• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Cover
 Title Page
 Forward and abstract
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 List of Figures
 Executive summary
 Introduction
 Survey approach
 Results
 Conclusions
 Reference
 Glossary
 Appendix A. Tabulations of survey...
 Appendix B. CRD observational survey...














Group Title: Industry Report - University of Florida. Agricultural Market Research Center ; no. 88-1
Title: Observational survey of seat belt and child restraint device usage among children fourteen years of age and under in Florida
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 Material Information
Title: Observational survey of seat belt and child restraint device usage among children fourteen years of age and under in Florida
Series Title: Observational survey of seat belt and child restraint device usage among children fourteen years of age and under in Florida
Physical Description: Serial
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Market Research Center, University of Florida
Publication Date: 1990
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Bibliographic ID: UF00027568
Volume ID: VID00003
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: electronic_aleph - 003247034
electronic_oclc - 60387614

Table of Contents
    Cover
        Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Forward and abstract
        Page i
    Acknowledgement
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    List of Tables
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
    List of Figures
        Page x
    Executive summary
        Page xi
        Page xii
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Survey approach
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Results
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
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        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Conclusions
        Page 18
        Page 19
    Reference
        Page 20
    Glossary
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Appendix A. Tabulations of survey results
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
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        Page 89
        Page 90
    Appendix B. CRD observational survey coding sheet
        Page 91
        Page 92
Full Text







Industry Report 90-1


1990 OBSERVATIONAL SURVEY OF
SEAT BELT AND CHILD RESTRAINT DEVICE
USAGE AMONG CHILDREN IN FLORIDA


Central SdeWau
Librar'

SEP 18 1990

University of Florida


Public Safety Management


by
( .
Dr. Robert L Degn
Susan D. Moss


Central Science
Librar/

SEP 18 1990

i, -i riorida
er .


University of Florida


L


May 1990










1990 OBSERVATIONAL SURVEY OF
SEAT BELT AND CHILD RESTRAINT DEVICE
USAGE AMONG CHILDREN IN FLORIDA

Project Number 90-05-LE-304-10

FINAL REPORT







Prepared for the

Bureau of Public Safety Management
Florida Department of Community Affairs
Tallahassee, Florida 32301







Prepared by

Dr. Robert L. Degner

and

Susan D. Moss


The Florida Agricultural Market Research Center
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32611
FAMRC Industry Report 90-1


April 1990








FORWARD


This report was prepared for the Bureau of Public Safety Management,

Department of Community Affairs, State of Florida, in cooperation with the

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and the U.S. Department of

Transportation.

The conclusions and opinions expressed in these reports are those of the

Subgrantee, and do not necessarily represent those of the State of Florida,

Department of Community Affairs, Bureau of Public Safety Management, Division

of Emergency Management, the U.S. Department of Transportation, or any other

agency of the state or federal government.


ABSTRACT


An observational survey of child restraint device (CRD) usage was

conducted in four metropolitan and four rural areas of Florida in late March

and early April 1990. This was the sixth annual survey to determine usage

levels among infants (ages zero through three years), young children (four to

five years) and older children (six through 14 years). Approximately 50

percent of 4,546 infants were properly restrained in CRDs, and 37 percent of

2,889 young children were properly restrained in CRDs or seat belts. About

62 percent of the 5,709 older children observed were restrained by neither

CRDs nor seat belts. Usage over all age groups showed a slight increase over

1988, but usage among blacks and usage in rural areas remains lower than for

the state as a whole.

Key Words: safety, child restraint devices, seat belt usage








ACUNOWLEDGEMKHTS


The authors wish to extend appreciation to the following individuals

who assisted in this study: Data Collectors Melissa Bracewell,

Timothy Bracewell, Colleen Clancy, Laura Clemmons, Roger Clemmons,

Stephenie Kan, Linda Kirkland, Libardo Ochoa, Octavio Ramirez, Ruth Reynolds,

Irwin Research Services, Inc., Joseph Rice, P.E./Consulting Engineer, and

Tampa Bay Opinion Mart. Renelle Ramirez typed the manuscript.

We would also like to express our appreciation to the planning staff

of the Bureau of Public Safety Management, Department of Community Affairs,

and the U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety

Administration for their assistance in conducting this research.










TABLE OF COTE1TS


FORWARD . . . . . . .

ABSTRACT . . . . . .

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . .

LIST OF TABLES ...... . .

LIST OF APPENDIX TABLES . . .

LIST OF FIGURES . . . .

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY . . . . .

INTRODUCTION . . . . . .

SURVEY APPROACH . . . . .

Study Site Selection . . .

Survey Team Organization . .

Data Collection . . . .

Data Compilation and Analysis

RESULTS . . . . . . .

Overall Results . . . .

Urban Results . . . .


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Rural Results


Restraint vs. Compliance with the Law

CONCLUSIONS . . . . . . . .

REFERENCES . . . . . . . .

GLOSSARY . . . . . . . .

APPENDIX A . . . .. . . .

Tabulations of Survey Results . .

APPENDIX B . . . . . . .

CRD Observational Survey Coding Sheet


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LIST OF TABLES


ble

1 Proper restraint usage in urban, rural and all areas,
by age category . . . . . . . . . ...









LIST OF APPENDIX TABLES


Table Page

1 CRD/belt usage, by age of child and type of area, 1990 . 24

2 CRD/belt usage, by age of child and type of area, 1989 . 25

3 CRD/belt usage, by age of child and type of area, 1988 . 26

4 CRD/belt usage, by age of child and type of area, 1987 . 27

5 CRD and seat belt usage percentages in all areas, 1987-
1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

6 CRD and seat belt usage percentages in urban areas, 1987-
1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

7 CRD and seat belt usage percentages in rural areas, 1987-
1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

8 Total results by age, race and gender, 1989-1990 . . .. 31

9 Observed levels of safety device use in the Jacksonville
MSA, by age of child, 1985-1990 . . . . . .... 32

10 Observed levels of safety device use in the Melbourne/
Titusville/Palm Bay MSA, by age of child, 1985-1990 . . 33

11 Observed levels of safety device use in the Miami/
Hialeah MSA, by age of child, 1985-1990 . . . ... 34

12 Observed levels of safety device use in the Tampa/
St. Petersburg/Clearwater MSA, by age of child, 1985-
1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . .. .35

13 Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years of
age in the Jacksonville MSA, by gender, 1985-1990 . . 36

14 Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years of
age in the Melbourne/Titusville/Palm Bay MSA, by gender,
1985-1990 . . . . . . . . ... .. .... 37

15 Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years of
age in the Miami/Hialeah MSA, by gender, 1985-1990 .... 38

16 Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years of
age in the Tampa/St. Petersburg/Clearwater MSA, by
gender, 1985-1990 . . . . . . . . ... .. . 39









LIST OF APPENDIX TABLES CONTINUED


Table Pane

17 Observed levels of CRD use among children 4-5 years of
age in the Jacksonville MSA, by gender, 1985-1990 .... .40

18 Observed levels of CRD use among children 4-5 years of
age in the Melbourne/Titusville/Palm Bay MSA, by gender,
1985-1990 . . . . . . . . ... .... . 41

19 Observed levels of CRD use among children 4-5 years of
age in the Miami/Hialeah MSA, by gender, 1985-1990 . . 42

20 Observed levels of CRD use among children 4-5 years of
age in the Tampa/St. Petersburg/Clearwater MSA, by
gender, 1985-1990 . . . . . . . . .. .... 43

21 Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14 years of
age in the Jacksonville MSA, by gender, 1985-1990 . .. 44

22 Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14 years of
age in the Melbourne/Titusville/Palm Bay MSA, by gender,
1987-1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

23 Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14 years of
age in the Miami/Hialeah MSA, by gender, 1987-1990 . . 46

24 Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14 years of
age in the Tampa/St. Petersburg/Clearwater MSA, by
gender, 1987-1990 . . . . . . . . .. .. 47

25 Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years of
age in the Jacksonville MSA, by race, 1985-1990 . . .. .48

26 Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years of
age in the Melbourne/Titusville/Palm Bay MSA, by race,
1985-1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

27 Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years of
age in the Miami/Hialeah MSA, by race, 1985-1990 .... .50

28 Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years of
age in the Tampa/St. Petersburg/Clearwater MSA, by race,
1985-1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

29 Observed levels of CRD use among children 4-5 years of
age in the Jacksonville MSA, by race, 1985-1990 . . .. .52









LIST 01 APPENDIX TABLES CONTINUED


'abl Page

30 Observed levels of CRD use among children 4-5 years of
age in the Melbourne/Titusville/Palm Bay MSA, by race,
1985-1990 . . . . . . . . . . .. 53

31 Observed levels of CRD use among children 4-5 years of
age in the Miami/Hialeah ESA, by race, 1985-1990 . . . 54

32 Observed levels of CRD use among children 4-5 years of
age in the Tampa/St. Petersburg/Clearwater MSA, by race,
1985-1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

33 Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14 years of
age in the Jacksonville MSA, by race, 1985-1990 . . . 56

34 Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14 years of
age in the Melbourne/Titusville/Palm Bay MSA, by race,
1985-1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . 57

35 Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14 years of
age in the Miami/Hialeah MSA, by race, 1985-1990 . . 58

36 Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14 years of
age in the Tampa/St. Petersburg/Clearwater MSA, by race,
1985-1990 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

37 Observed levels of safety device use in Eustis, by age
of child, 1988-1990 . . . . . . . . . 60

38 Observed levels of safety device use in Lake City, by
age of child, 1988-1990 . . ... . . . . . 61

39 Observed levels of safety device use in Marianna, by age
of child, 1988-1990 . . . . . . . . . 62

40 Observed levels of safety device use in Sebring, by age
of child, 1988-1990 . . . . . ....... . 63

41 Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years of
age in Eustis, by gender, 1988-1990 . ... ..... 64

42 Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years of
age in Lake City, by gender, 1988-1990 . . . . .. 65

43 Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years of
age in Marianna, by gender, 1988-1990 . . . . .... 66

44 Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years of
age in Sebring, by gender, 1988-1990 . . . . . . 67


vii










LIST OF APPEIDII TABLES CONTINUED


Table Ea

45 Observed levels of CRD use among children 4-5 years of
age in Eustis, by gender, 1988-1990 . . . .. . 68

46 Observed levels of CRD use among children 4-5 years of
age in Lake City, by gender, 1988-1990 . . 69

47 Observed levels of CRD use among children 4-5 years of
age in Marianna, by gender, 1988-1990 . . . . . 70

48 Observed levels of CRD use among children 4-5 years of
age in Sebring, by gender, 1988-1990 . . . . . .. 71

49 Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14 years of
age in Eustis, by gender, 1988-1990 . . .. . . 72

50 Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14 years of
age in Lake City, by gender, 1988-1990 . . . . ... 73

51 Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14 years of
age in Marianna, by gender, 1988-1990 . . . . 74

52 Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14 years of
age in Sebring, by gender, 1988-1990 . . . . . . 75

53 Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years of
age in Eustis, by race, 1988-1990 . . . . . . 76

54 Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years of
age in Lake City, by race, 1988-1990 . . . . 77

55 Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years of
age in Marianna, by race, 1988-1990 . . . . .. 78

56 Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years of
age in Sebring, by race, 1988-1990 . . . . . . 79

57 Observed levels of CRD use among children 4-5 years of
age in Eustis, by race, 1988-1990 . . . . . . 80

58 Observed levels of CRD use among children 4-5 years of
age in Lake City, by race, 1988-1990 . . . . .. 81

59 Observed levels of CRD use among children 4-5 years of
age in Marianna, by race, 1988-1990 . . . . . . 82

60 Observed levels of CRD use among children 4-5 years of
age in Sebring, by race, 1988-1990 . . . . . . 83


viii









LIST OF APPEHDII TABLES CONTINUED


Table Pae

61 Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14 years of
age in Eustis, by race, 1988-1990 . . . . ... 84

62 Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14 years of
age in Lake City, by race, 1988-1990 . . . . .. 85

63 Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14 years of
age in Marianna, by race, 1988-1990 . . . . . . 86

64 Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14 years of
age in Sebring, by race, 1988-1990 . . ....... 87

65 Restraint vs. compliance for older children 6-14, by
city, 1988-1990 . . . . . . . . ... . 88

66 Restraint usage, by age category and seating location . 89

67 CRD and seat belt usage in Florida- and Non-Florida
registered vehicles . . . . . . . ..... 90








LIST OF FIGURES


Figure Pane

1 Percentage of children aged 0-3 properly restrained,
by MSA, 1985-1990 . . . . . . . . . . 9

2 Percentage of children aged 4-5 properly restrained,
by MSA, 1985-1990 . . . . . . . . ... .. . 10

3 Percentage of children aged 6-14 properly restrained,
by MSA, 1985-1990 . . . . . . . . . . 11

4 Percentage of children aged 0-14 properly restrained,
by MSA, 1985-1990 . . . . . . . . ... . 15








EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


An observational survey of child restraint device usage was conducted

in 1990 to ascertain what changes, if any, had occurred in usage since the

1989 study. This report presents the results of the 1990 survey and compares

them with results from annual studies which began in 1985.

Data collectors were trained and data were collected. The data were

then transformed into computerized data sets and analyzed. A total of 13, 144

children (zero through 14 years of age) were observed, of which 7,435 were

aged zero through five.

The four metropolitan areas studied since 1985 were included in the

1990 survey. Four rural locations have also been studied since the 1988

survey. Insofar as possible, the same locations have been observed in order

to have continuity over time. This minimizes geographic variability and

allows a more accurate assessment of long-term trends in child restraint

device usage.

Older children (six through 14 years of age) have been included since

1987 because the marginal cost of collecting and analyzing data on the older

children is small compared to the potential benefits. Prior to 1987, this

age group was excluded from the study because there were no laws which

addressed restraint usage in this age group. No laws exist specifically for

six- to 14-year-olds, but they are included in the general seat belt law

which covers front-seat passengers.

For the 1986-1990 period, CRD usage has generally shown an upward trend.

The current (1990) survey shows CRD usage for the zero- to three- and four-

and five-year-olds to be at an all-time high, increasing from 45 and 20

percent, respectively, in 1986 to 50 and 37 percent, respectively.








Overall, the survey found the number of children (aged zero through 14)

properly restrained by either a CRD or a seat belt had increased from 36.6

percent in 1989 to 41.9 percent in 1990. Usage among young children (four

and five years of age) showed the largest increase, over seven percentage

points, while usage among infants (zero through three years of age) increased

by one and two-fifths of a percentage point. Among older children (six

through 14 years of age), seat belt or CRD usage increased from 33 percent in

1989 to nearly 38 percent in 1990.

Rural CRD usage rates were lower than in urban areas but showed larger

increases than in urban areas. Usage among older children (six through 14)

in rural areas increased by nearly 12 percentage points, while usage for this

age group in urban areas remained virtually unchanged. Four- and five-year-

olds in both urban and rural areas showed an increase in CRD and seat belt

usage of over eight percentage points. CRD usage among infants (zero through

three) in rural areas also increased by eight percentage points, while usage

among infants in urban areas decreased slightly.







1990 Child Restraint Usage Survey

Final Report


INTRODUCTION


Vehicular accidents continue to be the primary cause of death and injury

of children throughout the country. The State of Florida has sought to

reduce this sad statistic by adopting laws which require the usage of

approved safety devices by children. In 1982, the Florida Legislature passed

Bill CB/SB 298, requiring children under four years of age to be in federally

approved child restraint devices (CRDs) when with parents or legal guardians

in Florida-registered vehicles. Children four and five years of age were

required to be in CRDs or seat belts. In 1986, the Legislature passed Bill

CS/HB 40, which broadened the scope of the original law to include all

children aged zero through five in vehicles, Florida-registered or not. In

addition, mandatory use of seat belts by front-seat passengers was instituted

in 1986.

The Bureau of Public Safety Management (BPSM) has promoted and monitored

compliance with the law. Ongoing monitoring of CRD usage is necessary to

provide information for focusing educational and enforcement programs. BPSM

has awarded grants to state research centers to conduct both telephone

opinion surveys and observational studies to assess CRD usage. In previous

years, telephone interviews indicated a greater level of compliance than on-

street observations showed. To improve accuracy, recent efforts have focused

on the observational approach (Reaves, 1987).

Annual observational surveys were begun in 1985 in metropolitan

statistical areas throughout Florida and have continued to date. In 1987,

the surveys were expanded to include children through age 14 and to include

both metropolitan and rural areas. However, due to low numbers of rural







2

observations in 1987, the 1988 through 1990 surveys included larger rural

towns than used in 1987.


SURVEY APPROACH


The 1990 observational survey conducted by the University of Florida's

Agricultural Market Research Center consisted of the following elements: (1)

study site selection, (2) survey team organization, (3) data collection, (4)

data compilation and analysis, and (5) final report summarizing the study

findings.

Recruitment for survey teams began in early 1990, and team members

trained approximately one week prior to data collection. Observations were

made on the last Friday and Saturday in March and the first Friday and

Saturday in April, except for Miami, where observations were made Thursday

through Saturday on April 5 through 7.


Study Site Selection


The 1985 survey was conducted in eight metropolitan statistical areas

(MSAs) in Florida. The 1986 survey was conducted in four of the original

MSA locations, establishing a longitudinal profile of the CRD usage in those

metropolitan areas. For historical comparisons, the urban areas targeted in

1986 were again surveyed in 1987 through 1990. They are Miami/Hialeah (Dade

County), Melbourne/Titusville/Palm Bay (Brevard County),

Tampa/St. Petersburg/Clearwater (Hillsborough and Pinellas counties) and

Jacksonville (Duval County).

While it was desirable to continue to obtain data about the CRD usage

levels of motorists with children in metropolitan areas, BPSM was also

concerned about the usage levels of motorists in more rural parts of the







3

state. From each of the four basic rural areas in Florida (Panhandle, north

central, central and the southern area), one county was randomly selected for

inclusion in the study. The rural counties included in all studies since

1988 were Columbia, Jackson, Lake and Highlands counties. Actual study sites

in these rural counties were selected in small cities rather than at rural

isolated intersections outside of populated areas or small towns with low

traffic volume. Observational locations were in the towns of Lake City,

Marianna, Eustis and Sebring.

Observations were made at intersections near shopping centers and day

care centers. Every attempt was made to schedule the surveys during times

when trips with the maximum likelihood of having children present would be

included in the survey. Whenever possible, the same observation points were

used in 1990 as in previous years.

Appropriate law enforcement and traffic engineering agencies were

notified in writing of the dates and times of the surveys, and the team

members were given letters of introduction to be used in the event anyone

questioned their presence. They also carried small signs indicating they

were conducting a traffic survey.


Survey Team Organization


Graduate students, staff from the Market Research Center, and temporary

employment personnel were hired for data collection. All data collectors

were trained in proper techniques prior to conducting the actual field

survey. Survey crews were instructed not to interfere with normal traffic

flow, nor to create a hazardous situation that would jeopardize either

themselves or motorists. The guide, "Guidelines for Observing Child Safety

Seat Use," (U.S. Department of Transportation) was utilized in training the









4

survey team members. Important points which were addressed during the

training session included (1) observation techniques; (2) courteous

interaction with the public, but primary emphasis on unobtrusive observing;

(3) distinguishing characteristics to focus on, e.g., usage/non-usage of CRDs

and seat belts by children, vehicle registration, techniques for estimating

children's ages, etc.


Data Collection


The following data for each person were collected for all private autos

and light trucks and vans with children present in the right-hand lane at the

specified intersections:

(1) Age: 0 through 14

(2) Gender: Male, Female, Uncertain

(3) Race: Black, White, Hispanic, Other, Uncertain

(4) Location of Child: Front, Back

(5) Restraint: CRD, Booster Seat, Safety Belt, No/Improper Restraint

(6) Vehicle Type: Car, Van, Light Truck

(7) Auto Registration: Florida, Non-Florida

Autos with window tinting or other devices which prevented observation

were excluded from the survey. Vans, pick-ups and commercial vehicles were

excluded from surveys until 1988. However, due to the recent increase in the

use of light pick-ups and vans for family transportation, these have been

included since the 1988 survey. Commercial vehicles are still excluded.








Data Compilation and Analysis


The coding form for 1990 was similar to the one used in 1989 (Appendix

B). However, slight modifications were made to improve the ease and accuracy

of recording. The data were reduced to computer form and statistically

analyzed on a geographical basis. In addition, comparisons were made with

previous years' findings. Confidence limits were calculated at the 95

percent probability level for all point estimates (percentages) of proper

restraint usage/non-usage except for relatively small subgroups of observa-

tions. The confidence limits are computed using the standard error of

percentages (Ferber). Because of the large numbers of observations, there is

a relatively high degree of accuracy in the percentages reported. For many

of the largest categories, there is a 95 percent probability that the margin

of error for the reported percentages does not exceed +2 percentage points.

The results are presented below.


RESULTS


Overall Results


A total of 13,144 children aged zero through 14 were observed for the

current study. Observations were down slightly from the 1989 survey,

probably due to adverse weather in some locations.

Table 1 summarizes restraint usage by age of child and type of area.

Throughout this report, the term "child restraint device" or "CRD" refers

only to a federally approved car seat for the zero- to three-year-old

category. For the four- to five- and six- to 14-year-olds, "CRD" refers to

any federally approved restraint device, including car seats, booster seats,

or seat belts. Over half of all children in the infant category (zero to











Table 1.--Proper restraint usage in urban, rural and all areas, by age category.*


Age

Type of area,
Restraint 0-3 4-5 6-14 Total

(No.) (%) (CL)b (No.) (Z) (CL)b (No.) (%) (CL)b (No.) (%) (CL)b

Urban

Proper' 1,549 56.4 +1.9 656 39.8 +2.4 1,284 37.7 +1.6 3,489 44.7 +1.1
None/improper 1.197 43.6 +1.9 991 60.2 +2.4 2.125 62.3 +1.6 4.313 55.3 +1.1
Total 2,746 100.0 1,647 100.0 3,409 100.0 7,802 100.0

Rural

Proper' 743 41.3 +2.3 409 32.9 +2.6 868 37.7 +2.0 2,000 37.8 +1.3
None/improper 1.057 58.7 +2.3 833 67.1 +2.6 1.432 62.3 +2.0 3.322 62.2 +1.3
Total 1, 800 100.0 1,242 100.0 2,300 100.0 5,342 100.0

All areas

Proper' 2,292 50.4 +1.5 1,065 36.9 +1.8 2,152 37.7 +1.3 5,509 41.9 +0.8
None/ improper 2.254 49.6 +1.5 1.824 63.1 +1.8 3557 62.3 +1.3 7635 58.1 +0. 8
Total 4,546 100.0 2,889 100.0 5,709 100.0 13,144 100.0


*Children zero to three years of age must be in a CRD to be classified as
aged four to 14 are considered properly restrained by a CRD or seat belt.

'Confidence limits are calculated at the 95 percent probability level.


properly restrained. Children






7

three) were in CRDs. About 37 percent of young children (four- and five-

year-olds) were properly restrained in CRDs or seat belts. Nearly 38 percent

of the older children were belted as well. Because the urban samples were

larger than the rural samples, the total survey results more closely resemble

the urban usage patterns.

Rural CRD usage was generally lower than urban CRD usage, although the

rural usage increased substantially over 1989 levels. Usage among rural

infants was 41.3 percent, while 33.0 percent of the young children were

restrained in CRDs or by seat belts. Older children in rural areas were

restrained roughly 38 percent of the time. Appendix tables I through 4 show

summaries for the 1990, 1989, 1988 and 1987 surveys.

In the zero to three age category, usage of CRDs was 50.4 percent, up

slightly compared to 1989. The improvement is mostly attributed to increased

usage among rural infants. Overall, the proportions of unrestrained children

declined from 62.0 to about 55 percent from 1989 to 1990, lower than any

previous year. Again, improvement in rural areas accounted for most of the

improvement (Appendix tables 5 through 7).

Appendix Table 8 shows the total survey results, categorized by age,

gender and race. As noted above, half (50 percent) of the infants were in

CRDs, and CRD usage was up slightly over 1989. Young children were the least

likely to be restrained by either a CRD or seat belt, with 37 percent being

restrained, while about 38 percent of older children were observed using CRDs

or seat belts. Infant males showed a very slight lead over females in

CRD/belt usage in 1990, while females were slightly ahead of males in

previous years.

White and Hispanic children in the infant and young children age

categories had higher usage rates than blacks, but blacks were slightly

better than Hispanics in the older children category. Over all age







8

categories, 26.9 percent of black children were restrained, compared with

45. 8 and 32.4 percent of white and Hispanic children, respectively. Black

children aged four and five were the least likely to be restrained, with only

23.1 percent being in CRDs or seat belts (Appendix Table 8), while white

infants, at 55.3 percent, were most likely to be in a CRD.


Urban Results


The Jacksonville metropolitan area showed a slight decrease in observed

CRD usage. Among infants, CRD usage declined from 68.1 percent in 1989 to

48.0 percent in 1990, while usage for four- and five-year-olds declined from

48.0 percent in 1989 to 45.7 percent in 1990. However, the percentage of

older children restrained rose substantially from 41.8 to 49.4 (figures 1

through 3, Appendix Table 9). These results indicate that Jacksonville

youngsters that were observed to be restrained several years ago are still

restrained as they move into the six- to 14-year-old age group. But the

markedly lower restraint rates, particularly for the infant category,

indicates the need for increased educational programs.

Total CRD usage in Melbourne/Titusville/Palm Bay experienced an

increase, from 36.0 percent in 1989 to 49. 6 percent in 1990. CRD usage among

infants increased from 53.8 percent in 1989 to 59.3 percent in 1990. The

four- and five-year-olds' usage increased dramatically from 26.8 to 49.9

percent, and usage among older children increased from 29.3 percent in 1989

to 42.2 percent in 1990 (figures 1 through 3, Appendix Table 10).

The Miami/Hialeah metropolitan area experienced a decline in total usage

levels, from 41.1 percent to 35.1 percent. For infants, CRD usage decreased

slightly from 59.2 percent in 1989 to 58.9 percent in 1990. Among young

children, CRD usage increased from 25.3 percent to 27.7 percent. Usage among



































85 86 87 88 89 90 85 86 87 88 89 90 85 86 87 88 89 90 85 86 87 8889 90

Jacksonville Melbourne Miami Tampa
Figure 1.--Percentage of children aged 0-3 properly restrained, by MSA, 1985-1990.











80


60 - --------------------------------------
76





60


50
48
46 746

0 4) 44
8 40 47.

S31 731
21,27 2 29 28
02


13
cli.N X 1l 1









85 8687888990 8586 8788 8990 8586878687 88990

Jacksonville Melbourne Miami Tampa


Figure 2.--Percentage of children aged 4-5 properly restrained, by HSA, 1985-1990.

































87888990
Jacksonville


87888990
Melbourne


87888990
Miami


87888990
Tampa


Figure 3.--Percentage of children aged 6-14 properly restrained, by MSA, 1985-1990.








12

older children fell from 38.3 percent to 24.6 percent (figures 1 through 3,

Appendix Table 11).

Tampa/St. Petersburg/Clearwater experienced an increase in overall

usage, from 38.6 percent in 1989 to 47.4 percent in 1990. CRD usage among

infants rose substantially from 40. 6 to 71.3 percent. This dramatic increase

may be the result of increased safety education efforts focused on the area.

Among young children, CRD usage was also up, from 35.5 to 40.9 percent.

Usage among older children declined slightly from 38.9 to 37.4 percent

(figures 1 through 3, Appendix Table 12).

While usage rates among infants and older children in urban areas

remained virtually the same, restraint among young children increased

substantially in most areas. Even so, children four to 14 years of age still

remain far less likely to be restrained than infants. Possible explanations

for increased usage of CRDs by young children are the greater availability

and use of booster seats and enactment of the seat belt law, which was

promulgated in January 1987.

When the data were further broken down by gender and race, some patterns

were identifiable. Among children aged four to 14, females were properly

restrained more often than males in all MSAs. Infant males, however, showed

a lead over infant females in all MSAs except Miami. In the Melbourne MSA,

male infants led females by over 23 percentage points. This pattern varies

from those observed in previous surveys, which showed female infants more

likely to be restrained, or restrained equally as often, as males (Appendix

tables 13 through 24). However, in most areas, the differences were

relatively small and most likely the result of random error.

White infants were more likely to be restrained than any other racial

group. This pattern follows from previous years. However, small sample






13

sizes from non-white populations limit detailed analyses of CRD use among

other racial groups within MSAs (Appendix tables 25 through 36).

The 1987 through 1990 observations categorized Hispanics as a separate

group. In Miami/Hialeah, where the largest number of Hispanic infants was

observed, 42.6, 62.6, 56.9 and 57.1 percent were in CRDs in 1987, 1988, 1989

and 1990, respectively (Appendix Table 27). The other urban areas had too

few observations of Hispanics for meaningful analyses. It should be noted

that Hispanics may have been inadvertently coded in other racial categories

since distinguishing characteristics are subtle and sometimes difficult to

detect in an observational survey. The "other" and "uncertain" racial

categories also had too few observations to draw meaningful conclusions.

The observations of young children aged four and five were also broken

down by race and gender (Appendix tables 17 through 20 and 29 through 32).

There was little variation among the urban area patterns for this age group.

All MSAs exhibited greater CRD usage among females than males for this age

category. Overall, differences between the sexes in young children was

slight. The pattern was observed in previous years also.

Blacks were less likely to be using CRDs than whites in the young

children category but, again, samples of blacks were smaller than for whites.

CRD usage among four- to five-year-old Hispanics was higher than for blacks

or whites in Jacksonville, but observations are based upon limited numbers

outside of Miami.

The older children (Appendix tables 21 through 24) showed a difference

in CRD/belt usage, which seemed to favor females over males, a reversal of

the 1988 survey results but consistent with 1989 results (Appendix tables 20

through 24). Again, most differences are relatively small and due to

sampling variation.






14

When the older children category was broken into racial categories, all

MSAs except Jacksonville showed greater proportions of whites and Hispanics

using seat belts than blacks. In Jacksonville, blacks led Hispanics by about

two percentage points. However, there were relatively small samples in the

black and Hispanic racial categories in all but the Jacksonville and

Miami/Hialeah MSAs (Appendix tables 33 through 36).


Rural Resulta


This was the fourth year that rural locations were specifically targeted

in the survey. However, due to the limited number of observations obtained

in 1987, the locations were changed from four very small rural towns to four

larger towns in the same geographic areas as surveyed in 1987. Thus, direct

historical comparisons of results can only be made for the 1988 through 1990

surveys, which were conducted in exactly the same locations in Eustis,

Sebring, Lake City and Marianna.

Overall, CRD usage increased for all rural locations. Eustis increased

from 33.3 to 42.2 percent, Lake City from 19.6 to 31.4 percent, Marianna from

29.9 to 45.7 percent, and Sebring from 26.1 to 35.6 percent (Figure 4).

CRD usage was generally lower in each of the rural locations than in the

urban areas. Usage patterns among age groups and racial groups were similar

to those seen in the urban areas, i.e. higher usage among infants than among

the young children and older children categories and lower usage rates by

blacks.

CRD usage among infants in Lake City, Marianna and Sebring was around

35 percent but, in Eustis, infant CRD usage was nearly 53 percent. Among

young children, usage ranged from 25. 7 percent in Lake City to 48.4 percent

in Marianna. For older children, restraint usage ranged from 31.9 percent in

Lake City to 51.0 percent in Marianna (Appendix tables 37 through 40).














40 .--.................- -. ...........

36
33
31
30 ------------- --- 30
28
C 27 28
D26


"0





0)





88 89 90 88 89 90 88 89 90 88 89 90
Eustis Lake City Marianna Sebring

Figure 4.--Percentage of children aged 0-14 properly restrained, by rural area, 1988-1990.






16

As in the 1989 study, males in rural areas were as likely to be properly

restrained as females in all age groups. Both Eustis and Lake City had

larger proportions of male infants in CRDs compared with females, while

Marianna and Sebring had larger proportions of females in CRDs (Appendix

tables 41 through 44). In the young children category, all rural locations,

with the exception of Marianna, showed males restrained more often than

females. In the six- to 14-year-old age group, Eustis and Marianna showed

males restrained more often than females, while Lake City showed females

restrained more often than males (Appendix tables 45 through 52).

Overall, white children in rural areas were more likely to be properly

restrained than black children (Appendix tables 53 through 64). The infant

category usage among white children ranged from 40.4 percent in Lake City to

58.8 percent in Eustis. Black children in the infant category showed usage

at a low of 7.5 percent in Lake City and a high of 15.8 percent in Eustis.

White children aged four and five showed levels of CRD usage ranging from

27.3 percent in Lake City to 50.9 percent in Marianna. Black children in

this age group showed usage at about 10 percent in Eustis and 41.5 percent in

Marianna. Usage among white children aged six through 14 ranged from 34.3

percent in Lake City to 52. 4 percent in Marianna. Black children in this age

group showed usage of about 15 percent in Lake City and ranged up to 45.1

percent in Marianna. Too few children from the other racial categories were

observed to evaluate their levels of CRD usage in rural areas (Appendix

tables 53 through 64).






17

Restraint vs. Compliance with the Law


This study has been largely concerned with the use of child restraint

devices, whether CRDs or seat belts. However, in the case of older children

aged six through 14, "restraint" understates compliance with the law.

Children aged six through 14 riding in the front seat must be in seat belts

to be in compliance with the seat belt law, but no restraint is required when

these children ride in the back seat. For the older children category,

overall compliance was about 71 percent, but the percentage actually

restrained was only 37.7 percent (Appendix Table 65). This results from the

fact that all children six years of age or older riding in the back seat are

in compliance with the law, regardless of whether or not they are restrained.

In the front seat, 47.0 percent were restrained, and thus compliant. In the

back seat, 100 percent were compliant, yet only 26.3 percent were restrained

(Appendix Table 66).

Among older children, compliance in urban areas was 73.6 percent in

1990, up from 62.4 percent in 1989 and 64.4 percent in 1988 (Appendix Table

65). Compliance in urban areas ranged from 67.2 percent in Miami to 78

percent in Tampa. In rural areas, compliance increased from 57.4 percent in

1989 to 66.7 percent in 1990. Lake City showed the lowest level of

compliance, at 55. 4 percent, while Marianna was the highest, with 80. 9

percent. Restraint by a CRD or a seat belt was 37.7 percent in both urban

and rural areas.

In the young children age group, regardless of location, all children

must be restrained by a seat belt or CRD to be compliant. Overall, 36.9

percent of four- and five-year-olds were compliant with the law. Children






18

in the front seat were compliant 42.0 percent of the time, and children in

the back seat were compliant 32.2 percent of the time.

Children in the infant category, riding in the front or back seat, must

be restrained in an approved CRD to be compliant with the law. The

compliance level in this age group was 50.4 percent, slightly higher than

previous years. In the front seat, 37.5 percent of infants were compliant

and, in the back seat, 60.7 percent were compliant.

There were some differences in usage of restraint devices between

Florida- and non-Florida-registered vehicles. However, only three and one-

half percent of vehicles surveyed were out-of-state; thus, they had little

impact on overall survey results. Generally, Florida-registered vehicles had

higher CRD usage rates (Appendix Table 67). In the infant category, 44.8

percent of children in non-Florida vehicles were compliant, and another 15.2

percent were restrained by a seat belt or improper CRD. In Florida-

registered vehicles, 50.6 percent of infants were in compliance, while nine

percent were improperly restrained. In the four- and five-year-old category,

41 percent in non-Florida-registered vehicles were properly restrained by a

CRD or seat belt, compared to 36.7 percent in Florida-registered vehicles.

Nearly 38 percent of older children in both Florida- and non-Florida-

registered vehicles were restrained.

CONCLUSIONS


Statewide, proper CRD usage over all age categories increased by five

percentage points. The total proportion of unrestrained infants and children

declined from 62 to 55 percent. CRD usage among infants (zero to three years

of age) increased from 49 to 50 percent. CRD usage (including seat belts)

increased from 29.1 to 36.9 percent for the young children (ages four and






19

five) group. CRD and seat belt usage by older children also showed a

substantial increase, from 33.1 to 37.7 percent.

CRD usage among children five and under in rural locations increased

substantially from 1989, but remained considerably lower than in urban areas.

Seat belt and CRD usage among older children (ages six through 14) was

virtually the same in both rural and urban locations. Among urban areas, CRD

usage in Miami and Jacksonville was down. However, Melbourne and

Tampa/St. Petersburg/Clearwater showed large increases. CRD and seat belt

usage in rural locations increased overall from 29.3 percent in 1989 to 41

percent in 1990. Usage among blacks showed an increase from 1989, going from

24.1 to 26.9 percent. However, the percentage of white and Hispanic children

in CRDs remains far greater than blacks.

Infants in Florida-registered vehicles appear to have higher CRD usage

rates than those from out-of-state, but young children in non-Florida

vehicles had slightly higher CRD usage rates. However, children in out-of-

state vehicles constituted only three and one-half percent of the total

sample. The small numbers of children in out-of-state vehicles precludes any

definitive comparisons.

In conclusion, CRD usage in Florida appears to be increased in most

areas of the state. Even so, relatively large numbers of children in all age

categories and areas remain unrestrained and at risk of serious injury in

motor vehicle accidents. Continued educational programs and enforcement is

needed to reduce this risk.










REFERElCES


U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway Traffic Safety Admin-
istration. Guidelines for Observing Child Safety Seat Use. National
Technical Information Service. Springfield, Virginia. 1987.

Degner, Robert L. and Susan Moss. 1989 Observational Survey of Seat Belt
and Child Restraint Device Usage Among Children Fourteen Years of Age
and Under in Florida. Prepared for Bureau of Public Safety Management,
Florida Department of Community Affairs, Tallahassee, Florida. Industry
Report 89-1, Florida Agricultural Market Research Center, University of
Florida, May 1989.

Degner, Robert L and Susan Moss. 1988 Observational Survey of Seat Belt
and Child Restraint Device UsaSe Among Children Fourteen Years of Age
and Under in Florida. Prepared for Bureau of Public Safety Management,
Florida Department of Community Affairs, Tallahassee, Florida. Industry
Report 88-1, Florida Agricultural Market Research Center, University of
Florida, May 1988.

Ferber, Robert. Statistical Techniques in Market Research. McGraw-Hill Book
Company, Inc., New York, 1949.


Reaves, Deborah. 1987 Observational Survey of
Devices in Florida. Prepared for Bureau of
Florida Department of Community Affairs.
Center, University of Florida, 1987.

Reaves, Deborah. 1986 Observational Survey of
Devices in Florida. Prepared for Bureau of
Florida Department of Community Affairs.
Center, University of Florida, 1986.


Usage of Child Restraint
Public Safety Management,
Transportation Research


Usage of Child Restraint
Public Safety Management,
Transportation Research









GLOSSARY


infants

children three years old or younger


young children

children four or five years of age


older children

children six through 14 years of age


properly restrained

An infant is properly restrained only when secured in a federally approved
car seat. An infant restrained by a booster seat or seat belt is not
properly restrained.

A young child or an older child is properly restrained if secured by a seat
belt, an approved booster seat or car seat.


compliance

An infant is in compliance with Florida's child restraint requirements if
properly restrained by a car seat. An infant in a booster seat or a seat
belt is not compliant.

A young child is compliant with Florida's child restraint requirements if
properly restrained by a federally approved car seat, booster seat or seat
belt.

An older child is compliant with Florida's seat belt law if restrained by a
federally approved car seat, booster seat or seat belt while seated in the
front seat of a motor vehicle. An older child seated in the back seat of a
motor vehicle is compliant with the law regardless of the usage or non-usage
of a restraint device.


restraint device


a federally approved car seat, booster seat or seat belt








22

CRD

acronym for "Child Restraint Device"

This term specifies federally approved car seats when referring to infants.
When referring to young children and older children, the term "CRD" includes
federally approved car seats, booster seats and seat belts. For purposes of
more specifically defining restraint device usage, some tables show seat belt
usage separately from car seats and booster seats when referring to these age
categories.


MSA

acronym for *Metropolitan Statistical Area"



































APPENDIX A

Tabulations of Burvey Results









Appendix Table 1.--CRD/belt usage, by age of child and type of area, 1990.


Age

Type of area 0-3 4-5 6-14 Total


(No.) (2) (No.) (2) (o.) () (o.) (M)


All Areas


CRD
Belted
Not restrained
Total

Urban Areas

CRD
Belted
Not restrained
Total

Rural Areas

CRD
Belted
Not restrained
Total


2,292
424
1.830
4,546



1,549
255
942
2,746



743
169
,800
1,800


50. 4
9.3
40.3
100.0



56.4
9.3
34. 3
100.0


41.3
9.4
49. 3
100.0


253
812
1,824
2,889



200
456
991
1,647



53
356
833
1,242


8.8
28.1
63.1
100.0



12.1
27.7
10.
100.0


4.3
28.7
67.1
100. 0


47
2,105
3,557
5,709



35
1,249
2.125
3,409



12
856
1.432
2,300


0.8
36. 9
6100.
100.0


1.0
36.6
62.3
100.0



0.5
37.2
6.2.3
100.0


2,592
3,341
7.211
13,144



1,784
1,960
4. 058
7,802



808
1,381
3, 158
5,342


19.7
25.4
100.0
100.0


22.9
25.1
52.0
100.0



15.1
25.9
591.0
100.0











Appendix Table 2.--CRD/belt usage, by age of child and type of area, 1989.


Age

Type of area 0-3 4-5 6-14 Total

(No.) (M) (No.) (%) (No.) (%) (No.) (Z)

All Areas

CRD 1,844 49.0 212 7.1 30 0.4 2,086 15.1
Belted 193 5.1 659 22.0 2,315 32.7 3,167 22.9
Not restrained 1.724 45.,8 2121 70.9 4729 66.29 8.574 62.0
Total 3,761 100.0 2,992 100.0 7,074 100.0 13,827 100.0

Urban Areas

CRD 1,434 56.8 168 8.5 26 0.6 1,628 17.9
Belted 107 4.2 458 23.1 1,671 36.4 2,236 24.6
Not restrained 985 39.0 1.353 68.4 2.889 63.0 5.227 57.5
Total 2,526 100.0 1,979 100.0 4,586 100.0 9,091 100.0

Rural Areas

CRD 410 33.2 44 4.3 4 0.2 458 9.7
Belted 86 7.0 201 19.8 644 25.9 931 19.7
Not restrained 739 59.8 768 75.8 1.840 74.0 3,347 70.7
Total 1,235 100.0 1,013 100.0 2,488 100.0 4,736 100.0









Appendix Table 3.--CRD/belt usage, by age of child and type of area, 1988.


Age

Type of area 0-3 4-5 6-14 Total

(No.) (2) (No.) (2) (No.) (M) (No.) (X)

All Areas

CRD 2,100 48.5 221 7.2 25 0.5 2,346 18.1
Belted 228 5.3 586 19.0 1,531 27.6 2,345 18.1
Not restrained 2.004 46.3 2.272 73.8 3,298. 72.0 8,27 63.8
Total 4,332 100.0 3,079 100.0 5,554 100.0 12,965 100.0

Urban Areas

CRD 1,497 56.8 164 9.0 22 0.6 1,683 20.8
Belted 129 4.9 402 22.0 1,140 31.3 1,671 20.6
Not restrained 1.011 38.3 1.258 69.0 2.486 68.1 4.755 58.6
Total 2,637 100.0 1,824 100.0 3,648 100.0 8,109 100.0

Rural Areas

CRD 603 35.6 57 4.5 3 0.2 663 13.7
Belted 99 5.8 185 14.7 391 20.5 675 13.9
Not restrained 993 58. 6 1.014 80.7 1.512 79.3 3.519 72.5
Total 1,695 100.0 1,256 100.0 1,906 100.0 4,857 100.0











Appendix Table 4.--CRD/belt usage, by age of child and type of area, 1987.


Age

Type of area 0-3 4-5 6-14 Total

(No.) (Z) (No.) (2) (No.) (2) (No.) (2)

All Areas

CRD 631 49.2 44 4.6 2 0.1 677 15.0
Belted 127 9.9 266 27.7 773 34.2 1,166 25.9
Not restrained 525 40.J 650 67.7 1.488 65. 8 2663 59.1
Total 1,283 100.0 960 100.0 2,263 100.0 4,506 100.0

Urban Areas

CRD 540 50.1 41 5.3 2 0.1 583 15.3
Belted 121 11.2 232 30.0 691 35.2 1,044 27.4
Not restrained 416 38.6 64 7 1271 64. 2.188 57.4
Total 1,077 100.0 774 100.0 1,964 100.0 3,815 100.0

Rural Areas'

CRD 91 44.2 30 1.6 0 0.0 94 13.6
Belted 6 2.9 340 18.3 82 27.4 122 17.7
Not restrained 109 52.9 149 80.1 217 72.6 475 68.7
Total 206 100.0 186 100.0 299 100.0 691 100.0


'The four rural areas observed in
observed in 1988, 1989 and 1990.


1987 were not the same as those









Appendix Table 5.--CRD and seat belt usage percentages in all areas, 1987-
1990.


Restraint

Not
Age/Year CRD Belted restrained Total


(--------------------Percent--------------------)

0-3
1987* 49.2 9.9 40.9 100.0
1988 48.5 5.3 46.3 100.0
1989 49.0 5.1 45.8 100.0
1990 50.4 9.3 40.3 100.0

4-5
1987' 4.6 27.7 67.7 100.0
1988 7.2 19.0 73.8 100.0
1989 7.1 22.0 70.9 100.0
1990 8.8 28.1 63.1 100.0

6-14
1987' 0.1 34.2 65.8 100.0
1988 0.5 27.6 72.0 100.0
1989 0.4 32.7 66.9 100.0
1990 0.8 36.9 62.3 100.0

Total
1987* 15.0 25.9 59.1 100.0
1988 18.1 18.1 63.8 100.0
1989 15.1 22.9 62.0 100.0
1990 19.7 25.4 54.9 100.0


*The four rural areas observed
observed in 1988 through 1990.


in 1987 were not the


same as those












Appendix Table 6.--CRD and seat belt usage percentages in urban areas, 1987-
1990.


Restraint

Not
Age/Year CRD Belted restrained Total


(----------------- Percent--------------------)


1987
1988
1989
1990

4-5
1987
1988
1989
1990

6-14
1987
1988
1989
1990

Total
1987
1988
1989
1990


50.1
56.8
56.8
56.4


5.3
9.0
8.5
12.2


0.1
0.6
0.6
1.0


15.3
20.8
17.9
22.9


11.2
4.9
4.2
9.3


30.0
22.0
23.1
27.7


35.2
31.3
36.4
36. 6


27.4
20.6
24.6
25. 1


38.6
38. 3
39.0
34.3


64.7
69.0
68.4
60.2


64.7
68.1
63.0
62.3


57.4
58.6
57.5
52. 0


100.0
100. 0
100.0
100.0


100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0


100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0


100.0
100.0
100.0
100. 0









Appendix Table 7.--CRD and seat belt usage percentages in rural areas, 1987-
1990.


Restraint

Not
Age/Year CRD Belted restrained Total


(--------------------Percent--------------------)

0-3
1987* 44.2 2.9 52.9 100.0
1988 35.6 5.8 58.6 100.0
1989 33.2 7.0 59.8 100.0
1990 41.3 9.4 49.3 100.0

4-5
1987' 1.6 18.3 80.1 100.0
1988 4.5 14.7 80.7 100.0
1989 4.3 19.8 75.8 100.0
1990 4.3 28.7 67.1 100.0

6-14
1987' 0.0 27.4 72.6 100.0
1988 0.2 20.5 79.3 100.0
1989 0.2 25.9 74.0 100.0
1990 0.5 37.2 62.3 100.0

Total
1987' 13.6 17.7 68.7 100.0
1988 13.7 13.9 72.5 100.0
1989 9.7 19.7 70.7 100.0
1990 15.1 25.9 59.0 100.0


*The four rural areas observed
observed in 1988 through 1990.


in 1987 were not the same as those











Appendix Table 8.--Total results by age, race and gender, 1989-1990.

Total Total Total
sample size using CRD* using CRD* Change

Age 1989 1990 1989 1990 1989 1990 1989/1990


(-----------Number-----------)


(--------Percent---------)


0-3
Male
Female
Unknown
Black
White
Hispanic
Other
Unknown
Total
4-5
Male
Female
Unknown
Black
White
Hispanic
Other
Unknown
Total
6-14
Male
Female
Unknown
Black
White
Hispanic
Other
Unknown
Total
Total sample
Male
Female
Unknown
Black
White
Hispanic
Other
Unknown
Total


*Includes those properly restrained.
include those in seat belts.


Infant category (0-3) does not


1,590
1,604
567
612
2,774
335
29
11
3,761


1,618
1,343
31
546
2,099
315
30
2
2,992


3,721
3,333
20
1,047
5,313
625
72
17
7,074


6,929
6,280
618
2,205
10,186
1,275
131
30
13,827


2,002
1,853
691
681
3,558
250
23
34
4,546


1,592
1,273
24
425
2,151
265
27
21
2,889


2,915
2,773
21
735
4,275
629
43
27
5,709


6,509
5,899
736
1,841
9,984
1,144
93
82
13,144


718
718
408
187
1,463
177
13
4
1,844


445
419
7
83
704
77
7

871


1,186
1,157
2
261
1,817
228
33
6
2,345


2,349
2,294
417
531
3,984
482
53
10
5,060


911
823
558
182
1,969
113
7
21
2,292


573
480
12
98
880
75
9
3
1,065


1,048
1,092
12
216
1,726
183
15
12
2,152


2,532
2,395
582
496
4,575
371
31
36
5,509


45. 2
44. 8
72.0
30. 6
52.7
52.8
44.8
36.4
49.0


27.5
31.2
22.6
15.2
33.5
24.4
23.3

29.1


31.9
34.7
10.0
24.9
34.2
36.5
45.8
35.3
33.1


33.9
36.5
67.5
24.1
39. 1
37.8
40.5
33.3
36.6


45.5
44.4
80.8
26.7
55.3
45.2
30. 4
61.8
50.4


36.0
37.7
50.0
23.1
40.9
28.3
33.3
14.3
36.9


36.0
39.4
57. 1
29.4
40.4
29.1
34.9
44.4
37.7


38.9
40.6
79.1
26.9
45.8
32.4
33.3
43.9
41.9


0.3
-0.4
8.8
-3.9
2.6
-7.6
-14.4
25.4
1.4


8.5
6.5
27.4
7.9
7.4
3.9
10.0

7.8


4.1
4.7
47.1
4.5
6.2
-7.5
-10.9
9.1
4.6


5.0
4.1
11.6
2.8
6.7
-5.4
-7.2
10.6
5.3









Appendix Table 9.--Observed levels of safety device use in the Jacksonville
HSA, by age of child, 1985-1990.


Age

Infants Children Children Total
Year (0-3) (4-5) (6-14)* (0-14)


Number observed
Percent using CRD
Confidence limit (95%)

f198
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD
Confidence limit (95%)


Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD
Confidence limit (95%)

1988
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD
Confidence limit (95%)

1989
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD
Confidence limit (95%)

1990
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD
Confidence limit (95%)


293
71.2
5. 2


816
287
35.2
+3. 3


170
68
40.0
+7. 4


694
404
58.2
+3.7


599
408
68.1
+3.7


1,159
556
48.0
2. 9


404
39.6
+4. 8


471
123
26.1
+4.0


104
48
46.2
+9.6


399
161
40.4
+4. 8


352
169
48.0
+5. 2


396
181
45.7
4. 9


697
54.4
3.7


370
121
32.7
+4. 8


978
245
25. 1
2. 7


963
403
41.8
+3.1


849
419
49.4
+3.4


1,288b
410
31.8
2.5


644
237
36.8
3.8


2,071
810
39.1
2.1


1,914
980
51.2
+2.2


2,404
1,156
48.1
2.0


'No data available
surveys.

wThis number was
discrepancies in totals
available.


for the six- to 14-year-olds in the 1985 and 1986


taken directly from a previous report. Slight
could not be resolved because original data were not











Appendix Table 10.--Observed levels of safety device use in the
Melbourne/ Titusville/ Palm Bay MSA, by age of child,
1985-1990.


Age

Infants Children Children Total
Year (0-3) (4-5) (6-14)- (0-14)


19285
Number observed
Percent using CRD
Confidence limit (95%)

1986
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD
Confidence limit (95%)

L987L
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD
Confidence limit (95%)

1988
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD
Confidence limit (95%)


Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD
Confidence limit (95%)

1990
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD
Confidence limit (95%)


120
56.3
+8. 9


217
143
65.9
+6. 3


119
80
67.2
+8. 4


701
378
53.9
3. 7


730
393
53.8
+3. 6


536
318
59.3
+4. 2


205
75.8
5. 9


590
74
12.5
2. 7


95
35
36.8
--10



424
130
30.7
4. 4


600
161
26.8
+3. 5


371
185
49.9
5.1


325
44.9
5.4


807
217
26.9
+3.1


160
44
27.5
6. 9


694
204
29.4
3. 4


1,121
329
29. 3
2.7


718
303
42.2
+3. 6


374
159
42.5
+5.0


1,819
712
39.1
2.2


2,451
883
36.0
1.9


1,625
806
49.6
+2.4


*No data available for the
surveys.


six- to 14-year-olds in the 1985 and 1986


Confidence limits were not calculated when observations were less than


100.









Appendix Table 11. --Observed levels of safety device use in the Miami/Hialeah
MSA, by age of child, 1985-1990.


Age

Infants Children Children Total
Year (0-3) (4-5) (6-14)* (0-14)

1985
Number observed 264 275 -- 539
Percent using CRD 61.7 28.4 -- 44.7
Confidence limit (95%) 5.9 5.3 -- 4.2


Number observed 229 648 -- 877
Number using CRD 148 89 -- 237
Percent using CRD 64.6 13.7 -- 27.0
Confidence limit (95%) 6.2 2.6 -- 2.9

1987
Number observed 544 381 1,253 2,178
Number using CRD 278 126 470 874
Percent using CRD 51.1 33.1 37.5 40.1
Confidence limit (95%) +4.2 4.7 2.7 2.1

1988
Number observed 916 794 1,135 2,845
Number using CRD 539 228 381 1,148
Percent using CRD 58.8 28.7 33.6 40.4
Confidence limit (95%) +3.2 3.1 2.7 +1.8

1989
Number observed 791 675 1,306 2,772
Number using CRD 468 171 500 1,139
Percent using CRD 59.2 25.3 38.3 41.1
Confidence limit (95%) +3.4 3.3 +2.6 1.8

1990
Number observed 598 530 991 2,119
Number using CRD 352 147 244 743
Percent using CRD 58.9 27.7 24.6 35.1
Confidence limit (95%) +3.9 +3.8 2.7 2.0

*No data available for the six- to 14-year-olds in the 1985 and 1986
surveys.









35

Appendix Table 12.--Observed levels of safety device use in the Tampa/
St. Petersburg/Clearwater MSA, by age of child, 1985-
1990.


Age

Infants Children Children Total
Year (0-3) (4-5) (6-14)' (0-14)


Number observed
Percent using CRD
Confidence limit (95%)


Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD
Confidence limit (95%)

1987
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD
Confidence limit (95%)

1988
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD
Confidence limit (95Z)

1989
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD
Confidence limit (95%)

1990
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD
Confidence limit (95%)


600
47.3
+4. 0


836
425
50. 8
3. 4


244
114
46.7
+6. 3


326
176
54.0
+5. 4


406
165
40. 6
+4.8


453
323
71.3
+4. 2


490
24.1
3.8


488
150
30.7
4. 1


194
64
33.0
+6. 6


207
47
22.7
5.7


352
125
35.5
5. 0


350
143
40.9
+5. 2


694
204
29.4
3. 4


841
195
23.2
2. 9


1,196
465
38. 9
+2.8


851
318
37.4
3. 3


1,090
36.7
+2.9


1,324
575
43.4
2.7


1,132
382
33.7
v2.8


1,374
418
30. 4
2.4


1,954
755
38.6
+2.2


1,654
784
47.4
+2. 4


'No data available for the
surveys.


six- to 14-year-olds in the 1985 and 1986









Appendix Table 13.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years of
age in the Jacksonville MHA, by gender, 1985-1990.


Gender

Year Male Female Unknown Total

L2e85
Number observed 193 110 51 354
Percent using CRD 76.2 62.7 70.6 71.2

L2i
Number observed 235 246 335 816
Number using CRD 56 64 167 287
Percent using CRD 23.8 26.0 49.9 35.2

1987
Number observed 51 56 63 170
Number using CRD 20 19 29 68
Percent using CRD 39.2 33.9 46.0 40.0

1988
Number observed 335 310 49 694
Number using CRD 175 189 40 404
Percent using CRD 52.2 61.0 81.6 58.2

1989
Number observed 251 278 70 599
Number using CRD 177 170 61 408
Percent using CRD 70.5 61.2 87.1 68.1

1990
Number observed 539 470 150 1,159
Number using CRD 252 197 107 556
Percent using CRD 46.8 42.0 71.3 48.1











Appendix Table 14.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years of
age in the Melbourne/Titusville/Palm Bay MSA, by gender,
1985-1990.


Gender

Year Male Female Unknown Total


1985
Number observed
Percent using CRD

1986
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1987
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1988
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1989
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1990
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD


52
76.9


103
67
65.0


10
2
20.0


307
145
47.2


316
165
52.2


213
142
66.7


26
69.2


69
49
71.0


28
15
53.6


283
143
50.5


316
144
45.6


242
105
43.4


42
78.6


45
27
60.0


81
63
77.8


111
90
81.1


98
84
85.7


81
71
87.7


120
75.8


217
143
65.9


119
80
67.2


701
378
53.9


730
393
53.8


536
318
59.3









Appendix Table 15. --Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years of
age in the Hiami/Hialeah MSA, by gender, 1985-1990.


Gender

Year Male Female Unknown Total


Number observed
Percent using CRD


Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1987
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1988
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1989
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1990
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD


97
53.6


74
46
62.2


108
28
25. 9


344
160
46.5


272
136
50.0


201
100
49.8


113
55. 8


81
50
61.7


127
47
37.0


375
207
55. 2


325
177
54.5


269
139
51.7


73
78.1


74
52
70.3


308
202
65.6


197
172
87.3


194
155
79.9


128
113
88.3


283
71.2


229
148
64.6


543
277
51.0


916
539
58.8


791
468
59.2


598
352
58. 9











Appendix Table 16.--Observed levels of CRD
age in the Tampa/St.
gender, 1985-1990.


use among children 0-3 years of
Petersburg/Clearwater MSA, by


Gender


Year Male Female Unknown Total


1985
Number observed
Percent using CRD

1986
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1987
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1988
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1989
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1990
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD


229
48.9


350
155
44.3


63
17
27.0


162
83
51.2


197
75
38.1


190
130
68.4


278
37.4


352
159
45.2


53
17
32.1


164
93
56.7


180
78
43.3


170
110
64.7


99
74.7


134
111
82.8


128
80
62.5


29
12
41.4


93
83
89.3


606
75.8


836
425
50.8


244
114
46.7


326
176
54.0


406
165
40.6


453
323
71.3


--









Appendix Table 17.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 4-5 years of
age in the Jacksonville MSA, by gender, 1985-1990.


Gender


Year Hale Female Unknown Total


Number observed
Percent using CRD

1986
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1987
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1988
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1989
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1990
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD


202
41.1


243
63
25.9


49
16
32.7


219
89
40.6


162
71
43.8


226
101
44.7


193
36.3


194
48
24.7


48
25
52.1


179
71
39.7


190
98
51.6


161
75
46.6


9
77.8


35
12
34.3


7
7
100.0


404
39.6


472
123
26.1


104
48
46. 2


399
160
40.1


352
169
48.0


396
181
45.7


1
0
0.0


9
5
55.6











Appendix Table 18.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 4-5 years of
age in the Melbourne/Titusville/Palm Bay MSA, by gender,
1985-1990.


Gender

Year Male Female Unknown Total

19852
Number observed 89 92 24 205
Percent using CRD 48.3 48.9 16.7 44.9

1986
Number observed 305 278 7 590
Number using CRD 40 33 1 74
Percent using CRD 13.1 11.9 14.3 12.5

1987
Number observed 40 43 12 95
Number using CRD 13 19 3 35
Percent using CRD 32.5 44.2 25.0 36.8

1988
Number observed 243 181 -- 424
Number using CRD 72 58 -- 130
Percent using CRD 29.6 32.0 -- 30.7


Number observed 307 283 111 701
Number using CRD 145 143 90 378
Percent using CRD 47.2 50.5 81.1 53.9

1990
Number observed 204 166 1 371
Number using CRD 97 88 0 185
Percent using CRD 47.6 53.0 0.0 49.9









Appendix Table 19.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 4-5 years of
age in the Miami/Hialeah MA. by gender, 1985-1990.


Gender


Year Male Female Unknown Total


Number observed
Percent using CRD

1986
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1987
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1988
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1989
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1990
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD


160
25.6


305
44
14.4


190
68
35.8


454
139
30. 6


372
86
23.1


293
73
24.9


142
27.5


338
45
13.3


148
47
31.8


326
86
26.4


297
83
27.9


227
68
30. 0


8
50. 0


5
0
0.0


41
10
24.4


14
3
21.4


6
2
33.3


10
6
60. 0


310
27.1


648
89
13.7


379
125
33.0


794
228
28.7


675
171
25.3


530
147
27.7










Appendix Table'.20.--Observed levels of CRD
age in the Tampa/St.
gender, 1985-1990.


use among children 4-5 years of
Petersburg/Clearwater MSA, by


Gender

Year Male Female Unknown Total

Laa
Number observed 266 234 1 501
Percent using CRD 23.1 28.0 0.0 75.8

986A
Number observed 234 245 9 488
Number using CRD 73 75 2 150
Percent using CRD 31.2 30.6 22.2 30.7

1987
Number observed 94 82 18 194
Number using CRD 34 23 7 64
Percent using CRD 36.2 28.0 38.9 33.0

1988
Number observed 111 96 -- 207
Number using CRD 23 24 -- 47
Percent using CRD 20.7 25.0 -- 22.7

1989
Number observed 223 126 3 352
Number using CRD 69 55 1 125
Percent using CRD 30.9 43.7 33.3 35.5

1990
Number observed 180 169 1 350
Number using CRD 72 71 0 143
Percent using CRD 40.0 42.0 0.0 40.9









Appendix Table 21.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14 years of
age in the Jacksonville MSA, by gender, 1987-1990.


Gender

Year Male Female Unknown Total

1987
Number observed 218 146 6 370
Number using CRD 62 58 1 121
Percent using CRD 28. 4 39.7 16.7 32. 7

1988
Number observed 564 413 1 978
Number using CRD 218 164 0 382
Percent using CRD 38.7 39.7 0.0 39.1

1989
Number observed 521 440 2 963
Number using CRD 205 198 0 403
Percent using CRD 39.3 45.0 0.0 41.8

1990
Number observed 429 415 5 849
Number using CRD 199 215 5 419
Percent using CRD 46.4 51.8 100.0 49.4











Appendix Table 22.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14 years of
age in the Melbourne/Titusville/Palm Bay MSA, by gender,
1987-1990.


Gender


Year Male Female Unknown Total


Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1988
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD


Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1990
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD


18
23.4


.379
107
28.2


577
157
27.2


367
145
39.5


26
33.8


315
97
30.8


538
172
32.0


350
158
45.1


6
0
0.0


160
44
27.5


694
204
29.4


1,121
329
29.3


718
303
42.2









Appendix Table 23.--Observed levels of CRD use among
age in the Miami/Hialeah MA, by


children 6-14 years of
gender, 1987-1990.


Gender

Year Male Female Unknown Total

1987
Number observed 606 598 49 1,253
Number using CRD 227 227 16 470
Percent using CRD 37.5 38.0 32.7 37.5

1988
Number observed 586 537 12 1,135
Number using CRD 199 180 2 381
Percent using CRD 34.0 33.5 16.7 33.6

1989
Number observed 682 624 -- 1,306
Number using CRD 250 250 -- 500
Percent using CRD 36.7 40.1 -- 38.3

1990
Number observed 536 451 4 991
Number using CRD 121 121 2 244
Percent using CRD 22.6 26.8 50.0 24.6









47

Appendix Tablp 24.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14 years of
age in the Tampa/St. Petersburg/Clearwater MSA, by
gender, 1987-1990.


Gender

Year Male Female Unknown Total

1987
Number observed 379 315 694
Number using CRD 107 97 -- 204
Percent using CRD 28.2 30.8 -- 29.4

1988
Number observed 433 408 -- 841
Number using CRD 103 92 -- 195
Percent using CRD 23.8 22.5 -- 23.2


Number observed 649 546 1 1,196
Number using CRD 229 236 0 465
Percent using CRD 35.3 43.2 0.0 38. 9

1990
Number observed 454 397 -- 851
Number using CRD 162 156 -- 318
Percent using CRD 35.7 39.3 -- 37.4









Appendix Table 25.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years of
age in the Jacksonville MSA, by race, 1985-1990.


Race

Year Black White Hispanic Other Unknown Total


Number observed
Percent using CRD


Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1987
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1988
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1989
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1990
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD


71 278
53.5 75.5


237
58
24.5


45
14
31.1


96
42
43.8


132
80
60.6


222
73
32.9


573
226
39.4



122
53
43.4


578
355
61.4


455
323
71.0


915
470
51.4


-- 5
-80.0


-354
- 71.2


6
3
50.0


3
1
33.3


8
4
50.0


5
2
40.0


13
8
61.5


10
3
30. 0


3
2
66.7


1
1
100.0


2
0
0.0


4
1
25.0


8
4
50.0


816
287
35.2


170
68
40.0


694
404
58.2


599
408
68.1


1,159
556
48.0









49

Appendix Table 26.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years of
age in the Melbourne/Titusville/Palm Bay MSA, by race,
1985-1990.


Race

Year Black White Hispanic Other Unknown Total

1985
Number observed 16 103 -- 1 -- 120
Percent using CRD 25.0 83.5 -- 100.0 -- 75.8

1986
Number observed 16 200 -- 1 -- 217
Number using CRD 6 137 -- 0 -- 143
Percent using CRD 37.5 39.4 -- 0.0 -- 65.9

1987
Number observed 3 113 1 2 -- 119
Number using CRD 1 76 1 2 -- 80
Percent using CRD 33.3 67.3 100.0 100.0 -- 67.2

1988
Number observed 46 620 25 8 2 701
Number using CRD 11 348 13 5 1 378
Percent using CRD 23.9 56.1 52.0 62.5 50.0 53.9

1989
Number observed 96 605 24 4 1 730
Number using CRD 25 352 15 1 0 393
Percent using CRD 26.0 58.2 62.5 25.0 0.0 53.8

1990
Number observed 38 480 12 6 -- 536
Number using CRD 13 300 2 3 -- 318
Percent using CRD 34.2 62.5 16.7 50.0 -- 59.3









Appendix Table 27.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years of
age in the Miami/Hialeah MA, by race, 1985-1990.


Race


Year Black White Hispanic Other Unknown Total


Number observed
Percent using CRD

1986
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1987
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1988
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1989
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1990
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD


66 208
28.8 71.2


49
17
34.7


97
19
19.6


191
59
30.9


144
56
38.9


127
42
33.1


179
130
72.6


297
193
65. 0


437
302
69.1


366
252
68.9


275
196
71.3


-- 9
-55. 6


141
60
42.6


275
172
62.5


267
152
56.9


170
97
57.1


1
1
100.0


8
5
62.5


7
3
42.9


10
6
60.0


-283
- 60.8


6
3
50. 0


4
2
50.0


24
17
70.8


229
148
64.6


543
277
51.0


916
539
58.8


791
468
59.2


598
352
58.9











Appendix Table 28.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years of
age in the Tampa/ St. Petersburg/ Clearwater MSA, by race,
1985-1990.


Race

Year Black White Hispanic Other Unknown Total


1985
Number observed
Percent using CRD


Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1987
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1988
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1989
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1990
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD


121 482
16.5 56.2


143
64
44.8


28
4
14.3


17
10
58.8


46
8
17.4


34
20
58.8


678
351
51.8


199
107
53.8


300
163
54.3


334
149
44.6


407
298
73.2


-606*
- 47.9


11
2
18.2


4
2
50. 0


19
4
21.1


10
4
40. 0


15
10
66.7


6
1
16.7


4
0
0.0


7
4
57.1


2
1
50. 0


1
1
100. 0


836
425
50.8


244
114
46.7


326
176
54.0


406
165
40.6


453
323
71.3


*This number was taken directly from a previous report. Slight
discrepancies in totals could not be resolved because original data were not
available.









Appendix Table 29.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 4-5 years of
age in the Jacksonville MSA, by race, 1985-1990.


Race

Year Black White Hispanic Other Unknown Total


1985
Number observed
Percent using CRD

1986
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1987
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1988
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1989
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1990
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD


111 282
27.0 45.7


66 403
5 116
7.6 28.8


14
5
35.7


54
15
27.8


87
32
36.8


80
34
42.5


87
42
48. 3


336
142
42.3


260
134
51.5


299
138
46.2


11
9.1


3
2
66.7


-404
- 39.6


1
1
100.0


3
3
100.0


4
3
75. 0


14
9
64.3


2
0
0.0


472
123
26.1


104
48
46.2


399
160
40.1


352
169
48.0


396
181
45.7











Appendix Table 30.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 4-5 years of
age in the Melbourne/Titusville/Palm Bay MSA, by race,
1985-1990.


Race

Year Black White Hispanic Other Unknown Total


1985
Number observed
Percent using CRD

1986
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1987
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1988
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1989
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1990
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD


39 160
15.4 52.5


51 535
2 72
3.9 39.4


7
0
0.0


31
5
16.1


88
35
39.8


368
110
29. 9


79 497
5 145
6.3 29.2


21
6
28.6


333
173
52.0


22
14
63.6


21
9
42.9


13
4
30. 8


6
33.3


3
1
33.3


3
2
66.7


4
2
50. 0


-205
- 44.9


590
74
12.5


95
35
36.8


424
130
30. 7


600
161
26.8


371
185
49.9









Appendix Table 31.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 4-5 years of
age in the Miami/Hialeah MSA, by race, 1985-1990.


Race

Year Black White Hispanic Other Unknown Total


Number observed
Percent using CRD

1986
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1987
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1988
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1989
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1990
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD


68 234
26.5 27.8


72
17
23.6


178
26
14.6


166
22
13.3


145
22
15.2


444
80
18.0


184
77
41.8


345
130
37.7


241
86
35.7


175
66
37.7


-- 7
-- 14.3


118
31
26.3


259
71
27.4


254
61
24.0


186
53
28.5


6
1
16.7


9
1
11.1


12
2
16.7


7
3
42.9


-310"
- 27.1


3
0
0.0


2
0
0.0


17
3
17.7


648
89
13.7


379*
125'
33.0


794
228
28.7


675
171
25.3


530
147
27.7


*This number was taken directly from a previous report. Slight
discrepancies in totals could not be resolved because original data were not
available.









55

Appendix Table 32.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 4-5 years of
age in the Tampa/St. Petersburg/Clearwater MSA, by race,
1985-1990.


Race


Year Black White Hispanic Other Unknown Total

1985
Number observed 413 782 -- 10 -- 501*
Percent using CRD 29.8 3.8 -- 30.0 -- 25.3

1986
Number observed 61 418 -- 9 -- 488
Number using CRD 13 132 -- 5 -- 150
Percent using CRD 21.3 31.6 -- 55.6 -- 30.7

1987
Number observed 21 151 17 5 -- 194
Number using CRD 5 55 3 1 -- 64
Percent using CRD 23.8 36.4 17.6 20.0 -- 33.0

1988
Number observed 13 191 2 1 -- 207
Number using CRD 2 45 0 0 -- 47
Percent using CRD 15.4 23.6 0.0 0.0 -- 22.7


Number observed 37 294 13 8 -- 352
Number using CRD 7 114 2 2 -- 125
Percent using CRD 18.9 38.8 15.4 25.0 -- 35.5

1990
Number observed 34 298 11 7 -- 350
Number using CRD 5 134 2 2 -- 143
Percent using CRD 14.7 45.0 18.2 28.6 -- 40.9

"This number was taken directly from a previous report. Slight
discrepancies in totals could not be resolved because original data were not
available.









Appendix Table 33.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14 years of
age in the Jacksonville MIA, by race, 1987-1990.


Race


Year Black White Hispanic Other Unknown Total


1987
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD


Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1989
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1990
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD


41
5
12.2


198
59
29.8


215
73
34.0


176
83
47.2


316
112
35. 4


755
312
41.3


725
320
44.1


604
303
50.2


5
1
20. 0


15
7
46.7


14
5
35.7


64
29
45.3


8
3
37.5


8
3
37.5


6
2
33.3


5
4
80. 0


2
1
50.0


3
3
100.0


370
121
32.7


978
382
39.1


963
403
41.8


849
419
49.4











Appendix Table 34.--Observed levels of.CRD use among children 6-14 years of
age in the Melbourne/Titusville/Palm Bay MSA, by race,
1987-1990.


Race

Year Black White Hispanic Other Unknown Total

1987
Number observed 7 146 2 6 -- 160
Number using CRD 0 42 0 2 -- 44
Percent using CRD 0.0 28.8 0.0 33.3 -- 27.5

1988
Number observed 36 617 34 7 -- 694
Number using CRD 8 178 15 3 -- 204
Percent using CRD 22.2 28.8 44.1 42.9 -- 29.4

1989
Number observed 143 937 29 11 1 1,121
Number using CRD 27 280 15 7 0 329
Percent using CRD 18.9 29.9 51.7 63.6 0.0 29.3

1990
Number observed 50 639 20 9 -- 718
Number using CRD 14 275 9 5 -- 303
Percent using CRD 28.0 43.0 45.0 55.6 -- 42.2

*This number was taken directly from a previous report. Slight
discrepancies in totals could not be resolved because original data were not
available.









Appendix Table 35.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14 years of
age in the Miami/Hialeah MSA, by race, 1987-1990.


Race


Year Black White Hispanic Other Unknown Total


1987

Number observed 277 672 281 28 -- 1,253"
Number using CRD 87 282 89 12 -- 470
Percent using CRD 31.4 42.0 31.7 42.9 -- 37.5
1988

Number observed 238 465 407 21 4 1,135
Number using CRD 48 209 119 5 0 381
Percent using CRD 20.2 44.9 29.2 23.8 0.0 33.6
1989

Number observed 227 589 457 27 6 1,306
Number using CRD 70 238 179 10 3 500
Percent using CRD 30.8 40.4 39.2 37.0 50.0 38.3
1990

Number observed 185 357 416 9 24 991
Number using CRD 29 97 105 2 11 244
Percent using CRD 15.7 27.2 25.2 22.2 45.8 24.6

aThis number was taken directly from a previous report. Slight
discrepancies in totals could not be resolved because original data were not
available.










Appendix Table 36.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14 years of
age in the Tampa/St. Petersburg/Clearwater MSA, by race,
1987-1990.


Race


Year Black White Hispanic Other Unknown Total


1987
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1988
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1989
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD

1990
Number observed
Number using CRD
Percent using CRD


36
8
22.2


617
178
28.8


37 774
2 189
5.4 24.4


89
25
28. 1


67
22
32. 8


1,038
411
39.6


725
277
38. 2


34
15
44.1


19
2
10.5


48
18
37.5


47
16
34.0


7
3
42.9


9
1
11.1


19
11
57.9


11
2
18.2


2 1,196
0 465
0.0 38.9


694
204
29.4


841
195
23.2


2
1
50. 0


1
1
100. 0


851
318
37.4









Appendix Table 37.--Observed levels of safety device use in Eustis, by age
of child, 1988-1990.



Age

Infants Children Children Total
Year (0-3) (4-5) (6-14) (0-14)

1988
Number observed 664 388 668 1,720
Number using CRD 268 78 122 468
Percent using CRD 40.4 20.1 18.3 27.2
Confidence limit (95%) +3.7 +4.0 +2.9 +2.1

1989
Number observed 414 244 656 1,314
Number using CRD 170 71 196 437
Percent using CRD 41.1 29.1 29.9 33.3
Confidence limit (95%) +4.7 +5.7 +3.5 2. 5

1990
Number observed 607 376 549 1,532
Number using CRD 319 137 190 646
Percent using CRD 52.6 36.4 34.6 42.2
Confidence limit (95%) +4.0 +4.9 +4.0 +2.5











Appendix Table 38. --Observed levels of safety device use in Lake City, by age
of child, 1988-1990.


Age

Infants Children Children Total
Year (0-3) (4-5) (6-14) (0-14)



Number observed 433 505 492 1,430
Number using CRD 143 67 83 293
Percent using CRD 33.0 13.3 16.9 20.5
Confidence limit (95%) +4.4 3.0 3.3 2.1

1989
Number observed 265 261 548 1,074
Number using CRD 65 46 99 210
Percent using CRD 24.5 17.6 18.1 19.6
Confidence limit (95%) 5.2 +4.6 +3.2 2.4

1990
Number observed 433 331 551 1,315
Number using CRD 152 85 176 413
Percent using CRD 35.1 25.7 31.9 31.4
Confidence limit (95%) +4.5 +4. 7 3. 9 2. 5









Appendix Table 39.--Observed levels of safety device use in Marianna, by age
of child, 1988-1990.



Age

Infants Children Children Total
Year (0-3) (4-5) (6-14) (0-14)

1988
Number observed 328 204 397 929
Number using CED 73 63 120 256
Percent using CRD 22.3 30.9 30.2 27.6
Confidence limit (95%) +4.5 6.3 t4.5 +2.9

1989
Number observed 346 261 515 1,122
Number using CRD 69 71 196 336
Percent using CRD 19.9 27.2 38.1 29.9
Confidence limit (95Z) +4.2 +5.4 4.2 2.7

1990
Number observed 222 155 345 722
Number using CRD 79 75 176 330
Percent using CRD 35.6 48.4 51.0 45.7
Confidence limit (951) 6.3 +7.9 +5.3 +3. 6











Appendix Table 40. --Observed levels of safety device use in Sebring, by age
of child, 1988-1990.



Age

Infants Children Children Total
Year (0-3) (4-5) (6-14) (0-14)



Number observed 270 158 349 777
Number using CRD 119 33 69 221
Percent using CRD 44.1 20.9 19.8 28.4
Confidence limit (95%) +5.9 +6.3 +4.2 t3.2


Number observed 210 247 769 1,226
Number using CRD 106 57 157 320
Percent using CRD 50.5 23.1 20.4 26.1
Confidence limit (95%) +6.8 +5.3 +2.8 2.5

1990
Number observed 538 380 855 1,773
Number using CRD 193 112 326 631
Percent using CRD 35.9 29.5 38.1 35.6
Confidence limit (95%) +4.1 +4.6 +3.3 2.2









Appendix Table 41.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years of
age in Eustis, by gender, 1988-1990.


Gender

Tear Male Female Unknown Total



Number observed 338 282 44 664
Number using CRD 122 120 26 268
Percent using CRD 36.1 42.6 59.1 40.4

1989
Number observed 202 177 35 414
Number using CRD 84 69 17 170
Percent using CRD 41.6 39.0 48.6 41.1

1990
Number observed 292 234 81 607
Number using CRD 156 92 71 319
Percent using CRD 53.4 39.3 87.7 52.6











Appendix Table 42.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years of
age in Lake City, by gender, 1988-1990.


Gender

Year Male Female Unknown Total

1988
Number observed 184 176 73 433
Number using CRD 58 33 52 143
Percent using CRD 31.5 18.8 71.2 33.0

1989
Number observed 131 106 28 265
Number using CRD 26 25 14 65
Percent using CRD 19.8 23.6 50.0 24.5

1990
Number observed 214 142 77 433
Number using CRD 67 37 48 152
Percent using CRD 31.3 26.1 62.3 35.1









Appendix Table 43.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years of
age in Marianna, by gender, 1988-1990.


Gender

Year Male Female Unknown Total



Number observed 182 146 -- 328
Number using CRD 44 29 -- 73
Percent using CRD 24.2 19.9 -- 22.3

1989
Number observed 164 153 29 346
Number using CRD 35 26 8 69
Percent using CRD 21.3 17.0 27.6 19.9

1990
Number observed 105 91 26 222
Number using CRD 32 31 16 79
Percent using CRD 30.5 34.1 61.5 35.6











Appendix Table .44. --Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years of
age in Sebring, by gender, 1988-1990.


Gender

Year Male Female Unknown Total



Number observed 134 108 28 270
Number using CRD 52 42 25 119
Percent using CRD 38.8 38.9 89.3 44.1

1989
Number observed 57 69 84 210
Number using CRD 20 29 57 106
Percent using CRD 35.1 42.0 67.9 50.5

1990
Number observed 248 235 55 538
Number using CRD 69 75 49 193
Percent using CRD 27.8 31.9 89.1 35. 9









Appendix Table 45.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 4-5 years of
age in Eustis, by gender, 1988-1990.


Gender

Year Male Female Unknown Total

1988
Number observed 254 134 -- 388
Number using CRD 52 26 -- 78
Percent using CRD 20.5 19.4 -- 20.1

1989
Number observed 128 115 1 244
Number using CRD 41 30 0 71
Percent using CRD 32.0 26.1 0.0 29.1

192290
Number observed 213 163 -- 376
Number using CRD 79 58 -- 137
Percent using CRD 37.1 35.6 -- 36.4











Appendix Table 46.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 4-5 years of
age in Lake City, by gender, 1988-1990.


Gender

Year Male Female Unknown Total



Number observed 310 195 -- 505
Number using CRD 42 25 -- 67
Percent using CRD 13.5 12.8 -- 13.3

1989
Number observed 129 126 6 261
Number using CRD .20 26 0 46
Percent using CRD 15.5 20.6 0.0 17.6


Number observed 187 141 3 331
Number using CRD 53 31 0 84
Percent using CRD 28.3 22.0 0.0 25.4









Appendix Table 47.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 4-5 years of
age in Marianna, by gender, 1988-1990.


Gender

Year Male Female Unknown Total

19288
Number observed 116 88 -- 204
Number using CRD 31 32 -- 63
Percent using CRD 26.7 36.4 -- 30.9


Number observed 126 131 4 261
Number using CRD 35 35 1 71
Percent using CRD 27.8 26.7 25.0 27.2

1990
Number observed 81 74 -- 155
Number using CRD 35 40 -- 75
Percent using CRD 43.2 54.1 -- 48.4











Appendix Table 48. --Observed levels of CRD use among children 4-5 years of
age in Sebring, by gender, 1988-1990.


Gender

Year Male Female Unknown Total



Number observed 92 66 -- 158
Number using CRD 18 15 -- 33
Percent using CRD 19.6 22.7 -- 20.9

1989
Number observed 138 99 10 247
Number using CRD 35 20 2 57
Percent using CRD 25.4 20.2 20.0 23.1

1990
Number observed 208 172 -- 380
Number using CRD 63 49 -- 112
Percent using CRD 30.3 28.5 -- 29.5









Appendix Table 49.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14 years of
age in Eustis, by gender, 1988-1990.


Gender


Year Male Female Unknown Total

1988
Number observed 422 246 -- 668
Number using CRD 80 42 -- 122
Percent using CRD 19.0 17.1 -- 18.3


Number observed 341 315 656
Number using CRD 93 103 -- 196
Percent using CRD 27.3 32.7 -- 29.9

1990
Number observed 300 249 -- 549
Number using CRD 107 83 -- 190
Percent using CRD 35.7 33.3 -- 34.6











Appendix Table 50.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14 years of
age in Lake City, by gender, 1988-1990.


Gender

Year Hale Female Unknown Total



Number observed 238 254 -- 492
Number using CRD 38 45 -- 83
Percent using CRD 16.0 17.7 -- 16.9


Number observed 279 264 5 548
Number using CRD 51 48 0 99
Percent using CRD 18.3 18.2 0.0 18.1

1990
Number observed 266 285 -- 551
Number using CRD 79 97 -- 176
Percent using CRD 29.7 34.0 -- 31.9









Appendix Table 51.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14 years of
age in Marianna, by gender, 1988-1990.


Gender

Year Male Female Unknown Total



Number observed 209 188 -- 397
Number using CRD 54 66 -- 120
Percent using CRD 25. 8 35.1 -- 30.2

1989
Number observed 265 247 3 515
Number using CRD 110 84 2 196
Percent using CRD 41.5 34.0 0.0 38.1

1990
Number observed 169 165 11 345
Number using CRD 88 83 5 176
Percent using CRD 52.1 50.3 45.5 51.0










Appendix Table,52.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14 years of
age in Sebring, by gender, 1988-1990.


Gender

Year Hale Female Unknown Total

LMA
Number observed 210 139 -- 349
Number using CRD 34 35 69
Percent using CRD 16.2 25.2 -- 19.8

1989
Number observed 407 359 3 769
Number using CRD 91 66 0 157
Percent using CRD 22.4 18.4 0.0 20.4

1990
Number observed 394 461 -- 855
Number using CRD 147 179 -- 326
Percent using CRD 37.3 38.8 -- 38.1









Appendix Table 53.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years of
age in Eustis, by race, 1988-1990.


Race

Year Black White Hispanic Other Unknown Total

1988
Number observed 112 552 -- -- 664
Number using CRD 10 258 -- -- 268
Percent using CRD 8.9 46.7 -- -- 40.4

1989
Number observed 62 345 5 2 -- 414
Number using CRD 7 162 1 0 -- 170
Percent using CRD 11.3 47.0 20.0 0.0 -- 41.1

1990
Number observed 76 522 5 4 -- 607
Number using CRD 12 307 0 0 -- 319
Percent using CRD 15.8 58.8 0.0 0.0 -- 52.6











Appendix Table 54.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years of
age in Lake City, by race, 1988-1990.


Race

Year Black White Hispanic Other Unknown Total

1988
Number observed 81 347 4 1 433
Number using CRD 11 132 0 0 -- 143
Percent using CRD 13.6 38,0 0.0 0.0 -- 33.0

1989
Number observed 44 219 1 -- 1 265
Number using CRD 4 61 0 -- 0 65
Percent using CRD 9.1 27.9 0.0 -- 0.0 24.5

1990
Number observed 67 361 -- 4 1 433
Number using CRD 5 146 -- 1 0 152
Percent using CRD 7.5 40.4 -- .25 0.0 35.1







78

Appendix Table 55.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years of
age in Marianna, by race, 1988-1990.


Race


Year Black White Hispanic Other Unknown Total


1988
Number observed 57 269 -- 2 -- 328
Number using CRD 8 64 -- 1 -- 73
Percent using CRD 14.0 23.8 -- 50.0 -- 22.3

1989
Number observed 59 285 -- 2 -- 346
Number using CRD 4 65 -- 0 -- 69
Percent using CRD 6.8 22.8 -- 0.0 -- 19.9

1990
Number observed 63 158 1 -- 222
Number using CRD 9 69 1 -- 79
Percent using CRD 14.3 43.7 100.0 -- 35.6











Appendix Table 56.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years of
age in Sebring, by race, 1988-1990.


Race

Year Black White Hispanic Other Unknown Total

1988
Number observed 40 221 9 -- 270
Number using CRD 12 102 5 119
Percent using CRD 30.0 46.2 55.6 -- 44.1

1989
Number observed 29 165 14 1 1 210
Number using CRD 3 99 3 0 1 106
Percent using CRD 10.3 60.0 21.4 0.0 100.0 50.5

1990
Number observed 54 440 39 4 1 538
Number using CRD 8 183 1 1 0 193
Percent using CRD 14.8 41.6 2.6 0.3 0.0 35.9









Appendix Table 57.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 4-5 years of
age in Eustis, by race, 1988-1990.


Race

Year Black White Hispanic Other Unknown Total



Number observed 58 326 4 -- 388
Number using CRD 2 76 0 -- 78
Percent using CRD 3.4 23.3 0.0 -- 20.1

1989
Number observed 33 202 8 1 -- 244
Number using CRD 2 68 1 0 -- 71
Percent using CRD 6.1 33.7 12.5 0.0 -- 29.1

1990
Number observed 29 338 6 3 -- 376
Number using CRD 3 132 1 1 -- 137
Percent using CRD 10.3 39.1 0.2 0.3 -- 36.4











Appendix Table 58,--Observed levels of CRD use among children 4-5 years of
age in Lake City, by race, 1988-1990.


Race

Year Black White Hispanic Other Unknown Total

1988
Number observed 90 411 3 1 -- 505
Number using CRD 6 60 1 0 -- 67
Percent using CRD 6.7 14.6 33.3 0.0 -- 13.3

1989
Number observed 60 198 2 1 -- 261
Number using CRD 6 40 0 0 -- 46
Percent using CRD 10.0 20.2 0.0 0.0 -- 17.6

1990
Number observed 45 282 -- 3 1 331
Number using CRD 7 77 -- 1 0 85
Percent using CRD 15.6 27.3 -- 33.3 0.0 25.7









Appendix Table 59.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 4-5 years of
age in Marianna, by race, 1988-1990.


Race

Year Black White Hispanic Other Unknown Total



Number observed 39 165 -- -- 204
Number using CRD 9 54 -- -- 63
Percent using CRD 23.1 32.7 -- -- 30.9


Number observed 56 202 1 2 -- 261
Number using CRD 6 65 0 0 -- 71
Percent using CRD 10.7 32.2 0.0 0.0 -- 27.2

1990
Number observed 41 114 -- -- 155
Number using CRD 17 58 -- -- 75
Percent using CRD 41.5 50.9 -- -- 48.4











Appendix Table 60.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 4-5 years of
age in Sebring, by race, 1988-1990.


Race

Year Black White Hispanic Other Unknown Total

1988
Number observed 27 121 10 -- 158
Number using CRD 1 32 0 -- 33
Percent using CRD 3.7 26.4 0.0 -- 20.9


Number observed 28 205 12 2 -- 247
Number using CRD 3 52 1 1 -- 57
Percent using CRD 10.7 25.4 8.3 50.0 -- 23.1

1990
Number observed 30 312 35 2 1 380
Number using CRD 4 102 6 0 0 112
Percent using CRD 13.3 32.7 17.1 0.0 0.0 29.5









Appendix Table 61.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14 years of
age in Eustis, by race, 1988-1990.


Race

Year Black White Hispanic Other Unknown Total

1988
Number observed 76 586 4 2 -- 668
Number using CRD 8 114 0 0 -- 122
Percent using CRD 10.5 19.5 0.0 0.0 -- 18.3

1989
Number observed 65 568 22 1 -- 656
Number using CRD 13 180 3 0 -- 196
Percent using CRD 20.0 31.7 13.6 0.0 -- 29.9

1990
Number observed 40 500 6 2 1 549
Number using CRD 8 177 5 0 0 190
Percent using CRD 20.0 35.4 83.3 0.0 0.0 34.6











Appendix Table 62.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14 years of
age in Lake City, by race, 1988-1990.


Race

Year Black White Hispanic Other Unknown Total



Number observed 81 401 7 3 -- 492
Number using CRD 15 64 2 2 -- 83
Percent using CRD 18.5 16.0 28.6 66.7 -- 16.9

1989
Number observed 99 443 3 3 -- 548
Number using CRD 15 .82 1 1 -- 99
Percent using CRD 15.2 18.5 33.3 33.3 -- 18.1

1990
Number observed 78 466 5 2 -- 551
Number using CRD 12 160 3 1 -- 176
Percent using CRD 15.4 34.3 60.0 50.0 -- 31.9









Appendix Table 63.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14 years of
age in Marianna, by race, 1988-1990.


Race

Year Black White Hispanic Other Unknown Total



Number observed 69 327 -- 1 -- 397
Number using CRD 19 101 -- 0 -- 120
Percent using CRD 27.5 30.9 -- 0. 0 -- 30.2

1989
Number observed 124 390 1 -- 515
Number using CRD 26 170 0 -- 196
Percent using CRD 21.0 43.6 0.0 -- 38.1

1990
Number observed 71 273 -- 1 -- 345
Number using CRD 32 143 -- 1 -- 176
Percent using CRD 45.1 52.4 -- 100.0 -- 51.0




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