• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Foreword
 Abstract
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 List of Figures
 Executive summary
 Introduction
 Survey approach
 Results
 Conclusion
 Reference
 Glossary
 Tabulations of survey results
 CRD observational survey coding...






Group Title: Industry Report - University of Florida. Agricultural Market Research Center ; no. 88-1
Title: Observational survey of seat belt and child restraint device usage among children fourteen years of age and under in Florida
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 Material Information
Title: Observational survey of seat belt and child restraint device usage among children fourteen years of age and under in Florida
Series Title: Industry report - University of Florida, Florida Agricultural Market Research Center ; no. 89-1
Physical Description: Serial
Language: English
Creator: Degner, Robert L.
Moss, Susan D.
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Market Research Center, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1989
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027568
Volume ID: VID00002
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Foreword
        Page i
    Abstract
        Page i
    Acknowledgement
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    List of Tables
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
    List of Figures
        Page x
    Executive summary
        Page xi
        Page xii
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Survey approach
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Results
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
    Conclusion
        Page 19
    Reference
        Page 20
    Glossary
        Page 21
        Page 22
    Tabulations of survey results
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
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        Page 69
        Page 70
    CRD observational survey coding sheet
        Page 71
        Page 72
Full Text







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Intld i i. H port 114'-


I 98 ?9 ( BSf FR I Ai N I AL R L Y F r

SeAIt 1E11 AND CHIiiD R ESTRAI2NT F)rICE:
USAC;11 AMONG CI lL[REN FY ERT!) !f

VI-:AR.S ;OF i^SIS Au I) iI.DI)ER NI t iOi ll0 A






Bur a o l f PuIb 1 A.1 Su let y M !i i a J:C 1 r ti' .









SuDr. 'It Suii'n 'l Moss.


Ma< 109?9












1989 OBSERVATIONAL OF
SEAT BELT AND CHILD .:..: :: DEVICE
USAGE AMONG CHILDREN FOURTEEN
YEARS OF AGE AND UNDER IN

'-.: Number 89-05-LE-304-03

FINAL REPORT








S for the

Bureau of Public Safety ManagemenL
Florida Department of Community Affairs
Tallahassee, Florida 32301








Prepared by

Dr. Robert L. Degner

and

Susan D. Moss


The Florida Agricultural Market Research Center
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611
FAMRC Industry Report 89-1


S1989











FORWARD


Report was :..i. for the Bureau of Public ;- ... ..

Department of Community Affairs, State of Florida in cooperation with the

National Hi::'-,:-: Traffic Safety Administration and the U.S. Department of

Transportation.

The conclusions and opinions expressed in these reports are those of

the Subgrantee, and do not necessarily represent those of the State of

Florida, Bureau of Public .7-':. M. ..-:-. Division of Housing and

Community Development, Department of Community Affairs, the UIS.

Department of Transportation, or any other agency of the State or Federal

Government.


ABSTRACT


An observational survey of child restraint device (CRD) usage was

conducted in four metropolitan and four rural areas of Florida in March

1989. This was the fifth annual survey to determine usage levels among

infants (ages zero through three years), young children (four to five

years), and older children (six through fourteen years). Approximately

49 percent of 3,761 infants were properly restrained in CRDs, and 29

percent of nearly 3,000 young children were properly restrained in CRDs

or seat belts. .. -. one-third of the 7,000 older children observed were

restrained by seat belts. Usage over all age groups showed a slight

increase over 1988, but usage among blacks and usage in rural areas

remains lower than for the state as a whole.

Key .-' .-. : safety, child restraint devices, seat belt usage











FORWARD


Report was :..i. for the Bureau of Public ;- ... ..

Department of Community Affairs, State of Florida in cooperation with the

National Hi::'-,:-: Traffic Safety Administration and the U.S. Department of

Transportation.

The conclusions and opinions expressed in these reports are those of

the Subgrantee, and do not necessarily represent those of the State of

Florida, Bureau of Public .7-':. M. ..-:-. Division of Housing and

Community Development, Department of Community Affairs, the UIS.

Department of Transportation, or any other agency of the State or Federal

Government.


ABSTRACT


An observational survey of child restraint device (CRD) usage was

conducted in four metropolitan and four rural areas of Florida in March

1989. This was the fifth annual survey to determine usage levels among

infants (ages zero through three years), young children (four to five

years), and older children (six through fourteen years). Approximately

49 percent of 3,761 infants were properly restrained in CRDs, and 29

percent of nearly 3,000 young children were properly restrained in CRDs

or seat belts. .. -. one-third of the 7,000 older children observed were

restrained by seat belts. Usage over all age groups showed a slight

increase over 1988, but usage among blacks and usage in rural areas

remains lower than for the state as a whole.

Key .-' .-. : safety, child restraint devices, seat belt usage












ACKNOVLEDGEMENTS


The authors wish to extend appreciation to the following individuals

who assisted in this study: Data Collectors Sandra Baquero,

Jorge Bonifasi, Jose Bonifasi, Darrell Brannan, Duane Engel,

Linda Kirkland, Katie Oliver, Octavio Ramirez, Renelle Ramirez,

Ruth Reynolds, Nancy Stephencs, Irwin Research Services, Inc., Joseph Rice,

P.E./Consulting Engineer, and Tampa Bay Opinion Mart; and Carol Cook, IFAS

grants coordinator. Renelle Ramirez also typed the manuscript.

We would also like to express our appreciation to the planning staff

of the Bureau of Public Safety Management, Department of Community

Affairs, and the U.S. Department of Transportation, National Highway

Traffic Safety Administration for their assistance in conducting this

research.












TABLE OF CONTENTS





FORWARD . . . . . . . i

ABSTRACT . . . . . . i

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . . . . . ii

LIST OF TABLES . . . .. . iv

LIST OF APPENDIX TABLES .. . . .. v

LIST OF FIGURES . . . . . x

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY . . .. xi

INTRODUCTION . . . .. . .. . 1

SURVEY APPROACH . . . . . .. 2
Study Site Selection . . . . 2
Survey Team Organization . . . . 3
Data Collection .. . . . . . 4
Data Compilation and Analysis . . . . 5

RESULTS . . . . . . . 5
Overall Results . . . . . 5
Urban Results . ...... .. . . .. 8
Rural Results . . . .. . 14

Restraint vs. Compliance with the Law .. . .. 17

CONCLUSIONS . . .. ............ 19

REFERENCES . . ........ .. . .. 20

GLOSSARY . . . . . . .. 21

APPENDIX A . . .... . . . 23
Tabulations of Survey Results . . . 24

APPENDIX B . . .. .. . . 71
CRD Observational Survey Coding Sheet .. . 72












LIST OF TABLES


1 CRD and seat belt usage in urban, rural and all areas
by .:. and seating location .....












LIST OF APPENDIX TABLES


Table Page

1 CRD/belt usage, by age of child and type of area, 1989 24

2 CRD/belt usage, by age of child and type of area, 1988 25

3 CRD/belt usage, by age of child and type of area, 1987 26

4 CRD and seat belt usage percentages in all areas, 1987-
1989 . . . . ... 27

5 CRD and seat belt usage percentages in urban areas,
1987-1989 . . . . . 28

6 CRD and seat belt usage percentages in rural areas.
1987-1989 . . . . 29

7 Total results by age, race and gender, 1988-1989 . 30

8 Observed levels of safety device use in the Jackson-
ville MSA, by age of child, 1985-1989 . .. .. 31

9 Observed levels of safety device use in the Melbourne/
Titusville/Palm Bay MSA, by age of child, 1985-1989 32

10 Ctb:cr i-,c levels of safety device use in the Miami/
Hialeah MSA, by age of child, 1985-1989 .. .. .. 33

11 Observed levels of safety device use in the Tampa/
St. Petersburg/Clearwater MSA, by age of child, 1985-
1989 . . . . . . .. 34

12 b.:rir-. levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years of
age in the Jacksonville MSA, by gender, 1985-1989 .. 35

13 Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years of
age in the Melbourne/Titusville/Palm Bay MSA, by
gender, 1985-1989 . ... . .. . 36

14 Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years of
age in the Miami/Hialeah MSA, by gender, 1985-1989 . 37

15 Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years of
age in the Tampa/St. Petersburg/Clearwater MSA, by
gender, 1985-1989 . . .. ... .... 38

16 Observed levels of CRD use among children 4-5 years of
age in the Jacksonville MSA, by gender, 1985-1989 .. 39












LIST OF APPENDIX TABLES CONTINUED


Table Page

17 Observed levels of CRD use among children 4-5 years of
age in the Melbourne/Titusville/Palm Bay MSA, by
gender, 1985-1989 . . .. . 40

18 Observed levels of CRD use among children 4-5 ;eds, of
age in the Miami/Hlialeah MSA, by gender, 1985-1989 41

19 Observed levels of CRD use among children 4-5 years of
age in the Tamap./St. Petersburg/Clearwater MSA, by
gender, 1985-1989 . .. . . 42

20 Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14 years of
age in the Jacksonville MSA, by gender, 1985-1989 .. 43

21 Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14 *.'Ears of
age in the Melbourne/Titusville/Palm Bay MSA, by
gender, 1985-1989 . . . . 43

22 Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14 years of
age in the Miami/Hialeah MSA, by gender, 1985-1989 .. 44

23 Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14 years of
age in the Tampa/St. Petersburg/Clearwater MSA, by
gender, 1985-1989 .. . . .. 44

24 Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years of
age in the Jacksonville MSA, by race, 1985-1989 .. 45

25 Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years of
age in the Melbourne/Titusville/Palm Bay MSA, by race,
1985-1989 . ...... .. . . 46

26 Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years of
age in the Miami/Hialeah MSA, by race, 1985-1989 ... 47

27 Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years of
age in the Tampa/St. Petersburg/Clearwater MSA, by race,
1985-1989 . . . . . . 48

28 .'hr':ed levels of CRD use among children 4-5 years of
age in the Jacksonville MSA, by race, 1985-1989 . 49

29 Observed levels of CRD use am'onL, children 4-5 yv-ar, of
age in the Melbourne/Titusville/Palm Bay MSA, by race,
1985-1989 .. ....... . . ... 50











LIST OF APPENDIX TABLES CONTINUED




30 Observed levels of CRD use among children 4-5 years of
age in the ".: l/Hialeah MSA, by race, 1985-1989 . 51

31 '. ..:- levels of CRD use among children 4-5 years of
age in the I ..i: z'St. Petersburg/Clearwater MSA, by race,
1985-1989 .. .. . . 52

32 Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14 years of
age in the Jacksonville MSA, by race, 1985-1989 . 53

33 Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14 years of
age in the Melbourne/Titusville/Palm Bay MSA, by race,
1985-1989 .. ...... . ... 53

34 :. ed levels of CRD use among children 6-14 years of
age in the ":. :/Hialeah MSA, by race, 1985-1989 . 54

35 ..- eved levels of CRD use among children 6-14 years of
age in the -- Petersburg/Clearwater MSA, by race,
1985-1989 . . . . . .... 54

36 Observed levels of ,:I.-- device use in Eustis, by age
of child, 1988-1989 .. . 55

37 Observed levels of safety device use in Lake City, by
age of child, 1988-1989 . . . . 55

38 Observed levels of safety device use in Marianna, by age
of ,'.:.: 1988-1989 . . . . 56

39 Observed levels of safety device use in Sebring, by age
of child, 1988-1989 . . . . 56

40 Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years of
age in Eustis, by gender, 1988-1989 . . .. 57

41 Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years of
age in Lake City, by gender, 1988-1989 . .. 57

42 Observed levels of GRD use among children 0-3 years of
age in 1.... 1.- gender, 1988-1989 . . 58

43 Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years of
age in Sebring, by gender, 1988-1989 . . 58

44 Observed vels of CRD use ..:.. ., children 4-5 years of
age in ...:. by gender, 1988-1989 . . 59

vii













LTST OF TABLES CONTINUED


Table

45 Observed levels of CRD use among children
age in Lake City, by gender, 1988-1989

46 Observed levels of CRD use among children
age in *' ..... by gender, 1988-1989 .

47 Observed levels of CRD use among children
age in .;' : by gender, 1988-.:: .

48 Observed levels of CRD use among children
age in Eustis, by gender, 1988- .

49 Observed levels of CRD use among children
age in Lake City, by gender, 1988-1989 .

50 Observed levels of CRD use among children
age in Marianna, '- gender, 1988-1989

51 :i. ,:.. levels of CRD use among children
age in Sebring, by gender, 1988-1989 .

52 Observed levels of CRD use among children
age in Eustis, by race, :- 1989 .

53 : -: levels of CRD use among children
age in Lake City, by race, 1988-1989 .

54 Observed levels of CRD use among children
age in LL : .. by race, 1988-1989 .

Observed levels of CRD use among children
age in ':: by race, 1988-1989 .

56 Observed levels of CRD use among children
age in Eustis, by race, 1988-1989 .

57 .:ved levels of ... use among children
age in Lake City, by race, 1988-1989

58 Observed levels of CRD use among children
age in 't .. ..: : :. race, -1989 .

59 Observed levels of CRD use among children
age in Sebring, by race, 1988-1989 .

60 Observed levels of CRD use among children
age in Eustis, by race, 1988-1989 .

viii


4-5 years of
. . 59

4-5 years of
. . 60

4-5 years of
. 60

6-14 years of
. . 61

6-14 --..--. of
. . 61

6-14 years of
. . 62

6-14 years of
. . 62

0-3 years of
. . 63

0-3 years of
. . 63

0-3 years of
. 64

0-3 years of
. . 64

4-5 years of
. . 65

4-5 ...- of
. . 65

4-5 years of
. . 66

4-5 years of
. . 66

6-14 years of
. . 67











LIST OF APPENDIX TABLES CONTINUED


Page


61 Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14 years of
age in Lake City, by race, 1988-1989 . .. 67

62 Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14 ---.: of
age in Marianna, by race, 1988-1989 . .

63 Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14 ; of
age in Sebring, by race, 1988-1989 . . 68

64 Restraint vs. compliance for older children 6-14, by
city, 1988-1989 . . .. . 69

65 CRD and seat belt usage in Florida- and Non-Florida-
registered vehicles . . . 70











SOF FIGURES


figure Paue


1 I-: :. of children .:-, 0-3 properly restrained,
by MSA, 1985-1989 . . . . 9

2 Percentage of children aged 4-5 properly restrained,
by MSA, 1985-1989 . . . . . 10

3 Percentage of children aged 6-14 ;I: restrained,
by MSA, 1987-1989 . . . . 11

4 Percentage of children aged 0-14 ;: .-
by rural area, 1988-1989 . . . 15












EXECUTIVE :-'.


An observational survey of child restraint device usage was conducted

in 1989 to ascertain what changes, if any, had occurred in usage since the

1985, 1986, 1987 and 1988 studies. This report :... the results of

the 1989 survey and compares them with results from earlier studies.

Data collectors were trained and data were collected. :-.: data were

then transformed into computerized data sets and analyzed. A total of

13,827 children (zero through fourteen years of age) were observed, of

which 6,753 were aged zero through five.

The four metropolitan areas studied since 1985 were included in the

1989 survey. .. rural locations were also studied. Older children (six

through fourteen years of age) were included in the 1987, 1988 and 1989

Prior to 1987, this age group was excluded from the study

because there were no laws which addressed restraint usage in this age

group. The 1986 Bill CS/HB 40 was broadened to include children zero

through five years of age in both :'..; ..:-registered and non-Florida-

r< ,. -. vehicles, No laws exist -. fi .....y for the six- to fourteen-

year-old age group, but it is included in the : -' seat belt law, which

covers front-seat passengers.

The 1986 surveys of Florida-registered vehicles indicated that CRD

usage among infants was about 45 percent, and .:... among young children

was around 20 percent. In 1987, usage among infants increased to 49

While the number of young children : ,-:T'y restrained rose to

32 percent. The 1988 survey showed 48 percent of infants and 26 percent

of young children properly restrained, and the 1989 survey showed children













',.. restrained in these two age :- at 49 percent and 29 percent,

respectively.

Overall, the survey found the number of children ( zero through

fourteen) restrained by either a CRD or a seat belt had increased from

34.4 percent in 1988 to 36.6 percent in 1989. Usage among older children

(six through fourteen years of age) showed the largest increase, over five

percentage points, while usage among infants (zero through three years of

age) increased by .-.f-. three-fifths of a percentage point. Among

children (four through five years of age), seat belt usage increased from

19 percent in 1988 to 22 percent in 1989, while CRD use in this age group

remained virtually the same. Rural CRD usage rates were lower than in

urban areas but followed similar patterns, with the exception of..

zero to three years of age. In this group, CRD usage in the rural areas

declined by 2.4 :.. ... points. CRD usage in the urban areas increased

slightly. Observers noted that children in this age group are often

restrained in a booster seat designed for children four .- : of age and

older, rather than in an ... CRD designed for the zero to three age











1989 Child Restraint Usage Survey

Preliminary Report


INTRODUCTION


Vehicular accidents continue to be the primary cause of death and

.. .:-. of children throughout the country. The State of Florida has

S. to reduce this sad statistic by : laws which require the use

of approved safety devices by children. In 1982, the Florida Legislature

passed Bill CB/SB 298, -.-.' : children between zero and four years of

age to be in Federally approved child restraint devices (CRDs) when with

parents or legal guardians in Florida-registered vehicles. Children four

and five years of age were required to be in CRDs or seat belts. In 1986,

the Legislature passed .. CS/HB 40, which broadened the scope of the

:-.I 1 law to include all children zero through five in vehicles,

Florida-registered or not. In addition, mandatory use of seat belts by

front-seat .- : was instituted in 1986.

The Bureau of Public Safety Management (..-.: has promoted and

monitored compliance with the :.. ".....".. monitoring of CRD .- is

-.-. to provide information for 7. i.', educational and enforcement

; .;-... BSPM has awarded grants to state research centers to conduct

both telephone opinion surveys and observational studies to assess CRD

usage. In -~.E -Lous .a-., telephone interviews indicated a greater level

of compliance than on-street observations showed. To improve accuracy,

recent efforts have focused on the observational approach (Reaves, 1987).

Annual observational surveys were begun in 1985 in metropolitan

statistical areas throughout Florida and have continued to data. In 1987,

the .. were expanded to include children through age fourteen and to














include both W- t .''' .*. and rural areas. ;i...- -- due to low numbers

of rural observations in 1987, the 1988 and 1989 surveys :l-, : larger

rural towns than used in 1987.


SURVEY APPROACH


The 1989 observational survey conducted by the University of

Florida's Agricultural Market Research Center consisted of the following

elements: (1) study site selection, (2) survey team organization, (3)

data collection, (4) data compilation and analysis, and (5) final report

summarizing the study findings.

Recruitment for .... -- teams began in ;." 1989, and team members

trained appr -: .' 7 one week :-.* to data collection. Observations

were made in all areas on the last two -: -:'. and 7-1: ;- -. in March,

except for Miami, where observations were made Thursday through S:

on March 16 :- ... 18.


Study Site Selection


The 1985 survey was conducted in eight metropolitan statistical areas

(MSAs) in Florida. The 1986 .was conducted in four of the .. ."

MSA locations, establishing a longitudinal profile of the CRD ,. -. in

those metropolitan areas. For historical comparisons, the urban areas

targeted in 1986 were again surveyed in 1987, 1988 and 1989. They are

:.... ': (Dade ~ -), : -.:. /Titusv! : /Palm ",, (Brevard

County), T- ;. /St. .- :.-. 1.. .,IClearwater (Hillsborough and Pinellas

counties) and Jacksonville (Duval ** .* ).










3

While it was desirable to continue to obtain data about the CRD usage

levels of motorists with children in ..-i. ; i :.T areas, BPSM was also

concerned about the usage levels of motorists in more rural parts of the

state. From each of the four basic rural areas in Florida (Panhandle,

north central, central and the southern area), one .-... was randomly

selected for inclusion in the study. The rural counties included in the

1988 and 1989 studies were -:1 .;.I1' Jackson, Lake and Highlands counties.

Actual study sites in these rural counties were selected in small cities

rather than at ....-. isolated intersections outside of populated areas or

small towns with low traffic volume. Observational locations were in the

towns of Lake City, Marianna, Eustis and Sebring.

Observations were made at intersections near -' '-, centers and day

care centers. V 1- attempt was made to schedule the surveys :. :., times

when trips with the maximum likelihood of having children present would

be included in the "-- .. Whenever possible, the same observation points

were used in 1989 as in previous years.

Appropriate law enforcement and traffic engineering agencies were

notified in L' .; of the dates and times of the -. .,, and the team

members were given letters of introduction to be used in the event anyone

.:' ..*their .: They also carried small signs U.. V,- :'

were conducting a traffic survey.


Survey Team Organization


Graduate students, staff from the Market Research Center, and

temporary employment *. .-" were hired for data collection. All data

collectors were trained in : : .- techniques prior to conducting the














actual field survey. ..- crews were instructed not to interfere with

normal traffic flow, nor to create a hazardous situation that would

-.. ... either themselves or motorists. The guide, "Guidelines for

Observing : .: Safety Seat Use," (U.S. T. .:.... of Transportation) was

utilized in training the survey team members. Important points which were

addressed during the training session included (1) observation techniques;

(2) courteous interaction with the public, but primary emphasis on

unobtrusive observing; (3) distinguishing characteristics to focus on,

e.g., usage'. : .. ..... 1 of CRDs and seat belts 1:. children, vehicle

registration, techniques for estimating children's ages, etc.


Data Collection


The following data for each person were collected for all private

autos and light trucks with children present in the right-hand lane at the

specified intersections:

(1) Age: 0 through 14

(2) Gender: Male, Female, "

(3) Race: Black, White, Hispanic, Other, Uncertain

(4) Location of :.. F .. Back

(5) Restraint: S. ..' Belt, No/Improper :' .. .

(6) Vehicle Type: Light I Car, Van

(7) Auto -. .-.., Non-Florida

Autos with window tinting or other devices which prevented observa-

tion were excluded from the survey. Vans, pick-ups and commercial

vehicles were excluded from previous surveys. However, due to the recent

increase in the use of light pick-ups and vans for family transportation,











5

these were included in the 1988 and 1989 surveys. Commercial vehicles

were still excluded.





The coding form f 1989 was similar to the one used in 1988

(Appendix B). However, slight modifications were made to improve the ease

and accuracy of recording. The data were reduced to ,,.; : form and

statistically analyzed on a geographical basis. In addition, comparisons

were made with previous years' findings. The results are presented below.


RESULTS





A total of 13, 827 children aged zero through fourteen were observed

for the current : ... were up '. 862 from the 1988

Table 1 summarizes both total '-': .elt usage in the front and back

seats by age of child and type of area. Nearly half of all children in

the infant category were in CRDs. An additional 193 infants (5.1 : uL)

were observed in seat belts rather than CRDs, a practice which is not in

compliance with the law. A smaller percentage of .. children was

restrained. 1: 7.1 percent were in CRDs, but 22 percent were belted.

Less than a third of the older children were belted. Because the urban

samples were larger than the rural samples, the total survey results mure

closely resemble the urban usage -*.

Rural CRD usage was generally lower than urban CRD usage, although

the rural usage did follow the same overall patterns and trends. Usage

infants was 33.2 percent, while 24.1 :- --.: of the young children












Table 1.--CRD and seat belt usage in urban, rural and all areas, by age


Type of Area

Age group/
T i' ^ & ? .- T I y -^ -^^ a ,


(No.) (%)


CRD
Front seat
Back seat
Seat belt
Front seat
Back seat
No restraint
Front seat
Back seat
Total


(No.) (%)


S .) (%)


151 12.2 503 19.9 654
259 21.0 931 36.9 1,190


433 35.1
306 24.8
1,235 100.0


523 20.7
462 18.3
2,526 100.0


17.4
31.6


101 2.7
92 2.4

956 25.4
768 20.4
3,761 100.0


Front seat
Back seat
Seat belt
Front seat
Back seat
No restraint
Front seat
Back seat
Total


3.5
5.0


103 10.2 263 13.3
98 9.7 195 9.9


346 34.2
422 41.7
1,013 100.0


535 27.0
818 41.3
1,979 100.0


89 3.0
123 4.1


366 12.2
293 9.8


881 29.4
1,240 41.4
2,992 100.0


Front seat
Back seat
Seat belt
Front seat
Back seat
No restraint
Front seat
Back seat
Total


386 15.5 1,109 24.2
258 10.4 562 12.3


837 33.6 1,288 28.1
1,003 40.3 1,601 34.9
2,488 100.0 4,586 100.0


13
17


1,495
820


0.2
0.2


21.1
11.6


2,125 30,0
2,604 36.8
7,074 100.0


_ ~~~ ~


r _.










7

were restrained in CRDs or by seat belts. Older children in rural areas

were restrained roughly 26 percent the time. '1,1 .' tables 1 through

3 show summaries for the 1989, 1988 and 1987 :'

Over all age categories and areas, CRD usage declined from 18.1

percent in 1988 to 15.1 ; .: :-! in 1989, closer to the 15 ; : ': reported

in However, it :-.. that reductions in CRD usage occurred in the

two older age categories and was more than offset by greater use of seat

belts. In the zero to three age category, usage of CRDs was up slightly

compared to 1988, and usage was very similar to that observed in 1987.

Overall, the : .'ons of unrestrained children declined from 63.8 to

62.0 : t"-.: from 1988 to 1989, but remained slightly higher than 1981.

Similar -.' :... were observed in urban and rural areas (Appendix tables

4 through 6).

Appendix Table 7 shows the total survey results, categorized by age,

gender and race. As noted earlier, nearly half (49 percent) of the

infants were in CRDs, and CRD usage was up slightly over 1988. .. .

children were the least :- 'y to be restrained by either a CRD or seat

belt, with only 29.1 percent being restrained. About one-third of the

older children were observed using CRDs or seat belts. Females showed a

very slight lead over males in CRD/belt usage in both the 1988 and 1989

surveys.

White and -. children in all age categories had higher usage

rates than blacks. Over all age categories, 24 .: -.- of black children

were restrained, compared with 39.1 and 37.8 percent of white and Hispanri

'. .! ;'-. 'respectively. Black children .' four and five were the least











8

y to be restrained, with only 15.2 percent being in CRDs or seat

belts ( -. ". Table 7).





The Jacksonville metri-; .:.-1 area had a substantial increase in

observed CRD usage. Among infants, CRD usage rose from 58.2 percent in

1988 to 68.1 percent in 1989, while usage for four- and five-.--.: -olds

increased from 40.4 percent in 1988 to 48 percent in 1989. The percentage

of older children restrained also rose from 25.1 to 41.8 (Figures 1

through 3, .'!: .- ., Table 8).

Total CRD usage in /Titusville/Palm 7.-. also experienced an

increase, from 39.1 percent in 1988 to 43.1 percent in 1989. CRD usage

among infants remained virtually the same, 53.9 percent in 1988 to 53.8

percent in 1989. The four- and five- ..-olds' usage tell from 30.7 to

26.8 percent, but usage among older children remained practically

unchanged, at slightly over 29 percent 1,,....-. 1 through 3, Appendix

Table 9).

The "''I.. "r17 -,. L '.. ;: ftan area had a very slight increase in

total usage levels, from 40.4 percent to 41.1 -. For infants, CRD

usage increased from 58.8 percent in 1988 to 59.2 ,*-. .*: in 1989. Among

young children, i- usage declined from 28.7 percent to 25.3 -- ...

Usage -' .: older children increased from 33.6 percent to 38.3 percent

(Figures 1 through 3, Appendix Table 10).

Tampa/St. Petersburg/Clearwater experienced an increase in overall

usage, from 30.4 percent in 1988 to 38.6 percent in 1989, in spite of a

decline in CRD usage among infants, from 54 percent in 1988 to 40.6















80 -





60 't

IH
50o


40 -*e





20 t,


1: -
10 -

.
0 .**


85 86 87 88 89
Jacksonville


1;f 86 87 88 89
Melbourne


85 86 87 88 89
Miami


85 86 87 88 89
Tampa


Figure 1.--;7 .r .. of children aged 0-3 properly restrained, by MSA, 1985-1989.


667
i 8 -


f; ,
tfIEt .;
t :)))

"S _y _.




" r




i


'!y


I :
lb:.I


E'i

Elf
-ti



1*|
II



-If
IKj : :


1.. i


ai -

I '









Ik






















46,





,I'

Iii


~i .tt


85 86 87 88 89
.. .. L i V ljig q


7"r




I: r1*~
Wi,,,,


p.~~







F~


j i


F',
V~


85 86 87 88 89
Melbourne


i 3


II
1a
ml


85 86 87 88 89
Miami


85 86 87 88 89
Tampa


" e 2. of children aged 4-5


70


60


-ly restrained, by MSA, 1985-1989















42


87 88 89
^^N4 ,^ I MU^.'


87 88 89
Melbournme


40


35


38
rrr71











V :4





Miami
. ., ,i





87 88 89
Mfilami


S 3. ...- < .:,. of children aged 6-14 ly restrained,


.a. .'..






1TP.
| .






87 88 89
Tampa


iF~t~i

llBlg18
aBB~B$a::. I



;~

;` ~ia


jr


by MSA, 1987-1989.











12

percent in 1989. Among young children, CRD usage was up, from 22.7 to

35.5 percent. Usage among older children increased from 23.2 to 38.9

percent .-:. 1 :.-: 1 through 3, Appendix Table 11).

While usage rates among infants and young children increased only

slightly, restraint among older children increased substantially more in

most areas. Even so, children four to fourteen years of age still remain

far less y to be restrained than infants. Possible explanations for

increased .-...., of .-. by older children are the greater availability and

use of booster seats for older children and enactment of the seat belt

law, which was promulgated in January 1987.

When the data were further broken down by gender and race, some

patterns were identifiable. Among children aged four to *: -; females

were ,.;. y,- y restrained more often than males in all MSAs. Infant males,

however, showed nearly the same level of -_- as infant females. In the

Jacksonville and Melbourne L.--, males even showed higher usage levels

than females in the infant category. This pattern varies from those

observed in previous surveys, which showed female infants more likely to

be restrained than males (Appendix tables 12 through 23).

White infants were more likely to be restrained than any other racial

*:: This pattern follows from previous :.: -.. However, small sample

sizes from non-white populations limit detailed analyses of CRD use among

other racial groups within MSAs (Appendix tables 24 through 35).

The 1987, 1988 and 1989 observations categorized 7: .... 7 as a

separate group. In Miami/Hialeah, where the largest number of Hispanic

infants was observed, 42.6, 62.6 and 56.9 percent were in CRDs in 1987,

1988 and 1989, respectively '";,- .I* Table 26). The other urban areas









13

had too few observations of Hispanics for :...:i:.i.: analyses. It should

be noted that Hispanies may have been inadvertently coded in other racial

categories since dis't:.- -T n.-. characteristics are subtle and sometimes

difficult to detect in a windshield observational survey. The ::.. and

"uncertain" racial categories also had too few observations to draw

c .. conclusions.

The observations of young children aged four and five were also

broken down by race and gender (Appendix tables 16 through 19 and 28

through 31). There was .: :- variation among the urban area ; : -:. .. for

this age group. All MSAs .11.. :.. greater CRD usage among females than

males. Overall, differences between the sexes in **. --., children was

slight. The ..- i i-. was observed in previous .,--.,- also.

Blacks were less likely to be using CRDs than whites in the young

children category but, again, samples of blacks were smaller than for

whites. CRD usage among four- to five-year-old Hispanics was higher than

for blacks or whites In Jacksonville and Melbourne, but observations are

based upon limited numbers outside of Miami.

The older children (.. '"-. tables 20 through 23) showed a

difference in .:.. .:- usage, which seemed to favor females over males,

a reversal of the 1988 survey results (Appendix tables 20 through 23).

When the -.. children category was broken into racial categories,

all four MSAs showed .:-. --:- proportions of whites and :- ..

seat belts than blacks. However, there were relativ-l small samples in

the black and Hispanic racial categories in all but the Jacksonville and

Miami/Hialeah MSAs. :- tables 32 :'.: .. 35).












Rural Results


This was the third -- that rural locations were r i .y

targeted in the ., -.. .-. -. -, due to the limited number of observa-

tions obtained in 1987, the locations were changed from four very small

rural towns to four larger towns in the same i....: T. areas as

in Thus, direct historical comparisons of results can only be made

for the 1988 and 1989 surveys, which were conducted in exactly the same

locations in Eustis, Sebring, Lake City and Marianna.

Overall, .. usage increased from 27.2 to 33.3 :- .. in Eustis and

from 27.6 to 29.9 percent in Marianna. Lake City showed a very slight

decline, from 20.5 in 1988 to 19.6 percent in 1989. Sebring also had a

small decrease, from 28.4 to 26.1 percent. With the exception of the

increase in Eustis, the small changes in the other three rural areas are

due to a sampling error (Figure 4).

CRD usage was generally lower in each of the rural locations than in

the urban areas. 7....: patterns -..... age groups and racial groups were

similar to those seen in the urban areas, i.e., higher usage among infants

than among the young children and older children categories and lower

usage rates by blacks.

CRD usage among infants ranged from a low of 19.9 percent in Marianna

to 50.5 percent in Sebring. Marianna and ....: showed the low and high

usage levels in 1988 also. .... Z;, young .'..:.. usage ranged from 17.6

percent in Lake City to 29.1 percent in ..-: -.. For older :.

restraint usage ranged from 18.1 percent in Lake City to 38.1 percent in

Marianna (Appendix tables 36 through 39).




















BB. : .:





. .
L i











88 89
E u; 1Is


28


;ru

K .-------


88 89
Lake City


- i


88 89
Marlanna


II.

II.I~f
B,:-,:

llR





II~.
Ri .:; .















88 89
Sebring


.. ...4.--Percentage of children aged 0-14 properly restrained, by rural area, 1988-1989.


33











16

Unlike results of previous studies, males in rural areas were as

y to be properly restrained as females in all age groups. Both

and Marianna had larger proportions of male infants in CRDs

compared with females, while Lake City and Sebring had larger proportions

of females in CRDs .' "' tables 40 through 43). In the young children

category, all rural locations, with the **.- of Lake City, showed

males restrained more often than females. In the six- to fourteen-year-

old age group, .. Eustis showed females restrained more often than

males, while Lake City showed virtually no difference (Appendix tables 44

through 51).

Overall, white children in ri... .. areas were more likely to be

properly restrained than black children (Appendix tables 52 through 63).

The infant category showed usage among white children at a low of 22.8

percent in Marianna and a high of 60 percent in T:' '. Black children

in the infant *.. showed ... at a low of 6.8 percent in Marianna

and a high of 11.3 percent in Eustis. White children aged four and five

showed the levels of CRD usage ranging from a low of 20.2 percent in

Lake City to a high of 33.7 percent in Eustis. Black children in this age

group showed usage at about 10 percent in Lake City, Marianna and Sebring

and 6.1 :.v.i in Eustis. -... among white children aged six : .....

fourteen ranged from 18.5 percent in Lake City to 43.6 percent in

Marianna. Too few children from the other racial categories were observed

to evaluate their levels of CRD usage in rural areas '-;,.. ", tables 52

through 63).










17




This study has been largely concerned with the use of child restraint

devices, whether CRDs or seat belts. However, in the case of older

children aged six through fourteen, "restraint" understates c

with the law. Children aged six through fourteen riding in the front seat

must be in seat belts to be in compliance with the seat belt law, but no

restraint is required when these children ride in the back seat. Table

1 shows a comparison of CRD and seat belt usage across all age groups.

For the older children category, overall compliance was 70 percent, but

the percentage actually restrained was only 33.1 percent. This results

from the fact that all children six years of age or .:-.-. riding in the

back seat are in compliance with the law, regardless of whether or not

they are restrained. In the front seat, 41.5 .- were restrained, and

thus compliant. In the back seat, 100 were compliant, yet only

32.1 percent were restrained (Table 1).

Among older children, compliance in urban areas was 65.2 percent in

1989, down from 68.7 percent in 1988 (Appendix Table 64). ..- .in

urban areas ranged from 57.8 percent in Melbourne to 70.1 percent in

...;.. In rural areas, compliance increased slightly, from 56 percent in

1988 to 57.4 percent in 1989. Lake City showed the lowest level of

compliance, at 53.1 percent, while -, was the highest, with 60.1

percent. Restraint by a CRD or a seat belt was 33.1 percent in urban

areas and 26 percent in rural areas.

In the young children age group, all children in the front and back

seats must be restrained by a seat belt or CRD to be compliant. Overall,

29.1 percent of four- and five-year-olds were compliant with the law.











18

Children in the front seat were compliant 34.1 percent of the time, and

children in the back seat were compliant 25.1 percent of the time.

Children in the :.-:.- category, riding in the front or back seat,

must be restrained in an -. .:. CRD to be : ... with the law. The

compliance level in this age group was 49 percent. In the front seat,

38.2 .-. -... of infants were compliant and, in the back seat, 58 ..-: -:

were compliant. However, 5.1 percent of all infants were observed in non-

.:..-.I CRDs or seat belts. In the front seat, t... ,- restraint

occurred among 5.9 percent of infants, while 4.5 :.*:,. of infants in the

back seat were impropt.7 restrained (Table 1).

There were some differences in usage of restraint devices between

Florida- and non-Florida- .-' :o 1' vehicles. However, only six percent

of vehicles :- .---. were non-Florida-- .:,-.i ::-u thus, they had little

impact on overall survey results. Generally, Florida-registered vehicles

had higher CRD usage rates. In the infant category, 41.7 ... of

children in non-Florida vehicles were ', and another eight percent

were restrained by a seat halt nr improper CRD. Tn Florida-registered

vehicles, 49.4 percent of infants were in compliance, while five percent

were ': ,.--ly restrained. In the four-and five-year-old category, 33.8

percent in non-Florida-registered vehicles were properly restrained by a

CRD or seat belt, ;. ..i. I to 28.9 percent in Florida-,-.:.. -;.ed vehicles.

Sixty-nine percent in Florida-registered vehicles were in compliance,

but only 33.5 were -.:... restrained. In non-Florida-registered

vehicles, 79 percent of children six to fourteen years of age were

compliant, while only 28.5 percent were .... restrained (Appendix

Table 65).










19




Statewide, there was very little change in CRD usage over all age

categories. The *::' proportion of unrestrained infants and .';

declined slightly, from 63.8 to 62 percent. CRD usage among infants (zero

to three years of age) increased from 48.5 to 49 .- CRD usage

(including seat belts) increased from 26.2 to 29.1 percent for the

children (ages four and five) group. CRD and seat belt usage by older

children also showed a substantial increase, from 28.1 to 33.1 percent.

CRD usage in rural locations was relatively unchanged from 1988, but

remained considerably lower than in urban areas. Among urban areas, CRD

usage in Miami and Melbourne remained virtually unchanged. However,

Jacksonville and Tampa/St. P'... . showed : increases.

Rural locations showed very little ."-.: in CRD usage. ... among

blacks showed the greatest increase from 1988, going from 20.6 to 24.1

percent. However, the percentage of white and Hispanic children in CRDs

remains far greater than blacks.

Children in Florida-registered vehicles had higher CRD usage rates

than those from out-of-state, but children in non-Florida vehicles

constituted only six percent of the total sample.

In conclusion, CRD usage in Florida appears to be stable Even no,

relatively large numbers of children in all age categories and areas,

remain unrestrained and at risk of serious injury in motor vehicle

accidents. Continued .1. : : -..., programs and enforcement is needed to

reduce this risk.














REFERENCES


U.S. Department of ": : National Traffic
Administration.
National Technical Information Service. "I -... '. ', Virginia.
1987.

Robert L. and Susan Moss. .. .

S -_ ,, for Bureau of Public -.i7-.
Management, Florida Department of Community Affairs, ... .:-
Florida. Industry Report 88-1. Florida Agricultural Market Research
Center, Universi' of Florida, May 1988.

Reaves, Deborah. q .. ... .. i : .. .
for Bureau of Public Safety -
Florida Department of Community -. ; ::. Transportation
Center, University of Florida, 1987.

Reaves, Deborah.' : -:
S : .: for Bureau of Public Safety :.
Florida Department of Community Affairs. Transportation Research
Center, University of Florida, 1986.










21

GLOSSARY


infants

children three years old or younger


young children

children four or five -:- of age


older children

children six through fourteen years of age


properly restrained

An infant is properly restrained only when secured in a 1:: "y approved
car seat. An infant restrained by a booster seat or seat belt is not
properly restrained.

A young child or an older child is .:.: -.y restrained if secured by a
seat belt, an approved booster seat or car seat.


compliance

An infant is in compliance with Florida's child restraint r- .: if
I: .y restrained by a car seat. An infant in a booster seat or a seat
belt is not compliant.

A :.: child is compliant with Florida's child restraint .. .: events if
properly restrained by a c: t!.4-i. iy ..-I:' ..-: car seat, booster seat or seat
belt.

An older child is compliant with Florida's seat belt law if restrained by
a federally approved car seat, booster seat or seat belt while seated in
the front seat of a motor vehicle. An older child seated in the back seat
of a motor vehicle is compliant with the law :.. :. of the usage or
non-usage of a restraint device.


restraint device


a federally approved car seat, booster seat or seat belt










22

CRD

acronym for "Child Restraint Device"

This term specifies federally .:I ... car seats when ... .. to
infants. When .-- to -.. children and older children, the term
"CRD" includes federally approved car seats, booster seats and seat belts.
For purposes of more specifically defining restraint device usage, some
tables show seat belt usage separately from car seats and booster seats
when referring to these age categories.


MSA

S..- for "Metropolitan Statistical Area"









































APPENDIX A

Tabulations of Survey Results

















' i


(No.) (%) (No.)


CRD
Belted
Not Restrained
Total


1,844
193
1,724
3,761


CRD 1,434
Belted 107
!t. Restrained 985
Total 2,526


Rural Areao


CRD
Belted
Not Restrained
Total


410
86
739
1,235


49.0 212
5.1 659
45.8 2,121
100.0 2,992


56.8
4.2
39.0
100.0



33.2
7.0
59,8
100.0


168
458
1,353
1,979



44
201
768
1,013


() (No.)


7.1 30
22.0 2315
70.9 4729
100.0 7074


8.5
23.1
68.4
100.0



4.3
19.8
75.8
100.0


26
1671
2889
4586


(U C')


0.4
32.7
66.9
100.0



0.6
36.4
63.0
100.0


4 0.2
644 25.9
1840 74.0
2488 100.0


"'-4 ,


2,086
3,167
8,574
13,827



1,628
2,236
5,227
9,091



458
931
3,347
4.736


15.1
22.9
62.0
100.0



17.9
24.6
57.5
100.0



9.7
19.7
70.7
100.0


~_ I _II ~


.. S ri r r`


r
:


















Type of Area


Age_
0-3 4-5 6-14


( No.) ( % )


( No.) ( % ) ( No.) ( t ) ( No.) ( % )


CRD
Belted
Not Restrained
Total

Urban Areas

CRD
Belted
Not Restrained
Total

Rural Areas

CRD
Belted
Not Restrained
Total


2,100
228
2,004
4,332



1,497
129
1,011
2,637



603
99
993
1,695


48.5
5.3
46.3
100.0


56.8
4.9
38.3
100.0



35.6
5.8
58.6
100.0


221
586
2,272
3,079


164
402
1,258
1,824



57
185
1,014
1,256


7.2 25
19.0 1,531
73.8 3,998
100.0 5,554


9.0
22.0
69.0
100.0



4.5
14.7
80.7
100.0


22
1,140
2,486
3,648



3
391
1,512
1,906


0.5 2,346 18.1
27.6 2,345 18.1
72.0 8,274 63.8
100.0 12,965 100.0


0.6 1,683
31.3 1,671
68.1 4,755
100.0 8,109



0.2 663
20.5 675
79.3 3,519
100.0 4, :


20.8
20.6
58.6
100.0



13.7
13.9
72.5
100.0


-I-" ~


--- ~- ^--


















Typ of Are 6 14_ Total


':, ) %) (No.)


CRD
Belted
Not Restrained
Total



CRD
Belted
Not Restrained
Total
a

CRD
Belted
Not Restrained
Total


631
127

1,283



540
121
416
1,077



91
6
109
206


49.2
9.9
40.9
100.0



50.1
11.2
38.6
100.0



44.2
2.9
52.9
100.0


44
266
650
960



41
232
501
774



3.0
34.0
149.0
186


(%) (No.)


4.6 2
27.7 773
67.7 1,488
100.0 ,



5.3 2
30.0 691
64.7 1, ;
100,0 1,964


1.6
18.3
80.1
100.0


0
82
217
299


() (No.)


0.1 677
34.2 1,166
65.8 2,663
100.0 4



0.1 583
35.2 1,044
64.7 2,188
100.0 3,815



0.0 94
27.4
72.6 475
100.0 691


(C)


15.0
25.9
59.1
100.0



15.3
27.4
57.4
100.0



13.6
17.7
68.7
100.0


four rural areas observed in 1987 were not the same as those
observed in 1988 and 1989.


" tP~" i
'~ '~'~'~~'~ ~'''' "


Type of Area


6-14


Total












Appendix Table 4.--CRD and seat belt usage percentages in all areas,
1987-1989.

Restraint


(---------------------Percent--------------


6-14


1987 a
1988
1989



1987 a
1988
1989



1987 a
1988
1989



1987 a
1988
1989


49.2
48.5
49.0


0.1
0.5
0.4



15.0
18.1
15.1


27.7
19.0
22.0



34.2
27.6
32.7



25.9
18.1
22.9


40.9
46.3
45.8



67.7
73.8
70.9



65.8
72.0
66.9



59.1
63.8
62.0


-----)


100.0
100.0
100.0



100.0
100.0



100.0
100.0
100.0



100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0


aThe
observed in


Rural areas
1988 and 1989.


observed in


1987 were not the same as those










28


.-. Table 5.--CRD and seat belt usage percentages in urban areas,
1987-1989.

Restraint

age/ ear CRD Belted Not .--..... Total

(--------.---------- Percent-------"---)---


1987 50.1 11.2 38,6 100,0
1988 56.8 4.9 38.3 100.0
1989 56.8 4,2 39.0 100.0


S5,3 30.0 64,7 100.0
1988 9.0 22.0 69.0 100.0
1989 8.5 23.1 68,4 100.0



1987 0.1 35.2 64.7 100.0
1988 0.6 31.3 68.1 100.0
1989 0.6 36.4 63.0 100.0



15.3 27.4 57.4 100,0
1988 20.8 20.6 58.6 100.0
1989 17,9 24.6 57.5 100.0










29

Appendix Table 6.--CRD and seat belt usage percentages in rural areas,
-1989.

Restraint



(----------------.----Percent ------------------- )
0-3

1987a 44.2 2.9 52.9 100.0
1988 35.6 5.8 58.6 100,0
1989 33.2 7.0 59.8 100.0

4-5

1987a 1.6 18.3 80.1 100.0
1988 4.5 14.7 80.7 100.0
1989 4.3 19.8 75.8 100.0



1987a 0.0 27.4 72.6 100.0
1988 0.2 20.5 79.3 100.0
1989 0.2 25.9 74.0 100.0


1987a 13.6 17.7
1988 13.7 13.9
1989 9.7 19.7


The four rural areas observed in
observed in 1988 and 1989.


1987 were


68.7
72.5
70.7


not the same as


100.0
100.0
100.0


those












-r ,nn I iflfl


Total Total
Using CRe


Total a
Change


(..---------Number----------) (------ Percent--- ---)


Male
Female
Unknown
Black
White
Hispanic
Other
Unknown
Total


Young Children (4-.5)


Male
Female
Unknown
Black
White
Hispanic
Other
Unknown
Total


Female
Unknown
Black
White
e ; -
Other
Unknown
Total


Total Sam1e
Male
Female
Unknown
Black
White

Other
Unknown


T. .. those : : restrained.
include those in seat .


Infant category does not


1,986
1,844
502
640
3,324
325
32
11
4,332


853
842
405
163
1,724
196
12
5
2,100


718
718
408
187
1,463
177
13
4
1,844


1,590
1,604
567
612
2,774
335
29
11
3,761


1,618
1,343
31
546
2,099
315
30
2
2,992


3,721
3,333
20
1,047
5,313
625
72
17
7,074


6,929
6,280
618
2,205
10,186
1 "
131
30
13,827


445
419
7
83
704
77
7

871


43.0
45.7
80.7
25.5
51.9
60.3
37.5
45.5
48.5


25.9
26.6
26.7
13.5
28.7
28.8
23.5

26.2


27.4
'28.8
15.4
21.1
29.2
29.1
27.5
25.0
28.0


31.5
33.9
77.5
20.6
36.7
38.0
30.0
31.8
34.4


45.2
44.8
72.0
30.6
52.7
52.8
44.8
36.4
49.0


27.5
31.2
22.6
15.2
33.5
24.4
23.3

29.1


31.9
34.7
10.0
24.9
34.2
36.5
45.8
35.3
33.1


33.9
36.5
67.5
24.1
39.1
37.8
40.5
33.3
36.6


2.2
-0.9
-8.7
5.1
0.9
-7.5
7.3
-9.1
0.6


1.6
4.6
-4.1
1.7
4.9
-4.3
-0.2

2.9


4.5
5.9
-5.4
3.8
5.0
7.4
18.4
10.3
5.1


2.4
2.7
-10.1
3.5
2.4
-0.2
10.5
1.5
2.2


1,799
1,265
15
490
2,263
306
17
3
3,079


3,041
2,500
13
773
4,223
499
51
8
5,554


6,826
5,609
530
1,903
9,810
1,130
100
22
12,965


833
721
2
163
1,232
145
14
2
1,556


2,152
1,900
411
392
3,605
429
30
7
4,463


1,186
1,157
2
261
1,817
228
33
6
2,345


2,349
2,294
417
531
3,984
482
53
10
5,060


_ ~X ~











31

Appendix Table 8.--Observed levels of safety device use in the Jacksun-
ville MSA, by age of child, 1985-1989.

Age

Infants Children Children Total
Year (0-3) (4-5) (6-14)a (0-14)

1985


No. Observed
% Using CRD


1986


No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% Using CRD

1987

No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% Using CRD

1988

No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% Using CRD

1989

No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% Using CRD


a --


aNo data
1985 and 1986


available for the six-
surveys.


bThis number was taken directly
discrepancies in total could not he
data were not available.


to fourteen-year-olds in the


from a previous report. Slight
resolved because original


697
54.4


293
71.2



816
287
35.2



170
68
40.0



694
404
58.2



599
408
68.1


404
39.6



471
123
26.1



104
48
46.2



399
161
40.4



352
169
48.0


1,288b
410
31.8



644
237
36.8



2,071
810
39.1



1,914
980
51.2


370
121
32.7



978
245
25.1



963
403
41.8













Appendix Table 9,--Observed levels of safety device use in the Melbourne/
=-= === === =='1= = .=== :5 _==. ^. = = = == _

Age

.: Children Children Total
(0-3) (4-5) (6-14)a (0-14)



No. Observed 120 205 -- 325
% Using CRD 56.3 75.8 -- 44.9



No. Observed 217 590 -- 807
No, Using CRD 143 74 -- 217
% Using CRD 65.9 12.5 -- 26.9

1987

No. Observed 119 95 160 374
No. Using CRD 80 35 44 159
% -l-':-.; CRD '.2 36.8 27.5 42,5



No. 701 424 694 1,819
No. Using CRD 378 130 204 712
% Using CRD 53.9 30.7 29.4 39.1



No. Observed 730 600 1,121 2,451
No. Using CRD 393 161 329 883
% 2.:., CRD 53.8 26.8 29.3 36.0

a
No data available for the six- to ..: --.. .-:;.-olds in the
1985 and 1986 surveys.












:....... ,Table 10.--Observed levels of -.. "-. device use in
.m...iq pq Ml ia _-_ "f _Zj" "_i ak -_i p


the Miami/


Year

12985


No. Observed
% Using CRD


1986


No. Observed
No, ":. CRD
% : : CRD

198Z

No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% Using CRD

1988

No, Observed
No. Using CRD
% Using CRD

1989

No. Observed
No. "'.::. CRD
% 7- CRD


a
No data
1985 and 1986


available for the six-
surveys.


to fourteen- ,-..:--olds in the


C -.T- Children
(6-14)


Infants
(0-3)


264
61.7



229
148
64.6



544
278
51.1



916
539
58,8



791
468
59.2


275
28.4



648
89
13.7



381
126
33.1



794
228
28.7



675
171
25.3


Total
(0-14)



539
44.7



877
237
27.0



2,178
874
40.1



2,845
1,148
40.4



2,772
1,139
41.1


1253
470
37.5



1,135
381
33.6



1,306
500
38.3


----- ^ ~^ ~ ^ ^ ^ ~ ^ ^ ~ ~ ~ ~~ I, ----------- ^ ^


_














S Table 11.--Observed levels of safety device use in the Tampa/
St. ?. -:. /.. /Clearwater MSA, by age of child,
1985-1989.


____ Age.___.&

Infants Children Children Total
(0-3) (4-5) (6-14)a (0-14)


Year



No. -
% : CRD



No. Observed
No. "'. CRD
% Using CRD

1982

No. Observed
No. 7; .- CRD
% Using CRD

1988

No. Observed
No. -- CRD
% "-. : CRD


600
47.3



836
425
50.8



244
114
46.7



326
176
54.0


490
24.1



488
150
30.7



194
64
33.0



207
47
22.7


694
204
29.4



841
195
23.2


1,090
36.7



1,324
575
43,4



1,132
382
33.7



1,374
418
30.4


1989

No. Observed 406
No. Using CRD 165
8 Using CRD 40.6

a
No data available for the six-
1985 and 1986 surveys.


352 1,196 1,954
125 465 755
35.5 38.9 38.6


to fourteen-year-olds in the















Appendix Table 12.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years
of age in the Jacksonville MSA, by gender, 1985-1989.

Gender

Year Male Female Unknown Total


No. Observed
% Using CRD

1986

No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% Using CRD



No. tbserpPd
No. Using CRD
% Using CRD

1988

No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% Using CRD

1989

No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% Using CRD


193
76.2



235
56
23.8



51
20
39.2



335
175
52.2



251
177
70.5


110
62.7



246
64
26.0



56
19
33.9



310
189
61.0



278
170
61.2


51
70.6



335
167
49.9



63
29
46.0



49
40
81_6



70
61
87.1


354
71.2



816
287
35.2



170
68
40.0



694
404
58.2



599
408
68.1













Appendix Table 13.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 :-,-.
of age in the Melbourne/Titusville/Palm Bay MSA,
by gender, 1985-1989,

Gender

Year Male Female Unknown Total


No. Observed
S Using CRD

19i6

No. -
No. i : CRD
% Using CRD

197Z

No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% U?- CRD



No. Observed
CRD
S Using CRD

1989

No. Observed
No, Using CRD
% Using CRD


52
76.9



103
67
65.0



10
2
20.0



307
145
47.2



316
165
52.2


26
69.2



69
49
71.0



28
15
53.6



283
143
50.5



316
144
45.6


42
78.6



45
27
60.0



81
63
77.8



111
90
81.1



98
84
85.7


120
75.8



217
143
65.9



119
80
67.2



701
378
53.9



730
393
53.8


-














Appendix Table 14.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years
nf ape in the Miaam/Hialeah MSA, by gender,
:989.

Gender

Year Hale Female Unknown Total

19L5


No. Observed
% : CRD

1986

No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% Using CRD

1987

No. Ohearved
No. Using CRD
% '. .- CRD



No. Observed

No. .- CRD



No. Observed
No., :-1 -.CRD)
% Using CRD


97
53.6



74
46
62.2



108
28
25.9



344
160
46.5



272
136
50.0


113
55.8



81
50
61.7



127
47
37.0



375
207
55.2



325
177
54.5


73
78.1



74
52
70,3



308
202
65.6



197
172
87.3



194
155
79.9


283
71,2



229
148
64,6



543
277
51.0



916
539
58.8



791
468
59.2












.':: -:" Table 15.-


Year


-Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years
of age in the Tampa/St Petersburg/Clearwater MSA,


Gender


Male


Female


Unknown


Total


No. Observed
% Using CRD



No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% 8 .. '-:,. CRD



No. Observed
No. -" Ti, CRD
% Using CRD

1IM

No. Observed
No. -. 1: RD
% .7.5 -



No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% "-.'.. CRD


99
74.7



134
111
82.8



128
80
62.5


229
48.9



350
155
44.3



63
17
27.0



162
83
51.2



197
75
38.1


278
37.4



352
159
45.2



53
17
32.1



164
93
56.7



180
78
43.3


606
75.8



836
425
50.8



244
114
46.7



326
176
54.0



406
165
40.6


29
12
41.4


__ ~ I


_~ _I_ ~_











39



Appendix Table 16.--Observed levels of use
r -..:.. T o -_ : __. .

Gender

Year Male Female



No. Observed 202 193
% Using CRD 41.1 36.3



No. Observed 243 194
No. Using CRD 63 48
% :..: CRD 25.9 24.7



No. Observed 49 48
No. '.'-. .. CRD 16 25
% Using CRD 32.7 52.1



No. Observed 219 179
Using :. 89 71
% Using CRD 40.6 39.7

i2M

No. Observed 162 190
No. ... CRD 71 98
% Using CRD 43.8 51.6


among children




Unknown



9
77.8



35
12
34.3



7
7
100.0



1
0
0.0


4-5 :. .U




Total



404
39.6



472
123
26.1



104
48
46.2



399

40.1



352
169
48.0


_ _~ I I













Appendix Table 17.-


.:- E-, levels of CRD use among children 4-5
age in the .:. 2: .- -. .. ville/Palm Bay MSA,
gender. 1985-1989.


Gender

Year Male Female Unknown Total


No. Observed
% Using CRD



No, Observed
No. Using CRD
% Using CRD



No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% -.. CRD



No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% Using CRD

Mia

No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% Using CRD


89
48.3



305
40
13.1



40
13
32.5



243
72
29.6



307
145
47,2


92
48.9



278
33
11.9



43
19
44.2



181
58
32.0



283
143
50.5


24
16.7



7
1
14.3



12
3
25.0


205
44.9



590
74
12.5



95
35
36.8



424
130
30.7



701

53,9


111
90
81.1















Appendix Table 18.-


-...levels of CRD use among children 4-5 years
of age in the Miami/Hialeah MSA, by ;:. :,
1985-1989.


Gender

Year Male Female Unknown Total

1985


No, Observed
% ",: -.:. CRD



No. .'.:-- -
No. ,. CRD
% Using CRD



No. Observed
No. i. CRD
S. i :... CRD



No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% Using CRD



No. Observed
No. *..: CRD
% CRD


160
25.6



305
44
14.4



190
68
35.8



454
139
30.6



372
86
23.1


142
27.5



338
45
13.3



148
47
31.8



326
86
26.4



297
83
27.9


8
50.0



5
0
0.0



41
10
24.4



14
3
21.4



6
2
33.3


310
27.1



648
89
13.7



379
125
33.0



794
228
28.7



675
171
25.3













..;::. ':Table 19.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 4-5 years
of age in the '..:..,: St Petersburg/Clearwater MSA,

Gender
Gender


Year


19o.


No. Observed
% Using CRD

12U6

No. Observed
No. CRD
% Using CRD

1987

No, Observed
Nuo Using CRD
% Using CRD

12 88
No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% CRD



No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% Using CRD


Male


266
23.1



234
73
31.2



94
34
36.2



111
23
20.7



223
69
30.9


Female


234
28.0



245
75
30.6



82
23
28.0



96
24
25.0



126
55
43,7


Unknown


9
2
22.2



18
7
38.9


3
1
33.3


Total


501
75.8



488
150
30.7



194
64
33.0



207
47
22.7



359

35.5


-- I














Appendix Table 20.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14
..-_ of age in the Jacksonville MSA, by gender, 1987-1989.

Gender

Year Male Female Unknown Total



No. Observed 218 146 6 370
No. Using CRD 62 58 1 121
S" --. i 28.4 39.7 16.7 32.7



No. Observed 564 413 1 978
No. Using CRD 218 164 0 382
% Using CRD 38.7 39.7 0.0 39.1

1298

No. Observed 521 440 2 963
No. CRD 205 198 0 403
% ".. -. CRD 39.3 45.0 0.0 41.8






Appendix Table 21.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14 years
of age in the :- -: : -. :. :.;v.. :; Bay MSA,
by gender, 1987-1989.

Gender

Year Male Female Unknown Total



No. Observed 77 77 6 160
No. Using CRD 18 26 0 44
% $ .- CRD 23.4 33.8 0.0 27.5


No. Observed 379 315 -- 694
No. Using CRD 107 97 -- 204
C% 7:: CRD 28.2 30.8 -- 29.4



No. Observed 577 538 6 1,121
No. -;:-., CRD 157 172 0 329
% Using CRD 27.2 32.0 0.0 29.3














Appendix Table 22.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14 years
of age in the Miami/Hialeah MSA, by gender,
1987-1989.

Gender


Year



No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% Using CRD



No. Observed
No. -... CRD
% Using CRD



No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% ::. CRD


., ... Table 23.


Year


Male


606
227
37.5



586
199
34.0



682
250
36,7


Female


598
227
38.0



537
180
33.5



624
250
40.1


Unknown


49
16
32.7



12
2
16.7


Total


1,253
470
37.5



1,135
381
33.6



1,306
500
38,3


-Observed levels of CRD use i children 6-14 years
of age in the T.:..,.'- Petersburg/Clearwater MSA,
__ pepnler 1OQR'.


Gender


Male


Female


Unknown


Total


No. Observed
No. C '. CRD
% Using CRD



No. Observed
No. '-,- CRD
% ,7 CRD



No. Observed
No. -I -..: CRD
% Using CRD


379
107
28.2



433
103
23.8



649
229
35.3


315
97
30.8



408
92
22.5



546
236
43.2


694
204
29.4



841
195
23.2



1,196
465
38.9


"' ^I-















; ,:... : Table 24.--Observed levels of CRD use


Race


among children 0-3


No. Observed
% -.-. '. CRD



No, Observed
No,- CRD
% Using CRD

198I

No. Observed
No. i:.. CRD
% Using CRD

12988

No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% Using CRD

1989

No. Observed
No. i
% Using CRD


71 278
53.5 75.5


237

24.5



45
14
31.1



96
42
43.8



132
80
60.6


573
226
39.4



122
53
43.4



578
355
61.4



455
323
71.0


1985


S5
80.0


S 354
71.2


6
3
50.0


3
1
33.3



8
4
50.0



5
2
40.0


816
287
35,2



170
68
40.0



694
404
58.2



599
408
68.1


10
3
30.0



3
2
66.7


4
1
25.0


~~ ~ __ ~~_I













Appendix Table 25.--Observed levels of CRD uo.
of age in the Melbourne'.
- - - - - -


.. children 0-3 years
...- /Palm Bay MSA,


Race


. . .. ...2. .


AX" .


No. Observed
% Using CRD


12iM


No. Observed
No. ':-. ; CRD
% -'sc -, CRD



No. Observed
No. : ; CRD
% Using CRD

1988

No. Observed
No. ... CRD




No. Observed
No. ;..: CRD
$% i..: -CRD


16
25.0



16
6
37.5



3
1
33.3



46
11
23.9



96
25
26.0


103
83.5



200
137
39.4



113
76
67.3



620
348
56.1



605
352
58,2


-- 1
-- 100.0


1
1
100.0



25
13
52.0



24
15
62.5


2
2
100.0



8
5
62.5



4
1
25.0


120
S 75.8


2
1
50.0


217
143
65,9



119
80
67.2



701
378
53.9



730
393
53.8


I














Appendix '-: :'. 26.


--Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 .- ,.
of age in the Miai/Hialeah MSA, by race, 1985-1989.


Race

- - - - - -


No. Observed
% -< : CRD


IaMa


No. Observed
Using CRD
% Using CRD

lim

No. Observed
No. "'.-. : RD
% Us:::



No, ; :
No. "., CRD
% Using CRD



No. Observed
No, -' : CRD
% Using CRD


66
28.8



49
17
34.7



97
19
19.6



191
59
30.9



144
56
38.9


208
71.2



179
130
72.6



297
193
65.0



437
302
69.1



366
252
68.9


- 9
- 55.6


141
60
42.6



275
172
62.5



267
152
56.9


1
1
100.0



8
5
62.5



7
3
42.9



10
6
60.0


- 283
- 60.8


6
3
50.0



4
2
50.0


229
148
64.6



543
277
51.0



916
539
58.8



791
468
59.2


~ ------ -- I ----









48



Appendix Table 27.--Observed levels of GNR use among children 0-3 years
of age in ". : .. .. t -- t :.-. :/ Clearwater MSA, by
race, 1985-1989.

YRace

Year Black White Hispanic Other ...... -: Total


L2MI

No. Observed
% -'..' : CRD

19 M
No, Observed
No. Using CRD
% ... CRD



No. Observed
No. ... CRD
S '.: .: CRD



No. Observed
No. "- ,! CRD
a Using _.



No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% ; .. CRD


121 482
16.5 56.2


143
64
44.8



28
4
14.3



17
10
58.8



46
8
17.4


678
351
: 8



199
107
53.8



300
163
54.3



334
149
44.6


--11
-- 9.1


11
2
18.2



4
2
50.0



19
4
21.1


S 606a
S 47.9


15
10
66.7



6
1
16.7


1
1
100.0


7
4
57.1


S 406
-165
- 40.6


.;-: number was taken directly


from a previous report. Slight


discrepancies in totals could not be resolved because original
data were not available.


836
425
50.8



244
114
46.7



326
176
54.0


- ~---~














.: -..: Table 28.--Observed levels of CRD use
^ ,, n. t- T .rr c r ..r ...


.. :.. children 4-5
MCA I.- I: r oa.. -_


Race


Vr1r-


No. Observed
% Using CRD



No. Observed
No. ': :.- CRD
% Using CRD

ImfL

No. Observed
No. O.. CRD
% Using CRD



No. Observed
No. ; .r CRD
% : ..: CRD

1282

No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% Using CRD


11l
27.0



66
5
7.6



14
5
35.7



54
15
27.8



87
32
36.8


282
45.7



403
116
28.8



87
42
48.3



336
142
42.3



260
134
51.5


11
-- 9.1


404
- 39.6


3
2
66.7


1
1
100.0


472
123
26.1



104
48
46.2



399
160
40.1



352
169
48.0


3
3
100.0


4
3
75.0


years
1 oaQ


_ ~


EL"t qr?( t ...r













A~-,;:-.> Table 29--Observed levels of GRD use among children 4-5 years
of age in the 1 ;. -: i:.vi /Palm T.. MSA,


Race


V' 'S,, rt t t


12Ja'


No. Observed
* Using CRD



No, Observed
No. Using CRD
% Using CRD



No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% Using CRD

121&

No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% Using CRD

1289

No. .-
No. Using CRD
% Using CRD


39
15.4


31
5
16.1


160
52.5



535
72
39.4



88
35
39.8



368
110
29.9



497
145
29.2


6
33.3


22
14
63.6



21
9
42.9


3
1
33.3



3
2
66.7


205
44.9


590
74
12.5



95
35
36.8



424
130
30.7


-600
- 161
26.8


~ ~













VT 'i '. **- ll AI I


' M 1 i n ,i


Race


No. ; :- -
% Using CRD



No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% Using CRD



No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% Using CRD


No. Observed
No, Using CRD
% "'-- CRD

1989

No. Observed
No ... CRD
% .:, CRD


68
26.5


234
27.8


7
1-- 1 3


-- 271
-- 27.1


181 444
8 80
4.4 18.0


72
17
23.6



178
26
14.6



166
22
13.3


184
77
41.8



345
130
37.7



241
86
35.7


118
31
26.3



259
71
27.4



254
61
24.0


648
89
13.7



379a

33.0



794
228
28.7



675
171
25.3


6
1
16.7



9
1
11.1



12
2
16.7


'' number was taken i' ",
discrepancies in totals could not be
data were not available.


from a :;,- -'.. report.
resolved because original


"\-3:'^-r~P ',


"I. r~
:


1988













Appendix Table 31


--Observed levels of CRD use among children 4-5 years
of age in TI.....r'St. Petersburg/Clearwater MSA, by
race 1985-1989.


Race


198


No. Observed
% Using CRD


12im


No. Observed
No. ? .' -. CRD
a Using CRD



No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% Using CRD



No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% Using '

1989

No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% Using CRD


413
29.8



61
13
21.3



21
5
23.8



13
2
15.4



37
7
18.9


- 10
30.0


418
132
31.6



151
55
36.4



191
45
23.6



294
114
38.8


17
3
17.6


13
2
15.4


9
5
55.6



5
1
20.0


8
2
25.0


aThis number was taken directly from a -. : I ;.


:. Slight


discrepancies in totals could not be resolved because original
data were not available.


25.3


488
150
30.7



194
64
33.0



207
47
22.7



352
125
35.5













... : Table 32.--Observed levels of CRD use
of 4" n ra he TIa.rcnwmfll


among children 6-14 years
MCA hti va"^a 0R7-rQRO


Race


No. Observed
No I;. -RD




No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% Using CRD


192M


No. Z' .-
No. Using CRD
% Using CRD


41
5
12.2



198
59
29.8



215
73
34.0


316
112
35,4



755
312
41.3



725
320
44.1


5
1
20.0



15
7
46.7



14
5
35.7


8
3
37.5



8
3
37.5



6
2
33.3


- 370
S 121
32.7


2
1
50.0



3
3
100.0


978
382
39.1



963
403
41.8


,:. ....: i:.., 33.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14
of age in the '.- .: ,ville/Palm ? MSA, by
race, -1989.

Race

- - - - -- <~ -- .- t P


No. Observed 7 146 2 6
No. Using CRD 0 42 0 2 -- 44
% Using GRD 0.0 28.8 0.0 33.3 -- 27.5



No. Observed 36 617 34 7 -- 694
No. .C-:- CRD 8 178 15 3 -- 204
% -'," CRD 22.2 28.8 44.1 42.9 -- 29.4



No. Observed 143 937 29 11 1 1,121
No. ",'. CRD 27 280 15 7 0 329
% ",:, CRD 18.9 29.9 51.7 63.6 0.0 29.3


aThis number was taken directly
discrepancies in totals could not be
data were not available.


from a previous report. ";-,
resolved because original














. Table 34.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14 years
..... Race- .

Race
'I '-,. -
,'W '


19i
No, Observed
No. Using CRD
S"::f!,. CRD



No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% Using CRD

128,g

No. Observed
No. Using CRD
%; : -. CRD


. : number


277
87
31.4



238
48
20.2



227
70
30.8


672
282
42,0



465
209
44,9



589
238
40.4


281
89
31,7



407
119
29.2



457
179
39.2


28
12
42,9



21
5
23.8



27
10
37.0


1 :
470
37.5


4 1,135
0 381
0.0 33.6


6
3
50.0


1,306
500
38.3


was taken directly from a previous report.


. ,-i..,. : in .:;. could not be resolved because -..:
data were not available.


...- Table 35.--Observed levels of CRD use among children
of age in T ....... St. Petersburg/Clearwater
race, -.


Race


1987


No. Observed
No ,,., -RD




No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% Using CRD



No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% Using CRD


36
8
22.2


89
25
28.1


617
178
28.8



774
189
24.4



1,038
411
39.6


34
15
44.1



19
2
10.5



48
18
37.5


7
3
42.9



9

11.1


19
11
57.9


S 694
- 204
S 29.4


2
1
50.0


841
195
23.2


2 1,196
0 465
0.0 38.9


6-14 years
MSA, by


~---- ~ `-----` -- ---~


-- --- ------ --- ------













Observed levels of .f"-- device use in Eustis,
hv ap nof child 1QAR.-1QR


Year

1988

No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% '. CRD

1989

No. .
No. .. .
% Using CRD


(0-3)


664
268
40.4



414
170
41.1


Children Children
(4-5) (6-14)


388
78
20.1



244
71
29.1


668
122
18.3



656
196
29.9


STable 37.--Observed levels of .- device
he~ Irr oIf hi

use in Lake City,


Infants Children Children Total
(0-3) (4-5) (6-14) (0-14)


SCRD
CRD


1989


No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% -- I-.- CRD


433
143
33.0



265
65
24.5


505
67
13.3



261
46
17.6


Total
(0-14)


1,720
468
27.2



1,314
437
33.3


Year

1988


No.
No.
% ,-


492
83
16.9


1,430
293
20.5



1,074
210
19.6


18.1


. :. Table 36


;.













Appendix Table 38.--Observed levels of safety device use in arianna,
-r ?."r *.I" c A. F0 W .q
= . = : : _ _ : : = : : : .. -


Infants Children Children


Total


Year (0-3) (4-5) (6-14) (0-14)

1988

No. Observed 328 204 397 929
No. Using CRD 73 63 120 256
% Using CRD 22.3 30.9 30.2 27.6



No. Observed 346 515 1,122
No. Using CRD 69 71 196 336
% Using CRD 19.9 27.2 38.1 29.9


. .-.. Table 39.--Observed levels of ..:-: device
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ -. 9 i '


use in Sebring,


Infants :.:
(0-3) (4-5)


No : -. -.
No. Using CRD
% -.. *.... CRD



No. Observed
No. '-. CRD
% -:, CRD


270
119
44.1



210
106
50.5


158
33
20.9



247
57
23.1


Children Total
(6-14) (0-14)


349
69
19.8



769
157
20.4


777
221
28.4



1,226
320
26.1


Year

im)t~~


~----~ ~










57


Appendix Table 40.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3


Gender


Year Male Female

1988

No. Observed 338 282
No. .:..: CRD 122 120
% c* CRD 36.1 42.6

1989

No. Observed 202 177
No, Using CRD 84 69
% -::..- CRD 41.6 39.0


-l---- Ji r C 'P


Unknown Total


26
59.1



35
17
48.6


664
268
40.4



414
170
41.1


i 7 (


Gender


Year '_:Female Unknown Total

1988

No. Observed 184 176 73 433
No. "I.:- CRD 58 33 52 143
% "-^,. CRD 31.5 18.8 71.2 33.0

1989

No. Observed 131 106 28 265
No, ". 0 CRD 26 25 14 65
% C"::.. CRD 19.8 23.6 50.0 24.5


11 m-FI:- r,














Appendix Table 42.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3


Gender

Year Male Female Unknown Total



No. Observed 182 146 -- 328
No. i".- CRD 44 29 -- 73
% .;-;: ., CRD 24.2 19.9 -- 22.3



No. Observed 164 153 29 346
No. Using CRD 35 26 8 69
% Using CRD 21.3 17.0 27.6 19.9


Appendix Table 43.--Observed
I : t -


Year

Ae -. --


No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% Using CRD

1982

No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% Using CRD


Male


134
52
38.8



57
20
35.1


levels of CRD use among children 0-3
~ ~~~~~~:. i .. .. . = =


Gender

Female


108
42
38.9



69
29
42.0


Unknown


Total


28
25
89.3



84
57
67.9


270
119
44.1



210
106
50.5


---- --


- ---













Appendix Table 46.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 4-5
.;-.. .. . ... . ..t .

Gender

Year Female Unknown T



No. Observed 254 134
SUsing CRD 52 26
% Using CRD 20.5 19.4

1989

No. Observed 128 115 1
No. CRD 41 30 0
% CR.: CRD 32.0 26.1 0.0


S Table 45.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 4-5


Gender


Year


Male


S. Observed
No.- "' CRD
% Using CRD

1989

No. Observed
No. .:- .. CRD
% Using CRD


310
42
13.5



129
20
15.5


Female


Unknown


Total


195
7S
12.8



126
26
20.6


total


78
20.1


505
67
13.3



261
46
17.6


- --- ----~-


1988


-- -- ---


.













Appendix Table 46.--Observed levels of CRD use
i- *:- E" H '! .:.- .


Gender


Year


Male


Female


Unknown


Total


19M8


No. Observed
No. :r -.,. CRD
% Using CRD



No. Observed
No. .. :. CRD
% Using CRD


116
31
26,7



126
35
27.8


88
32
36.4



131
35
26.7


4
1
25.0


Appendix Table 47- :


S levels of CRD use among children 4-5


Gender

Year Male Female Unknown Total

1988
No. Observed 92 66 -- 158
No. Using CRD 18 15 -- 33
% Using CRD 19.6 22.7 -- 20.9

19892

No. Observed 138 99 10 247
No. Using CRD 35 20 2 57
% Using CRD 25.4 20.2 20.0 23.1


204
63
30.9



261
71
27.2


* children 4-5










61


Appendix Table 48.--Observed levels of use among children 6-14


Gender


Year


Male


Female


Unknown


Total


1 9't 9


Observed
No. "' ... CRD
% CRD


1989


No. Observed
No. ::. CRD
% "'-* CRD


49.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14

Gender
Gender


Male


Female


Unknown


Total


No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% -.:.... CRD


1989


No, Observed
No. :.-.. CRD
% : ,. CRD


422
80
19.0



341
93
27.3


246
42
17.1



315
103
32.7


668
122
18.3



656
196
29.9


Year

1988


238
38
16.0



279
51
18,3


254
45
17.7



264
48
18.2


492
83
16.9



548
99
18.1


- --- ---


-----~~~














Appendix Table 50.--Observed levels of CRD use among children
--_ _n .

Gender


Year





No. Observed
?o. Using CRD
% .... ., CRD


No. Observed
No. -. CRD
% Using CRD


Male


209
54
25.8



265
110
41.5


188
66
35.1



247
84
34.0


6-14
r


Total


397
120
30.2



515
196
38.1


Appendix Table 51.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14


Gender

Year Male Female Unknown Total

1988

No. Observed 210 139 -- 349
No. Using CRD 34 35 -- 69
% Using 16.2 252 -- 19.8



No. Observed 407 359 3 769
No. Using CRD 91 66 0 157
% Using CRD 22.4 18.4 0.0 20.4


__ I_


1289












- Table 52.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 r-
of age in the Eustis, by race, 1988-1989.

Race


No. .
No. Using CRD
% Using CRD

1989

No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% -- CRD


62
7
11.3


552
258
46.7



345
162
47.0


5
1
20.0


Appendix Table 53.--Observed lev-


of CRD use among children 0-3 years


Race

nS"1- .I T~ c-^ -~ ^^ ^. Rt^1--- t- --- W -. ^


1988


No. :
No. Using CRD
% Using CRD


81
11
13.6


1989


No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% ""' ..: : I


347
132
38.0



219
61
27.9


4
0
0.0



1
0
0.0


433
143
33.0


1 265
0 65
0.0 24.5


664
268
40.4



414
170
41.1


--














. :: Table 54.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 0-3 years


Race

Year Black White Hispanic Other Unknown Total


No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% : CRD



No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% "'- ,- CRD


57
8
14.0



59
4
6.8


269
64
23.8



285
65
22.8


2
1
50.0


328
- 73
22.3


346
69
19.9


Appendix Table 55.--Observed levels of CRD use amonz
nf a i-. n Sohrna -:


children 0-3 years
120a


Race


No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% Using CRD

1989

No. Observed
No. :: :RD
% ,* .: ..: .: _


40
12
30.0



29
3
10.3


221
102
46.2



165
99
60.0


9
5
55.6



14
3
21.4


- 270
119
44.1


1
1
100.0


210
106
50.5


~ _I ~ ~ I


---- ----













Appendix Table 56.- ---- -. : levels of CRD use u. -.. children 4-5 years
f qra 1n FF-''t< r-O e 1 ~a-QR O


Race


1988


No. ;-
No. : -RD
% .7


1989


No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% -; CRD


S.. Table 57.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 4-5


Race


1988


No. .
No. Using CRD
% ". CRD

1989

No. ". -
No, Using CRD
% Using CRD


60
6
10.0


411
60
14.6



198
40
20.2


3
1
33.3


326
76
23.3



202
68
33.7


4
0
0.0



8
12.5
12.5


388
78
20.1



244
71
29.1


505
67
13.3



261
46
17.6


- --















,...--,~ :i : Table


58.--Observed 1', -e-,; of CRD use among children 4-5 -.
0 ..


Race


V- z


N:. Observed
No. Using
S i.,' .. GRD



No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% Using :'


39
9
23.1



56
6
10.7


165
54
32.7



202
65
32.2


1'
0
0.0


Appendix Table


59.--Observed levels of CRD use among children A-5 years
.t :


.


No. Observed
No. .... CRD
I Using CRD

128&

No. Observed
No. 7 CRD
% Using CRD


204
63
30.9


S 261
71
S 27.2


27
1
3.7



28
3
10.7


121
32
26.4



205

25.4


158
S 33
S 20.9



247
S 57
23,1


2
1
50.0


_ ~~~ ~_ ~ __II


----------~ ~


.o -_ .. -. - . -- . .













A. .. .- 60.--Observed levels of CRD use


1988


. Observed
No. : -RD
% Us.


198-9


No. Observed
No. ,. CRD
% :.,: CRD


668
122
18.3


656
196
29.9


22
3
13.6


S".- Table 61.--Observed levels of GRD use among children 6-14


Race





No. Observed 81 401 7 3 -- 4
No, Using CRD 15 64 2 2
% : 18.5 16.0 28.6 66.7 16

1989

No. Observed 99 443 3 3 5
No. Using CRD 15 82 1 1
% Using GRD 15.2 18.5 33.3 33.3 18


.92
83
.9



.48
99
i.1


76
8
10.5



65
13
20.0


586
114
19.5



568
180
31.7


~


I_ ~~


among children 6-14 years
-tiIp p t npnn


w-- r rn














Appendix Table 62.--Observed levels of CRD use among children 6-14 years
of age in the arianna, by race, 1988-1989.

Race


No. Observed
No. -..,,,: "RD
% Us -:*



No. Observed
No. : .- CRD
% Using CRD


69
19
27.5



124

21.0


327
101
30.9



390
170
43.6


397
120
30.2



515
196
38.1


.Table 63.--Observed levels of CRD use amonz


Race


children 6-14 .
o A 0


No. Observed
No. Using CRD
% Using CRD



No. Observed
No. I" ; RD
% i ::. : -


38
4
10.5



85
12
14.1


298
65
21.8



623
136
21.8


51
7
13.7


5
2
40.0


S 349
S 69
19.8



5 769
0 157
0,0 20.4


-- ---- -----------


. -,. ,












Appendix Table 64.--Restraint vs.


m(- Nuber--
----Number--


... ,:.fa. for older children 6-14,


Restrainta Compliance


----------Percent--.--------)


Rual


Eustis

Lake City

Marianna

Sebring

Total Rural



Jacksonv: '.

Melbourne

Miami

Tampa

Total Urban


Total Survey


5,554 7,074


25.5 33.1


64.4 62.4


aChildren 6-14 years of age, in the front seat, are
compliance with the law if they are restrained by either


in
a CRD


or a seat belt. In the back seat, ....: .- 6 years of age or
older are not required by law to be restrained.


668

492

1 ,

349

1,906





694

1,135

841

3,648


656

548

515

769

2,488



963

1,121

1,306

1,196

4,586


29.9

18.1

38.1

20.4

26.0



41.8

29.3

38.3

38.9

!.'.0


18.3

16.9

30.2

19.8

20.7



25.1

29.4

33.6

23.2

28.1


57.2

48.8

59.7

59.6

56.0



71.6

62.2

71.0

67.8

68.7


60.1

53.1

58.4

57.6

.4



68.2

57.8

64.7

70.1

65.2


--)


-.- :k ,













A...-:-t Table 65.--CRD and seat belt usage in Florida


Vehicle Registration
i:.,. .r ? -. o. ...' :, ? .: F ,


and Non-Florida


CRD

Seat belt

No restraint

Total


A- a


CRD or seat belt

No restraint

Total

-1A b


CRD or seat belt

No restraint

Total


(No.)

1,761

177

1,624

3,562



823

2,027

2,850



2,207

4,383

6,590


(%)

49.4

5.0

45.6

100.0


28.9

71.1

100.0



33.5

66.5

100.0


(No.)

83

16

100

199



48

94

142



138

346

484


(U)

41.7

8.0

50.3

100.0



33.8

66.2

100.0



28.5

10 5

100.0


(No.) (C)

1,844 49.0

193 5.1

1,724 45.8

3,761 100.0



871 29.1

2,121 70.9

2,992 100.0



2,345 33.1

4,729 66.9

7,074 100.0


.;'. : 4-5 years of age in the fron seat or the back
seat must be restrained in order to be in compliance with the law.


-. : 6-14 .-:.. old, in the fron seat, are in compliance
if they are restrained by a seat belt or a CRD. In the back seat,
passengers 6 years of age or older are not required by law to be
restrained.












































CRD Observational Survey Coding Sheet















CRD ..: '":-. % :. ".:~r, Coding Sheet


Est. M-Male *" (- IlT-Truck --
Actual *-* V-Van
Age F-Female H-Hispanic .. :
0-Other '.-' .. Belt Otherwise
..:-.. tain U-Uncertain .. Blank





























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