• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Abstract
 Title Page
 Foundation information
 Center information
 Table of Contents
 Acknowledgement
 Summary
 Introduction
 Florida nursery industry
 Florida nursery marketing
 Conclusions and recommendation...
 Appendix
 References














Group Title: Industry report - University of Florida, Florida Agricultural Market Research Center ; no. 81-13
Title: Florida nursery industry
CITATION PDF VIEWER THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027565/00001
 Material Information
Title: Florida nursery industry Current economic status and market trends
Series Title: Industry report - University of Florida, Florida Agricultural Market Research Center ; no. 81-13
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Mathis, Kary
Degner, Robert L.
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Market Research Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1987
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027565
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Downloads

This item has the following downloads:

Nursery%20Industry%20IR81-13 ( PDF )


Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Abstract
        Abstract
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Foundation information
        Page i
        Page ii
    Center information
        Page iii
    Table of Contents
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
        Page ix
    Acknowledgement
        Page x
        Page xi
    Summary
        Page xii
        Page xiii
        Page xiv
        Page xv
        Page xvi
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Florida nursery industry
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Florida nursery marketing
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
    Conclusions and recommendations
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
    Appendix
        Page 79
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
        Page 85
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
        Page 91
        Page 92
        Page 93
    References
        Page 94
        Page 95
Full Text










DECEMBER 1981


Industry Report
81-13


THE FLOF. IDA IlUP' EP I IIILIU.TFi:


riIFrPEI ECCirI[lli C ':TPTir: A D [i lArF.ET TIF:EU[.


U 1


/cxN


rw.j;
flY;
..t,

.4

















ABSTRACT


This study analyzed economic and market trends in four major

portions of the Florida nursery industry: woody ornamentals, foliage,

citrus and bedding plants. A total of 8,018 Florida nurseries produce

these plants, with 1,882 classified as commercial firms. Owners or

managers of a statistical sample of these firms were interviewed.

Personnel from firms representative of all type of nursery plant buyers

were also interviewed. Sales of Florida nursery plants increased from

1979 to 1981. Sales trends in categories of plants within the woody

ornamental and foliage groups were identified. Divisions of sales among

market outlets and among geographic regions were delineated. Marketing

problems and needs in each sector were described, and recommendations

made for industry programs.



Additional key words: Woody ornamentals, foliage, citrus nursery
stock, bedding plants.


















THE FLORIDA NURSERY INDUSTRY:

CURRENT ECONOMIC STATUS AND MARKET TRENDS










Developed and Written By

Kary Mathis and Robert L. Degner

The Florida Agricultural Market Research Center
a part of
The Food and Resource Economics Department
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville 32611











Funded By



R. Ed Brown Horticultural Research Foundation, Inc.
P. 0. Box 16796
Temple Terrace, FL 33687
(813) 985-8511


December, 1981















THE R. ED BROWN HORTICULTURAL RESEARCH FOUNDATION


The R. Ed Brown Horticultural Research Foundation was established

in June, 1979 through the foresight, dedication and concern of one of the

nursery industry's long-time members and supporters of research activities,

Mr. R. Ed Brown of Goochland Nurseries, Pembroke, Florida. It was created

to stimulate interest in research as it pertains to horticulture in the

State of Florida. Among the purposes of the Foundation are: to improve

methods of production, storage, distribution and marketing of horticul-

tural and nursery stock; to conduct educational and research conferences,

seminars and symposiums and to improve production of garden tools,

mechanical equipment, and other allied supplies pertaining to the

construction and maintenance of landscape areas.

Nursery-related agricultural research, and its industry-wide

dissemination is the foundation for progress and profit in the Florida

horticultural industry. The nursery industry is highly technical,

constantly changing, and subject to many variables, and it cannot survive

without constant research.

This first research project was undertaken to establish the

size, scope and market of Florida's nursery industry to be used in

preparation for projected supply and demand trends of major nursery

products and production categories. Specific objectives to be accomplished

through this research study are: (1) to determine numbers, types and sizes

of Florida firms growing and marketing woody ornamentals and foliage,

(2) collect relevant information from selected Florida firms and











production volume, marketing and sales, (3) identify and describe major

markets and marketing channels for Florida Nursery products, (4) identify

and document "key indicators" for industry members' use in projecting

supply and demand trends for major products or product categories.

It's never easy to predict what the demand for nursery

products will be. We have to be able to anticipate what our future

orders might be and what our needs may be for material. This research

is a step toward helping the horticultural industry plan in advance for

not only this year but future years as well. Knowing what economic

trends we can expect in Florida can help us when we want to decide

whether to risk our capital and invest in major material purchases.

And most importantly, not only will the release of the research findings

contained in this report be helpful to large horticultural operations,

but any size firm should benefit from the analysis.

Research is our promise for tomorrow. Research takes the

unknown, the unexpected, and turns them into knowledge for the future.

The success of our industry may depend on these discoveries. Through

knowledge comes understanding, through understanding comes progress.

The R. Ed Brown Horticultural Foundation sincerely hopes that this

research report will contribute significantly to the betterment of the

horticultural industry in the State of Florida.
















The Florida Agricultural Market Research Center


A Service of
The Food and Resource Economics Department
of the
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


The purpose of this Center is to provide timely, applied research

on current and emerging marketing problems affecting Florida's agri-

cultural and marine industries. The Center seeks to provide research

and information to production, marketing, and processing firms, groups

and organizations concerned with improving and expanding markets for

Florida agricultural and marine products.

The Center is staffed by a basic group of economists trained in

agriculture and marketing. In addition, cooperating personnel from

other IFAS units provide a wide range of expertise which can be applied

as determined by the requirements of individual projects.
















TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

LIST OF TABLES................................................. vi

LIST OF FIGURES ............ ....... .......................... viii

LIST OF APPENDIX TABLES....................................... ix

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS........................ ..................... x

SUMMARY.................... .................................. xii

INTRODUCTION................................................... 1

Objectives ............................................. 2
Procedures............................................... 3
Other Nursery Industry Surveys........................... 4

THE FLORIDA NURSERY INDUSTRY ................................. 8

Florida Nursery Firms: Plant Material, Acreage,
Location and Business Type............................... 13
Major Nursery Counties.................................... 19

FLORIDA NURSERY MARKETING..................................... 31

Woody Ornamentals....................................... 33
Sales Trends.......................................... 33
Market Outlets....................................... 35
Market Regions ...................................... 37
Competing Production Areas............................. 39
Marketing Problems and Needs.......................... 41

Foliage ................................. ................ 41
Sales Trends.......................................... 41
Market Outlets....................................... 45
Market Regions...................................... 49
Competing Production Areas............................. 50
Marketing Problems and Needs ... ....................... 51

Citrus ................................................. 51

Bedding Plants ............................................ 55

Nursery Inputs and Supplies............................... 60














TABLE OF CONTENTS Continued

Page

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS............................... 65

Woody Ornamentals....................................... 69
Recommendations....................................... 72

Foliage ................................................. 73
Recommendations....................................... 76

Citrus.................................................. 77

Bedding Plants......................................... 78

APPENDIX.................... ................................. 79

Factors Affecting Demand For Woody Ornamentals
and Foliage............................................ 85


REFERENCES..................................................... 94

ACTIVITIES SUMMARY.............................. ............. 96













LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1 Nursery products included in various reports and surveys.... 7

2 Leading states in cash receipts from greenhouse and nursery
products, 1979.......................................... 9

3 Cash receipts from sales of all agricultural commodities and
from greenhouse and nursery products, Florida, 1970-79...... 10

4 Foliage, bedding plants, bedding plants, and potted flowers:
gross wholesale value of sales, selected states 1980........ 11

5 Foliage, bedding plants and potted flowers: gross wholesale
value of sales, Florida, 1970-1980.......................... 12

6 Florida nursery firms by primary plant material for all firms
and for commercial firms, 1980 .............................. 14

7 Florida nursery acreage and numbers of firms by plant category,
1980 ...................................................... 15

8 Florida nursery firms by business type, for all firms and
commercial firms ........................................ 17

9 Florida nursery firms, and acreage by plant category and by
business type........................................... 18

10 Florida nursery firms by type of plant material and by
business type, 1980...................................... 20

11 All nurseries and commercial nurseries in 25 Florida counties,
and percent in state, by type of plant material, 1980....... 22

12 Total and commercial nursery acreage in 25 Florida counties,
and percentage of acreage in state by plant category, 1980... 23

13 Numbers of nurseries by type of plant material, 25 counties,
1980 ....................................................... 24

14 Numbers of commercial nurseries by type of plant material,
25 Florida counties, 1980.................................... 26

15 Total nursery acreage by plant category, 25 Florida counties,
1980 ....................................................... 27












LIST OF TABLES Continued

Table Page

16 Acreage in commercial nurseries, by plant category, 25
Florida counties, 1980..................................... 28

17 Numbers of commercial nurseries by business type, 25
Florida counties, 1980..................................... 29

18 Estimated wholesale values of Florida commercial nursery
sales of exterior and interior plants, citrus nursery stock
and bedding plants, 1979, 1980 and 1981, and percentage
changes ................................... ................ 33

19 Percentage shares of Florida woody ornamental nursery sales,
selected plant groups, 1979-1981............................. 34

20 Florida sales of woody ornamentals, foliage, citrus stock and
bedding plants by region, 1981 ............................. 40

21 Percentage shares of Florida foliage nursery sales, selected
plant groups, 1975, 1979-81 ................................ 43

22 Foliage plants sold in pots by large and medium sized growers,
and percentages by pot size, Florida, 1977-80............... 46

24 Number of round orange trees and grapefruit trees in Florida
commercial citrus inventories, 1965-80............... ...... 53

25 Average annual plantings of new oranges and temples and
grapefruits, Florida, 1975-1979............................ 56

26 Estimated future orange and grapefruit plantings, Florida
at 1977-79 average, half and double the average............. 57

27 Shares of Florida nursery growing area by type and percentage
change in growing area, 1979-1981 ......................... 70

28 Effects of one percent increase in four economic or demo-
graphic measures on foliage sales from Florida and from the
rest of the U.S., 1966-80................................... 74














LIST OF FIGURES


Figure Page

1 Florida counties with major nursery acreage, 1980........... 21

2 Marketing channels, woody ornamentals....................... 36

3 Geographic regions used in Florida nursery firm interviews.. 38

4 Marketing channels, foliage................................. 48

5 Marketing channels, citrus nursery plants................... 54

6 Marketing channels, bedding plants......................... 59


viii














LIST OF APPENDIX TABLES


Table Page

1 Florida nursery firms, retail, wholesale, combination
and total, and total nursery acreage by county, 1980.......... 80

2 Florida commercial nursery firms, retail, wholesale,
combination and total, 1980.................................. 82

3 Plant inventory numbers in Florida nurseries and in
interview sample, and sample percent of state .............. 84

4 Construction contracts awarded, Florida and U.S., 1960-1978.. 86

5 Value of construction contracts and employment, Florida and
U.S., 1968-1977.......................................... .. 87

6 Foliage plants for indoor or patio use........................ 88

7 Estimated equations explaining foliage plant sales, 1966-80.. 93
















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


Many people contributed to this study. The Florida growers who

provided information were extremely helpful and cooperative. Many

representatives of firms buying Florida plants also were most helpful.

The directors and staff of the R. Ed Brown Horticultural Research

Foundation, which provided funds for partial support of this study, are

to be commended for their concern for the Florida nursery industry and

for their efforts to assist in improving a vigorous and growing industry.

Representatives of many other Florida and national nursery industry

groups were extremely helpful throughout the study, also.

Several members of the Florida Division of Plant Industry provided

vital information and help. Mr. Halwin Jones, Division Director, Mr.

Ralph King, Ms. Chris Bessent and Mr. Rod Gillmore all provided valuable

assistance. Mr. Richard Small of the Florida Crop and Livestock Re-

porting and Mr. E. F. Scarborough of the Florida Federal-State Market

News Service were extremely generous in providing published data and in

reviewing this study.

A great many IFAS personnel contributed in many ways. Drs. Robert

Strain and Cecil Smith provided many publications and invaluable ex-

peritse. Dr. Ken Portier, professor of statistics, was extremely helpful

in selecting the statistical sample of Florida nursery firms included in

the study. Dade County extension agent for ornamentals, DeArmand Hull,

also assisted most helpfully. Mr. Rom Alderman was patient and expert














in many aspects of computer programming with study data, and Ms. Judith

King provided invaluable statistical assistance. Miss Paula Gigliotti

conducted many of the interviews and summarized much of the information

gathered. Typing and many other important jobs were completed by Ms.

Patricia Beville, Mrs. Lois Schoen and Miss Stephanie Hill.















SUMMARY


This study focuses on the four major commercial components of the
Florida nursery industry: firms producing woody ornamentals, foliage
plants, citrus, and bedding plants.

Specific objectives were to: 1) Determine numbers, types and
sizes of Florida firms growing and marketing nursery material; 2)
Collect relevant information from selected Florida firms on production
volume, marketing and sales; 3) Identify and describe markets and
marketing channels for Florida nursery products and 4) Identify and
document "key indicators" for industry members' use in projecting supply
and demand trends for major products or product categories.

A listing of all nurseries inspected in 1980 was obtained from the
Division of Plant Industry (DPI) of the Florida Department of Agriculture
and Consumer Services. This listing of over 8,000 firms was analyzed to
determine the geographic dispersion of commercially important firms
within the state.

A statistical sample of 100 firms was selected from the DPI list to
provide detailed information through structured, personal interviews
conducted by FAMRC staff. The firms are selected so as to include
larger proportions for large commercial nurseries. The sample of 100
firms was estimated to produce and market 53 percent of all woody or-
namentals, one-third of the foliage plants, 45 percent of the citrus
nursery stock and virtually all bedding plants in Florida.

Fifty-eight additional Florida nurseries provided information for
the study.

Forty firms buying and using Florida plants were interviewed to
determine buying policies and plant use and sales trends. Plant buyers
were located in Florida, Georgia, Illinois, New York, Connecticut, and
Massachussetts.

In 1979, Florida accounted for 11 percent of U.S. nursery sales.
Greenhouse and nursery products accounted for nearly 8 percent of
Florida's farm income.

Nursery product sales increased by more than three and onehalf
times from 1970 through 1979.

DPI records show that 8,018 Florida firms grew woody ornamentals,
foliage plants, citrus, or bedding plants. Of these, 1,882 were clas-
sified as commercial operations.














Many firms grow several categories of plant material. Of the
commercial-scale nurseries, about 57 percent grow foliage, 49 percent
produce woody ornamentals, 7 percent produce citrus stock, and only 7
firms grow bedding plants.

Florida has approximately 14,500 acres devoted to nursery pro-
duction, according to DPI inspection records. About 80 percent of this
acreage is operated by commercial-scale firms; slightly over 85 percent
of the state's total nursery acreage and the commercial firm's acreage
is used to grow "ornamentals."

Twenty-five Florida counties have 94 percent of all nursery acreage
and 96 percent of the commercial acreage.

Wholesale sales of exterior landscape material (primarily woody
ornamentals) increased by about 52 percent from 1979 to 1981. During
the same period, wholesale foliage sales increased by 14 percent, and
sales of citrus, and bedding plants increased by over 70 percent each.


Woody Ornamentals


Within the woody ornamental classification, proportionate sales of
evergreen shrubs increased slightly from 1979-81, and azaleas declined.
Most firms did not envision drastic changes in the next three to five
years.

Florida growers and buyers of Florida-grown material reported
increasing demand for hardy, low-maintenance plants and ground covers.

Florida growers noted increased demand for larger sizes for trees
and stressed the need for more standardization of container sizes.

Many buyers for retail garden centers and mass market outlets
requested greater use of labels and care tags which provide more in-
formation to consumers.

The major types of market outlets for woody ornamentals are landscape
firms, retail garden centers, and mass market outlets. The first two
types account for about 31 percent each, and the latter, 19 percent of
all wholesale sales. Nursery wholesalers, other Florida growers, brokers,
and government agencies account for ten, five, and two, and one percent,
respectively. Most growers did not anticipate marked changes in the
relative importance of the various types of outlets in the next three to
five years.


xiii















Over half of all woody ornamental sales were to buyers in Florida,
and another one-third to buyers in other southern states. About 11
percent of all sales are made to buyers in the northeast, and four
percent to buyers in the midwest. No sales were reported to buyers in
the west. Many woody ornamental growers detected a long-term trend
towards relatively greater sales within the state.

Few woody ornamental growers reported marketing problems. Some did
cite transportation problems such as rapidly increasing costs and the
need for improved handling and transportation equipment. Others mentioned
the need for industry-wide market development activities.

Foliage


Of 1,882 commercial nurseries in the state, 1,06 produce foliage
plants.

Sales of interior foliage plants increased about 14 percent from
1979 to 1981. Producers reported that sales had been stabilizing over
the past several years after the rapid growth experienced in the 1970's.
Most predicted stable to slightly increasing sales over the next three
to five years.

Individual foliage plant groups showed little relative change in
importance between 1979 and 1981. However, philodendrons and dracaenas
declined as a percentage of total foliage sales while ficus and aglaonemas
increased significantly.

Buyers stressed the need for high quality plants and appropriate
container types. Mass market retailers generally preferred attractive
containers to assist in merchandising the plants, but to interiorscape
firms the appearance of the container was relatively unimportant.

Over one-third of Florida foliage growers' sales are made to retail
garden centers and florists, about 31 percent to wholesale greenhouses
and florists and 10 percent to mass market outlets such as grocery
stores and discount department stores. Fifteen percent is sold through
brokers, but the ultimate disposition of broker sales was not determined.
Sales to other Florida growers amounted to eight percent, and to in-
teriorscape and landscape firms only one percent.

Growers anticipate that a greater share of sales during the next
three to five years will be made directly to retailers or wholesalers,
and a decreasing proportion through brokers. Many growers expressed a
desire to reduce the proportion of sales to mass market outlets as














well, due to slow payment practices and extreme price pressure. Some
growers felt that sales to interiorscape firms would increase substantially.

Over 80 percent of Florida-grown foliage plants are sold outside of
Florida. Growers reported that 24 to 26 percent of their sales went to
each of three major regions of the U.S., the midwest, northeast, and the
south. Four percent goes to western states and three percent to other
countries. Of the 17 percent sold in Florida, it is probable that a
large share was sold to brokers who in turn moved the material to out-
of-state markets.

According to most growers and buyers as well, Florida has little
competition from tropical foliage growers in other states or countries
for the types of plant material currently grown. Some growers felt that
tropical foliage production in Texas would likely provide increasing
competition in the southwest in the next few years. Also, limited
quantities of plant material from Puerto Rico are entering some U.S
markets, primarily in the northeast.

Transportation cost increases, physical handling problems and
difficulty with "slow-pay" accounts were the major marketing problems
mentioned by foliage growers.


Citrus


There were 135 specialized citrus nurseries registered by DPI in
1980.

Citrus tree sales by specialized citrus nurseries increased over 70
percent from 1979 to 1981.

Commercial citrus operations buy approximately 87 percent of the
Florida nursery stock and retail garden centers the remaining 13 percent.

Seventy-one percent of all citrus stock remains in Florida, and
virtually all of the remaining 29 percent goes to commercial growers
outside the U.S., mainly in the Caribbean and Latin America. Very few
trees are currently being shipped to other states.


Bedding Plants


DPI records list 39 nurseries as producers of bedding plants, and
seven were judged to be of commercial importance. The seven firms
accounted for 97 percent of the total bedding plant inventory.
These firms produce flowering annuals or vegetable transplants for the
nursery trade. Containerized transplants for commercial vegetable production
or reforestation were not included.















The seven commercial firms estimated 1981 sales at $3.2 million, an
increase of 73 percent over 1979.

Retail garden centers account for 51 percent of reported bedding
plant sales, mass market firms for 34 percent, landscape contractors 11
percent, wholesalers two percent, and interiorscape firms and government
agencies one percent each.

No major shifts in market outlets are expected over the next three
to five years, but landscape designers and residential developers will
probably increase their use of flowering annuals.

About 95 percent of Florida's bedding plant production remains in
the state; two percent goes to other southern states, and the remainder
is dispersed to western and northwestern states and to Canada.

Continued increases in bedding plant sales are anticipated, with
almost all growth occurring in Florida.
















THE FLORIDA NURSERY INDUSTRY:
CURRENT ECONOMIC STATUS AND MARKET TRENDS


Kary Mathis and Robert L. Degner


INTRODUCTION



The Florida nursery industry is one of the largest sectors in

Florida agriculture and one of the two largest state nursery industries

in the United States. The Florida nursery industry is really a collection

of many important and highly specialized horticultural sectors located

throughout the state and serving many and varied markets.

This study focuses on four major commercial components of the

Florida nursery industry. The firms studied produced woody ornamental

and foliage plants, citrus stock and bedding plants. Firms which specialized

in bulbs, turf, exotic and tropical flowers and plants, cut greens, container-

ized transplants, and the collection of wild plants were not covered in

this study.


Kary Mathis is professor and Robert L. Degner is associate professor
of food and resource economics at the University of Florida.
















Objectives


This study is part of a continuing effort by state nursery or-

ganizations to provide the Florida nursery and related industries with

information and statistical data. Such information will help the industry

formulate long run plans by looking beyond short run fluctuations.

A program of research, outlined below, addressed that goal.

Specific projects were:

1. Current state of the Florida nursery industry and its markets;

2. Competitive position of the Florida nursery industry compared
with U.S. and foreign producing areas;

3. Market intelligence and information needs;

4. Market and demand trends at wholesale and consumer levels;

5. Contingency planning.

This report covers the first of these projects, the current state

of the Florida nursery industry and its markets. Specific objectives

for the project were:

1. Determine numbers, types and sizes of Florida firms growing
and marketing woody ornamentals, foliage, citrus stock and
bedding plants.

2. Collect relevant information from selected Florida firms
on production volume, marketing and sales.

3. Identify and describe major markets and marketing channels
for Florida nursery products.

4. Identify and document "key indicators" for industry members'
use in projecting supply and demand trends for major products
or product categories.
















Procedures


Published information and previous studies relating to the nursery

industry were assembled and reviewed (see reference list). Much of this

information provided important insight into the organization and operation

of the Florida nursery industry. Listings of Florida nursery firms

provided by the Division of Plant Industry (DPI) of the Florida Department

of Agriculture and Consumer Services and by trade associations helped

identify numbers, types and sizes of Florida nursery firms.

Owners and managers of many Florida nursery firms and buyers and

users of Florida plants provided essential information through structured,

in-depth interviews during the spring and summer of 1981 (see Appendix

for questionnaires used). These interviews, along with published reports,

described Florida nursery production and sales, identified market outlets

and market channels, and helped indicate supply and demand trends.

A statistical sample of Florida nursery firms was selected from the

Division of Plant Industry (DPI) nursery inspection list. Florida

nurseries that grow and sell live plants must be inspected periodically

by the DPI; inspectors list the numbers of plants in the nursery by

category. For this study nurseries were divided into four categories

according to the primary kind of plants grown and sold: Woody ornamentals,

foliage, citrus and bedding plants. Within each category, nurseries

were grouped by size as determined by plant inventory. Firms to be in-

terviewed were selected so that each firm within a size class in each

plant category had an equal chance of being included in the sample.













A total of 158 Florida nursery firms provided information used in

this study, though some of them were not part of the statistical sample.

In addition, personnel of 40 firms buying and using Florida plants were

interviewed and supplied valuable information.


Other Nursery Industry Surveys


The Florida nursery industry has experienced rapid growth and major

change in the past 10 years. These developments, together with the rel-

ative scarcity of industry-wide statistics, have prompted several special

surveys or other data-gathering efforts in the past two years. The

Horticultural Census, scheduled every 10 years by the U.S. Bureau of the

Census, was conducted in early 1980 for the 1979 business year.

Two IFAS surveys concerning nursery firm characteristics and in-

formation needs have been conducted recently. The first, during April

and May of 1979, involved short questionnaires to all woody ornamental

nurseries listed by DPI in 32 north Florida counties (Ingram and Gunter).

A second survey covered the same topics with 1,000 nurseries growing

woody ornamental and foliage firms in the remaining 35 counties of the

state during August and September 1981. A trade magazine commissioned

and published national surveys in 1980 and 1981 (Gammel).






Only five firms contacted in the FAMRC study reported here were
also contacted in the second IFAS survey. Efforts were made to avoid
contacting the same firms in both surveys, as far as possible.














Certain information is regularly collected and reported by two

state-federal agencies charged with the responsibility of providing in-

formation to agricultural industries. The Florida Crop and Livestock

Reporting Service, an arm of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, coop-

ates with the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services in

gathering and reporting information on several nursery products. The

Federal-State Market News Service is, as the name shows, a joint effort

of the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Florida Department of

Agriculture and Consumer Services.

These agencies regularly report total volume, sales, production

area, product movement, prices and much other information on the Florida

nursery industry, and on that of other states, as well. The Horticultural

Census reports total sales values of greenhouse and nursery products for

each state every 10 years, and these values are used in calculating an-

nual values in the USDA farm income reports for these same items.

The Gammel survey, begun in 1980 by a national nursery magazine,

provides estimates of annual sales values for major sectors of each

state wholesale nursery industry. All of these efforts are extremely

useful to industry members and provide important information on many

aspects of nursery production and marketing. Yet some figures, for

example total sales values, for one nursery category in one state may

differ substantially between sources because different product groups

are included, because values may be strictly wholesale instead of retail,

or for several other reasons. Moreover, most of the figures provided by

either public agencies or private organizations depend on cooperation by

individual growers.








6





Thus, estimates in this report should be evaluated on their sources

and should be compared, as far as possible, with other data from the re-

ports and surveys described above. Table 1 summarizes the products in-

cluded in several reports and surveys, including this one. These should

be kept in mind as estimates are presented here and compared with those

from other sources.














Table l.--Nursery products included in various reports and surveys.



Hort. F-S
Item Censusa IFASb FC&LRSc RNd Gammele FAMRC


Woody ornamentals
Woody ornamentals X X X X
Decid, fruits, nuts X X
Citrus X X

Foliage X X X X X X

Flowers
Potted flowers X X
Cut flowers X X X
Cut greens X X
Rooted cuttings X
Hanging baskets X X

Bedding plants X X X

Vegetables & seeds
under glass X

Flower seeds X

aCensus of Horticultural Specialties, U.S. Bureau of the Census, every
10 years.

Surveys conducted by IFAS Extension Personnel (see reference list,
Inqram and Gunter).
CFlorida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, annual reports.

dFederal-State Market News, annual and weekly reports.

eWalter A. Gammel Sr. (see reference list), wholesale only.

fFlorida Agricultural Market Research Center (this study).















THE FLORIDA NURSERY INDUSTRY


Florida wholesale nursery sales ranked second in the nation and

represented 11 percent of total U.S. nursery sales in 1979 (Table 2).

Greenhouse and nursery products accounted for 7.7 percent of Florida

farm income, a greater proportion than in any of the other top ten

states in nursery sales.

These sales values have increased steadily since 1970, with the

1979 value more than three and one-half times that in 1970 (Table 3).

Values of greenhouse and nursery sales accounted for 6.7 percent of

Florida farm income over the three-year period, 1970-72. By 1977-79,

these products represented 8.4 percent of the state's farm sales.

In certain categories of greenhouse and nursery products, Florida

leads the nation. Florida foliage sales are considerably larger than

those from California, the next closest state (Table 4). Total value of

foliage, bedding plants and potted flowers was over $148 million in

Florida, larger than the total of those same items from California and

nearly three times the value from Texas, the third-ranking state. As

mentioned earlier, USDA does not collect and report information on woody

ornamentals, so no comparisons between states are possible for that

plant category.

Sales values for Florida foliage, bedding plants and potted flowers

have increased substantially since 1970. Foliage sales grew by over

eight times from 1970 to 1980 (Table 5). While information on bedding














plants and a group of potted flowers is only available from 1976 to the

present, growth in sales values of bedding plants has been impressive.

Potted flower sales increased from 1976 to 1977 then dropped by 1980

(Table 5).


Table 2.--Leading states in cash receipts from greenhouse and nursery
products, 1979.



State Cash receipts Share of state farm income


California

Florida

Texas

Pennsylvania

Ohio

Michigan

Oregon

New York

North Carolina

Illinois



United States


--- $1,000 -

784,625

298,235

160,000

136,992

125,000

105,067

105,012

101,177

75,000

74,800


-------- Percent ---------

6.2

7.7

1.6

5.3

3.6

4.2

6.7

4.6

2.2

1.1


2,831,837


Includes woody ornamentals, fruit and nut plants, foliage, potted
and cut flowers, cut greens, rooted cuttings, floral hanging baskets,
bedding plants, vegetables and vegetable seed under glass, and flower seeds.

Source: Economic Indicators of the Farm Sector: State Income
and Balance Sheet Statistics, 1979, USDA Statistical Bulletin 661,
March 1981.













Table 3.--Cash receipts from sales of all agricultural commodities and from
greenhouse and nursery products, Florida, 1970-79.



All commodities Greenhouse and nursery
Year Value Share


------------ 1,000 Dollars ------------- Percent

1970 1,284,224 84,013 6.5

1971 1,421,908 89,985 6.3

1972 1,686,770 117,405 7.0

1973 2,046,176 133,587 6.5

1974 2,153,740 143,814 6.7

1975 2,419,882 154,542 6.4

1976 2,525,270 241,213 9.6

1977 2,624,044 249,389 9.5

1978 3,273,416 271,123 8.3

1979 3,892,905 298,235 7.7


Source: State Farm Income Statistics, ERS,USDA.














Table 4.-Foliage plants, bedding plants, and potted flowers: gross wholesale
value of sales, selected states, 1980.



Foliage Bedding plants Potted
State plants Flowering Vegetable flowers Total

----------------------- 1,000 Dollars -----------------------

Florida 133,750 4,639 2,140 8,064 148,593

California 79,043 26,628 5,939 34,279 145,889

Texas 26,093 6,139 3,246 15,473 50,951

Ohio 13,037 13,321 b,67b 12,088 44,121

Michigan 4,191 16,474 5,308 11,462 37,435

New York 6,326 7,674 3,334 14,078 31,412

Pennsylvania 2,818 5,217 1,370 9,509 18,914

Illinois 2,950 3,385 1,210 9,900 17,445

North Carolina 0 2,861 1,735 8,732 13,328

Oregon 2,082 1,760 752 3,089 7,683


Source: Floriculture Crops, ERS, USDA, March 1981.













Table 5.--Foliage, bedding plants and potted flowers: gross wholesale value
of sales, Florida, 1970-1980.



Bedding plants Potted
Foliage Flower Vegetable flowers Total

-------------------------- 1,000 Dollars -------------------------

1970 15,938 2,454

1971 23,077 2,372

1972 25,693 2,988

1973 33,410 2,901

1974 48,482 4,409

1975 87,312 5,325

1976 110,656 2,691 499 9,646 123,492

1977 119,956 4,075 843 10,300 135,174

1978 124,135 3,032 1,017 9,115 137,299

1979 139,867 4,835 2,033 8,197 154,932

1980 133,750 4,639 2,140 8,064 148,593


aNot reported before 1976.

bFrom 1970-1975, only chrysanthemums. From 1976 on, includes
hydrangeas, lilies and poinsettias.


chrysanthemums,


Source: Floriculture Crops, Flowers and Foliage Plants, SRS, USDA.















Florida Nursery Firms: Plant Material, Acreage, Location and Business Type


The Florida Division of Plant Industry registers and inspects

locations where plants are grown for sale. For the 1979-80 year, DPI

listed 8,018 firms growing foliage, woody ornamentals, citrus and bedding

plants (Table 6). Of these, 1,882 are classed as commercial firms, as

noted in Table 6.

Many firms grow more than one kind of plant material. About 83

percent of all firms and 57 percent of commercial firms grow foliage,

and 54 and 49 percent, respectively, produce woody ornamentals (Table

6). Eighteen percent of all firms and seven percent of commercial firms

produce citrus stock, and 39 and 7 firms, respectively, grow bedding

plants.

Nursery firms' acreage in each of the plant material groups in

Table 6 is not reported by the DPI. Acres in foliage, woody ornamentals

and bedding plants is reported together as "ornamentals." Area in nuts

and non-citrus fruits and native plants is shown separately. Thus,

total numbers of individual firms are the same, at 8,018 for all firms

and 1,882 for commercial enterprises, but numbers of firms and acreages

by categories shown in Table 7 are not directly comparable with those in

Table 6.

Nevertheless, acreage information by categories shown in Table 7 is

useful in describing the state nursery industry. Of the nearly 14,500

acres reported by all firms, the "ornamentals" category has almost

12,600 or 87 percent. Over 10,000 acres of this is in commercial firms,

which also have nearly all the citrus acreage and 89 percent of the area













Table 6.--Florida nursery firms by primary plant material, for all firms and
for commercial firms, 1980.



Firms
Plant material All Commerciala


Number Percent Number Percent

Foliage 6,629 83 1,066 57

Woody ornamentalsb 4,347 54 920 49

Citrus 1,478 18 135 7

Bedding plants 39 d 7 d

All firms 8,018 100 1,882 100


aNursery classified as commercial on the basis of plant numbers in
inventory listed by Florida Division of Plant Industry:

Foliage, 10,000 plants or more;
Woody ornamentals and citrus, 5,000 plants or more;
Bedding plants, 30,000 plants or more.
blncludes firms producing trees and shrubs, native plants and nut and
fruit (non-citrus) plants.

CTotal of individual firms. Many nurseries produce more than one category
of plants, and, therefore, are listed more than once.

dLess than one percent.

Source: Florida Division of Plant Industry.











Table 7.--Florida nursery acreage and


15

numbers of firms by plant category, 1980.


Total Commerciala
Plant category Firms Acres Firms Acres


Ornamentalsb 7,558 12,597 1,783 10,023

Citrus 1,204 1,133 445 1,037

Nuts and fruits 1,002 724 296 645

Native plants 25 37 3 2

Allc 8,018 14,491 1,882 11,707

aNursery classified as commercial on the basis of plant numbers in inventory
listed by Florida Division of Plant Industry:

Foliage, 10,000 plants or more;
Woody ornamentals and citrus, 5,000 plants or more;
Bedding plants, 30,000 plants or more.

blncludes foliage, woody ornamentals and bedding plants.

CTotal of individual firms. Many nurseries produce more than one category
of plants, and, therefore, are listed more than once.

Source: Florida Division of Plant Industry.















in nuts and fruits. Acreage in native plants in nurseries is mostly in

other than commercial firms (Table 7).

The DPI also asks firm operators to note if they are strictly

wholesale nurseries, only retail firms or operate as both. Nearly half,

46 percent, of all firms are classed as retail, but only 18 percent of

commercial firms are in that type (Table 8). Half of the commercial

nurseries are wholesale only, while 23 percent of all firms are in that

class. A similar share, 31 percent and 32 percent, respectively, are

both wholesale and retail in all firms and commercial firms.

All 8,018 firms can also be classified by plant category by busi-

ness type. The DPI list shows 3,719 retail firms with 2,627 acres

(Table 9). Wholesale nurseries number 1,820 and have 7,814 acres in

total, while 2,479 wholesale-retail firms have 4,049 acres.

The major share of acreage in each business type is in the ornamentals

category, with 12,597 of the 14,491 acres (Table 9), as noted previously.

Wholesale nurseries have 6,991 acres or 55 percent of all ornamentals

acreage, while wholesale-retail firms have 27 percent and retail operations

17 percent of the state's ornamentals area. Other acreages and firm

members are shown in Table 9.

Caution must be exercised in interpreting the figures in Table 9,

as well as in several other tables throughout this report. It will be

recalled from an earlier section that DPI data included all firms that

produce a given category of plant, such as ornamentals. Some of the

7,558 nurseries in the state that produce ornamentals (foliage, bedding

plants and woody ornamentals) also grow citrus, nuts and fruits or native














Table 8.--Florida nursery firms by business type, for all firms
and commercial firms.



Firms
Plant material All Commerciala


Number Percent Number Percent

Retail 3,719 46 335 18

Wholesale 1,820 23 946 50

Wholesale and retail 2,479 31 601 32

Total 8,018 100 1,882 100

aNursery classified as commercial on the basis of plant numbers in
inventory listed by Florida Division of Plant Industry.

Foliage, 10,000 plants or more;
Woody ornamentals and citrus, 5,000 plants or more;
Bedding plants, 30,000 plants or more.

Source: Florida Division of Plant Industry.














Table 9.--Florida nursery firms, and acreage by plant category and by business
type.



Plant Retail Wholesale Both Total
category Firms Acres Firms Acres Firms Acres Firms Acres


Ornamentalsa 3,479 2,190 1,733 6,991 2,351 3,416 7,558 12,597

Citrus 571 248 160 455 473 429 1,204 1,133

Nuts ang
fruits 503 165 95 363 404 196 1,002 724

Native plants 14 24 2 5 9 8 25 37

Allc 3,719 2,627 1,820 7,814 2,479 4,049 8,018 14,491

alncludes foliage, woody ornamentals and bedding plants.

Non-citrus fruits.

CTotal of individual firms. Many nurseries produce more than one
category of plants and therefore, are listed more than once.












plants in varying combinations. Thus numbers of firms within a plant

category are not additive. Acreages by plant category are additive,

however, as are firm numbers and acres by business type.

Another characteristic of the data is that firms reporting acreages

by plant category are not listed the same way by plant numbers. Different

groupings are used by DPI for plant numbers as shown in Table 10.

Again, firm numbers are additive within a plant material grouping across

business types, but not across plant material groups. A total of 6,629

Florida nurseries produce foliage, 4,347 woody ornamentals, 1,478 citrus

and 39 produce bedding plants (Table 10).


Major Nursery Counties


Nursery firms are fairly concentrated in 25 of Florida's 67 counties

(Figure 1). The 25 counties shown in Figure 1 contain 84 percent of all

nurseries and 90 percent of the commercial firms in the state, 85 and 86

percent, respectively, of woody ornamental and citrus nurseries and all

the commercial bedding plant firms (Table 11).

The 25 counties also have 94 percent of all nursery acreage and 96

percent of commercial acreage in Florida (Table 12). From 96 to 100

percent of commercial acreage in the four plant categories for which

acreage is reported are also in these leading counties.

Individual counties among these 25 have varying numbers of nursery

firms, by type of plant material. For all nurseries, Dade County listed

1,001 firms, with 793 producing foliage, 393 woody ornamentals and 220

growing citrus (Table 13). Of the 858 nurseries in Orange County, 464

were classified as foliage firms, 239 woody ornamentals and 48 citrus.

There were a total of 6,701 nursery firms in the 25 counties.












Table 10.--Florida nursery firms
type, 1980.


by type of plant material and by business


Plant material Retail Wholesale Both Total


Foliage 3,023 1,547 2,059 6,629

Woody ornamentalsa 2,121 727 1,499 4,347

Citrus 709 189 580 1,478

Bedding plants 20 8 11 39

Allb 3,719 1,820 2,479 8,018

alncludes firms producing trees and shrubs, native plants and nut
and fruit (non-citrus) plants.
bTotal of individual firms. Many nurseries produce more than one
type of plant material and, therefore, are listed more than once.

Source: Florida Division of Plant Industry.





















































Figure l.--Florida counties with major nursery acreage, 1980.













Table 11.--All nurseries and commercial nurseries in 25 Florida counties,
and percent in state, by type of plant material, 1980.



Plant material Total Commerciala


Percent Percent
Firms of state Firms of state

Foliage 5,568 84 1,015 95

Woody ornamentalsb 3,577 82 778 85

Citrus 1,237 84 116 86

Bedding plants 35 90 7 100

Totalc 6,701 84 1,688 90

aNursery classified as commercial on the basis of plant numbers in
inventory listed by Florida Division of Plant Industry:

Foliage, 10,000 plants or more;
Woody ornamentals and citrus, 5,000 plants or more;
Bedding plants, 30,000 plants or more.
Includes firms producing trees and shrubs, native plants and nut
and fruit (non-citrus) plants.
CTotal of individual firms. Many nurseries produce more than one
type of plant material, and, therefore, are listed more than once.

Source: Florida Division of Plant Industry.












Table 12.--Total and commercial nursery acreage in 25 Florida counties, and
percentage of acreage in state by plant category, 1980.



Plant category Total Commerciala


Percent Percent
Acres of state Acres of state

Ornamentalb 11,782 94 9,626 96

Citrus 1,053 93 991 96

Nuts, fruits 706 98 643 100

Native plants 20 54 2 100



Tota d 13,561 94 11,263 96


aNursery classified as commercial on the basis of plant numbers in
inventory listed by Florida Division of Plant Industry:

Foliage, 10,000 plants or more;
Woody ornamentals and citrus, 5,000 plants or more;
Bedding plants, 30,000 plants or more.
blncludes foliage, woody ornamentals, and bedding plants.

cNon-citrus fruits.

dTotals may not add due to rounding.

Source: Florida Division of Plant Industry.













Table 13.--Numbers of nurseries by type of plant material, 25 counties, 1980.



Woody
County Foliage ornamentals Citrus Allc


Dade 793 393 220 1,001
Orange 764 239 48 858
Hillsborough 461 380 99 521
Broward 376 333 71 478
Palm Beach 372 204 52 456
Pinellas 300 181 42 350
Volusia 316 246 65 329
Polk 245 208 91 320
Duval 276 166 50 306
Lake 238 90 49 291
Brevard 270 218 109 290
Lee 183 138 61 210
Pasco 144 118 52 209
Marion 113 108 28 168
Alachua 133 105 22 162
Seminole 123 73 10 156
Manatee 121 98 32 143
Highlands 64 65 45 94
St. Lucie 58 37 17 92
Collier 67 54 31 91
Martin 77 54 25 81
Baker 27 24 3 30
Jefferson 17 18 4 27
Hendry 18 16 9 21
Gadsden 12 11 2 17

Totalc 5,568 3,577 1,237 6,701


aNumber of firms producing bedding plants not shown to avoid disclosure.

blncludes firms producing trees and shrubs, native plants, and nut and
fruit (non-citrus) plants.

CTotal of individual firms. Many nurseries produce more than one
category of plants and, therefore, are listed more than once.


Source: Florida Division of Plant Industry.












These counties had 1,688 commercial nurseries, with 1,014 foliage

firms, 778 woody ornamental nurseries and 116 citrus nurseries (Table

14). Orange County listed 439 commercial nurseries with 381 growing

foliage. Dade, Palm Beach, Hillsborough, Lake and Broward Counties also

had 100 or more commercial firms.

Acreage in all nurseries totaled 13,561 in the 25 counties, with

1,053 acres in citrus, 706 acres in noncitrus fruits and nuts and the

remainder in ornamentals (woody ornamentals, foliage and bedding plants,

Table 15). The DPI reported 2,675 acres in Dade County nurseries, and

showed over 1,000 acres in three other counties, Palm Beach, Broward and

Orange. Those same three counties had over 1,000 acres in ornamentals.

Polk County had the most citrus nursery acreage, 288, with 220 acres in

Highlands County and 181 acres in Lake County (Table 15). Jefferson

County had 438 acres in nuts and non-citrus fruits, with Alachua County

showing 99 acres and Dade County 74 acres.

Commercial nursery acreage in these 25 counties was largest in Dade

County at 1,907 acres, with Palm Beach and Orange Counties having over

1,000 acres in commercial nurseries (Table 16). Largest ornamental

acreages in commercial nurseries were in Dade, Palm Beach, Orange and

Broward Counties, while Polk, Highland and Lake Counties had the greatest

citrus acreage.

As shown in Table 14, Orange County had the most commercial nursery

firms of the 25 counties, 439, and also had the most wholesale commercial

nurseries (Table 17). Dade and Lake Counties had 95 and 101 wholesale

nurseries, respectively, while Dade County had 43 retail firms. The

largest number of commercial nurseries in the 25 counties, 893, were












Table 14.--Numbers of commercial nurseries by type of plant materialb, 25
Florida counties, 1980.



Woody
County Foliage ornamentalsc Citrus Alld


Orange 381 75 4 439
Dade 143 76 15 200
Palm Beach 97 65 6 145
Hillsborough 52 100 7 138
Lake 98 28 17 138
Broward 38 84 0 108
Polk 27 41 20 70
Manatee 30 30 5 46
Seminole 28 17 1 42
Pinellas 8 36 0 41
Brevard 21 22 4 38
Volusia 20 25 1 37
Highlands 6 17 14 31
Lee 18 23 1 31
Pasco 3 20 10 30
Marion 5 21 2 25
Alachua 5 18 1 23
Duval 2 21 0 22
Martin 11 10 0 19
Collier 4 12 0 15
Jefferson 4 12 2 14
Baker 6 10 0 12
St. Lucie 4 4 3 10
Gadsden 3 9 0 9
Hendry 0 2 3 5

Total 1,014 778 116 1,688

aNursery classified as commercial on the basis of plant numbers in
inventory listed by Florida Division of Plant Industry:

Foliage, 10,000 plants or more;
Woody ornamentals and citrus, 5,000 plants or more;
Bedding plants, 30,000 plants or more.

bNumbers of firms producing bedding plants not shown for counties
to avoid disclosure.

cIncludes firms producing trees and shrubs, native plants and nut
and fruit.

dTotal of individual firms. Many nurseries produce more than one
of plant material, and, therefore, are listed more than once.


Source: Florida Division of Plant Industry.












Table 15.--Total nursery acreage by plant category, 25 Florida counties,
1980.



Nursery acreage

County Ornamentalsa Citrus Nuts, fruits Total


Dade 2,565 35 74 2,675c
Palm Beach 1,854 28 12 1,894
Broward 1,105 5 5 1,121c
Orange 1,006 71 _d 1,077
Jefferson 427 9 438 874
Polk 436 288 1 725
Manatee 531 5 1 537
Hillsborough 490 28 13 531
Baker 515 d _d 515
Lee 404 6 3 414c
Highlands 160 220 _d 380
Gadsden 374 d _d 379c
Lake 84 181 18 283
Martin 255 1 2 258
Volusia 224 6 2 231
Pinellas 216 1 -d 218
Pasco 78 112 3 200c
Seminole 190 2 _d 192
Duval 182 3 6 191
Alachua 83 3 99 185
Marion 161 4 14 179
Collier 161 1 12 174c
Brevard 141 6 1 148c
St. Lucie 71 22 0 94c
Hendry 69 16 1 86

Total 11,782 1,053 706 13,561c


alncludes foliage, woody ornamentals, and bedding plants.

Non-citrus fruits.

CIncludes small acreage in native plants.

dLess than one acre.


Source: Florida Division of Plant Industry.













Table 16.--Acreage in commercial
counties, 1980.


nurseries, by plant category, 25 Florida


Nursery acreage

County Ornamentalsb Citrus Nuts, fruits Total


Dade 1,851 18 37 1,907f
Palm Beach 1,637 27 11 1,676
Orange 951 68 _e 1,019
Broward 864 3 2 870
Jefferson 379 8 438 826
Polk 386 273 _e 660
Baker 512 _e -e 512
Manatee 479 5 1 485
Hillsborough 395 27 11 433
Gadsden 374 _e _e 374
Highlands 155 220 _e 374
Lee 304 1 1 307
Lake 71 180 17 268
Martin 210 _e 1 211
Seminole 167 2 _e 169
Pasco 47 108 2 156
Volusia 147 4 1 153
Alachua 39 2 96 137
Pinellas 135 _e _e 135
Marion 112 1 14 127
Collier 115 _e 6 121
Duval 94 2 2 97
Brevard 85 4 _e 89
St. Lucie 59 20 _e 80
Hendry 62 16 1 78

Total 9,626 991 643 11,263


aNursery classified as
inventory listed by Florida


commercial on the basis of plant numbers in
Division of Plant Industry:


Foliage, 10,000 plants or more;
Woody ornamentals and citrus, 5,000 plants or more;
Bedding plants, 30,000 plants or more.

blnclude firms producing foliage, woody ornamentals and bedding plants.

CNon-citrus fruits.

dTotals may not add due to rounding of decimal figures in DPI data.

eLess than one acre.


Source: Florida Division of Plant Industry.













Table 17.--Numbers of commercial
counties, 1980.


nurseries by business type, 25 Florida


County Retail Wholesale Both Total


Orange
Dade
Palm Beach
Hillsborough
Lake
Broward
Polk
Manatee
Seminole
Pinellas
Brevard
Volusia
Highlands
Lee
Pasco
Marion
Alachua
Duval
Martin
Collier
Jefferson
Baker
St. Lucie
Gadsden
Hendry

Total


439
200
145
138
138
108
70
46
42
41
38
37
31
31
30
25
23
22
19
15
14
12
10
9
5

1,688


aNursery classified as commercial on the basis of plant numbers in
listed by Florida Division of Plant Industry:


Foliage, 10,000 plants or more;
Woody ornamentals and citrus, 5,000 plants or more;
Bedding plants, 30,000 plants or more.

Source: Florida Division of Plant Industry.








30





wholesale firms, with 518 both wholesale and retail and 277 nurseries

retail only (Table 17). Appendix Table 1 lists all nursery firms by

business type and total nursery acreage for each Florida county, and

Appendix Table 2 shows the same information for commercial nurseries.

















FLORIDA NURSERY MARKETING


Florida nursery sales of exterior landscape material, interior

foliage plants, citrus nursery stock and bedding plants increased from

1979 to 1981. According to Florida growers interviewed, wholesale sales

of exterior landscape material grew by about 52 percent, foliage sales

by 14 percent, and citrus and bedding plant sales by over 70 percent

each (Table 18).

Explanations of kinds of plants and survey methods in the Introduction

and Table 1 should be recalled when using these sales values for other

purposes or if comparing them with values from other sources. The

values reported here were provided by the sample of nursery growers

interviewed. Representatives of all firms interviewed were asked to

provide wholesale sales values. These values were aggregated and used

to estimate total sales for each major plant category. Sample firms'

sales were added, and totals expanded to estimate state commercial

nursery sales. Sample firms had 53 percent of commercial inventory in

exterior plants, one-third in foliage, 45 percent in citrus and 100

percent of commercial bedding plant inventory in the state (Appendix

Table 3).

These figures differ from values reported in other sources. For

example, foliage sales reported by Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting

Service for 1980 are about 11 percent lower than the value shown in

Table 18. The value for exterior and interior plants together for 1981,

about $234 million, is about one-third lower than 1981 value of $350















Table 18.--Estimated wholesale values of Florida commercial nursery
sales of exterior and interior plants, citrus nursery stock
and bedding plants, 1979, 1980 and 1981, and percentage
changes.


Plant
category




Exteriorb

Interior

Citrus

Bedding plants


Commercial wholesale nursery sales

1979 1980 1981


-------- 1,000 Dollars --------

49,721 63,238 75,358

155,435 170,533 176,455

9,618 12,984 16,434

1,863 2,528 3,230


Change
79-80 80-81 79-81


Percent

27 19

10 3

35 27

36 28


values of wholesale sales reported by the sample of Florida growers
interviewed, expanded to total state sales. Includes only commercial
nurseries (see Table 1 for types of plants included and Table 6 for def-
initions of commercial nurseries).
b
Woody ornamentals and all other plants used for exterior landscaping.
c
Does not include containerized transplants for commercial vegetable,
flower or tree production or other such uses.


I---`-














million reported by Gammel.

Differences between sales values for what appears to be the same

Florida nursery sector can probably be explained by different approaches

used, different firms included in samples, different plant categories

included, and by interviewed firms' differing methods of valuing or

estimating sales.


Woody Ornamentals



Sales Trends


As stated earlier there were 920 commercial wholesale nurseries

producing woody ornamentals in Florida in 1980 (Table 6). Sales of the

major group of plants handled by these firms showed relatively few

changes in the sales shares. Evergreen shrubs, as a plant group, made

up 41 percent of firm sales in 1979 and increased to 43 percent by 1981

(Table 19). The share of sales accounted for by azaleas declined from

20 to 16 percent but it should be recalled that dollar volume for all

nursery sales increased by 52 percent from 1979 to 1981 (Table 18).

Thus, the actual dollar value of azalea sales increased, but not as

rapidly as other plant groups. All other plant groups showed no or very

little change in share of sales over the 1979-1981 period (Table 19).

Florida growers reported more calls from buyers for hardy, low

maintenance plants. Native trees and shrubs, low-growing plants and

ground covers were also in demand. Larger sizes in trees and shrubs and

containers were also preferred by buyers, along with requests for fewer














Table 19.--Percentage shares of Florida woody ornamental nursery sales,
selected plant groups 1979-1981.



Plant group 1979 1980 1981


------------ Percent ------------

Evergreen shrubs 41 42 43

Azaleas 20 18 16

Deciduous fruits and nuts 8 8 8

Deciduous shrubs 6 6 7

Ground covers and vines 6 6 6

Evergreen trees 6 6 6

Palms 6 6 6

Deciduous trees 3 3 3

Flowering trees 3 3 3

Bedding plants 1 1 1

Citrus 0.5 0.2 0.5
a
Total 100 100 100

a
Totals do not sum to 100.0 due to rounding.












different container sizes.

Buyers and users of Florida-grown woody ornamentals, both in the

state and in other regions, repeated the call for more hardy materials.

Landscape personnel in Florida particularly stressed the need for more

resistance to cold, drought and salt in landscape plants.

Both larger trees and shrubs, and rapidly growing ground covers

were needed, according to buyers. Larger sized containers and fewer

sizes were needs repeated, along with a need for standardizing containers.

Several buyers stated that a particular size designation is applied to

containers of several different dimensions and capacities. Retail garden

center and mass market buyers suggested that Florida growers provide

labels or pot tags with plant names, and planting and care instructions

for consumers.



Market Outlets


Woody ornamentals and other plants from Florida nurseries used for

exterior landscape plantings (see Table 1) go to several kinds of market

outlets (Figure 2). Of Florida grower sales, 5 percent go to other

Florida growers, 2 percent go to brokers, 10 percent to nursery wholesalers,

31 percent each to retail garden centers and to landscape contracting

firms, 19 percent to mass market outlets and one percent to government

agencies and other users.

Growers interviewed did not report any marked sales trends to any

of these types of outlets. As stated earlier, sales to all types of

market outlets have increased substantially since 1979. A few of the

larger Florida growers had decreased sales to wholesalers and increased






























--- Landscape Firms






Mass Market
Outlets





Gov;inment
Outlets


Figure 2.--Marketing channels, woody ornamentals.


--'- Consumers













movement to retail garden centers and mass market outlets. However,

some simdller firms were increasing sales to wholesalers who would

pick up material at the nursery, saving the grower the expense of

delivering to mass market outlets.

Several other growers felt that the mass market share of their

sales was increasing, particularly for smaller, lower-priced plants that

could be featured in promotions by the mass merchandising chain. Other

growers, mainly those producing larger trees and shrubs, were increasing

sales to landscape contractors and brokers, and reducing sales percentages

to garden centers. It should be noted, however, that the shifts just

described were not reported by a majority of growers in the state or an

area in the state, nor by any particular size of firm. They were particular

trends that some Florida wholesale growers had experienced and expected

to continue.

Several Florida nurserymen who market much of their material out

of state pointed out that large-scale wholesalers were entering nursery

distribution in major market areas, such as Atlanta, Houston, or Baltimore-

Washington. These wholesalers, some of which were subsidiaries of large

conglomerates, are able to purchase extremely large quantities of land-

scape plants from growers throughout the U.S., and achieve cost savings

in both volume purchases and shipping charges. More discussion on this

point is found in the section dealing with competing production areas.


Market Regions


Florida growers were asked to indicate how their sales were distributed

among the regions shown in Figure 3. These values were aggregated and

used to estimate the distribution of Florida woody ornamentals sales, in




















.1


Figure 3.--Geographic regions used in Florida nursery firm interviews.













the same way that total nursery category sales were estimated earlier.

Over half of woody ornamental and exterior plant sales were in

Florida with southern states receiving nearly one-third (Table 20).

About 4 percent of Florida exterior plants went to the midwest and 11

percent to the northeast.

About one-third of the growers interviewed provided an estimate of

sales trends in their market regions. OF these, nearly all believed

landscape plant sales in Florida were increasing. A few reported they

were shipping larger shares to other southern states while reducing the

sales percentage in Florida. Relatively few growers ship woody ornamentals

to the northeast or midwest, and no particular trends were noted.



Competing Production Areas



Florida growers interviewed were asked if they saw significant com-

petition in out-of-state market regions from growers in areas outside

Florida. Georgia and Alabama were the most-frequently mentioned states

with nursery firms supplying the same market areas as Florida growers.

Texas and Oklahoma nurseries were also mentioned as being relatively new

entrants in regional markets, while a few growers mentioned production

areas in other southeastern states as sources for some competing materials.

The large wholesalers mentioned earlier were becoming significant

in some markets, according to Florida growers. These wholesalers, who

often are only distributors and not nursery growers, are moving rather

aggressively to supply retail garden centers, landscape contractors and

other woody ornamental outlets in certain markets.













Table 20.--Florida sales of woody ornamentals, foliage, citrus stock and
bedding plants by region, 1981.



Plant category
a Woody Bedding
Region ornamentals Foliage Citrus plants


-------------------- Percent --------------------

Florida 52 17b 71 95

South 32 26 _c 2

Midwest 4 24 -c 0

West 0 4 0 1

Northeast 11 26 -c 1

Canada -c 3 0 1

Other foreign c c 29 0

Total 100 100 100 100


aSee Figure 3.
b
Includes sales to Florida brokers. Those plants may
other regions but no data are available to estimate shares.
cLess than one percent.
Less than one percent.


then be sold into














Marketing Problems and Needs


Nearly half of the Florida growers interviewed said they had no

marketing problems, and several mentioned that they could sell plants

more rapidly than the plants could reach suitable sizes. About one-

sixth of the sample did report some marketing problems or needs, however.

These problems fell into two general areas increased costs or un-

satisfactory service for plant transportation, and the need for more

market information and coordination. Transportation needs included

improved equipment and loading and handling for plants shipped longer

distances in hot spring and summer months. Some nurserymen also mentioned

the need to be as efficient as possible in the use of trucks and transpor-

tation services, both for contact or independent truckers and with their

own delivery vehicles.

Market information and coordination suggestions included efforts

such as plant availability listings for Florida growers and coordinated

or cooperative marketing efforts to expand markets. Some growers felt

that industry marketing activities could also assist in offering new

items, different packaging, or in market development and market ex-

pansion programs.


Foliage

Sales Trends


Of the 1,882 commercial nurseries in the state, 1,066 produce

foliage plants (Table 6). Sales of interior foliage plants by these

firms increased about 14 percent from 1979 to to 1981 (Table 18).














Individual plant groups showed relatively little change in shares of

Florida foliage firm sales during that period. However, some groups

showed significant changes from 1975. A study with data from that year

(Smith and Strain) shows that philodendrons and dracaenas declined as a

percentage of firm sales from 1975 to 1981, while ficus and aglaonemas

increased significantly (Table 21). The other groups showed relatively

little change in shares of sales. It should be recalled, however, that

Florida foliage sales were estimated at $87 million in 1975 (Smith and

Strain) and $176 million in 1981 (Table 18). Thus, philodendron sales,

at 20 percent of 1975 volume, were $17.4 million and grew to $22.9

million by 1981 though making up 13 percent of sales in the latter year.

Findings from the survey of Florida growers confirmed the data

reported above. Producers generally reported that foliage sales were

stabilizing over the past two to three years, after substantial growth

through most of the 1970's. Specific trends growers reported included

sales for larger indoor plants and for more hardy material adapted to

low light conditions and also to cooler greenhouse temperatures, to help

keep down production costs. Growers noted more buyer interest in colorful

plants, as well.

Buyers interviewed stated the same desires and emphasized their in-

terest in new and different plants. Representatives of retail firms

added that new, different and colorful plants appealed to impulse buyers

and to consumers looking for variety. Larger plants are steadily gaining

in popularity, and buyers are stressing plant quality.













Table 21.--Percentage shares of Florida foliage nursery sales, selected plant
groups, 1975, 1979-81.



Plant group 1975a 1979 1980 1981


Philodendron spp.

Ficus spp.

Palms

Dracaena spp.

Brassaia actinohylta
schefflera

Aglaonema spp.

Combinations

Cacti and succulents

SpathiphyZumn spp.

Dieffenbachia spp.

Scindappus spp. pothos

Hanging baskets

Totem poles

AraZias

Ferns

Sansevieria spp.

Others

Total


--------------

20 15

6 10

7 8

11 7

5 5


apercentages taken from Cecil N. Smith and J. Robert Strain, "Market
Outlets and Product Mix for Florida Foliage Plants," Proceedings Florida
State Horticultural Society, vol. 89, pp. 274-278, 1976.
bLess than 0.5 percent.
Less than 0.5 percent.


Percent

14

11

8

7

6


-------------

13

12

9

8

7
















Representatives of buying firms also stressed the importance of

having the most desirable container types and sizes for their markets,

and the need for standardizing several aspects of their foliage purchases.

Standardizing plants, containers, media and packing were all stated

needs. Many buyer representatives recognized the variability that can

occur in foliage plant production and the resulting differences in plant

size and appearance. However, most buyers stressed the importance of

communication with growers and shippers and of knowing what to expect

with a given shipment of plants.

Having plants and pots arrive clean, with care tags and labels was

also emphasized by retailers. Mass market firms are particularly in-

terested in having plants ready for sale when they arrive at the store.

Interiorscape designers, of course, have no need for care tags, or for

expensive containers, but wish to have consistent sizes in both plants

and pots, and consistent media mixes from one shipment to the next.

Trends to larger pot sizes are documented by sales data reported by

the Federal-State Market News Service. Foliage plants in three-inch

pots declined from 55 percent of plants shipped by large and medium

sized Florida growers in 1977 to 49 percent by 1980 (Table 22). Six-,

eight-, and ten-inch pots increased as a percentage of shipments over that

period while the five-inch pot share declined. Interestingly enough,

three and one-half to four-inch pots increased and two and one-half inch

and smaller pots grew substantially as a share of sales (Table 22).














Market Outlets


Florida-grown foliage plants move to many kinds of market outlets

(Figure 4). Florida growers interviewed in 1981 sold over one-third of

their plants to retail garden centers and florists, and nearly as much,

31 percent, to wholesale foliage dealers (Table 23). Some 15 percent of

sales went through brokers to the other types of outlets but it was not

possible to determine that distribution in this study.

Comparing these current percentages shares with those in 1975

(Smith and Strain) shows that sales shares reported by Florida growers

have increased to retail outlets and remained about the same to wholesalers

of all types (Table 23). Shares to brokers and mass market outlets de-

clined from 1975 to 1981. Again, it should be kept in mind that total

foliage sales increased from $87 million to $176 million from 1975 to

1981, so that dollar value to all types of outlets except mass merchandisers

increased. Even there, a substantial portion of the sales through

brokers almost certainly goes to mass market outlets.

Comments by Florida growers generally reflect the shifts in foliage

sales among types of outlets. Some of the growers interviewed stated

they were planning to increase the share of their business direct to re-

tailers or wholesalers, rather than going through brokers. The primary

reason given was to increase the net plant price to the grower.

Other Florida producers were planning to shift sales away from all

mass market outlets, or away from discount stores in particular. Primary

reasons were the very long collection periods, 120 days or more, experienced














Table 22.--Foliage plants sold in pots by large and medium sized growers, and
percentages by pot size, Florida 1977-1980.



1977 1978 1979 1980
-------------------- 1,000 ----------------------

Total sold 113,144 110,821 115,202 92,257


------------------ Percent ----------------------

Size

2 1/2 inch and smaller 9.0 9.4 9.3 14.0
3 inch 55.6 52.4 52.2 44.3
3 1/2 4 inch 10.5 11.3 11.1 12.3
5 inch 1.6 2.7 2.3 1.9
6 inch 9.9 10.3 10.7 10.6
8 inch 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.8
10 inch 2.8 3.8 4.0 4.9
12 inch 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.1
14 16 inch 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.5
17 inch and larger -b 0.1 0.1

Hanging baskets -b _b _b 2.1
Cordatum 6.3 5.9 5.6 4.6
Combinations 1.3 1.3 1.7 2.3
Totem poles 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.6

Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0

a
Plants sold in pots; does not include bare root plants sold.
bNot reported.

CTotals may not sum to 100.0 due to rounding.

Source: Marketing Florida Ornamental Crops: Green Foliage Plants,
Federal-State Market News Service, 1980.








47


Table 23.--Distribution of Florida foliage sales by market outlet, 1975
and 1981.



Share of sales
Outlet 1975a 1981


----- Percent -----


Retail garden centers,
florists 13 34

Wholesale greenhouses,
florists 32 31

Brokers 21 15

Mass market 22 10

Other Florida growers 9 8

Interiorscape and landscape 2 1

Other 1 1

Total 100 100

aSee Smith and Strain.

Includes grocery and department stores.






































SConsumers
Floh. rid
Folwgc
Growers |
Gr ers Interiorscape Firms
Brokers





--B- Mass Market Outlets






Government
Outlets






Figure 4.--Marketing channels, foliage.














with discount chains, and mass merchandisers' insistence on reducing

grower prices. Some growers felt supermarkets were desirable outlets in

the mass merchandising group, and intended to attempt to increase sales

there. Other producers, who specialized in growing for discount stores

and other mass market firms, felt sales would increase in these outlets.

Several Florida growers felt that foliage sales to interiorscape

firms would increase substantially over the next three to five years.

Owners and managers in these firms agreed with this trend, citing sales

increases in the past three years and growing familiarity by architects,

building and shopping centers owners and the general public with the

benefits of indoor plants


Market Regions


Over 80 percent, and possibly more of Florida foliage plants are

sold in other states or countries. Growers reported that 24 to 26

percent of their sales went to each of three major regions of the U.S.,

the midwest, northeast and the south (Figure 3 and Table 20). Another

four percent of sales went to western states, and three percent to

Canada, with small amounts to other countries. Of the 17 percent of

foliage reported sold in Florida, it is probable a large share was to

brokers who moved the material into out-of-state markets. However,

growers could not identify final destinations for this share of sales.

Several growers did state that Florida is an expanding market for

foliage plants and that they expected to direct more sales activity in

the state. Most producers, however, felt that other regions would

continue to be primary markets for Florida foliaqe. The south and












southeast, often called the "Sunbelt," was mentioned by many growers as

the most rapidly growing market area. The traditional Florida sales

regions in the midwest and northeast were expected to remain stable.

Buyers in the Sunbelt states confirmed Florida growers' expectations

for expanding foliage sales. Population growth and booming office and

shopping center construction were among the reasons Sunbelt buyers

expected foliage use to grow. Foliage buyers and users in the midwest

and northeast saw steady growth in their foliage sales, though not at

the same rate as in the Sunbelt states.


Competing Production Areas


Florida has very little competition from tropical foliage growers

in any other region. Buyers throughout the U.S. stated that Florida was

the dominant producing region and the only producing area where they

normally purchased tropical foliage. Some wholesale growers in other

states near major urban markets are increasing their foliage production.

These increases are mainly in growing plants to larger sizes, and moving

them into larger containers to supply the nearby market. Typically,

these growers purchase smaller material from Florida producers. Trans-

portation savings and more efficient use of existing greenhouses were

the reasons most often given by these out-of-state growers for this

trend.

Some Florida growers, mainly those selling large proportions of

their material in the southwest, stated that tropical foliage expansion

in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas would likely provide increasing

competition in the future. Foliage from California is currently competitive

with Florida material in many markets, even though much of the California

material is not the same type as Florida-grown tropical plants. Other













Florida growers reported that foliage from Puerto Rico was entering some

U.S. markets, mainly in the northeast.


Marketing Problems and Needs


Transportation and account collection were the most frequently

mentioned problems by Florida foliage growers. Increasing costs for

shipping plants to distant markets have reduced grower prices and made

small shipments uneconomical. Buyers also were concerned over the

effects of rising transportation costs, and noted other problems. Poor

handling and loading by some truckers resulted in crushed containers and

unsalable plants. Improper temperatures and unsuitable equipment were

other transportation problems cited by buyers.

Florida growers were experiencing difficulty in collecting from

some customers. High interest rates and depressed business conditions

have caused some buyers to delay payments for plants, causing cash flow

problems for producers.

Cooperatives or other forms of organized marketing were marketing

improvements needed, according to several growers. These growers felt

that standardization in plant and container sizes and shipping cartons

was a major benefit possible through organization. Others mentioned

advertising and merchandising programs, improving transportation services,

and more orderly marketing and pricing as possible results from a co-

operative or coordinated industry effort.


Citrus

Florida citrus nursery firms included in this study grew only

citrus trees -- oranges, grapefruit, specialty varieties, lemons and limes.














As noted earlier, a number of woody ornamental growers also produce

citrus trees but the total volume and value is not large. There were

135 citrus nurseries registered by DPI in 1980 (Table 6). Several of

these are divisions of commercial citrus producing firms and grow trees

for use only by that firm. However, the nursery divisions apply a sale

value to trees planted by production divisions. Citrus tree sales by

specialized citrus nurseries increased over 70 percent from 1979 to 1981

(Table 18).

These sales increases reflect both more trees sold and higher

prices per tree, due to expanding citrus production and tree replacement

after the 1977 and 1981 freezes in Florida citrus producing areas.

Commercial citrus operations are the primary buyers for Florida citrus

nursery stock, taking 87 percent of citrus sales, with retail garden

centers buying the remaining 13 percent (Figure 5).

Florida is the primary market region for citrus nurseries, with 71

percent of sales remaining in the state. The other 29 percent of citrus

nursery sales goes to commercial growers outside the U.S., mainly in the

Caribbean and Latin American (Table 20).

The total number of orange trees in Florida commercial groves

declined slightly from 1965 to 1980, while the number of grapefruit

trees increased by more than 50 percent (Table 24). The Florida Crop

and Livestock Reporting Service conducts and publishes a commercial

citrus tree inventory every two years. The Economic Research Depart-

ment of the Florida Department of Citrus analyzes the inventory data and

publishes reports describing citrus planting changes and projecting

citrus planting trends (Fairchild).













Table 24.--Number of round orange trees and grapefruit trees in Florida
commercial citrus inventories, 1965-80


Year of tree
inventory


Round orange
Change from
previous
Trees inventory


Grapefruit
Change from
previous
Trees inventory


Million

1965 53.8

1967 56.6

1969 57.8

1971 53.7

1973 52.5

1976 51.6

1978 50.8

1980 52.0

1965-80


Source: Fairchild.


Percent



5.2

2.1

-7.1

-2.2

-1.7

-1.6

2.4

-3.3


Million

7.1

8.5

8.9

9.U

9.6

10.4

10.4

10.8


Percent



19.7

4.7

1.1

6.7

8.3

0

3.8

52.1


------------------


---



































Florida
Citrus
Nursery N
Growers S

Retail U
Garden -----
Centers E 4T
R
S















Figure 5.--Marketing channels, citrus nursery plants.













Selected data from the most recent analysis show that new plantings

of oranges and grapefruit have generally been increasing each year since

1975. The major categories of orange trees, early and midseason and

Valencias, have shown increases each year during that period, while pink

seedless grapefruit plantings have increased, on the average, from 1975

to 1978 (Table 25).

The Department of Citrus analysis cited earlier (Fairchild) estimated

future citrus plantings at three different levels: If growers should

continue planting at the annual average of 1977-1979; at half that

average, and at twice that figure. Total estimated orange plantings, at

the 1977-79 average, would be over 1.25 million trees, ranging from

625,000 to 2.5 million. Grapefruit plants could range from 159,000 to

more than 636,000 (Table 26).

Citrus nursery operators reported no marketing problems or needs.

Several said their production was sold one to two years ahead, to fill

orders from commercial growers in Florida. Some citrus nurserymen

expected to resume sales to retail garden centers, both in and out of

state, if their production was large enough to supply commercial grove

needs and allow additional sales. Citrus tree sales to outlets other

than citrus producing firms declined substantially after the 1977 freeze

in Florida. Replacement and grove expansion demand has utilized the

bulk of available citrus stock since.


Bedding Plants


The Florida Division of Plant Industry lists 39 nurseries as producers

of bedding plants. Seven of these were classified as commercial-sized












Table 25.--Average annual plantings of new oranges and temples and grapefruits,
Florida, 1975-1979.



Period


Tree type 1979 1978-79 1977-79 1976-79 1975-79


--------------- 1,000 trees per year -----------------

Oranges

Early and midseason 1049.2 813.4 706.2 640.7 603.8

Valencias 758.2 580.9 539.7 512.2 492.8

Temples 5.5 5.9 4.8 4.8 5.1

Grapefruit

Seedy 13.0 9.3 11.8 13.4 14.6

White seedless 83.2 57.2 45.7 48.0 67.4

Pink seedless 223.3 247.5 260.8 234.2 226.7


Source: Fairchild













Table 26.--Estimated future orange and grapefruit plantings, Florida, at
1977-79 average, half and double the average.



Planting level


1977-79 Half of Double
Tree type average average average


------------ 1,000 trees per year ----------

Oranges

Early and midseason 706.2 353.1 1412.4

Valencias 539.7 269.8 1079.4

Temples 4.8 2.4 9.6

Total 1250.7 625.3 2,501.4

Grapefruit

Seedy 11.8 5.9 23.6

White seedless 45.7 22.8 91.4

Pink seedless 260.8 130.4 521.6

Total 318.3 159.1 636.6


Source: Fairchild















firms fur Lhis study, with each of the seven firms having 30,000 or more

plants in inventory (Table 6). These seven nurseries had 97 percent of

all bedding plants in the DPI inventory list and thus represent the bulk

of production in the state (Appendix Table 3).

These commercial firms had estimated sales of $3,230,000 in 1981,

an increase of 73 percent over 1979 (Table 18). These figures are for

sales of flowering annuals and vegetables, and do not include contain-

erized transplants for commercial vegetable, flower or tree production.

The latter class of plants is included in the USDA data for "bedding

plants" shown earlier (Table 4).

Bedding plant nurseries, as classified by DPI and included in this

study, sell in much the same channels as woody ornamental growers (Figure

6). Retail garden centers and similar outlets account for 51 percent of

bedding plant sales and mass market firms for 34 percent. Landscape

contractors take 11 percent, wholesalers two percent, and interiorscape

firms and government agencies one percent each. A few bedding plant

nurseries occasionally sell items to other growers or to brokers, but

quantities are generally small.

Virtually all Florida grown bedding plants are sold in the state,

as 95 percent remain in Florida. The south (Figure 3) takes about 2

percent, and the west, northeast and Canada one percent each (Table 20).

Florida growers reported no sales to outlets in the midwest in 1981.

Some of the largest bedding plant firms in the U.S. are in the midwest

and supply the bulk of that region's needs, as well as shipping large




































Florida -- Consumers
Bedding
Plant Mass Market
Growers Outlets


cn


Government
and Other












Figure 6.--Marketing channels, bedding plants.













quantities throughout the rest of the U.S. and Canada. Also, local

bedding plant growers in each of the other regions supply nearby markets.

Florida growers expected continued increases in bedding plant sales

in total, with nearly all sales in Florida. No major shifts were seen

among types of outlets, though some increases were expected for landscape

use of flowering annuals. Landscape designers and residential developers

in Florida said colorful annuals added greatly to commercial and residential

landscaping, and expected to use more of these.

Vegetables and herbs have increased considerably in dollar volume

and as a share of total sales, according to Florida growers. Consumer

vegetable gardening, particularly in urban areas, was the primary force

behind this increase, according to both growers and retailers.

Some growers stated that organized industry effort for merchandising

and market development was needed. These growers felt that even though

bedding plant sales have increased substantially in recent years, programs

to develop and expand markets and determine consumer preferences and

purchase intentions would be valuable to the industry.


Nursery Inputs and Supplies


Florida growers of all types of plants were asked to outline problems

and needs in production inputs or particular types of supplies used in

growing. About half of the woody ornamental growers interviewed and 70

percent of the foliage growers stated they had no particular problems.

Only one citrus nursery operator and one bedding plant grower noted a

problem in supplies.

These problems and needs for all growers fell into five categories:













media or soil mix, pots and plant containers, pesticides, equipment,

and labor. Several problems in each category were common to both woody

ornamental and foliage nurseries.

Rising costs and alternate uses for traditional soil mix items were

mentioned as problems by one-sixth of woody ornamental and foliage

growers combined. Peat has risen in cost, partly due to reduced supplies

in the face of increasing demand and to rising transportation costs.

Most growers citing peat cost and scarcity preferred Canadian peat, so

transportation is a significant part of delivered cost. This emphasis

on peat costs and availability may have been due partly to the fact that

many growers were interviewed in the spring when plant sales are seasonally

high and peat supplies are seasonally low.

Increasing costs for pine bark and sawdust, especially cypress

sawdust, were also noted by a sizeable number of both foliage and woody

ornamental growers. Since wood by-products are now being more widely

used as fuel or in wood products, nursery growers have experienced more

difficulty in securing dependable supplies and have been faced with

rising prices. Most growers expect this situation to worsen in the

foreseeable future.

Growers asked for assistance in formulating media and soil mixes

from lower cost materials. Buyers of both landscape and foliage plants

also emphasized a need for standardizing media insofar as possible. Use

of the same media throughout a year or a season improves landscape or

interiorscape installation and care. It also improves plant care and

handling by retailers and wholesalers.














About ten percent each of both woody ornamental and foliage growers

related problems with plant containers. All these growers complained of

rising costs for containers, though they realized increases must be

expected under current economic conditions. Several felt that standardizing

container sizes, and reducing the number of different types and sizes

used could help hold down container cost increases. Most buyers of both

interior and exterior plants were particularly vocal about the need for

standardizing containers and for reducing the number of types and sizes.

Many buyers from interiorscape, wholesale and mass market firms

stated they preferred white pots for foliage plants rather than black.

Others from the same kinds of firms asked for more decorative containers,

and for better hanging containers. Some Florida growers also noted

needs for sturdier hanging baskets, with larger water trays. One

woody ornamental grower and one bedding plant grower each said

an important need was for containers that were more rapidly biodegradable

than currently. They did recognize possible difficulties in providing

such containers of suitable strength and durability at prices growers

could afford to pay.

The same concerns of added costs for added features, color differences

and other needs expressed above must be noted. Many of these factors

may well be important in more efficient production as well as in more

effective marketing. These needs relating to containers were voiced by

significant numbers of both growers and buyers, so that container im-

provements would be well accepted in the industry.














Fewer Florida growers noted problems concerning pesticide reg-

ulations than either media or container problems just discussed. How-

ever, eight percent of landscape plant and foliage growers combined

noted common problems in this area. With governmental regulations

prohibiting sale or use of several previously important pesticides,

growers are seeking substitute materials and methods. Several growers

recognized that much information is currently available but not widely

applied. However, they stressed the continuing need for improved

materials and better methods for applying them. These growers also

recognized the need for better overall management to deal with weeds,

insects and diseases, rather than heavy reliance on expensive and

tightly regulated chemicals.

Another eight percent of both exterior and interior plant growers

mentioned equipment needs. Woody ornamental producers noted needs for

improved herbicide application equipment and for high clearance tractors

for use in field nurseries. Both woody ornamental and foliage growers

stated that improved potting machines would be well accepted. One

foliage grower commented that the electric carts, now widely used in

many nurseries, were expensive to repair and that rising repair costs

and downtime might force his firm to seek other kinds of vehicles.

Only two growers, of all those interviewed, mentioned problems with

workers. One noted the difficulty in finding and retaining workers who

were trained, motivated and dependable. This is, no doubt, a common

problem throughout the nursery industry. The other comment was a suggestion

that foliage nurseries could employ potting crews on a contract or








64



custom basis rather than attempting to hire their own potting labor.

In areas with large numbers of foliage nurseries, a custom potting

crew could undoubtedly find considerable employment. Such service

may already be available in some areas, but if so, is not widely

known among growers.

















CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


This report covers the first of five projects outlined as part of an

overall nursery industry research program. As stated earlier, that

program was developed to help Florida nurserymen and the industry as a

whole to formulate long run plans. Five project areas were outlined as

part of that program: The current state of the Florida nursery industry

and its markets; the competitive position of the Florida industry;

market intelligence; market trends and contingency planning.

This study, covering the current economic state of the industry

and 'I'.s markets, has provided information on the numbers and char-

acteristics of nursery firms and described conditions and trends in

sales, markets and market channels. A final objective of the project

was to develop "key indicators" for industry members' use in projecting

supply and demand trends.

So little of the information necessary to develop key indicators

is available that relatively little was done on that fourth objective.

Less published data and other information is available to nursery industry

members and analysts than for several agricultural sectors with smaller

production or sales values. The growth and development of the Florida

nursery industry in recent years has placed that sector as one of the

two largest state nursery industries in the country and one of the

major sectors in Florida agriculture.

The sales and market trends from 1979 to 1981 reported earlier

indicate that growers producing woody ornamentals, citrus and bedding














plants can look for continued sales increases in the short run of two

to five years. Foliage growers have experienced slowing in sales but

still are part of the largest tropical foliage industry in the world

with established markets and many marketing opportunities.

Realizing those opportunities will not be automatic or even easy.

All growers recognize the problems and needs in meeting their individual

sales goals. Achieving goals for the entire industry that would improve

the marketing environment for all firms, will be even more difficult.

Yet, the benefits from organized industry marketing efforts could be

great, and the consequences of ignoring such efforts could be severe.

Major economic and market forces affect nursery products and

nursery firm' sales and profitability. The health of the Florida and

U.S. economies, employment, interest rates, building activity, inflation,

consumer preferences and many other such diverse factors influence

demand, supply and marketing of nursery plants and profits of nursery

growers.

Later portions of this section indicate some of these influences

for woody ornamentals and for foliage. However, there is no information

to use in measuring the effects of any of these variables on nursery

markets.

If members of the Florida nursery industry, or of any one sector,

wish to improve their long run planning, they should consider continuing

with the research and information program outlined earlier. Specifically,

this important industry could develop a system for collecting, analyzing

and using relevant market information. Such an effort would provide














much of the data needed to assess the Florida competitive position, and

to provide market intelligence to the industry. Additionally, supply

and demand trends could be identified and analyzed, price behavior

could be related to market developments, and key indicators developed to

help forecast supply, demand and price trends.

The organized information and research activity could be conducted

through a state, regional or national nursery organization. Much of the

data collection and reporting could be conducted through the Florida

Crop and Livestock Reporting Service and the Federal-State Market News

Service, the two agencies currently providing much information. These

agencies presently have relatively small numbers of people and relatively

few funds allocated for nursery industry data collection and reporting.

Federal agencies have historically placed few resources into nursery

industry data handling, and recent federal budget trends do not seem

likely to provide additional funds. Thus, the industry itself would

have to provide the money for its information system.

Once an information base were developed, the supervising organ-

ization would need the analysts and market specialists to conduct the

continuing marketing studies needed, and to provide the market intelligence

and forecasts desired by industry members. The National Cattlemen's

Association has a nationwide market information intelligence system

called Cattle Fax, for example, and other state or national commodity

groups provide similar services.

Market study and intelligence could lead to additional activities,

if industry members desired. Organized market expansion and market














development programs could be conducted, as well. The Florida Depart-

ment of Citrus provides many of these kinds of programs for the Florida

citrus industry, as do several other citrus organizations in the state.

As reported earlier, several Florida growers in each of the four

groups studied stated their preferences for some organized marketing

efforts. Other growers may not see the need for such programs. A

brief note on the development of the Florida Citrus Commission (Florida

Department of Citrus) provides a valuable perspective.

The Citrus Commission was founded in 1935, with the general object-

ives of establishing quality regulations for fresh fruit and of meeting

competition from California citrus growers and shippers in national

markets. The budget of $405,350 for the first year's operation was

provided by a grower assessment of one cent per box for oranges and

three cents for grapefruit. A total of 32.8 million boxes of all types

of citrus also was marketed in the 1934-35 season. Average on-tree

prices that season were 86 cents per box for oranges and 35 cents for

grapefruit. Grower assessments were thus about 1.2 percent of the value

of a box of oranges and 8.6 percent of grapefruit value in 1935.

The present Florida Department of Citrus now has an annual budget

of about $35 million. Grower assessment rates are 15 cents per box

for oranges, or 3.4 percent of on-tree value in the 1980-81 season of

$4.46, and 17 cents for grapefruit or 4.7 percent of season average

on-tree price of $3.65 per box. Total production was 238.6 million

boxes.

The only point to this is that citrus growers were able to organize

a marketing group and develop a program in the depths of the Great















Depression. This organization has provided the citrus industry not only

with marketing programs but with research results in production and

handling, new product development and a host of other areas. Other

agricultural commodity organizations can point to similar successes,

though not perhaps of the size or scale of the Florida citrus industry.

Specific conclusions and recommendations follow for each of the four

plant categories discussed in this report, woody ornamentals, foliage,

citrus and bedding plants.


Woody Ornamentals


Florida growers' sales of woody ornamental plants have increased 52

percent from 1979 to 1981, as described earlier (Table 18). These sales

increases have called forth sizeable increases in production capacity in

Florida. Growers interviewed reported that they had increased total

growing area for woody ornamentals by 16 percent from 1979 to 1981

(Table 27). Field growing area, the largest category, grew by 18 percent,

and open container area, the next largest type, increased by 11 percent.

Both container area under shade and greenhouse space increased, also.

The sales increases that generated this expansion in growing area

were due to increased landscape material demand for new construction, or

for added landscaping to existing sites, according to Florida growers.

Based on this general relationship, some observations can be made about

building activity that can help indicate the likely demand for woody

ornamentals. Since Florida-grown woody ornamentals are sold both in

Florida and in other states (Table 20), increases of construction activity
















Table 27.--Shares of Florida nursery growing area by type and percentage change in growing area,
1979-1981


Woody
ornamentals
Share Change-
1979 1981


Foliage
S re79 1981 a
1979 1981


Citrus
S-- hT-r-- CT nge a
1979 1981


Bedding
plants
Share Change-
1979 1981


------------------------------------- Percent ------------------------------------


63 65 18


26 24 -b


98 97 -1


0 0 0


7 5
35 36

32 35


100 100 6


b


97 93


100 100


100 100 14


aChange
growing area
For example,
growing area


is percentage change in acres or square feet from 1979 to 1981. A given type of
could be a smaller share of the total in 1981 than in 1979 but still have increased.
woody ornamental container area not under shade went from 28 to 27 percent of total
but increased by 11 percent.


Less than one percent.

CMay not sum to 100 due to rounding.


Type of
growing
area


Field


Container

No shade
shade

Greenhouse


Totalsc


1 1

100 100












in Florida and the U.S. as a whole can be useful indicators of likely

plant sales.

During the 1960's Florida and the U.S. experienced slow but steady

growth, with Florida growing faster than the rest of the U.S. Both

Florida and the U.S. experienced very mild year-to-year fluctuation

construction activity. During the 1970's construction activity in both

Florida and the rest of the country, as measured by dollar volume of

building permits, fluctuated considerably more than in the previous

decade. Rates of increase in Florida building were greater than the

U.S. average in "boom" times, and Florida decreases exceeded declines in

national construction activity during times of recession.

Residential construction was far more volatile, with fluctuations

in Florida residential permits even greater than those for the U.S. as a

whole. Nonresidential construction in both Florida and the U.S. was

relatively stable and took only a slight drop in the 1975-76 recession.

Florida still outpaced the rest of the U.S. in terms of growth of total

construction activity, but the gap between the two growth rates narrowed

as compared to the 1960's.

Recent declines in building activity did not appear as soon in

Florida as in national measures, and were less severe here than for the

U.S. as a whole. It is too early in the present down-turn to predict

how long the drop in construction activity is likely to continue or how

severe the decline will eventually be. Also, many growers reported that

major changes in landscape plant sales occurred from six to twelve

months after major changes in building activity. These cyclical changes

have affected the woody ornamentals sector for many years.














Other trends developing could change several aspects of woody

ornamental production and marketing over the longer run. These trends

are all related to energy costs and conservation efforts and to economic

pressures. Landscaping for energy conservation is a growing trend in

the architectural and building fields.

A partner in a major central Florida residential construction and

development firm stated that their allocations for landscaping a home

had quadrupled the past two years. Other contractors reported budgeting

twice as much for landscaping compared with 1979. The builder cited

just above also stated that dollar for dollar, landscaping provided the

best energy conservation measure for homes.

Water conservation is also becoming an important consideration in

Florida landscaping, along with reducing maintenance requirements for

plants used. These characteristics combine to make native trees, shrubs

and vines much more widely used in Florida landscaping than just a few

years ago.

However, relatively few nurseries are growing many native Florida

plants. Landscape architects interviewed felt that there was a sub-

stantial need for supplies of native plants which is not being met now.

Also, many builders are still not aware of the energy-and water-saving

possibilities from proper site selection and preparation and from

appropriate landscape plant selection, placement and followup care.


Recommendations


1. Begin an industry-wide effort to review container sizes and












types, and develop a plan to standardize pots and plant
containers.

2. Encourage and support research and development of alternate
materials for plant media and soil mixes.

3. Encourage and support research and development of new and
modified machinery and equipment for woody ornamental
nurseries and for landscape installation and maintenance
(see section, "Nursery Inputs and Supplies").

4. Develop materials and programs for educating users of woody
ornamentals:

a. Consumer-oriented information on plant selection and care
for energy conservation, for use by retailers.

b. Information for landscape installers and builders on
proper and efficient site selection and preparation, and
plant and landscaping use and care.

5. Develop a system of collecting information on woody ornamental
plant sales to provide industry members with "key indicators"
of market demand, price trends, changes in buyer preferences
and other relevant market information.

6. Review industry needs and preferences for an electronic market
information system. Such a system, currently used in several
agricultural products, could provide plant availability, prices
and trends, shipping costs, and other current market data
vital to the industry.

7. Conduct market research on preferences, buying habits and
characteristics of woody plant buyers, both consumers and
retail and landscape trade.


Foliage


Sales of tropical foliage grew by about 14 percent from 1979 to

1981, Florida growers reported (Table 27). Published data from USDA

support this evaluation of sales leveling from the rapid growth of the

early 1970's. Data from 1966-1980 can be used to identify the major deter-

minants of foliage sales increases and to indicate possible influences on


future sales.















An analysis of sales of foliage produced in Florida and in the rest

of the U.S. (see Appendix) identified four economic or demographic

measures as important influences on foliage sales. These were: (1) The

gross national product (GNP) or the dollar value of all goods and services

produced in the U.S. in a given year; (2) The rate of inflation, or

the rate of increase in the general price level; (3) The unemployment

rate, or the proportion of the civilian labor force out of work, and (4)

The proportion of the U.S. population 25 years of age and over. Effects

of these factors are shown in Table 28.


Table 28.--Effects of one percent increase in four economic or demo-
graphic measures on foliage sales from Florida and from the
rest of the U.S., 1966-80.


One percent
increase in:


Effect on foliage sales from:

Florida Rest of U.S.


GNP

Inflation rate

Unemployment rate

Proportion of population
25 years and over


------------- Percent -------------

3.8 5.9

-7.5 -15.2

1.5 2.3


33.9


69.9


For each one percent increase in the GNP, Florida foliage sales

increased 3.8 percent. However, foliage sales from other U.S. pro-

duction areas increased 5.9 percent. Inflation seriously reduces foliage


---1-1---~---1--------















sales: an increase of one percent in the rate of inflation reduced

Florida foliage sales by 7.5 percent, and other U.S. sales by over twice

that much (Table 28).

Another economic measure that indicates poor economic performance,

rising unemployment, actually resulted in a small increase in foliage

sales. An extremely large influence on foliage sales has been the share

of population 25 years and over. These Americans, who are the primary

age group for forming households, are the heaviest purchasers of foliage

plants. An increase of one percent in this age group has resulted in

nearly 34 percent increase in Florida foliage sales and almost 70 percent

increase in other U.S. foliage sales (Table 28).

These limited aggregate data can be used to make some general

observations about trends in foliage sales. It is unlikely that the

U.S. economy will experience a higher rate of growth in the GNP in the

1980's than occurred in the past decade. Inflation is likely to be at

least as high in the next ten years as in the past ten, and could possibly

be higher. These two retarding forces will overbalance any small

foliage sales increase that might occur due to relatively high unemployment

rates likely in the 1980's. The influence of a maturing population will

continue but probably not as strongly as in the 1970's.

These demand influences, coupled with the foliage supply increases

experienced, have placed the Florida foliage industry under considerable

pressure. Florida foliage production and marketing can now be characterized

as a mature industry. The aggregate factors of demand leveling and

slowing sales increases have been cited. Several findings from foliage

grower and buyer interviews also support this characterization.














Indoor foliage plants are now viewed by consumers, interior de-

signers and interiorscape professionals as essential elements in at-

tractive interior space. Plants are no longer luxuries or exotic fads,

but are used just as furniture, art and other decorative items. Just as

with these items, purchasers in higher income groups are looking for

improved quality and value, larger plants and plants that give the

desired design effect. These observations by both Florida growers and

by plant buyers and users apply to nearly all sizes and types of foliage

material.


Recommendations


1. Begin an industry-wide effort to review container sizes
and types, and develop a plan to standardize pots and plant
containers and shipping cartons.

2. Encourage and support research and testing of improved
transportation equipment and methods for shipping foliage
plants.

3. Encourage and suoport research and development of alternate
materials for plant media and soil mixes.

4. Encourage and support research and development of new and
modified machinery and equipment for foliage nurseries.

5. Develop materials and programs for educating end users of
foliage plants:

a. Consumer oriented information on plant selection and care.

b. Information for interior and interiorscape designers
and retailers on plant selection, care and merchandising.

6. Develop a system of collecting information on foliage plant
sales to provide industry members with "key indicators" of
market demand, price trends, changes in buyer preferences
and other relevant market information.













7. Review industry needs and preferences for an electronic market
information system. (See Recommendation 6, Woody Ornamentals).

8. Conduct market research on preferences, buying habits and
characteristics of foliage plant buyers, both consumers and
the retail and wholesale trade.

9. Use this research and other relevant information to identify
growing and declining market segments and plant types to
enable the industry to adjust to its mature stage and enable
firms to remain profitable.



Citrus

Conclusions and recommendations for Florida citrus nurseries are

more difficult to draw than for woody ornamentals and foliage. Due to

recent Florida freezes, and to expanding citrus production in Florida

and Latin America, citrus nurseries find themselves in an enviable po-

sition now. Growers reported two major problem areas: increasing their

supply of citrus stock and production management and technology.

Most Florida citrus nursery operators are preparing for the longer

run, when numbers of trees in demand may not be so far ahead of available

supply. These firms, particularly those who formerly sold citrus trees

into the nursery and ornamental trade, are retaining their abilities to

reenter those markets as conditions permit. This is certainly wise. To

the extent that a citrus nursery enters or renters the ornamentals

market, many of the recommendations in the Woody Ornamentals section

above could apply. Standardized containers and shipping methods, and

improved production and handling materials, equipment and methods would

be equally valuable to citrus nurseries. Improved market information

would also be valuable.













Bedding Plants


This highly specialized portion of the Florida nursery industry

has experienced extremely high rates of growth in recent years. The

Florida bedding plant operators interviewed reported an increase of 73

percent in sales from 1979 to 1981. This remarkable rate of growth is

not likely to continue, but the basic forces that helped generate such

an increase are likely to operate in the future.

Consumers' desires for both flower and vegetable gardens, and wider

uses of annual flowers in landscaping have been important forces in

Florida bedding plant growth, along with the growing Florida population.

This growth seems likely to continue, as Florida population could reach

15 million by the year 2000. The trends favoring greater bedding plant

use also seem likely to continue.

Many of the same recommendations made earlier for woody ornamentals

and foliage plants would apply to bedding plant needs. Improved media

and soil mixes, and more efficient shipping methods and containers would

be of interest. Educational information and programs for consumers and

wholesale bedding plant users would also be valuable. Consumer and

retailer information and merchandising programs for vegetables would be

particularly useful in improving bedding plant movement. Market infor-

mation, electronic marketing and market research would also be recommended

for the bedding plant sector.


































APPENDIX












Appendix Table l.--Florida nursery firms, retail, wholesale, combination
and total, and total nursery acreage by county, 1980.



Firms

Retail Wholesale Both Total Acres


Alachua 77 9 76 162 185
Baker 10 3 12 30 515
Bay 42 1 7 50 31
Bradford 7 1 6 14 2
Brevard 175 42 73 290 148
Broward 191 114 173 478 1,121
Calhoun 5 0 1 6 1
Charlotte 13 9 7 29 20
Citrus 49 7 13 69 73
Clay 25 5 34 64 27
Collier 32 10 49 91 174
Columbia 29 2 12 43 12
Dade 519 205 277 1,001 2,675
DeSoto 11 12 12 35 22
Dixie 2 1 2 5 1
Duval 102 39 165 306 191
Escambia 79 3 10 92 76
Flagler 7 0 2 9 11
Franklin 4 0 0 4 1
Gadsden 8 6 3 17 379
Gilchrist 3 0 4 7 2
Glades 0 1 5 6 2
Gulf 4 0 1 5 1
Hamilton 5 1 1 7 2
Hardee 4 15 9 28 59
Hendry 3 3 15 21 86
Hernando 48 12 14 74 40
Highlands 37 21 36 94 380
Hillsborough 224 94 203 521 531
Holmes 14 2 3 19 5
Indian River 47 2 19 68 34
Jackson 34 0 1 35 13
Jefferson 11 11 5 27 874
Lafayette 4 1 1 6 8
Lake 69 153 69 291 283
Lee 80 29 101 210 414
Leon 42 2 10 54 31
Levy 16 3 1 20 4
Liberty 1 0 1 2 2
Madison 8 0 4 12 64
Manatee 38 41 64 143 537












Appendix Table l.--Florida nursery firms, retail, wholesale, combination
and total, and total nursery acreage by county, 1980.
Continued.



Firms

Retail Wholesale Both Total Acres


Marion 118 27 23 168 179
Martin 22 33 26 81 258
Monroe 41 4 12 57 13
Nassau 12 4 9 25 10
Okaloosa 21 1 8 30 15
Okeechobee 12 2 7 21 9
Orange 186 464 208 858 1,077
Osceola 8 23 27 58 57
Palm Beach 211 117 128 4bb6 1,894
Pasco 160 21 28 209 200
Pinellas 264 33 53 350 218
Polk 75 39 206 320 725
Putnam 47 8 13 68 44
St. Johns 14 5 25 44 57
St. Lucie 16 51 25 92 94
Santa Rosa 21 2 2 25 20
Sarasota 41 28 32 101 52
Seminole 66 49 41 156 193
Sumter 18 5 11 34 17
Suwanee 16 1 8 25 13
Taylor 8 1 3 12 32
Union 6 0 0 6 5
Volusia 221 34 74 329 231
Wakulla 2 0 0 2 2
Walton 8 2 6 16 19
Washington 26 1 3 30 21

State 3,719 1,820 1,479 8,018 14,491


Source: Florida Division of Plant Industry.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs