
.0081
.0082
.0260
.0065
.0004
.0021
.0151
.0004
.0018
.0092


.0006
.0003
.0003
.0004
.0008
.0001
1.0378
.0003
.0004
.0068
.0002
.0001
.0008
.0000
.0001
.0000
.0035
.0002
.0044
.0053
.0149
.0005
.0014
.0000
.0044
.0036
.0105
.0236
.0051
.0012
.0004
.0002
.0241
.0427
.0041
.0150
.0170
.0352
.0010
.0027
.0214
.0004
.0012
.0241


.0004
.0002
.0002
.0003
.0007
.0001
.0037
1.0057
.0011
.0060
.0003
.0001
.0011
.0000
.0002
.0001
.0040
.0003
.0226
.0043
.0255
.0016
.0068
.0000
.0775
.0070
.0107
.0870
.0063
.0029
.0007
.0004
.0763
.0292
.0056
.0370
.0196
.0104
.0019
.0020
.0132
.0004
.0015
.0252


.0004
.0002
.0002
.0003
.0007
.0001
.0063
.0088
1.0691
.0069
.0002
.0001
.0014
.0000
.0001
.0001
.0037
.0003
.0137
.0035
.0493
.0008
.0023
.0000
.0059
.0076
.0103
.0482
.0071
.0023
.0008
.0003
.0404
.0769
.0053
.0588
.0135
.0059
.0016
.0026
.0115
.0004
.0014
.0296


- -----








Appendix Table 2.--Continued.


Mainte- Canned, Other
nance & Ordnance cured 6 food 6 Tobacco Textile
I-0# repair 6 acces- frozen kindred manu- mill
const. series foods products facture products
(10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15)


.0005
.0003
.0002
.0004
.0042
.0002
.0022
.0051
.0016
1.0037
.0003
.0002
.0016
.0000
.0001
.0001
.0341
.0012
.0163
.0038
.0876
.0014
.0022
.0000
.0490
.0138
.0620
.0127
.0154
.0011
.0009
.0011
.0973
.0334
.0049
.0103
.0105
.0038
.0009
.0036
.0117
.0004
.0012
.0166


.0003
.0002
.0002
.0003
.0010
.0001
.0020
.0006
.0003
.0052
1.0212
.0001
.0011
.0000
.0003
.0003
.0058
.0010
.0146
.0061
.0144
.0003
.0092
.0000
.0124
.0238
.0391
.1431
.0654
.0858
.0115
.0011
.0518
.0238
.0082
.0111
.0142
.0039
.0020
.0015
.0157
.0005
.0017
.0359


.0198
.0856
.0232
.0674
.0204
.0022
.0020
.0017
.0017
.0135
.0002
1.0334
.0545
.0001
.0003
.0003
.0110
.0004
.0764
.0142
.0473
.0007
.0016
.0000
.0545
.0092
.1236
.0128
.0048
.0021
.0008
.0006
.0709
.0886
.0116
.0188
.0241
.0099
.0021
.0088
.0496
.0008
.0021
.0268


.2086
.0271
.0079
.0499
.0067
.0041
.0013
.0006
.0009
.0236
.0001
.0099
1.1289
.0000
.0004
.0003
.0063
.0002
.0346
.0128
.0270
.0006
.0016
.0000
.0111
.0027
.0281
.0064
.0026
.0013
.0004
.0005
.0598
.0553
.0101
.0154
.0180
.0058
.0014
.0077
.0464
.0006
.0027
.0147


.0135
.0038
.0028
.2213
.0009
.0029
.0008
.0003
.0010
.0057
.0001
.0002
.0070
1.0825
.0002
.0000
.0060
.0001
.0429
.0114
.0496
.0004
.0012
.0000
.0027
.0013
.0075
.0049
.0012
.0005
.0003
.0006
.0272
.0238
.0064
.0072
.0105
.0033
.0011
.0021
.0404
.0004
.0016
.0130


.0133
.0013
.0009
.0648
.0007
.0010
.0018
.0004
.0025
.0055
.0001
.0003
.0050
.0000
1.0479
.0010
.0035
.0011
.0272
.0053
.1405
.0005
.0037
.0001
.0065
.0017
.0079
.0100
.0018
.0007
.0006
.0017
.0559
.0362
.0058
.0181
.0144
.0046
.0023
.0024
.0160
.0004
.0016
.0167








Appendix Table 2.--Continued.


Lumber Furniture Paper & Printing Chemical
& wood 6 allied g pub- & allied
I-0# Apparel products fixtures products lishing products
(16) (17) (18) (19) (20) (21)


.0015
.0004
.0003
.0177
.0004
.0003
.0006
.0002
.0005
.0029
.0001
.0001
.0010
.0000
.0359
1.0547
.0021
.0002
.0139
.0028
.0248
.0002
.0010
.0008
.0023
.0008
.0046
.0019
.0010
.0003
.0002
.0053
.0445
.0140
.0047
.0070
.0114
.0050
.0031
.0011
.0051
.0004
.0015
.0151


.0065
.0064
.0048
.0060
.1485
.0023
.0010
.0004
.0007
.0062
.0002
.0001
.0033
.0000
.0004
.0005
1.2812
.0025
.0248
.0082
.0353
.0009
.0030
.0000
.0098
.0029
.0183
.0112
.0034
.0025
.0003
.0008
.0657
.0690
.0072
.0061
.0187
.0063
.0028
.0112
.0169
.0005
.0017
.0213


.0015
.0008
.0006
.0013
.0135
.0003
.0020
.0010
.0008
.0049
.0002
.0001
.0042
.0000
.0064
.0003
.1141
1.0234
.0401
.0059
.0394
.0004
.0105
.0004
.0322
.0182
.0722
.0190
.0055
.0019
.0014
.0026
.0772
.0381
.0093
.0142
.0139
.0067
.0032
.0045
.0178
.0006
.0017
.0255


.0015
.0007
0005
.0010
.0092
.0003
.0026
.0020
.0031
.0114
.0004
.0002
.0058
.0000
.0014
.0004
.0756
.0006
1.3999
.0163
.0717
.0011
.0065
.0000
.0139
.0036
.0253
.0145
.0046
.0012
.0008
.0007
.0714
.0680
.0084
.0323
.0180
.0058
.0027
.0043
.0194
.0006
.0021
.0463


.0007
.0004
.0003
.0005
.0026
.0001
.0013
.0008
.0010
.0104
.0007
.0001
.0024
.0000
.0005
.0001
.0187
.0008
.2868
1.1225
.0384
.0004
.0021
.0000
.0079
.0027
.0145
.0121
.0040
.0015
.0018
.0012
.0526
.0380
.0206
.0159
.0212
.0153
.0030
.0035
.0402
.0011
.0021
.0522


.0031
.0008
.0004
.0021
.0026
.0002
.0083
.0018
.0231
.0084
.0003
.0020
.0141
.0000
.0005
.0003
.0101
.0005
.0657
.0164
1.3593
.0025
.0050
.0000
.0221
.0070
.0348
.0210
.0047
.0013
.0017
.0008
.0571
.0586
.0128
.0332
.0224
.0076
.0023
.0042
.0544
.0011
.0021
.0520







Appendix Table 2.--Continued.


Pubber Leather Stone, Fabri-
Petro- & & clay & Primary cated
I-O# leum plastic leather glass metal metal
products products products products industry products
(22) (23) (24) (25) (26) (27)


1 .0005 .0010 .0009 .0006 .0004 .0003
2 .0003 .0003 .0005 .0003 .0002 .0002
3 .0002 .0002 .0004 .0002 .0002 .0001
4 .0004 .0012 .0012 .0006 .0003 .0002
5 .0007 .0012 .0030 .0023 .0010 .0013
6 .0001 .0001 .0001 .0001 .0001 .0001
7 .3777 .0028 .0011 .0047 .0524 .0047
8 .0021 .0012 .0012 .0272 .0017 .0006
9 .0011 .0058 .0010 .0040 .0008 .0004
10 .0081 .0059 .0052 .0072 .0091 .0043
11 .0002 .0002 .0004 .0002 .0004 .0007
12 .0001 .0004 .0001 .0002 .0001 .0001
13 .0016 .0035 .0031 .0023 .0015 .0009
14 .0000 .0000 .0001 .0000 .0000 .0000
15 .0002 .0106 .0041 .0005 .0002 .0003
16 .0001 .0010 .0015 .0002 .0003 .0004
17 .0035 .0066 .0185 .0156 .0056 .0093
18 .0002 .0005 .0010 .0008 .0004 .0018
19 .0136 .0336 .0342 .0724 .0107 .0195
20 .0064 .0108 .0114 .0077 .0049 .0054
21 .0548 .2628 .0388 .0664 .0259 .0211
22 1.0040 .0008 .0004 .0010 .0006 .0005
23 .0011 1.0116 .0168 .0040 .0015 .0025
24 .0000 .0004 1.0512 .0000 .0000 .0001
25 .0070 .0195 .0169 1.1286 .0189 .0140
26 .0034 .0044 .0037 .0040 1.0596 .0717
27 .0260 .0263 .0241 .0232 .0331 1.0784
28 .0126 .0141 .0082 .0126 .0286 .0564
29 .0036 .0056 .0054 .0068 .0099 .0201
30 .0012 .0019 .0010 .0014 .0020 .0062
31 .0006 .0014 .0014 .0010 .0007 .0029
32 .0003 .0015 .0013 .0009 .0005 .0009
33 .0282 .0531 .0541 .0559 .0509 .0517
34 .0782 .0412 .0330 .0737 .0530 .0290
35 .0061 .0090 .0076 .0082 .0063 .0066
36 .0289 .0231 .0117 .0491 .0330 .0152
37 .0187 .0155 .0154 .0209 .0146 .0146
38 .0170 .0066 .0051 .0060 .0052 .0044
39 .0008 .0024 .0046 .0027 .0020 .0022
40 .0041 .0026 .0028 .0058 .0027 .0029
41 .0256 .0301 .0247 .0190 .0125 .0139
42 .0005 .0006 .0007 .0006 .0005 .0004
43 .0017 .0018 .0019 .0018 .0015 .0015
44 .0237 .0301 .1143 .0396 .0470 .0210








Appendix Table 2.--Continued.


Instru- Miscel- Whole-
Machinery Elec- Transpor- ments & laneous sale &
I-0# (except trial station related manufac- retail
electric) machinery equipment products turning trade
(28) (29) (30) (31) (32) (33)


.0003
.0002
.0001
.0002
.0009
.0001
.0027
.0008
.0003
.0047
.0014
.0001
.0009
.0000
.0002
0004
.0061
.0009
.0124
.0053
.0124
.0004
.0045
.0001
0135
.0359
.0563
1.1823
.0446
.0115
.0024
0010
.0606
.0229
.0100
.0127
.0144
.0056
.0023
.0023
.0165
.0006
.0015
.0237


.0004
.0002
.0002
.0003
.0013
.0001
.0032
.0009
.0007
.0050
.0127
.0001
.0013
.0000
.0003
0005
.0083
.0087
0288
.0077
.0315
.0004
0066
.0001
.0269
.0290
.0599
.0474
1.1365
.0058
.0064
.0009
.0624
.0278
.0090
.0144
.0120
.0059
.0026
.0021
.0258
.0006
.0018
.0338


.0002
.0001
.0001
.0002
.0010
.0001
.0022
.0006
.0004
.0054
.0181
.0001
.0007
.0000
.0011
.0003
.0070
.0020
.0115
.0054
.0178
.0003
.0071
.0001
.0165
.0284
.0682
.0603
.0306
1.0966
.0045
.0007
.0459
.0270
.0070
.0119
.0101
.0035
.0013
.0017
.0191
.0004
.0015
.0152


.0006
.0003
.0002
.0004
.0017
.0001
.0022
.0008
.0008
.0039
.0212
.0001
.0024
.0000
.0011
.0008
.0058
.0028
.0377
.0070
.0388
.0003
.0043
.0003
.0213
.0177
.0423
.0484
.0509
.0114
1.0275
.0016
.0659
.0241
.0089
.0109
.0127
.0060
.0023
.0019
.0254
.0006
.0015
.0275


.0009
.0009
.0008
.0013
.0042
.0002
.0023
.0008
.0013
.0075
.0004
.0002
.0026
.0001
.0033
.0007
.0291
.0013
.0922
.0115
.0651
.0005
.0114
.0027
.0146
.0214
.0399
.0164
.0144
.0025
.0011
1.0174
.0860
.0318
.0105
.0143
.0179
.0078
.0029
.0035
.0242
.0006
.0017
.0281


.0012
.0006
.0004
.0007
.0012
.0014
.0018
.0006
.0002
.0131
.0003
.0005
.0046
.0000
.0002
.0002
.0063
.0006
.0175
.0111
.0084
.0006
.0013
.0001
.0087
.0019
.0105
.0077
.0040
.0019
.0008
.0006
1.0283
.0132
.0159
.0277
.0253
.0182
.0036
.0052
.0368
.0021
.0015
.0490


--- -








Appendix Table 2.--Continued.


Transpor-
tation Elec., gas, Finance Real Hotel
I-0# ware- Communi- water, san. 6 estate 6
housing cations services insurance & rental lodging
(34) (35) (36) (37) (38) (39)


1 .0007 .0003 .0010 .0006 .0115 .0007
2 .0006 .0001 .0007 .0004 .0066 .0003
3 .0005 .0001 .0006 .0004 .0064 .0002
4 .0007 .0002 .0008 .0005 .0083 .0007
5 .0013 .0005 .0029 .0011 .0068 .0010
6 .0001 .0001 .0001 .0001 .0006 .0001
7 .0016 .0007 .0650 .0009 .0023 .0022
8 .0006 .0003 .0018 .0005 .0008 .0006
9 .0002 .0001 .0003 .0001 .0004 .0007
10 .0423 .0302 .0399 .0210 .0985 .0081
11 .0004 .0002 .0008 .0002 .0002 .0005
12 .0004 .0000 .0001 .0001 .0002 .0001
13 .0027 .0005 .0038 .0013 .0030 .0021
14 .0000 .0000 .0002 .0000 .0000 .0000
15 .0003 .0002 .0001 .0004 .0001 .0033
16 .0001 .0000 .0001 .0000 .0002 .0033
17 .0055 .0028 .0141 .0048 .0058 .0049
18 .0004 .0003 .0014 .0004 .0003 .0015
19 .0069 .0065 .0105 .0172 .0059 .0266
20 .0066 .0138 .0073 .0249 .0058 .0070
21 .0110 .0046 .0122 .0056 .0162 .0386
22 .0024 .0002 .0011 .0004 .0006 .0.008
23 .0030 .0005 .0012 .0012 .0007 .0027
24 .0000 .0000 .0000 .0000 .0000 .0002
25 .0075 .0039 .0221 .0062 .0076 .0110
26 .0029 .0018 .0064 .0017 .0022 .0025
27 .0116 .0057 .0355 .0084 .0098 .0111
28 .0100 .0027 .0124 .0049 .0055 .0085
29 .0067 .0125 .0081 .0026 .0033 .0258
30 .0086 .0005 .0015 .0009 .0008 .0015
31 .0007 .0003 .0090 .0004 .0004 .0055
32 .0007 .0007 .0006 .0006 .0003 .0068
33 .0459 .0144 .0453 .0244 .0331 .0587
34 1.0755 .0065 .0493 .0203 .0146 .0177
35 .0117 1.0172 .0070 .0245 .0075 .0101
36 .0095 .0089 1.2286 .0105 .0083 .0292
37 .0316 .0105 .0156 1.2589 .0461 .0267
38 .0120 .0083 .0057 .0311 1.0088 .0173
39 .0009 .0005 .0030 .0013 .0049 1.0311
40 .0268 .0022 .0046 .0054 .0031 .0114
41 .0158 .0181 .0205 .0363 .0188 .0247
42 .0016 .0363 .0008 .0015 .0024 .0006
43 .0015 .0012 .0018 .0071 .0012 .0016
44 .0420 .0218 .1899 .0554 .0223 .0360









Appendix Table 2.--Continued.


Amusement, Med., Other
Personal rec., educ., econ. ac-
I-O# & repair Business motion other non- tivity, new
service services picture profit orgn. 6 const.
(40) (41) (42) (43) (44)


.0005
.0003
.0002
.0004
.0008
.0002
.0021
.0009
.0005
.0190
.0013
.0001
.0013
.0000
.0007
.0002
.0041
.0005
.0087
.0071
.0220
.0005
.0113
.0000
.0264
.0047
.0269
.0251
.0189
.0596
.0018
.0004
.1010
.0206
.0121
.0293
.0390
.0154
.0011
1.0185
.0216
.0007
.0016
.0335


.0006
.0004
.0003
.0005
.0016
.0001
.0015
.0007
.0003
.0098
.0005
.0001
0018
.0001
.0004
.0002
.0084
.0006
.0632
.2148
.0120
.0005
.0019
.0000
.0087
.0039
.0138
.0501
.0062
.0019
.0031
.0033
.0425
.0217
.1072
.0198
.0249
.0172
.0072
.0072
1.0302
.0060
.0012
.0722


.0022
.0004
.0003
.0007
.0008
.0009
.0010
.0005
.0001
.0341
.0002
.0000
.0011
.0000
.0004
.0000
.0038
.0003
.0077
.0128
.0059
.0002
.0005
.0005
.0051
.0015
.0070
.0039
.0020
.0005
.0019
.0062
.0276
.0122
.0216
.0147
.0418
.0224
.0009
.0012
.0367
1.3075
.0018
.0340


.0015
.0005
.0003
.0008
.0012
.0001
.0018
.0006
.0007
.0365
.0003
.0013
.0053
.0000
.0005
.0006
.0050
.0004
.0160
.0188
.0372
.0004
.0014
.0000
.0070
.0020
.0101
.0046
.0035
.0010
.0066
.0016
.0335
.0153
.0128
.0267
.0202
.0236
.0061
.0036
.0235
.0056
1.0139
.0414


.0051
.0039
.0033
.0046
.0162
.0006
.0039
.0093
.0010
.0276
.0036
.0006
.0213
.0010
.0004
.0003
.0739
.0075
.0406
.0257
.0372
.0016
.0043
.0001
.1099
.0270
.1441
.0486
.0349
.0052
.0033
.0024
.1434
.1218
.0138
.0271
.0302
.0088
.0165
.0127
.0539
.0033
.0045
1.1351


---









Appendix Table 3.--Indirect coefficient matrix, Florida, 1967.



Livestock &
livestock Citrus Vegetable
I-0# Item products products products
(1) (2) (3)


1 Livestock 6 livestock prod. 1.0458 .0080 .0106
2 Citrus products .0089 1.0017 .0043
3 Vegetable products .0047 .0012 1.0030
4 Other agricultural products .0244 .0099 .0122
5 Forestry & fishery products .0017 .0010 .0085
6 Agr. forestry 6 fishery services .0037 .0014 .0018
7 Metal ore 6 crude pet. & nat. gas .0013 .0021 .0027
8 Stone & clay mining & quarry .0007 .0005 .0008
9 Chem. fert. 6 fert. material mining .0006 .0040 .0046
10 Maintenance 8 repair const. .0124 .0077 .0113
11 Ordnance & accessories .0001 .0001 .0002
12 Canned, cured frozen foods .0016 .0004 .0005
13 Other food & kindred prod. .0307 .0112 .0122
14 Tobacco manufacture .0000 .0000 .0000
15 Textile mill products .0001 .0001 .0002
16 Apparel .0001 .0001 .0001
17 Lumber 6 wood products .0052 .0038 .0227
18 Furniture 6 fixtures .0002 .0002 .0004
19 Paper & allied products .0097 .0139 .0416
20 Printing 9 publishing .0046 .0086 .0119
21 Chemical & allied products .0249 .0597 .0816
22 Petroleum products .0004 .0005 .0008
23 Rubber 6 plastic products .0008 .0010 .0020
24 Leather 6 leather products .0000 .0000 .0000
25 Stone, clay 6 glass products .0068 .0048 .0088
26 Primary metal industry .0020 .0017 .0028
27 Fabricated metal products .0115 .0077 .0139
28 Machinery (except electrical) .0042 .0062 .0090
29 Electrical machinery .0023 .0016 .0030
30 Transportation equipment .0009 .0006 .0012
31 Instruments 6 related products .0004 .0005 .0007
32 Miscellaneous manufacturing .0003 .0003 .0004
33 Wholesale & retail trade .0252 .0159 .0307
34 Transportation warehousing .0178 .0137 .0275
35 Communications .0046 .0061 .0090
36 Elec., gas, water, san. services .0092 .0095 .0136
37 Finance & insurance .0121 .0170 .0319
38 Real estate & rental .0038 .0037 .0065
39 Hotel 6 lodging .0006 .0007 .0012
40 Personal & repair service .0029 .0016 .0039
41 Business services .0150 .0127 .0191
42 Amusement, rec., motion picture .0004 .0005 .0007
43 Med., educ., other non-profit orgn. .0013 .0010 .0017
44 Other econ. activity, new const. .0102 .0146 .0242









Appendix Table 3.--Continued.


Other Forestry Agri. Metal ore Stone Chem. fert.
agri- 8 forestry & crude S clay 6 8 fert.
I-0# cultural fishery & fishery pet. 6 mining & material
products products services nat. gas quarry mining
(4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44


.0098
.0031
.0022
1.0017
.0008
.0017
.0014
.0002
.0015
.0076
.0001
.0002
.0104
.0000
.0001
.0000
.0031
.0001
.0078
.0067
.0285
.0003
.0007
.0000
.0028
.0010
.0047
.0042
.0012
.0006
.0003
.0002
.0112
.0089
.0046
.0063
.0100
.0025
.0005
.0015
.0076
.0004
.0007
.0090


.0124
.0046
.0033
.0099
1.0010
.0121
.0007
.0002
.0008
.0076
.0002
.0002
.0082
.0000
.0002
.0000
.0044
.0001
.0131
.0110
.0225
.0002
.0006
.0000
.0022
.0012
.0042
.0063
.0016
.0011
.0003
.0003
.0116
0092
.0088
.0049
.0149
.0034
.0006
.0017
.0087
.0005
.0007
.0090


.0274
.0063
.0044
.9239
.0013
1.0053
.0009
.0004
.0022
.0144
.0001
.0003
.0177
.0000
.0002
.0000
.0091
.0001
.0158
.0042
.0618
.0004
.0008
.0000
.0030
.0013
.0053
.0044
.0012
.0006
.0002
.0001
.0168
.0146
.0042
.0075
.0228
.0036
.0004
.0021
.0132
.0004
.0012
.0077


.0006
.0003
.0003
.0004
.0008
.0001
1.0025
.0003
.0003
.0003
.0002
.0001
.0008
.0000
.0001
.0000
.0025
.0002
.0040
.0052
.0064
.0002
.0005
.0000
.0035
.0021
.0058
.0069
.0026
.0008
.0004
.0002
.0096
.0089
.0036
.0053
.0076
.0032
.0008
.0017
.0052
.0004
.0004
.0104


.0004
.0002
.0002
.0003
.0007
.0001
.0031
1.0021
.0007
.0048
.0003
.0001
.0011
.0000
.0002
.0001
.0040
.0003
.0130
.0041
.0137
.0002
.0010
.0000
.0226
.0039
.0100
.0165
.0050
.0015
.0006
.0003
.0160
.0133
.0040
.0131
.0090
.0031
.0010
.0018
.0078
.0004
.0006
.0164


.0004
.0002
.0002
.0003
.0007
.0001
.0042
.0009
1.0052
.0064
.0002
.0001
.0013
.0000
.0001
.0001
.0034
.0003
.0082
.0035
.0181
.0004
.0010
.0000
.0054
.0033
.0086
.0134
.0040
.0014
.0007
.0002
.0156
.0172
.0035
.0173
.0077
.0029
.0008
.0026
.0073
.0004
.0006
.0191










Appendix Table 3.--Continued.


Mainte- Canned, Other
nance & Ordnance cured F food & Tobacco Textile
I-0# repair & acces- frozen kindred manu- mill
const. series foods products facture products
(10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15)


.0005
.0003
.0002
.0004
.0042
.0002
.0022
.0014
.0016
1.0036
.0003
.0002
.0016
.0000
.0001
.0001
.0100
.0005
.0125
.0037
.0284
.0003
.0010
.0000
.0096
.0130
.0106
.0082
.0042
.0011
.0005
.0003
.0161
.0141
.0038
.0087
.0076
.0032
.0009
.0020
.0095
.0004
.0006
.0134


.0003
.0002
.0002
.0003
.0010
.0001
.0020
.0006
.0003
.0036
1.0028
.0001
.0011
.0000
.0003
.0001
.0048
0010
0099
.0047
.0110
.0002
.0019
.0000
.0087
.0110
.0216
.0334
.0172
.0109
.0017
.0004
.0229
.0133
.0045
.0073
.0079
.0028
.0012
.0015
.0091
.0005
.0007
.0146


.0198
.0074
.0037
.0102
.0027
.0022
.0020
.0017
.0017
.0100
.0002
1.0016
.0106
.0001
.0003
.0001
.0097
.0004
.0344
.0127
.0408
.0006
.0016
.0000
.0130
.0092
.0202
.0128
.0045
.0021
.0008
.0005
.0291
.0263
.0091
.0132
.9189
.0054
.0014
.0044
.0175
.0008
.0011
.0198


.0385
.0056
.0024
.0341
.0018
.0041
.0013
.0005
.0008
.0202
.0001
.0015
1.0425
.0000
.0002
.0001
.0052
.0002
.0171
.0112
.0206
.0004
.0010
.0000
.0057
.0026
.0105
.0061
.0023
.0013
.0004
.0004
.0254
.0191
.0078
.9100
.0130
.0045
.0009
.0036
.0134
.0006
.0018
.0132


.0135
.0038
.0028
.0257
.0009
.0029
.0008
.0003
.0010
.0047
.0001
.0002
.0037
1.0063
.0002
.0000
.0046
.0001
.0189
.0097
.0290
.0004
.0007
.0000
.0027
.0011
.0047
.0048
.0011
.0005
.0003
.0003
.0130
.0116
.0060
.0062
.0084
.0029
.0007
.0018
.0124
.0004
.0006
.0094


.0054
.0013
.0009
.0071
.0007
.0010
.0018
.0004
.0025
.0050
.0001
.0003
.0042
.0000
1.0023
.0002
.0035
.0003
.0151
.0046
.0475
.0004
.0010
.0000
.0045
.0016
.0067
.0053
.0017
.0006
.0004
.0003
.0152
.0134
.0040
.0092
.0085
.0029
.0008
.0018
.0109
.0004
.0006
.0132


-- -- __ __ __ _ .4_ _










Appendix Table 3.--Continued.


Lumber Furniture Paper 8 Printing Chemical
6 wood & allied 8 pub- 8 allied
I-0# Apparel products fixtures products lishing products
(16) (17) (18) (19) (20) (21)

1 .0015 .0065 .0015 .0015 .0007 .0030
2 .0004 .0064 .0008 .0007 .0004 .0008
3 .0003 .0048 .0006 .0005 .0003 .0004
4 .0038 .0060 .0013 .0010 .0005 .0014
5 .0004 .0346 .0135 .0092 .0026 .0019
6 .0003 .0023 .0003 .0003 .0001 .0002
7 .0006 .0010 .0020 .0026 .0013 .0046
8 .0002 .0004 .0010 .0011 .0008 .0013
9 .0005 .0007 .0008 .0019 .0010 .0073
10 .0024 .0057 .0045 .0076 .0070 .0069
11 .0001 .0002 .0002 .0003 .0003 .0003
12 .0001 .0001 .0001 .0002 .0001 .0007
13 .0010 .0033 .0018 .0034 .0024 .0059
14 .0000 .0000 .0000 .0000 .0000 .0000
15 .0035 .0004 .0006 .0006 .0003 .0003
16 1.0029 .0002 .0001 .0002 .0001 .0001
17 .0021 1.0640 .0305 .0355 .0187 .0086
18 .0002 .0008 1.0010 .0005 .0005 .0005
19 .0072 .0159 .0190 1.1204 .1059 .0358
20 .0019 .0057 .0055 .0094 1.0230 .0143
21 .0131 .0194 .0204 .0380 .0246 1.1008
22 .0002 .0005 .0003 .0006 .0004 .0009
23 .0005 .0015 .0014 .0026 .0018 .0020
24 .0001 .0000 .0001 .0000 .0000 .0000
25 .0023 .0056 .0089 .0095 .0079 .0121
26 .0008 .0023 .0069 .0033 .0024 .0049
27 .0034 .0090 .0138 .0152 .0126 .0179
28 .0019 .0077 .0098 .0094 .0084 .0132
29 .0010 .0026 .0038 .0036 .0034 .0041
30 .0003 .0022 .0014 .0012 .0010 .0013
31 .0002 .0003 .0006 .0007 .0007 .0010
32 .0005 .0004 .0005 .0005 .0005 .0005
33 .0094 .0263 .0218 .0339 .0276 .0291
34 .0061 .0254 .0185 .0321 .0234 .0285
35 .0019 .0050 .0047 .0059 .0083 .0093
36 .0040 .0055 .0088 .0170 .0116 .0179
37 .0052 .0133 .0089 .9120 .0117 .0136
38 .0018 .0046 .0034 .0042 .0047 .0049
39 .0007 .0012 .0013 .0017 .0017 .0017
40 .0009 .0045 .0028 .0035 .0025 .0032
41 .0045 .0139 .0092 .0127 .0129 .0208
42 .0003 .0005 .0006 .0006 .0011 .0008
43 .0004 .0008 .0007 .0011 .0010 .0011
44 .0070 .0135 .0150 .0267 .0242 .0288










Appendix Table 3.--Continued.


Rubber Leather Stone, Fabri-
Petro- &8 clay & Primary cated
I-0# leum plastic leather glass metal metal
products products products products industry products
(22) (23) (24) (25) (26) (27)


1 .0005 .0010 .0009 .0006 .0004 .0003
2 .0003 .0003 .0005 .0003 .0002 .0002
3 .0002 .0002 .0004 .0002 .0002 .0001
4 .0004 .0012 .0009 .0005 .0003 .0002
5 .0007 .0012 .0030 .0022 .0010 .0013
6 .0001 .0001 .0001 .0001 .0001 .0001
7 .0166 .0028 .0011 .0036 .0066 .0046
8 .0004 .0009 .0012 .0035 .0008 .0005
9 .0010 .0046 .0008 .0017 .0005 .0004
10 .0066 .0049 .0051 .0068 .0053 .0036
11 .0002 .0002 .0004 .0002 .0003 .0005
12 .0001 .0004 .0001 .0002 .0001 .0001
13 .0013 .0034 .0028 .0020 .0014 .0009
14 .0000 .0000 .0001 .0000 .0000 .0000
15 .0001 .0007 .0007 .0003 .0001 .0002
16 .0000 .0001 .0003 .0001 .0001 .0001
17 .0036 .0052 .0117 .0096 .0047 .0048
18 .0002 .0004 .0009 .0004 .0004 .0005
19 .0084 .0221 .0174 .0312 .0076 .0103
20 .0064 .0083 .0079 .0062 .0040 .0042
21 .0204 .0753 .0196 .0282 .0118 .0108
22 1.0004 .0007 .0004 .0006 .0003 .0003
23 .0010 1.0015 .0018 .0016 .0008 .0009
24 .0000 .0000 1.0025 .0000 .0000 .0001
25 .0047 .0086 .0130 1.0210 .0082 .0062
26 .0034 .0035 .0036 .0031 1.0070 .0109
27 .0090 .0122 .0175 .0115 .0123 1.0138
28 .0123 .0086 .0076 .0091 .0106 .0158
29 .0033 .0030 .0045 .0037 .0046 .0067
30 .0012 .0009 .0010 .0013 .0012 .0020
31 .0006 .0007 .0007 .0008 .0006 .0007
32 .0002 .0004 .0005 .0004 .0003 .0003
33 .0175 .0202 .0230 .0230 .0169 .0165
34 .0249 .9194 .9189 .0234 .0162 .0123
35 .0047 .0059 .0048 .0050 .0035 .0037
36 .0124 .0124 .0075 .0186 .0115 .0082
37 .0120 .0096 .0085 .0110 .0081 .0074
38 .0146 .0034 .0029 .0038 .0042 .0026
39 .0008 .0011 .0022 .0013 .0011 .0009
40 .0030 .0022 .0024 .0032 .0023 .0016
41 .0127 .0149 .0107 .0102 .0078 .0067
42 .0005 .0006 .0007 .0006 .0005 .0004
43 .0008 .0007 .0008 .0008 .0006 .0006
44 .0193 .0197 .0252 .0229 .0182 .0133









Appendix Table 3.--Continued.


Machinery
(except
electric)
(28)


Elec-
trical
machinery
(29)


.0003
.0002
.0001
.0002
.0009
.0001
.0026
.0006
.0003
.0036
.0009
.0001
.0008
.0000
.0002
.0001
.0041
.0007
.0086
0047
.0088
.0002
.0014
.0000
.0070
.0114
.0178
1.0339
.0132
.0034
.0010
.0004
.0203
.0116
.0046
.0076
.0079
.0029
.0011
.0015
.0079
.0006
.0006
.0136


Transpor-
tation
equipment
(30)


Instru-
ments S
related
products
(31)


.0004
.0002
.0002
.0003
.0013
.0001
.0026
.0009
.0007
.0040
.0020
.0001
.0013
.0000
.0002
.0002
.0064
.0015
.0159
.0069
.0165
.0003
.0018
.0000
.0104
.0100
.0188
.0187
1.0205
.0030
.0015
.0004
.0223
.0146
.0055
.0089
.0078
.0032
.0013
.0018
.0099
.0006
.0007
.0169


L I L


Miscel-
laneous
manufac-
turing
(32)


.0002
.0001
.0001
.0002
.0010
.0001
.0022
.0006
.0004
.0032
.0024
.0001
.0007
.0000
.0003
.0001
.0040
.0006
.0083
.0050
.0108
.0002
.0016
.0001
.0066
.0102
.0171
.0209
.0103
1.0109
.0012
.0004
.0173
.0113
.0070
.0070
.0064
.0024
.0008
.0014
.0072
.0004
.0005
.0115


Whole-
sale &
retail
trade
(33)


.0006
.0003
.0002
.0004
.0010
.0001
.0022
.0008
.0008
.0037
.0018
.0001
.0014
.0000
.0003
.0001
.0052
.0008
.0133
.0067
.0168
.0002
.0014
.0000
.0070
.0070
.0139
.0171
.0116
.0039
1.0016
.0004
.0185
.0124
.0076
.0076
.0075
.0029
.0011
.0016
.0089
.0006
.0006
.0145


- ~--


.0009
.0004
.0003
.0008
.0037
.0002
.0023
.0007
.0013
.0047
.0003
.0002
.0019
.0001
.0005
.0002
.0126
.0004
.0341
.0076
.0270
.0004
.0015
.0001
.0069
.0052
.0116
.0098
.0045
.0012
.0006
1.0007
.0200
.0159
.0095
.0095
.0095
.0036
.0017
.0021
.0102
.0006
.0007
.0168


.0012
.0006
.0004
.0007
.0012
.0001
.0018
.0006
.0002
.0050
.0002
.0001
.0016
.0000
.0001
.0000
.0049
.0004
.0092
.0091
.0058
.0002
.0006
.0001
.0062
.0019
.0084
.0051
.0027
.0008
.0003
.0003
1.0121
.0090
.0080
.0080
.0087
.0024
.0012
.,0014
.0060
.0011
.0005
.0146









Appendix Table 3.--Continued.


Communi-
cations
(35)


1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44


Transpor-
tation
ware-
housing
(34)


Finance
&
insurance
(37)


.0007
.0004
.0003
.0005
.0011
.0001
.0016
.0006
.0002
.0063
.0004
.0001
.0014
.0000
.0002
.0001
0049
.0004
.0057
.0049
.0085
.0003
.0009
.0000
.0072
.0024
.0099
.0056
.0037
.0029
.0004
.0003
.0168
1.0125
.0053
.0053
.0114
.0032
.0009
.0031
.0068
.0009
.0006
.0132


4 _________ 4 __________ .1 __________


.0003
.0001
.0001
.0002
.0005
.0001
.0007
.0003
0001
.0033
.0002
.0000
.0005
.0000
.0000
.0000
.0028
.0003
.0056
.0055
.0045
.0001
.0003
.0000
.0039
.0013
.0054
.0027
.0028
.0003
.0003
.0003
.0085
.0048
1.0079
.0034
0048
.0018
.0005
.0007
.0042
.0091
0003
.0074


Elec., gas,
water, san.
services
(36)

.0010
.0007
.0006
.0008
.0029
.0001
.0146
.0018
.0003
.0127
.0008
.0001
.0038
.0002
.0001
.0001
.0140
.0014
.0097
.0071
.0116
.0005
.0011
.0000
.0210
.0061
.0293
.0118
.0076
.0015
.0024
.0005
.0340
.0307
.0049
1.0472
.0107
.0050
.0030
.0035
.0139
.0008
.0011
.0568


Real
estate
& rental
(38)


.0006
.0004
.0004
.0005
.0011
.0001
.0009
.0005
.0001
.0075
.0002
.0001
.0013
.0000
.0002
.0000
.0048
.0004
.0124
.0365
.0052
.0002
.0006
.0000
.0062
.0017
.0084
.0047
.0025
.0008
.0004
.0003
.0147
.0114
.0092
.0059
1.0565
.0091
.0013
.0023
.0121
.0013
.0018
.0214


Hotel

lodging
(39)


.0026
.0008
.0006
.0025
.0010
.0005
.0009
.0007
.0004
.0040
.0001
.0001
.0025
.0000
.0001
.0001
.0055
.0002
.0056
.0051
.0142
.0003
.0005
.0000
.0036
.0012
.0061
.0038
.0027
.0006
.0003
.0002
.0159
.0083
.0038
.0043
.0131
1.0028
.0007
.0013
.0060
.0009
.0006
.0092


1 I I


.0007
.0003
.0002
.0007
.0010
.0001
.0022
.0006
.0007
.0052
.0005
.0001
.0016
.0000
.0005
.0003
.0046
.0006
.0132
.0066
.0155
.0002
.0010
.0001
.0063
.0024
.0088
.0059
.0058
.0013
.0009
.0005
.0154
.0102
.0048
.0101
.0103
.0034
1.0019
.0018
.0083
.0006
.0006
.0161








Appendix Table 3.--Continued.


Personal
I-0# g repair
service
(40)

1 .0005
2 .0003
3 .0002
4 .0004
5 .0008
6 .0002
7 .0021
8 .0009
9 .0005
10 .0056
11 .0013
12 .0001
13 .0013
14 .0000
15 .0003
16 .0001
17 .0041
18 .0005
19 .0082
20 .0062
21 .0128
22 .0003
23 .0013
24 .0000
25 .0088
26 .0047
27 .0131
28 .0240
29 .0064
30 .0069
31 .0009
32 .0003
33 .0176
34 .0114
35 .0053
36 .0110
37 .0134
38 .0040
39 .0011
40 1.0020
11 .0096
12 .0007
13 .0007
14 .0171


Business
services
(41)

.0006
.0004
.0003
.0005
.0016
.0001
.0015
.0007
.0003
.0089
.0005
.0001
.0018
.0001
.0002
.0001
.0084
.0006
.0598
.0296
.0018
.0003
.0011
.0000
.0087
.0037
.0138
.0132
.0061
.0016
.0009
.0006
.0244
.0169
.0092
.0095
0219
.0058
.0020
.0022
1.0150
.0046
.0010
.0249


Amusement,
rec. ,
motion
picture
(42)

.0010
.0004
.0003
.0007
.0008
.0003
.0010
.0005
.0001
.0116
.0002
.0000
.0011
.0000
.0002
.0000
.0038
.0003
.0069
.0101
.0057
.0002
.0004
.0001
.0051
.0015
.0070
.0039
.0020
.0004
.0007
.0017
.0150
.0082
.0071
.0073
.0187
.0072
.0009
.0012
.0128
1.0727
.0008
.0168


Med.,
educ.,
other non-
profit orgn.
(43)


.0014
.0005
.0003
.0007
.0011
.0001
.0018
.0006
.0007
.0059
.0003
.0002
.0019
.0000
.0002
.0001
.0048
.0004
.0112
.0075
.0151
.0002
.0006
.0000
.0067
.0020
.0093
.0045
.0028
.0007
.0007
.0004
.0145
.0099
.0043
.0084
.0083
.0028
.0012
.0014
.0073
.0019
1.0007
.0145


Other
econ. ac-
tivity, new
6 const.
(44)


.0051
.0018
.0012
.0025
.0098
.0006
.0037
.0036
.0010
.0116
.0010
.0004
.0059
.0002
.0004
.0003
.0333
.0016
.0293
.0159
.0267
.0007
.0024
.0000
.0289
.0146
.0348
.0242
.0131
.0038
.0016
.0009
.0471
.0396
.0113
.0184
.0195
.0074
.0036
.0064
.0203
.0017
.0016
1.0381








APPENDIX B: DATA SOURCES FOR
ESTIMATING TRANSACTIONS
The Florida transaction matrix includes 44 endogenous or
processing sectors and four final demand sectors. These were
presented in Table 22 of the main text. Appendix Table 4 pre-
sents the detailed sector classification used to estimate the trans-
action flows by sector in the final model.
General source references for data were given in the text.
The following presentation outlines the estimating procedure for
each sector in the model and data sources used.

Livestock and Livestock Products
This sector's output is made up primarily of cash market
receipts from meat animals, dairy products, poultry and eggs
and miscellaneous livestock. Cash market receipts by commodity
are given below.
Cattle & calves $120,994,000
Hogs 13,002,000
Sheep & lambs 30,000
Milk wholesale 97,682,000
Milk retail 15,120,000
Eggs 53,995,000
Broilers 110,546,000
Chicken farms 2,804,000
Honey 2,729,000
Beeswax 168,000
Wool 12,000
Horses & other livestock 3,204,000
Total cash receipts $320,286,000
Total cash receipts had to be adjusted for government pay-
ments, value of farm buildings, and net return to non-farm
landlords. There was no government payment to the livestock
sector in 1967. Source [46] provided control totals for home
consumption, gross rental value of farm buildings, and net rent
to non-farm landlords for all of Florida agriculture. It was as-
sumed that each agricultural sector's share of these output
components was in the same proportion as each sector's share
of cash market receipts. Using this criterion, the livestock sec-
tor had an additional output of $4,622,100 in home consumption
and $10,650,000 from gross rental value of farm building, less
$4,320,000 in rent to non-farm landlords. Final estimates for
the livestock sector were checked against state sources [22] and
adjusted where necessary. The final estimate included the items
given in the following list:








Cash receipts from marketing $320,286,000
Plus government payments 0
Plus value of home consumption 4,622,000
Plus gross rental value of farm
buildings 10,650,000
Less net rent to non-farm landlords 4,320,000

Total gross output $331,238,000


The transaction matrix columns indicate the input structure
of the sector named at the top. The livestock sector consists of
many different products. Therefore, some aggregation process
was necessary in order to arrive at a set of inputs reasonably
representative of the industry. The construction of the input
cells for livestock entailed using the USDA expenditure figures
given in [46] as controls, adjusting these totals by use of
budget studies and business analysis studies as well as personal
subjective adjustment by extension specialists in the various
commodity areas. In the livestock sector, sources [1, 2, 9, 20,
and 21] were used to initially allocate inputs to each sector.
Gross margins for the transportation and wholesale and retail
trade were derived from the national Fortune study and later
adjusted for imports. The input purchase pattern (weighted by
commodity outputs for livestock but before adjustments for im-
ports) is presented below:


Inputs ($1,000)
Purchased feed from manufacturers $95,176
Purchased feed from other farmers (including 45,524
pasture)
Hired labor 48,138
Maintenance & repair of machinery & equipment 23,158
Taxes 12,308
Utilities 2,704
Insurance 2,913
Veterinary, medicine & fees 4,945
Rent 7,939
Capital expenditure for machinery & equipment 12,244
Capital expenditure for building & fences 6,315
Animal purchases 30,747
Finance charges on capital 12,343
Other supplies & cash cost 17,469
Bedding & litter 143
Transportation cost on farms 4,005
Containers 63








Citrus
The value of citrus gross output is made up mostly of cash
market receipts. Unlike the other agricultural commodities in
the study, citrus values are calculated at on-tree prices. The
picking, packing, and hauling costs are allocated to the appro-
priate sector as part of their output. Source [41] was helpful
in allocating these costs.
The citrus sector output is comprised of round oranges,
grapefruit, tangerines, and tangelos. Cash market receipts data
for the 1967 citrus crop were found in state crop reporting bul-
letins [18]. The input structure of citrus was estimated by using
control figures found in [46] and adjusted Fortune input coeffi-
cients. Major data sources for this study were Florida Agri-
cultural Experiment Station and Department of Agricultural
Economics reports [7, 18, 63]. Gross rental value of buildings
and equipment plus value of home consumption were found in
[46]. Citrus budget studies were used to adjust the final aggre-
gated citrus sector inputs structure before conversion to absolute
input flows [3]. Adjustment for imports was required to balance
citrus in the final transaction flows matrix.

Vegetable Production
Vegetable production presented the greatest difficulty in
aggregating the input structure of many commodities into a
single sector. Some 15 major vegetable crops plus a variety of
less important crops are produced commercially. Value of out-
put was made up of cash market receipts, gross rental value of
farm buildings, and home consumption. Crop reporting services
reports [27] provided figures on cash market receipts while
Farm Income Estimates, 1948-1969 [46] was used for rental
value and home consumption. Individual commodity cost struc-
tures from [8] were used to allocate inputs to the vegetable in-
dustry. The structures were weighted by the proportion that
each crop made up of total value of output. These weighted cost
structures were then premultiplied by gross output to obtain
the input allocations in dollar terms.
Considerable variation exists between the production costs
of different commodities as well as between geographical dis-
tribution of the same commodity. These variations were ac-
counted for by weighting these differences by a commodity's
proportion of output within a commodity group. First estimates
from the above procedure produced broad input categories in
1967 dollars for the vegetable industry, as follows:




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs