• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Title Page
 Center information
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 List of Figures
 Highlights
 Introduction
 Background
 Objectives
 Procedure
 Findings
 Appendix
 Reference














Title: Food store robberies in Florida
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 Material Information
Title: Food store robberies in Florida
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Degner, R. L.
Comer, D. A.
Kepner, K. W.
Olexa, M. T.
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Market Research Center, a part of the Food and Resource Economics Dept., University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1983
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Bibliographic ID: UF00027563
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Center information
        Unnumbered ( 2 )
    Acknowledgement
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    List of Tables
        Page iii
        Page iv
    List of Figures
        Page v
    Highlights
        Page vi
        Page vii
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Background
        Page 2
    Objectives
        Page 3
    Procedure
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Findings
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
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        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Appendix
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
    Reference
        Page 71
Full Text






















Food Store Robberies in Florida:
Detailed Crime Statistics









A report by


R.L. Degner, D.A. Comer,
K.W. Kepner, and M.T. Olexa










June, 1983




Florida Agricultural Market Research Center
a part of
The Food and Resource Economics Department
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611


Thursday, April 03, 2003.max
















The Florida Agricultural Market Research-Center is
a service of
the Food and Resource Economics Department
of the
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences


The purpose of this Center is to provide timely, applied research

on current and emerging marketing problems affecting Florida's agricul-

tural and marine industries. The Center seeks to provide research and

information to production, marketing, and processing firms, groups and

organizations concerned with improving and expanding markets for Florida

agricultural and marine products.

The Center is staffed by a basic group of economists trained in

agriculture and marketing. In addition, cooperating personnel from

other IFAS units provide a wide range of expertise which can be applied

as determined by the requirements of individual projects.


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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


This research was funded in part by a grant from the Re[al Gr- ocrs
Association of Florida. Mr. Robert Hitchcock, Chairman of the Board,
and Mr. Bill Weaver, President of the Association, provided key Leader-
ship for the study's success.

Gratitude is expressed to Patrick J. Doyle, Director of the Florida
Department of Law Enforcement, for granting access to the Uniform Crime
Report files and to the many Florida Department of Law Enforcement
employees who provided assistance with the data. Special thanks are due
Allan Knudsen, Wayne Quinsey, Ritchie Grant, Jim Overfield, Estelle
Gilstrap, and John Harris.

The assistance of Cathy Schlipf in performing most of the computer
analysis is gratefully acknowledged, and the editorial assistance of
Pamela Riddle and David Dodson is appreciated. We are also graceful to
Lois Schoen for typing the manuscript.


































i


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TABLE OF CONTENTS


Page

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ...................................................

LIST OF TABLES .....................................................

LIST OF APPENDIX TABLES .......................................... iv
V
LIST OF FIGURES ........................... ...... .............
v-i
HIGHLIGHTS .............................. ...........................

1
INTRODUCTION ............................ ..........................

2
BACKGROUND ........................ ....... .................
3
OBJECTIVES .... ................................ ................

3
PROCEDURE ......................... .......... ......... ..........

5
FINDINGS ........................................ ............. ...... 5

5
Robbery Trends ................................................
Violence ............. ....... ........................... 13
Type of weapon used .............................. ......... 13
Homicides ............................ ........... .......... 15
Number of robbery victims ...............................
Geographic Dispersion of Robberies -........................... 21
26
Time of Occurrence .......... ....................... ........... 26
Property Losses ...............................................
45
Clearance of Offenses .........................................
55
Summary and Conclusions ...........*** ....... ........... ....
The Data ........................................ ..........
The Findings ................................. ..... .. 5



71
REFERENCES ...................................***************** 71










ii

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LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1 Robbery trends in Florida, 1977-1981 .......................... 7

2 Frequency of food score robberies and robberies of
other commercial establishments, 1977-81 ......................

3 Number of robberies by.food store type, Florida, 1981 ......... 11

4 Chn a.ffi n of ..L. L U. L UUL ores r .... L UUU...............

5 Robbery success rate, by fobd store type ...................... 14

6 Convenience store and supermarket robberies by
type of weapon used ..................... ................ ....... 16

7 Robbery success by store type and weapon used ................. 17

8 Homocides committed in conjunction with food
store robberies ............................................... 18

9 Number of victims by store type .............................. 19

10 Number of robbery victims by store type ......................19

11 Robbery success rate by number of victims and store type ...... 20

12 Florida's top 10 counties for food store robberies
and respective clearance rates, 1981 .......................... 25

13 Robbery rates per 100 stores: Florida's top ten
counties, 1981 ....................... ........ .......... .. 25

14 Convenience store and supermarket robberies by time
of day, 1981 .................................... .... .....

15 Robbery success rate by time of day and store type ............ 29

16 Convenience store robberies by day of the week ................ 32

17 Supermarket robberies by day of the week ...................... 33

18 Average daily robberies by week of the month,
convenience stores and supermarkets ........................... 33



iii

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Table Page

19 Convenience store and supermarket robberies by month .......... 35

20 Total value of property taken in food store robberies ......... 38

21 Total value stolen from convenience stores .................... 39

22 Value stolen by store type and chain vs. independent .......... "

23 Total value stolen from supermarkets ...........................

24 Type of property taken in robberies, by store type, 1981 ......

25 Property recovered by store type ..............................

26 Clearance rates and methods, by store type .................... 9

27 Clearance rates by chain and independent store
robberies by store type ..... ............ ....................... 0

28 Elapsed time from date of robbery to date of clearance,
by store type .............................. ....................

29 Elapsed time from robbery until clearance, by store type ...... 53

30 Robberies committed by adults and juveniles, by store type .... 54

31 Robbery success rate for adults and juveniles,
by store type ...................... ................ .. ........ 54


LIST OF APPENDIX TABLES


Table Page

1 Number of convenience store and supermarket robberies
by county, 1981 ............................................... 64

2 Total food store robberies, food store robberies
relative :o population and per 100 food stores ............... 66

3 Average daily number of convenience store and
supermarket robberies by day of month ......................... 68

4 Convenience store and supermarket robberies in
Florida, 19v7-1981....................................... 70


iv


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LIST OF FIGURES


Figure Page

1 Total number of robberies committed in Wlorida,
1977-1981 ...................... ........ ........................

2 Commercial robbery trends in Florida, 1977-1981 ............... 8

3 Percentages of convenience store, supermarket, and
all other commercial firm robberies, 1977-1981 ............... 9

4 Number of convenience store robberies committed
in Florida, 1977-1981 .......................................... L2

5 Number of supermarket robberies committed in Florida,
1977-1981 .............. ..... ............ ........................

6 Number of food store robberies by county, 1981 ................ 22

7 Number of convenience score robberies by county, 1981 ......... 23

8 Number of supermarket robberies per county, 1981 .............. 24

9 Convenience store and supermarket robberies by time of day .... 28

10 Convenience store and supermarket robberies by day of week .... 31

11 Frequency of convenience store and supermarket
robberies by month .. ... ................ ......... ........ ...

12 Total and average value stolen in convenience store
robberies, 1977-1981..... ..... ................. ..*........... 38

13 Total and average value stolen in supermarket robberies,
1977-1981 ......................... ............................. 42














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HIGHLIGHTS


The number of food store robberies committed in Florida has soared
in recent years. In order to combat this serious problem, The Retail
Grocers Association of Florida provided support for research which would
provide objective information for food retailers, law enforcement and
judicial officials and the general public.

This report provides detailed analyses of food store robbery
data. These data are routinely collected by the Florida Department of
Law Enforcement (FDLE), but because of lack of funds and manpower,
rarely analyzed to the fullest extent.

Individual Uniform Crime Reports on computer tape were obtained
from FDLE for 1981. These records showed that 4,323 food stores were
robbed in Florida in 1981, one every two hours throughout the year.
This figure reflects attempted and "committed" (successful) robberies.

During the 1977-1981 period, the number of convenience store and
supermarket robberies increased by 70 and 160 percent, respectively,
greatly outstripping population growth. The food store robbery rate per
100,000 inhabitants increased from 27.5 in 1977 to 42.3 in 1981, a 54
percent increase.

Of all food store robberies committed in 1981, 3,858 were conve-
nience store robberies (89 percent of total) and. 465 were supermarket
robberies (11 percent). Over 92 percent of all robbery attempts were
successful; this was true for both types of stores.

No discernible trends are occurring with respect to the type of
weapons being used. Firearms are used in about 75 percent of all cases,
knives in 12 and 6 percent of convenience stores and supermarkets
respectively, and "other dangerous weapons" such as bombs, clubs, etc.
in less than 5 percent. Strong-arm robbery was reported in 11 percent
of convenience store robberies and 15 to 20 percent of supermarket
robberies. Use of firearms and knives increased the probabilities of
successfully completing a robbery.

Sixteen homocides were committed in conjunction with food store
robberies in Florida during 1981. Eleven occurred in convenience stores
and five in supermarkets. One murder was committed for every 351 conve-
nience store robberies and one for every 93 supermarket robberies.

During the course of the 4,323 food store robberies, 4,747 individ-
uals were victimized. The robbery success rate does not appear to
decrease as the number of victims increases.



vi


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__









Food store robberies occurred in over 80 percent of all Florida
counties. Hillsborough County led with 776 robberies, followed by Dade,
Duval, and Broward Counties with 753, 496 and 490 respectively.

Robbery rates per 100 food stores show Hillsborough County in first
place with 510 per 100 stores. Other leading counties, ranked in
descending order, included Duval, Broward, Orange, Alachua, Leon, Escam-
bia, Seminole, Polk, and Pinellas.

One-fourth of all convenience store robberies occur between 6:00
A.M. and 6:00 P.M., compared with 42 percent for supermarkets. The peak
period for convenience store robberies was between 9:00 and 11:00 P.M.,
but for supermarkets it was between 8:00 and 9:00 P.M. The robbery
success rate does not vary dramatically by time of day.

The frequency of robberies by day of the month, week of the month
and proximity to holidays was also examined, but no significant patterns
were detected.

Regression analysis was used to estimate the relationships between
the number of robberies and the unemployment rate, the value of building
permits issued (lagged) and the Consumer Price Index. None of the rela-
tionships were statistically significant.

Convenience stores lost an estimated $932,000 and supermarkets
nearly $750,000 due to robberies. When security costs are included,
robberies cost the food industry about $5.5 million per year in Florida.

The average value stolen per robbery was $284 for convenience
stores and $1,759 for supermarkets. In real terms (accounting for
inflation) the average amount stolen from convenience stores has
remained practically unchanged over the past five years. Chain conve-
nience stores lost significantly less per robbery than did independent
convenience stores.

Property is recovered in only about 7 percent of convenience store
robberies and 11 percent of supermarket robberies. About 4.9 percent
and 2.5 percent of the total value stolen was recovered for the two
types of stores, respectively.

Approximately 26.5 percent of all food store robberies were cleared
in 1981, compared with only 21.4 percent of all other robberies. The
clearance rates for convenience stores and supermarkets were similar;
the same was true for chain stores and independents.

Most clearances occur within 12 weeks (approximately three months)
of the date of the off-nse. The average time from commission of the
offense to clearance was about 25 days. No significant differences in
clearance time occurred between convenience store and supermarkets or
between chain stores and independents.





vii


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Food Store Robberies in Florida:
Detailed Crime Statistics


R.L. Degner, D.A. Comer,
K.W. Kepner and M.T. Olexa


INTRODUCTION


The Retail Grocers Association of Florida (RGAF) is extremely

concerned about the increasing frequency of food store robberies in

Florida. A a result of his concern, he Association reauesed that

the Florida Agricultural Market Research Center (FAMRC) conduct research

to provide objective findings which could be used to alleviate the

robbery problem.

This report presents results of the first phase of a three part

research program proposed by FAMRC. Phase I focuses on detailed statis-

tical analyses of available data. Phase II proposes a public opinion

survey to assess the prevailing public image of food stores as shaped by

the robbery problem and seek ways to counteract erroneous negative

public images of the food industry that may exist as a result of the

robbery problem. The proposed third and final phase of this research

program will be to track specific robbery cases through the judicial

system to determine their final dispositions, i.e., the punishments that

result through plea bargaining or through trial by jury.




R.L. Degner is associate professor; D.A. Comer is assistant
professor; K.W. Kepner is professor; and M.T. Olexa is assistant
research scientist in food and resource economics of the University of
Florida.


Tuesday, April 01, 2003.max








BACKGROUND


Robbery is defined as the "felonious and forcible taking of the

property of another, against his will, by violence or putting the person

in fear" (Florida Department of Law Enforcement, 1982). For robbery to

take place, the victim must be present. Robbery is further separated

into two categories, armed and strong-arm. Armed robbery occurs when-

ever any object is employed so as to constitute force or threat of

force. Strong-arm robberies are those in which no weapon is used, but

strong-arm tactics involving the use of hands, feet, arms, fists, etc.

are employed to deprive the victim of his property.

Despite dramatic increases in food store robberies in recent years,

few studies have been published which provide detailed statistics on

such crimes. Studies and articles have, however, been published which

described robberies and measures taken to thwart food store robberies

(McAuliffe, 1980; Hanson-Treen, 1977; Restaurants and Institutions

1981; Shestack, 1977).

A landmark study was published in 1975 by the Western Behavioral

Sciences Institute in cooperation with Southland Corporation (Crow,

1975). This study designed robbery deterrence techniques for small

convenience stores and evaluated the impact of such measures in decreas-

ing robberies and reducing financial losses. A followup study conducted

in 1981 by Dr. Crow explored robber motivations (Athena Research Corpor-

ation, 1981). Another study, conducted in the mid-seventies, attempted

to quantify national convenience store losses due to robberies, burglar-

ies, inventory shortages, and internal losses (Vastine, 1974). The only

foodstore robbery study in Florida, other than the statistical summaries


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published by the Florida Department of Law Enforcement (FDLE), was based

on a group of 100 stores of one convenience store chain (Chambers,

1982). These studies have provided considerable insights for this

investigation, and similarities and differences in findings between this

study and previous works will be discussed where appropriate.


OBJECTIVES


The basic objective of Phase I was to thoroughly/ analyze possible

primary robbery data received from the ;rlrcida !. -e ent of Law

Enforcement (FDLE). Specific objectives were to (.) analyze robbery

frequencies and dollar losses by geographic Locacion, time of day, and

by the number of victims; (2) determine the clearance rate for food

store robberies and the elapsed time between robberies and clearance;

(3) compare clearance rates for food store robberies with those of

robberies of other types of commercial establishments; and (4) obtain

case numbers of food store robberies so that individual offenses can be

traced through the judicial system to meet the objectives of Phase III.

Meeting these objectives will help to eradicate misconceptions that

may exist in law enforcement agencies, the food industry, and among the

general public.


PROCEDURE


The Florida Crime Reporting. Staatute wlas passed by the Legislature

in the Florida Law Enforcement Act of 1967 and updated in 1974. Chapter

943 of the Florida Statutes requires the Florida Department of Law

Enforcement to "establish a system of uniform crime reports and statis-

tical analysis." Pursuant to this statute, approximately 350 state,


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published by the Florida Department of Law Enforcement (FDLE), was based

on a group of 100 stores of one convenience store chain (Chambers,

1982). These studies have provided considerable insights for this

investigation, and similarities and differences in findings between this

study and previous works will be discussed where appropriate.


OBJECTIVES


The basic objective of Phase I was to thoroughly/ analyze possible

primary robbery data received from the ;rlrcida !. -e ent of Law

Enforcement (FDLE). Specific objectives were to (.) analyze robbery

frequencies and dollar losses by geographic Locacion, time of day, and

by the number of victims; (2) determine the clearance rate for food

store robberies and the elapsed time between robberies and clearance;

(3) compare clearance rates for food store robberies with those of

robberies of other types of commercial establishments; and (4) obtain

case numbers of food store robberies so that individual offenses can be

traced through the judicial system to meet the objectives of Phase III.

Meeting these objectives will help to eradicate misconceptions that

may exist in law enforcement agencies, the food industry, and among the

general public.


PROCEDURE


The Florida Crime Reporting. Staatute wlas passed by the Legislature

in the Florida Law Enforcement Act of 1967 and updated in 1974. Chapter

943 of the Florida Statutes requires the Florida Department of Law

Enforcement to "establish a system of uniform crime reports and statis-

tical analysis." Pursuant to this statute, approximately 350 state,


Tuesday, April 01, 2003.max









county, and municipal officials are required to submit uniform crime

reports to the FDLE. These reports contain identification of the law

enforcement agency submitting the offense report, the date and time of

the offense, a case number, an offense code, the number of victims, and

clearance data. They also contain a description of the type of property

taken, if any, its value, and the value of any property recovered. A

copy of the uniform crime reporting form is found in the Appendix (FDLE,

1982). The FDLE obtains individual offense reports on approximately 30

types of crimes ranging from murder to vagrancy, from all Law enforcement

agencies in the state. These data are the basis for the FDLE's excel-

lent quarterly and annual statistical summaries.

In a typical year, well over 800,000 individual offense reports are

processed by FDLE. The FDLE ranks robbery as a serious offense, and the

analysis accorded the 35,000-plus robberies which occurred in 1981

reflect its importance. But, given the diverse nature and sheer volume

of criminal offenses, it is impractical for FDLE to routinely provide

the detailed analyses required by the food industry. Fortunately, the

FDLE collects and stores considerably more data related to food store

robberies than is commonly reported. These data are maintained in a

computerized data processing system in Tallahassee. A special computer

tape containing only offense records of food store robberies for 1981

was obtained from the FDLE and analyses of these records were conducted

by the FAMRC researchers. Results of these analyses follow.


Tuesday, April 01, 2003.max







FINDINGS


Robbery Trends

The total number of robberies committed in Florida in recent years

has soared. In 1977, a total of 15,881 cases were recorded resulting in

approximately $6.4 million being stolen. By 1981, the number of rob-

beries increased to 35,470 with the value stolen in excess of S36

million. This represents a 123 percent increase in the number of rob-

beries and a 460 percent increase in the value of property stolen

(Figure 1, Table 1). During this same period, the number of convenience

store robberies increased over 70 percent and supermarket robberies

increased by about 160 percent, compared to 92 percent for all commer-

cial establishments. In this same five year period, convenience store

robberies declined from 41.2 percent of all commercial robberies to 36.9

percent of all commercial robberies. In 1981, food store robberies

accounted for more than 40 percent of all robberies perpetrated against

commercial business establishments in the state of Florida (Figures 2

and 3,*Table 2).

A Florida food store robbery occurred every 2 hours during the

year. A record 4,323 food stores were robbed, of which 3,858, or 89

percent, were convenience stores and 465, or about 11 percent, were

supermarkets (Table 3, Figures 4. and 5). Eighty-forr percent of the

convenience stores and approximately 70 percent of the supermarkets were

chain affiliates (Table 4).

The 4,323 food store robberies included robbery attempts (those in

which no property was taken) and instances where a robbery was actually

committed. Of the 3,858 convenience store robberies reported by FDLE,


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Number of
Robberies


1977 1978 1979 1980 1981

Year

Figure 1 .--Total number of robberies committed in Florida,
1977-1981.


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40,000


35,000


30,000


25,000


20,000


15,000


10,000


5,000








Table 1 .--Robbery trends in Florida, 1977-1981.



Number Percent change Total
of over previous value Average
Year offenses years stolen value


1977 15,881 + 1.3% $ 6,434,188 $ 405
1978 17,700 +11.5% 11,173,990 631
1979 22,097 +24.8% 15,110,522 634
1980 34,015 +53.9% 26,480,024 778
1981 35,470 + 4.3% 36,152,286 1,019


Source: Florida Department of Law Enforcement, Uniform Crime
Reports, Annual Summaries, 1977-1981
"_jw%%-0


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Number of
Robberies
(1,000)


ATi I commercial l
establishments


All commercial
excluding ,


Food stores


1977


1978


1979 1980


1981


Year

Figure 2 .--Commercial robbery trends in Florida, 1977-1981.


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Supermarket
Convenience
Other commercial


1977


1978 1979 1980 1981


Year

Figure 3 .--Percentages of convenience store, supermarket,
and all other commercial firm robberies, 1977-
1981.


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Percent


100









Table 2 .--Frequency of food store robberies and robberies of other commercial establishments, 1977-81.


Convenience
stores


Year


Supermarkets


Other
commerce i al


Number Percent


2,220
2,435
2,921
3,709
3,811


41.2
42.0
43.4
39.7
36.9


Number Percent


178
167
235
374
460


3.3
2.9
3.5
4.0
4.5


Number Percent


2,993
3,201
3,568
5,254
6,066


55.5
55.2
53.1
56.3
58.7


Number Percenta

5,391 100.0
5,803 100.0
6,724 100.0
9,337 100.0
10,337 100.0


aPer:ent distribution may not total 100.0 due to rounding.

bThese figures differ from those reported later in the report because they Wera published by FDLE
before all reports were submitted by reporting agencies.

Source: Florida Department of Law Enforcement, Uniform Crime Reports, Annual Summaries, 1977-1980.


1977
1978
1979
1980
1981b


Totals


---












Table 3 .--Number of robberies by food store type, Florida, 1981.


Store type Number Percent


Convenience 3,858 89.2

Supermarket 465 10.8

Totals 4,323 100.0





Table 4 .--Chain affiliation of food stores robbed.



Store type Chain Independent


Number Percent Number Percent

Convenience 3,251 84.3 607 15.7

Supermarket 326 70.1 139 29.9

All stores 3,577 82.7 746 17.3


Tuesday, April 01, 2003.max




Number of
Robberi es


4,000


3,500



3,'000



2,500


2,000


1 ,500


1, 000


500


1977


Convenience Stores


Year

Figure 4 .--Number of convenience store robberies
committed in Florida, 1977-1981.


Number of
Robberies


500

400

300

200

700


1977


1978


1979

Year


S980


1981


Figure 5 .--Number of supermarket robberies committed in
Florida. 1977-1981.


Tuesday, April 01, 2003.max


1978


1979


1980


1981


1 1


III


Supermarkets







290, or 7.5 percent were attempts only. Similarly, of the 465 super-

market robberies, 42, or 9 percent, were attempts (Table 5). It is

interesting to note that the success rate was similar for both types of

stores.


Violence

By its very definition, the act of robbery has the potential to

inflict physical harm on victims. A very interesting statistic would be

the number of robberies in which physical harm occurred to the victim.

Unfortunately, the present method of "scoring" or ranking Part I

offenses (the most serious crimes) under the Uniform Crime Reporting

system makes it impossible to determine how many robbery cases resulted

in injury to the victims. Under the current classification system,

whenever two or more offenses occur during the same act, only the most

serious is coded for reporting purposes. Thus, if a clerk is assaulted

during the course of a robbery, the robbery, not the assault, is

reported. There is no cross classification system to indicate that an

assault also occurred.


Type of weapon used

A measure of the potential for violence can be gleaned from the

type of weapon used in robberies and reported in the uniform crime

reports. Weapons are classified as firearms, knives, and "other danger-

ous weapons." Strong-arm robberies are also reported separately.

Trends in types of weapons were examined for both convenience and

supermarket robberies. No discernible trends in weapon type usage were

noted. In both types of stores, firearms are used approximately three-

fourths of the time. Knives were used in convenience store robberies


Tuesday, April 01, 2003.max












Table 5.--Robbery success rate, by food store type.


Type of Store


Attempted


Committed


Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent

Convenience 290 7.5 3,568 92.5 3,858 100.00

Supermarket 42 9.0 423 91.0 465 100.00

Al Stores 332 7.7 3,991 92.3 4,323 100.00
c, St, = ... .. .


Tuesday, April 01, 2003. max


Total







about 12 percent of the time, and only about half as often in super-

markets. "Other dangerous weapons," which can include anything from

sticks and stones to bombs were used in less than 5 percent of the

cases. Strong-arm robberies occurred in about 11 percent of all conve-

nience store robberies. In supermarket robberies the proportion was

considerably greater. From 1977 through 1980 the proportion of strong-

arm robberies in supermarkets exceeded 20 percent. However, in 1981 the

proportion dropped to about 16 percent (Table 6).

The robbery success rate was found to be related to the type of

weapon used. In 1981, 6 and 7 percent of the firearm and knife rob-

beries of convenience stores were unsuccessful. In contrast, almost 17

percent of the strong-arm attempts on convenience stores were unsuc-

cessful. The same general relationships were also evident for super-

market robberies (Table 7).


Homocides

Murder committed in conjunction with food store robberies is

unquestionably the most serious aspect of the crime. In 1981, 16

murders were committed in Florida during food store robberies. Although

.this data could not be obtained directly from robbery records, it was

retrieved from supplemental homicide reports which are required by FDLE

and verified by calling the reporting agencies. Eleven of the homocides

were associated with the 3,858 convenience store robberies and five with

the 465 supermarket robberies. On the basis of murders per 100 robber-

ies, convenience store rate was 0.29 and for supermarkets, 1.08. For

all food store robberies, the murder rate per 100 robberies was 0.37

(Table 8). An equivalent way of interpreting these figures is that one


Tuesday, April 01, 2003.max









Table 6 .--Convenience store and supermarket robberies by type of weapon used, 1977-1981.


Type of
establishment
Year


_____Type of weapon


Firearm


Knife


Other


Strong-arm


Totals


Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Number Percenta


Convenience store


1977
1978
1979
1980
1981

Supermarket

1977
1978
1979
1980
1981


1,687
1,728
2,113
2,762
2,846


127
109
160
267
351


76.0
71.0
72.3
74.5
73.8


71.3
65.3
68.1
71.4
75.5


246
324
366
434
452


11.1
13.3
12.5
11.7
11.7


85
101
112
126
129


5.6
7.8
8.5
5.6
6.4


3.8
4.2
3.8
3.4
3.3


1.7
3.0
3.4
2.7
2.2


202
282
330
387
431


9.1
11 .6
11.3
10.4
11.2


21.3
24.0
20.0
20.3
15.9


2,220
2,435
2,921
3,709
3,858


178
167
235
374
465


100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0


100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0
100.0


percent distribution may not total 100.0 due to rounding.

Source: Florida Department of Law Enforcement, Uniform Crime Reports, Annual Summaries, 1977-1980;
1981 was computed from FDLE data.


------- ------- --------








Table 7.--Robbery success by store type and weapon used.


Type of store Attempted Committed.
Type of weapon (Unsuccessful) (Successful)

Number Percent Number Percent

Convenience

Firearm 172 6.0 2,674 94.0
Knife 33 7.3 419 92.7
Other 13 10.1 116 39.9
Strong arm 72 16.7 359 83.3
Totals BU l7. 3-508 92.5

Supermarket

Firearm 26 7.4 325 92.6
Knife 4 13.3 26 86.7
Other 2. 20.0 8 30.0
Strong arm 10 13.5 64 86.5
Totals 42 9.0 423 91.0

aChi-square analysis indicates a significant difference in the proportion
of attempted to committed robberies by type of weapon for convenience stores,
X2=62.4177, P=0.0001. The same relationship is apparent for supermarket rob-
beries, but Chi-square results were tenuous because of sparse cells.



Table 8 .--Homocides committed in conjunction with food store robberies.


Food store Murders per
Type of store Murders robberies 100 robberiesa

------- Number ------

Convenience 11 3,358 0.29

Supermarket 5 465 1.08

Totals 16 4,323 0.37

aAn equivalent way of interpreting this figure is that one murder was
committed for every 351 convenience store robberies and 93 supermarkets, or
one murder for every 270 food store robberies overall.


Tuesday, April 01, 2003.max









murder was committed for every 351 convenience store robberies and one

for every 93 supermarket robberies. On an overall basis, one murder was

committed for every 270 food store robberies. The murder rate for

convenience store robberies was very similar to that experienced by the

Southland Corporation in the mid-1970s (Crow, 1975).


Number of robbery victims

During the course of the 3,858 convenience store robberies, 4,113

people were victimized. The number per robbery ranged from I to 7. In

the 465 supermarket robberies, only 534 individuals were victimized; the

number ranged from I to 16 (Table 9). The FDLE records do not differen-

tiate between victims that are store employees and shoppers. Thus,

whenever one robbery victim is reported, there may have been several

store employees on duty that were unaware that a robbery was in

progress. Similarly, a number of victims may be reported, some of which

are shoppers. Examination of the number of robbery victims by store

type reveals that the overwhelming proportion of both types of stores

had only one victim, approximately 95 percent for convenience stores and

almost 85 percent for supermarkets (Table 10).

Surprisingly, the robbery success rate does not appear to decrease

as the number of victims increases. On the contrary, 92 percent of the

robberies involving one victim in convenience stores were successful;

but the success rate was almost 95 percent where there were two victims

and 97 percent where there were three victims or more. For supermarkets

the success rate was 89 percent where one victim was involved, but 100

percent successful where there were two or more victims (Table 11).

This is consistent with other findings (Ath.ena R.esearch Corporation,

1981).


Tuesday, April 01, 2003.max








Table 9 .--Number of victims by type of store


Number of victims
Type of store Number of robberies Total Minimum Maximum


Convenience stores 3,858 4,113 1 7

Supermarkets 465 634 1 16

All food stores 4,323 4,747 1 16





Table 10.--Number of robbery victims by store type.



Type of store
number of victims Frequency Percent


Convenience

One 3,647 94.5
Two 181 4.7
Three or more 30 0.8

Totals 3,858 100.0

Supermarket

One 392 84.3
Two 38 8.2
Three or more 35 7.5

Totals 465 100.0


Tuesday, April 01, 2003.max










Table ll.--Robbery success rate by number of victims and store type.



Type of store Attempted Committed
Number of victims (Unsuccessful) (Successful) Total


Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent

Convenience

One 279 7.7 3,363 92.3 3,647 100.0
Two 10 5.5 171 94.5 181 100.0
Three or more 1 3.3 29 96.7 30 100.0
Overall 7.5 3,568 92.5 T3,358 100.

Supermarket

One 42 10.7 350 89.3 392 100.0
Two 0 0.0 38 100.0 38 100.0
Three or more o 0.0 35 100.0 35 100.0
Overall 42 9.0 423 91.0 465 100.0


Tuesday, April 01, 2003.max







Geographic Dispersion of Robberies

Food store robberies occurred in over 80 percent of all Florida

counties in 1981 (Figure 6). Fifty-three of the 67 counties recorded

one or more convenience store robberies and 37 counties reported super-

market robberies (Figures 7 and 8). Hillsborough County, with 776 food

store robberies, led the state. Dade County, with 753, was second and

Duval and Broward followed with 496 and 490, respectively. Other Lead-

ing counties included Orange, Pinellas, Palm Beach, Polk, Escambia, and

Alachua (Table 12). Totals for individual counties are found in the

Appennixanr (Annppendix Table 1a .

Obviously, robberies occur where scores and population centers are

located. In order to evaluate the severity of the problem on a relative

basis, the number of robberies per 100 stores was calculated. A break-

down of the numbers of supermarkets and convenience stores by county was

unavailable, but the total number of food stores per county was obtained

(Florida Department of Labor and Employment Security, 1982). On this

basis, Hillsborough County still Led the state with a rate of over 510

robberies per 100 food stores. Most of the counties that were in the

top 10 in terms of absolute numbers of robberies remained in the top

ranking as far as rates per 100 stores (Table 13). However, one notable

exception was Dade County which dropped from second to eleventh. Rob-

bery rates relative to store numbers and to population for each county

are found in the Appendix (Appendix Table 2).


Tuesday, April 01, 2003.max





























0 12

117r
\ T\X ~13__

5 a


r-r.


Figure 5.--lwumber of food store robberies by county, 1q81.


Tuesday, April 01, 2003.max















































































Figure 7.-- umber of convenience store robberies by county, 1981.


Tuesday, April 01, 2003.max


owe -... w -
f

































,n7,
Is 1




o __







)i -







22
1g
-' a







2












Figure 8 .-u lwner oi supermaricet robberies oer county, igal.


Tuesday, April 01, 2003.max







Table 12.--Florida's top 10 counties for food store robberies and
respective clearance rates, 1981.



Rank County Food store robberies Clearance rate


Percent
1 Hillsborough 776 29.3
2 Dade 753 18.7
3 Duval 496 34.1
4 Broward 490 23.1
5 Orange 290 27.6
6 Pinellas 169 23.1
7 Palm Beach 164 29.3
8 Polk 139 23.0
9 Escambia 127 33.1
10 Alachua 107 29.9


Table 13.--Robbery rates per 100 stores: Florida's top ten counties, 1981.



Rank County Rate per 100 stores


1 Hillsborough 510.53
2 Duval 378.63
3 Broward 288.24
4 Orange 287.13
5 Alachua 248.84
6 Leon 222.50
7 Escambia 208.20
8 Seminole 163.16
9 Polk 156.18
10 Pinellas 139.67


Tuesday, April 01, 2003.max








Time of Occurrence

Crow (1975) reported that convenience store robberies were a night-

time activity; in his study only 16.1 percent of 330 robberies occurred

between 6:00 A.M. and 6:00 P.M. The 1981 Florida robbery data reveals a

much larger proportion occurring between these hours. Nearly one-fourth

of all conven-ience store robberies occurred between n these hours and

approximately 42 percent of all supermarket robberies occurred between

6:01 A.M. and 6:00 P.M. The peak robbery period for convenience stores

occurred between 9:00 and 11:00 P.M. when nearly one-fourth were com-

mitted, but the peak robbery period for supermarkets was between 3: 0

and 9:00 P.M., when nearly 14 percent were committed. For supermarkets,

about one-third of all robberies occurred between 7:00 and 10:00 P.M.

(Table 14, Figure 9).

Interestingly, the robbery success rate by time of day does not

vary dramatically. The overall success rate was 92.5 percent for conve-

nience stores, but the success rate ranged from a low of 88 percent

between 9:00 and 10:00 A.M. to 99.3 percent for 4:00 to 5:00 A.M.

During the high robbery period of the night, 9:00 to 11:00 P.M., the

success rate was slightly below average (Table 15).

The robbery success rate for supermarkets was 91 percent overall.

The -ate by time of day varied more than did the convenience store

success rate, but part of this was probably due to smaller numbers of

observations. Th re was coniderable variability in the success rate,

and no strong patterns emerged.

An analysis of robbery patterns by day of the week revealed some

interesting patterns for both convenience stores and supermarkets. For

convenience stores, the largest number of robberies was recorded on


Tuesday, April 01, 2003.max








Table 14.--Convenience store and supermarket robberies by time of day, 1981.



Convenience store Supermarket
Hour robberies robberies


Number


6:01 -
7:01 -
8:01 -
9:01 -
10:01 -
11:01 -
12:01 -

2:01 -
3:01 -
4:01
5:01
6:01 -
7:01 -
8:01
9:01
10:01
11 :01
12:01
1 :01
2:01
3:01
4:01
5:01

Totals


7:00
8:00
9:00
10:00
11:00
12:00
1:00

3:00
4:00
5:00
6:00
7:00
8:00
9:00
10:00
11:00
12:00
1:00
2:00
3:00
4:00
5:00
6:00


A.M.
A.M.
A.M.
A.M.
A.M.
A.M.
P.M.

P.M.

P .1.
P.M.
P.M.
P.M.
P.M.
P.M.
P.M.


A.M.
A.M.
A.M.
A.M.
A.M.
A.M.


84
54
60
50
86
66
94
93
75
32
77
106
136
211
349
449
449
271
222
232
192
186
148
86


3,858


Percenta


2.18
1.40
1.55
1.30
2.23
1.71
2.44
2.41
1.94
2.12
2.00
2.75
3.52
5.47
9.05
11.64
11.64
7.02
5.75
6.01
4.98
4.82
3.84
2.23

100.00


Number Percenta


4.52
3.37
1 .72
a.30
3.23
3.01
2.30
3.23
3.37
4.09
3.66
3.66
6.24
10.54
13.55
10.11
5.33
2.58
2.80
2.80
0.86
1.08
1.29
0.86


100.00


a
Total percentages may not add up to 100.0 due to rounding.


Tuesday, April 01, 2003.max












Convenience
Stores


6 P.M.


12 Midnight


Supermarkets


12 Noon 6 P.M.


12 Midnight


6 A.M.


Figure 9.--Convenience store and supermarket robberies
by time of day.


Tuesday, April 01, 2003.max


500


300


6 A.M.


12 Noon


5 A.M.


30 -


6 A.M


I i I [I


I I I I







STable 15.--Robbery success rate by time of day and store type.



Robberies
Convenience Supermarket
Tite of day Total Successful Total Successful


Number Percent Number Percent

6:01 7:00 A.M. 84 92.9 21 90.5
7:01 8:00 A.M. 54 90.7 18 94.4
8:01 9:00 A.M. 60 88.3 8 100.0
9:01 10:00 A.M. 50 88.0 20 100.0
10:01 11:00 A.M. 86 93.0 15 100.0
11:01 12:00 A.M. 66 89.4 14 92.9
12:01 1:00 P.M-. 94 90.4 13 84.6
1:01 2:00 P.M. 93 91.4 15 86.7
2:01 3:00 P.M. 75 96.0 18 88.9
3:01 4:00. P.M. 82 95.1 19 94.7
4:01 5:00 P.M. 77 88.3 17 88.2
5:01 6:00 P.M. 106 92.4 17 82.4
6:01 7:00 P.M. 136 94.1 29 93.1
7:01 8:00 P.M. 211 91.5 49 87.8
8:01 9:00 P.M. 349 92.8 63 88.9
9:01 10:00 P.M. 449 92.4 47 97.9
10:01 11:00 P.M. 449 91.5 25 96.0
11:01 12:00 P.M. 271 91.9 12 83.3
12:01 1:00 A.M. 222 93.7 13 76.9
1:01 2:00 A.M 232 93.1 13 84.6
2:01 3:00 A.M. 192 91.7 4 75.0
3:01 4:00 A.M. 186 92.5 5 100.0
4:01 5:00 A.M. 148 99.3 6 83.3
5:01 6:00 A-.M 86 93.0 4 100.0
Overall 3,858 2.5 423 91.0


Tuesday, April 01, 2003.max







Sunday, when 16.5 percent occurred. Successively smaller proportions

were recorded on Monday through Wednesday; equally small numbers

occurred on Wednesday and Thursday (Figure 10). Successively larger

numbers were then observed on Fridays and Saturdays. A robbery likeli-

hood index was constructed, with a value of 100 representing an average

likelihood of a robbery occurring on a given day of the week. The value

of this index is approximately 115 for Sunday, and only 88 for Wednesday

and Thursday (Table 16).

For supermarkets, the frequency of robberies by day of week was

somewhat more erratic than for convenience stores. However, the largest

number of robberies occurred from Wednesday through Saturday (Figure

10). The largest number, approximately 17 percent, occurred on

Friday. The smallest number of robberies occurred on Tuesday. The

robbery likelihood index is almost 122 for Friday and only 78 for Tues-

day (Table 17).

The occurrence of robberies by day of the month was also analyzed

in order to detect peak periods which could be associated with tradi-

tional payroll periods or.monthly obligations. The data for both types

of stores were extremely variable, and no strong patterns were evident

(Appendix Table 3).

The week of the month was also hypothesized to have an impact on

the number of robberies committed. When the average daily number of

robberies was analyzed by week of the month, slightly fewer convenience

store robberies were found to be committed in the first week of the

month, but differences among weeks were judged to be inconsequential.

The same was found to be true of supermarket robberies (Table 18).


Tuesday, April 01, 2003.max













Convenience Stores


a 300


4UU
'u



100"



- ----- --_ --- --- --
S M T W TH F S

Oay





80
SO
Supermarkets
70

60






30


20

IC

I I I
o S M T W TH S


Figure 10.--Convenience store and supermarket robberies by
Tuesday, April 01, 2003.max
Tuesday, April 01, 2003. max


__







Table 16.--Convenience store robberies by day of the week.


Day of Robbery likelihood
week Number Percent index


Sunday 635 16.5 115.2

Monday 538 14.0 97.7

Tuesday 508 13.2 92.2

Wednesday 486 12.6 88.2

Thursday 486 12.6 88.2

Friday 577 15.0 104.7

Saturday 628 16.3 114.0

Totals 3,858 100.0b


aA value of 100.0 represents an average likelihood of a robbery on
a given day.

percentage does not sum to 100.0 due to rounding.


Tuesday, April 01, 2003.max


-.1






Table 17.--Supermarket robberies by day of the week.



Day of Robbery likelihood
week Number Percent index


Sunday 57 12.3 85.8

Monday 67 13.1 91.8

Tuesday 52 11.2 78.3

Wednesday 73 15.7 109.9

Thursday 73 15.7 109.9

Friday 31 17.4 121.9

Saturday 68 14.5 102.3

Totals 465 100.0

aA value of 100 represents an average likelihood of a robbery on
a given day.



Table 18.--Average daily robberies by week of the month, convenience
stores and supermarkets-



Type of store
Week of month Average daily robberies

Statistical
Number significance

Convenience

One 9.7 Z
Two 10.3 ZX
Three 11.3 X
Four 10.9 ZX

Supermarket

One 1.8 Z
Two 1.7 Z
Three 1.7 Z
Four 1.7 Z


with the same letter


Tuesday, April 01, 2003.max


aDuncan's multiple range test was used. Means
are not significantly different.








Monthly distributions of robberies were also examined for seasonal

patterns. The peak frequencies of convenience store robberies occurred

in the first quarter of the year. This was followed by the lowest

frequency period, April through June. A secondary peak in convenience

store robberies occurred in August (Table 19, Figure 11). The frequency

of supermarket robberies did not exhibit much month to month variation,

however, the same seasonal patterns existed as with convenience

stores. More robberies occurred during the first quarter of the year,

and fewer in the second quarter (Table 19).

The number of robberies committed each month in 1981 was hypo-

thesized to be affected by the unemployment rare, the monthly value of

building permits (lagged one month), and the Consumer Price Index.

Regression analysis was used to test this hypothesis, and no statis-

tically significant relationships were found between the number of

robberies and the factors examined. It should be noted that there were

only 12 observations included in this analysis; research based upon a

longer time period which includes more observations may reveal signifi-

cant relationships.

Daily frequencies of robberies for both types of stores were anal-

yzed for each day of the year as well, tc see if any patterns would

emerge with respect to major holidays. No holiday effects were

detected.


Property Losses

The value of property stolen in food store robberies represents

only a very small proportion of the total cost to the industry. Accord-

ing to one industry representative, his firm spends approximately $2.30


Tuesday, April 01, 2003.max








Table 19.--Convenience store and supermarket robberies by month.


Convenience
stores


Number Percentb


9.6
9.9
9.4 (28.9)
7.0
8.0
6.9 (21.9)
8.1
9.5
7.8 (25.4)
7.4
8.8
7.8 (24.0)
100. Oc


Supermarkets


Number Percentb


44
47
34
44
34
22
38
40
39
35
47
41
465


9.5
10.1
7.3 (26.9)
9.5
7.3
4.7 (21.5)
8.2
8.6
8.4 (25.2)
7.5
10.1
8.8 (26.4)
100.0


All stores

Number Percentb


413
428
395
313
344
287
349
405
341
322
385
341
4,323


9.6
9.9
9.1 (28.6)
7.2
8.0
6.6 (21.8)
8.1
9.4
7.9 (25.4)
7.4
8.9
7.9 (24.2)
100.0


aChi-square analysis indicated no statistically significant difference in seasonal dis-
tribution of robberies for convenience stores and supermarkets, X2=10.53, p=0.4337.

bFigures in parentheses are quarterly percentages.


cPercentage does not sum to 100.0 due to rounding.


Month


January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December
Totals


369
381
361
269
310
265
311
365
302
287
338
300
3,858

















Number of
Robberies



400

380

360

340

320

300

280

260

240




80

60

40

20


S \ Convenience
V Stores














Supermarkets


Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May June July Aug. Sept.Oct. Nov. Dec.

Month

Figure 11.--Frequency of convenience store and supermarket
robberies by month.


Tuesday, April 01, 2003.max






for security measures for each dollar that is lost to robbers (Flores,

1982). A spokesman for another firm indicated that the firm spent four

times more a year on security than they lost on property. Using the

more conservative estimate, the combined losses due to robberies and

security measures cost the Florida food retailing industry about $5.5

million per year in 1981.

The total value stolen from convenience stores in robberies

increased by over 150 percent between 1977 and 1981. When these figures

are adjusted for inflation, the increase 3:ill amounts to nearly 70

percent. It is interesting to note that the average value per conve-

nience store robbery, in real terms, remained virtually unchanged over

the last five years (Appendix Table 4). The average amount stolen from

convenience stores was $284, resulting in a total value stolen from all

stores of over $923,000 (Table 20, Figure 12).

Even though the average value lost during convenience store rob-

beries approached $300, nearly 60 percent of all robberies involved $100

or less, and nearly 90 percent of the losses were $500 or less (Table

21). The average value lost by chain convenience stores was $257,

compared with an average loss of $424 for independent stores. This

difference was statistically significant. Examination of the distribu-

tion of dollar losses by chain and independent convenience stores

revealed that nearly 62 percent of the chain stores' losses were $100 or

less, compared with only 45 percent for independent stores (Table 22).

Thus, it would appear that chain convenience stores are making a sig-

nificant reduction in dollar losses which will reduce the attractiveness

of these stores as robbery targets (Athena Research Corporation, 1981).


Tuesday, April 01, 2003.max









Table 20.--Total value of property taken in food store robberies.



Average
Type of Total Robberies amount Estimated total
store offenses committed stolen value stolen


--------- Number ------- --------- dollars -------

Convenience 3,858 3,251 284 923,284

Supermarket 465 423 1,759 744,057

All food stores 4,323 3,674 443 1,667,341


aThe estimated total value is based upon the number of offenses
committed and average amount stolen from the stores that reported losses.
Losses were not available for 730 convenience store and 105 supermarket
robberies.


lI Tars


950,000

850,000

750,000

550,000

550,000

450,000

350,000

4

200
100

a


Total Value


Average Value




I I I


1977 1978 1979 1980 .1981
Year
Figure 12.--Total and average value stolen in convenience store
robberies, 1977-1981.


Tuesday, April 01, 2003.max










Table 21.--Total value stolen from convenience stores.


Cunml ative
Total value stolen Number Percent percent

$ 100 or less 1,843 58.9 58.9

$ 101 500 929 29.7 88.6

$ 501 1,000 178 5.7 94.3

$1,001 5,000 164 5.2 99.5

$5,001 10,000 9 0.3 99.8

Over $10,000 5 0.2 100.0


Totalsa 3,128 100.0 --


aTotal value stolen was not available for 730 or approximately
T9 percent of all convenience store robberies committed.


Tuesday, April 01, 2003 (2).max










Table 22.--Value stolen by store type and chain vs. independent.



Total value
stolen Chain stores Independent


Number


Percent


Number


Percent


Convenience


Undisclosed
$100 or less
$101-500
$501-1,000
$1,001-5,000
$5,001-10,000
Over $10,000



Total


Supermarket

Undisclosed
$100 or less
$101-500
$501-1,000
$1,001-5,000
$5,001-10,000
Over $10,000



Total


value stolen
convenience stores
stores.


was not disclosed by 19.3 percent of the chain
and 16.8 percent of the independent convenience


bValue stolen was not disclosed
supermarkets and 23.7 percent of the


by 22.1 percent of the chain
independents.


Tuesday, April 01, 2003 (2).max


a
61 .6
28.0
5.1
5.0
0.2
0.1


628
1 ,616
735
134
130
5
3


3,251


102
227
194
41
34
4
2


100.00


a
45.0
38.4
8.7
6.7
0.8
0.4


100.00


b
30.2
37.7
8.5
16.0
1 .9
5.7


100.00


-_b
23.6
24.4
10.6
29.1
10.2
2.0


326


100.00


139


,,








The total value stolen in supermarket robberies increased by 334

percent between 1977 and 1981. Adjusting for inflation, the real

increase in losses during this period amounted to 189 percent. The

average value stolen from supermarkets exhibited considerable variabil-

ity, and no significant trends were apparent (Appendix Table 4, Figure

13). The estimated total robbery losses from supermarkets approached

three-quarters of a million dollars during 1981, and the average value

stolen per robbery was $1,759 (Table 20). About one-fourth of all

supermarket robberies resulted in Losses of 3100 or less and over half

lost less than $500. Ten percent lost between $500 and $1,000, and over

35 percent lost in excess of S1,000 per robbery (Table 23). Chain

supermarkets' losses per robbery were $1,890, compared with $1,446 for

independent supermarkets. This difference, although not statistically

significant due to the variability encountered in the data, is thought

to be primarily due to differences in the average size of operation

rather than the security measures taken by the respective types of firms

(Table 22).

The type of property taken in robberies was very similar for both

convenience stores and supermarkets. Money was the most frequently

taken item, reported in approximately 95 percent of all robberies.

Jewelry was taken in about three percent of convenience store robberies

and slightly over 7 percent of supermarket robberies. Clothing and

autos were stolen in approximately 0.5 percent of all robbery occur-

rences for both types of stores. Consumable goods were taken in about 8

to 9 percent, and other miscellaneous items were taken in 8 and 12

percent of convenience store and supermarket robberies, respectively

(Table 24).


Tuesday, April 01, 2003 (2).max



























Total Value


Dollars
(1,000's)

700.0 .


600.0


500.0


400.0


300.0


200.0


100.0

1.5
1.0
0.5


1977 1978 1979 1980 1981

Year

Figure 13 .--Total and average value stolen in supermarket
robberies, 1977-1981.


Tuesday, April 01, 2003 (2).max


- Average Value









Table 23.--Total value stolen from supermarkets.


Cumulative
Total value stolen Number Percenta percent


$ 100 or less 92 25.6 25.6
$ 10l 500 102- 28.3 53.9
$ 501 1,000 36 10.0 63.9
$1,001 5,000 91 25.3 89.2
$5,001 10,000 28 7.8 97.0
Over $10,000 11 3.1 100.0
Totals 35 1070


-Does not sum to 100.0 due torounding.

bTotal value stolen was not available for 105 or approximately 23.6
percent of all supermarket robberies committed.









.4


Tuesday, April 01, 2003 (2).max











Table 24.--Type of property taken in robberies, by store type, 1981.


Type of Convenience
property Stores Supermarkets


Number Percenta Number Percenta

Money 3368 94.4 366 95.3

Jewelry 115 3.2 31 7.3

CTothing/Furs 14 0.4 2 0.5

Autos 13 0.4 2 0.5

Trucks/Buses 1 --b 1 0.2

Motorcycles 1 ---b 0 0

Office Equipment 4 0.1 0 0

TV, Radios & Cameras 19 0.5 0 0

Firearms 28 0.8 5 1.2

Consumable Goods 317 8.9 34 8.0

Miscellaneous 290 8.1 52 12.3


c c C



percentages are base. on successful robberies only. There were
3,568 convenience store robberies and 423 supermarket robberies.
b
Less than 0.1 percent.

CNot summed because of multiple responses.


Tuesday, April 01, 2003 (2).max








Property is recovered in a very small proportion of all rob-

beries. In 1981, property was recovered in 259 convenience store cases

or 7.3 percent of the time. The total value recovered from these rob-

beries amounted to $45,430, which represented 4.9 percent of the total

stolen (Table 25). Property was recovered in 46 cases or 10.9 percent

of all supermarket robberies. A total of $18,767 was recovered, which

represented only 2.5 percent of the total amount taken in supermarket

robberies.

On an overall basis, partial or complete recovery is made about 7.6

percent of the time. The total recovered in 1981 was S64,197, slightly

less than 4 percent of the amount stolen. Interestingly, in approxi-

mately three-fourths of the cases where recovery of property was

reported, 100 percent recovery was obtained. This was true for rob-

beries for both types of stores.


Clearance of Offenses

There are two ways in which an offense may be cleared, clearance by

arrest or "exceptionally" cleared. An offense is cleared by arrest when

at least one person is arrested, charged with the commission of the

offense, and turned over to the court for prosecution.

An exceptional clearance occurs whenever law enforcement officials

have done everything possible to clear the case but are not able to meet

the criteria required for clearance by arrest. For example, an excep-

tional clearance may be made if the investigation has (1) definitely

established the identity of the offender; (2) obtained enough informa-

tion to support an arrest, charge and prosecution; and (3) determined

the exact location of.the offender so that he could be taken into cus-


Tuesday, April 01, 2003 (2).max








Table 25.--Property recovered by store type.


Cases resulting Total
in recovery of value Stolen value
Type of store property recovered recovered


Number Percentb Dollars Percentc

Convenience 259 7.3 45,430 4.9

Supermarket 46 10.9 18,767 2.5

All food stores 305 7.6 64,197 3.9

interestingly, in approximately three-fourths of the cases where
recovery of property was reported, 100 percent recovery was obtained.
This was true for robberies of both types of stores.
bBased on 3,568 convenience store robberies and 423 supermarket
robberies actually committed.

clased on the estimated value stolen of $923,284 and $744,057 for
convenience stores and supermarkets respectively.


Tuesday, April 01, 2003 (2).max








tody, but there is some reason beyond law enforcement control that

prevents an arrest and prosecution of the offender. Examples of situa-

tions in which exceptional clearance would be made include the offen-

der's suicide, killing of the offender by a law enforcement officer, or

confession by an offender already in custody or serving a sentence for

other charges. If a decision is made not to prosecute for the admitted

offenses, then exceptional clearance is taken. Exceptional clearance

may also occur when an offender is prosecuted by state or local authori-

ties in another locale for a different offense or prosecuted for an

offense which may be the same. A case may also be cleared by exception

whenever one jurisdiction attempts to return the offender for prosecu-

tion, but another jurisdiction will not release the offender to them.

A reported offense that investigation shows to be false or baseless

is reported as "unfounded." In 1981, approximately one percent of all

reported convenience store or supermarket robberies were unfounded.

A comparison of clearances by arrest and exception for food store

robberies and all other types of robberies reveals that a significantly

larger proportion of food store robberies was cleared than for other

types of robberies. Approximately 26.5 percent of all food store rob-

beries were cleared by arrest or exception, compared with 21.4 percent

of all other robberies.

Clearance rates for convenience store robberies and supermarket

robberies were very similar, with total clearance rates of 26.5 percent

and 26.2 percent, respectively. Clearance by arrest occurred in 20.6

percent of the cases for convenience stores and 22.4 percent for super-

market robberies. Chi-square analysis indicated no significant differ-

ences in the proportions cleared by the various methods in the two types


Tuesday, April 01, 2003 (2).max








of stores (Table 26). Total clearance rates for individual counties are

found in the Appendix (Appendix Table 1).

Clearance rates were also compared for chains and independent firms

for both convenience stores and supermarkets in order to determine if

differences existed which could be attributed to employee training

efforts or to preferential treatment by law enforcement agencies. The

proportion of uncleared cases was 72.3 percent for chain affiliated

convenience stores and 73.5 percent for independent stores. For super-

markets the figures were ai-cst identical. The uncleared rate was 72.7

percent for chain supermarkets and 7 3.4 percent for independent super-

markets. Chi-square analysis indicated no significant differences in

the clearance rates of chain versus independent firms for either conve-

nience stores or supermarkets (Table 27).

For those cases that are cleared, clearance occurs relatively soon

after the commission of the offense. Over 35 percent of the convenience

store robberies and over half of the supermarket robberies were cleared

on the same day they were committed. Nearly half of the convenience

store robberies are cleared within one week and about 62 percent of the

supermarkets are cleared within a week. Approximately three-fourths of

the convenience store clearances are made within four weeks, compared to

nearly 80 percent of the supermarket clearances. By the time twelve

weeks have elapsed, approximately 92 percent of the robbery clearances

for both types of stores have been made (Table 28). All of the clear-

ances reported here were made within fourteen months after the close of

1981. It is still possible that additional clearances will be made,

however law enforcement officials concede that the number will be

extremely small.


Tuesday, April 01, 2003 (2).max








Table 26.--Clearance rates and methods, by store type.


Not Cleared Total
Type of store Cleared Arrest Exception Unfounded Cleareda

------------------------ Percentb --------------------

Convenien 72.5 20.6 5.9 1.0 26.5

Supermarket 72.9 22.4 3.9 0.9 26.2

All stores 72.5 20.8 5.7 1.0 27.5

aExcludes unfounded cases.

percentages are based upon 3,858 and 465 observations for convenience
stores and supermarkets, respectively.
CChi-square analysis indicated no significant differences in the pro-
portions cleared by the various methods for the two types of stores, X2=3.799,
2 d.f., P=0.1496.


Tuesday, April 01, 2003 (2).max










Table 27.--Clearance rates by chain and independent store robberies by
store type.



Type of store
clearance rate, method Chain Independent

Number Percenta Number Perc-.ta

Convenienceb

Not cleared 2,350 72.3 446 73.5
Arrest 680 20.9 115 18.9
Exception 187 5.8 42 6.9
Unfounded 34 1.0 4 0.6
Total 3,251 100.0d 607 100.0a

Supermarketb

Not cleared 237 72.7 102 73.4
Arrest 73 22.4 31 22.2
Exception 14 4.3 4 2.9
Unfounded 2 0.6 2 1.4
Total 326 100.04 139 T100.0

percentages may not sum to 100 due to rounding.

bChi-square analysis indicated no significant differences in the
clearance rates of chain versus independent firms for either convenience
stores or supermarkets, :X=3.02, P=0.389 and X2=1.284, P=0.733 respectively.


Tuesday, April 01, 2003 (2).max










Table 28.--Elapsed time from date of robbery to date of clearance, by
store type.


Elapsed
time Convenience Supermarket

Cumulative Cumulative
WeeKs Percent percent Percent Percent

Nonea 35.6 35.6 53.2 53.2
One 14.0 49.6 8.7 61.9
Two 10.9 60.5 7.9 69.3
Three 7.5 68.0 5.6 75.4
Four 5.7 73.7 3.2 78.6
Five 4.3 73.0 5.6 34.2
Six 4.1 82.1 0.3 85.0
Seven 3.3 85.4 4.0 89.0
Eight 2.3 87.7 2.4 91.4
Nine 1.5 89.2 0.0 91.4
Ten 1.1 90.3 0.0 91.4
Eleven 0.9 91.2 0.0 91.4
Twelve 0.7 91.9 0.8 92.2
Over twelve 8.0 100.0 7.9 100.0

Totals 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0


aThese cases were cleared on the same day as committed.

bTotals may not sum to 100.O due to rounding.


Tuesday, April 01, 2003 (2).max








On the average, clearances for convenience store robberies occur

about 25 days after the offense was committed. The elapsed time for

clearance was 24.7 days for chain and 29.6 for independent convenience

stores. Although the elapsed time was somewhat smaller for chain conve-

nience stores, this difference was not statistically significant. The

average elapsed time for clearance was 22.8 days for supermarkets. It

was 24.8 days for chain and 17.8 days for independent supermarkets.

Again, this difference was not statistically significant. For all food

stores, the overall elapsed time from robbery until clearance was 25.2

days. Also, the difference in the clearance time required for conve-

nience store robberies and supermarket robberies was not significantly

different (Table 29).

The clearance records also provided some insight as to the age

status of food store robbers. The clearance records indicate that

juveniles constitute 8.2 percent of convenience store robbers and 8.9

percent of supermarket robbers. Chi-square analysis showed no signifi-

cant difference in the adult-juvenile status of robbers of the two types

of stores (Table 30).

The robbery success rate for adults and juveniles was also exam-

ined. The success rate for adults robbing convenience stores was 92.3

percent, compared with 90.6 percent for juveniles. This difference was

not statistically significant. The success rate for adults robbing

supermarkets was about 89 percent and for juveniles only about 64

percent. These percentages, however, are based on small numbers and

valid.statistical comparison could not be made (Table 31).


Tuesday, April 01, 2003 (2).max









Table 29.--Elapsed time from robbery until clearance,.by store type.



Average
Type of store elapsed time


Convenience

Chain
Independent


Supermarket


Chain
Independent


Overall average


Days

25.5

24.7
29.6

22.8

24.3
17.3

25.2


at-tests revealed no significant differences in the elapsed time
for clearances times between convenience stores and supermarkets, nor
for chain stores within the two types of stores.


Tuesday, April 01, 2003 (2).max









Table 30.--Robberies committed by adults and juveniles, by store type.




Type of store Adults Juveniles Total


------------- Percent------------

Convenience 3 8.2 100.0

Supermarket 91.1 8.9 100.0

All food stores 91.7 8.3 100.0

abased on 1,155 clearance records.

Chi-square analysis indicated no significant difference in the
adult-juvenile status of robbers of the two types of stores, X2=0.057,
l.d.f., P=0.8113.



Table 31.--Robbery success rate for adults and juveniles, by store type.



Type of store Attempted Committed
Age status (Unsuccessful) (Successful)


Number Percent Number Percent

Convenience

Adult 73 7.7 373 92.3
Juvenile 8 9.4 77 90.6
Overall 81 7.9 950 92.1

Supermarket

Adult 12 10.6 101 89.4
Juvenile 4 36.4 7 63.6
Overall 16 12.9 108 87.1

aChi-square analysis indicates no significant differences in the robbery
success rates of adults versus juveniles for convenience stores, X =0.31, P=
0.5730. As for supermarkets, adults aooear to have a greater success rate,
but the sample size is too small to draw valid conclusions.


Tuesday, April 01, 2003 (2).max








SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS


This report presents results of the first phase of a three part

research program which focuses on food store robberies in Florida. This

phase provides detailed analyses of robbery data which is routinely

collected by the Florida Department of Law Enforcement (FDLE), but

because of lack of funds and manpower, is rarely analyzed to the fullest

extent.


The Data

Individual- ULniform Crime Reports on computer tape were obtained for

each of the 4,323 food store robberies committed in Florida in 1981.

The basic data contained in these reports includes the agency submitting

the report, a unique case number, an offense code, the number of

victims, and clearance data. It also contains a description of the type

and value of property taken, and for robberies only, the nature of the

robbery, i.e., the type of business involved, and whether or not the

business is part of a chain.

The FDLE is to be commended for the excellent and detailed data

that are being collected. A comparison with another state crime report-

ing system revealed that Florida is collecting more detailed data. This

greater detail was essential for this study (Texas Department of Public

Safety, 1982). However, from the standpoint of conducting research for

the food industry, several changes are recommended. First, a cross-

classification system for offenses should be devised so that all

offenses associated with an individual incident could be analyzed. For

example, under the current system, if a store clerk is assaulted and

robbed, only the more serious offense is coded. There is no way to


Tuesday, April 01, 2003 (2).max








determine how many assaults or other types of offenses (except homo-

cides) were committed in conjunction with the robbery. The number of

homocides can be determined only by physically examining each supple-

mental homicide report, finding those homocides that were associated

with robberies, and in most cases, verifying the exact nature of the

robbery by calling the reporting agency.

A second area that needs attention is the offense category "'reak-

ing and Entering" (burglary). The current coding system does not iden-

tify the type of business establishment, thus an analysis of burglaries

of food stores could not be made.

One possible method of overcoming these data limitations would be

to devise and use a business code, if applicable, on all Part I

offenses. Despite these data limitations, the study provided interest-

ing and useful insights which follow.


The Findings

A record 4,323 food store robberies occurred in Florida in 1981,

one every two hours throughout the year. The number of "robberies"

discussed here includes attempts, as well as successful robberies. Over

92 percent of all robberies were successful; the rate was similar for

both convenience stores and supermarkets.

Food store robberies accounted for over 40 percent of all robberies

perpetrated against commercial business establishments. Eighty-nine

percent of the robberies were of convenience stores and 11 percent

against supermarkets.

While the absolute number of food store robberies is appalling, the

alarming consideration is the rate of increase in robberies. During the


Tuesday, April 01, 2003 (2).max




r7


five-year period 1977-1981, the number of convenience store robberies

increased by 70 percent and supermarket robberies by 160 percent. The

increase in robberies greatly outstripped the state's population growth

rate. The food store robbery rate per 100,000 inhabitants increased

from 27.5 in 1977 to 32.4 in 1981, an increase of about 54 percent.

No discernible trends are occurring with respect to the types of

weapons beinri used in food store robberies. Firearms are used in about

75 percent of _hie cases, knives in 12 and 6 percent of convenience

stores and sipermarkets respectively, and "other dangerous weapons" in

less than 5 percent of all cases. Strong arm rnhhbries nocur in about

11 percent of 1 convenience store robberies, but in 15 to 20 percent

of the supermarket robberies. The use of firearms and knives increased

the possibilities of successfully completing a robbery.

Sixteen homocides were committed in conjunction with food store

robberies in Florida during 1981. Eleven occurred in convenience stores

and five in supermarkets. One murder was committed for every 351 conve-

nience store robberies and one for every 93 supermarket robberies.

During the course of the 4,323 food store robberies, 4,747 indi-

viduals were victimized. The robbery success rate does not appear to

decrease as the number of victims increases.

Food store robberies occurred in over 80 percent of all Florida

counties. Hillsborough County, with 776 robberies, led the state. Dade

County, with 753 was second, and Duval and Broward followed with 496 and

490, respectively. Robbery rates per 100 food stores were also cal-

culated and Hillsborough County remained in first place with a rate of

510 per 100 food stores. Other leading counties, ranked in decreasing

order, included Duval, Broward, Orange, Alachua, Leon, Escambia, Semi-

nole, Polk, and Pinellas.


Tuesday, April 01, 2003 (2).max








About one-fourth of all convenience store robberies occurred from

6:00 A.M. to 6:00 P.M., compared with 42 percent for supermarkets. The

peak robbery period for convenience stores occurred between 9:00 and

11:00 P.M. and for supermarkets between 8:00 and 9:00 P.M. The robbery

success rate does not vary dramatically by time of day.

Large numbers of robberies occurred every day of the week for both

types of stores. The most frequent days for convenience stores, how-

ever, were the weekend periods; for supermarkets it was Wednesday and

Saturday.

The frequency of robberies by day of the month, week of the month,

and day of the year (proximity to holidays) was also examined, but no

significant patterns were detected. The relationship between the

monthly number of robberies and the unemployment rate, the value of

building permits, and the Consumer Price Index was examined. No statis-

tically significant relationships were found, however, the sample size

(12 months) was extremely small. Additional investigation should be

made in this area.

The value of property stolen in food store robberies represents

only a very small proportion of the total cost to the industry. The

combined loss due to robberies and security measures is about $5.5

million per year. From 1977-1981 the total value stolen from conve-

nience stores and supermarkets increased 150 percent and 334 percent,

respectively. Adjusting for inflation, the real increases in losses

were 70 percent for convenience stores and 189 percent for supermarkets.

Convenience spores lost an estimated $923,000 and supermarkets lost

nearly $750,000 in 1981; the average value stolen per robbery was $284

for convenience stores and $1,759 for supermarkets. In real terms, the


Tuesday, April 01, 2003 (2).max








average amounts stolen from convenience stores has remained virtually

unchanged over the past five years. Chain convenience stores lost

significantly less per robbery than did independent convenience stores.

Property is recovered in a very small proportion of all rob-

beries. Complete or partial recovery was made in only about 7.3 percent

of convenience store robberies and 10.9 percent of supermarket rob-

'eries. About 4.9 percent of the total value stolen is recovered for

convenience stores, but only about 2.5 percent for supermarkets.

Approximately 26.5 percent of all food store robberies were cleared

in 1981, compared with only 21.4 percent o all other robberies. The

clearance rates for convenience stores and supermarkets were similar.

The same was true for chain affiliated stores and independents.

Clearance occurs relatively soon after commission of the offense,

if it is made at all. About 35 percent of all convenience store rob-

beries were cleared on the same day they were committed compared with

over 50 percent of the supermarket robberies. The average time from

commission of the offense to clearance was about 25 days for both types

of stores. No significant differences were noted between chain and

independent stores.

Clearance records indicate that juveniles commit about 8 to 9

percent of all robberies. Further, the success rate of juvenile and

adult robbers was not significantly different.

In conclusion, the statistics presented here can be used to inform

law enforcement and judicial officials, the food industry, and the

general public as to the severity of the problem. These facts can also

be used to effect changes in public attitudes and influence legis-

lation. This report has demonstrated the nature of information that can


Tuesday, April 01, 2003 (2).max








be retrieved from currently collected but unused data. Efforts should

be made to periodically conduct similar studies to identify emerging

trends in the crime problem.


Tuesday, April 01, 2003 (2).max









































APPENDIX




Pl 3"D


Tuesday, April 01, 2003 (2).max









S EUCX OrC FORM

fund be ilAnhudd lUh mamA
a, oIr'ENSE DATE REPObTED CASE NUMBER
ORI o0, I I-- OOT I IofIo I I I

FLWO


OF CN$t CCOR


o ,,Ii I I I I I I I 1


AGENCY


(reasef rType -uu.) OFFENSE ENTRY
NEWI1 NUMBEM OFFENSE ENTER
CORNECTION-1 TIME OFFENSE VICTIMS
DOLETION-3 REPORTED (mllntev) VIeHICL3 CGOORAP.ICAL. INOICATOr

NCO/1 TM VC/ 1 Oo, 1 | JL

AGENCY JURISOICTIOMN ENTERED B -


OATE


IA I, F LI- I I I oTol


lnreme rTw UCJ CLEARANCE/UNFOUNDED ENTRY

NEW- NUMBER of A REST-A AOULT-A
CONRNCTION-S OATE CLXACRE VICTIMS ie VEM. EXCE!TIOIO o
OCLLTION.3 oa UNFOUNOEO CLEARED/UJP. UNIOUNO4t JUVENILE.J

NCD/ COT/ VIC/ AtU/ a0J/
NC-, I C,, lE i 1111.1 ,,I I______1 __-_-II_ ENTEo BY

OATE______________________________

(Me.eg Tf pe* UP.) PROPERTY ENTRY
NEW-i
CORRECTI10o* TYPE of
OeLETION.3 PROPEIRT VALUE STOLEN VALU r RFtCO:V Eg
NCO/ Tf |ST/ IvI

VCHICLU ENTERED __
DATE RECOVERED NCOVEMY COOK AStten iLoca. Recoe eei Local


OT/I I 1 I I 1


10 11i4te1m Lawu. Aeoea.rea Otnr
I Ct-Sl.n Olnme, neom. CO Leal


(Ma.wa Type-. U.j PROPERTY ENTRY

COR IICTION- TYPE of
DELETION*-. WiRoo TV VALUE STOLEN yVAL uf REIg V gr
NCO I T V I I I I I I I I I I I I I 1


OATE RECovERE .


VEMICLE
RECOVERY COOt A-Sllole Local. Reawe Local


ENTERLtED


U UOTI) L I | u.I T j .Vno |______ C..oI- aAEn_ ________________OAT__---_ I
S-Stolen LOWa, ReceNeraee ot" iATt
m rO/ VE4I C-StaleS Other. necewred Local
j(Mue ype UP.J PRORTY ENTRY
NEW*-I
CORRECTIONCi TYPE to
OELETION*3 PROPERTY VALUE STOLEN VALUE IECOVIVRED
NCO/ TVPf VST/ I ,,, VC I I


VcHICLE
OATE RECOVERED RECOVERY COO A-Stalen Local. Reacovre Local
SI I -Stoen L ocal Recovwoe Otit
ROT/ I VEMI Cc-Salen 0

ENTED

____________________"________________I


(M cre. T1y e- UP.j PROPERTY ENTRY
NEW-1
CONRECTICN-* TYPC of
OELETION-3 PROP RTV VALUE STOLEN VALUE RECOVERED
NCO/f T I I I i I

VEHICLE ENTERED BY __
OATE RECOVERED RECOVERY COOD A-Stole Local, ARcovwed LocaI


I -Sta.en Loca, Recovered Otte
NOT/ VI C7I C-St..- Otnlr, Recoverd Local


Tuesday, April 01, 2003 (2).max


OAt!


OATE


S-iI


Clo eket oo


--


II


I






U,:! LNSL-IOI'L FY I YI'M CO)LS


Crimiinl lHomicide o 0 1. J X

(Place code in X position)
A Murder and Nonncglicgnt Manslaughter
3 M;ansla:)r hter by Ncgligence


Forcible Rape ofr 0 Z X

(P'lace code in X position)
A Rape by Force
0 Asauilt to Rapc-Attumpts


Rohbcr o ,ol0 3L 1'( l4x.I 1
(Placc codes in X positions)
(1) (2)
A Firearm A Highway
0 Knife--cutting instrument B Convcnicn
C Other dan;crous weapon C Cas/scrvic
D Siron.-arm D Liquor!be


AS aultsot OF' 0 lX X
(Place code in X position)
A Firearm
B Knifc/cutting instrument
C Other Dangerous weapon
D Hands, fists, feet, etc.
Algravated
E Other Assaults o simple


cet store
e station
er sales


Banks
Supermarkets
Other Commercial
Drug store
Residence
Miscellaneous


(3)
A- Attempts
N Committed


(4)
A Chain store
N Not chain store


Breaking and Entering aoE', 0 5 IX I X X I (Place codes in X positions)
(1) (2) (3)
A Forcible entry A Residence A Night
B Unlawful entry, no force B Nonresidcnce B Day
C Attempted forcible entry H hotel rule C Unknown


larceny orF/ 0| o Xc
(1)
A- Attempts
N Committed

Motor Veh. Theft
lo10 -71 X
(Place codes in X
positions)


Autos
Trucks-buses
Motorcycles
All others


Attempts
Committed


XY (Place codes in X positions)
(2)
A Pocket-picking
B Purse snatching
C Shoplifting
D From Vehicles in public garage,
rental parking lot, used car lot,
etc. (exceptF &- G)
E From vehicle on public street,
free or city lots, private drives.
(except F & G)
F Vehicle part & accessories
while parked in public garage,
rental parking lot, used car
lot, etc.
G Vehicle parts & accessories
while parked on public street
free or city lots, private drives.
H Bicycles
J From buildings (Not C or K).
K Coin operated machine
Z All other


Officers Killed or Assaulted orFF/iq 9 lxl X X


(1) Weapon
A Firearm
B Knife or cutting
instrument
C Other dangerous
weapon
D -Hands, fists,
feet, etc.,
(serious injury)
_E lands, fists.
feet, etc.,
(minor or no
injury)


(2) Activity
A Responding lo disturbance
B B & E in progress, or pursuing
B & E suspects
C Robbery in progress or pursuing
robbery suspects
D Attempting other arrests
E Civil Disorder
F Handling, transporting custody of
prisoners
G Investigating suspicious persons or
circumstances
H Ambush No Warning
J -Mentally deranged
K Traffic pursuits and stops
Z All othc


Property Tvpe Codes


F1z1z FF


Currency, notes, etc.
Jewelry, precious metals
Clothing/furs
Autos
Trucks/buses
Motorcycles
Other vehicles
Office equipment
TVs, radios, cameras, etc.
Firearms
Household goods
Consumable goods
Livestock
Construction Machinery
Boats/motors
Miscellaneous


(Place codes in X positions)


(3) Type of Assignment
A Two man vehicle
B One man vehicle, alone
C One man vehicle, assised
D Detective or snectal
assignment, alone
E Detective or special
assignment, assisted
Y Other, alone
Z Other, assisted


(4) Officer Killed/Assil
A Officer killed,
felonious act
B Officer killed, ar.ci
dent or negigcnce
C Officer assailed
with injury
D Officer assaulted,
no injury


* Separate record from UCR offenses above.


Tuesday, April 01, 2003 (2).max


1


1 II T .


1










Appendix Table 1 .--Number of convenience store and supermarket robberies
by county, 1981.



Convenience store Supermarket Total Clearance
Countya robberies robberies robberies rate

------------------ Number ------------------ Percent

Alachua 107 0 107 29.9
Baker 1 0 1 0.0
Bradford 13 0 18 50.0
Brevard 73 2 75 28.0
Broward 433 57 490 23.1
Charlotte 5 0 5 20.0
Citrus 2 1 3 33.3
Clay 13 0 13 38.5
Collier 16 2 18 33.3
Columbia 9 3 12 41.7
Dade 551 202 753 13.7
De Soto 2 1 3 33.3
Dixie 2 0 2 0.0
Duval 464 32 496 34.1
Escambia 113 9 127 33.1
Flagler 2 0 2 50.0
Gadsen 11 1 12 41.7
Gulf 2 0 2 50.0
Hardee 0 2 2 100.0
Hendry 5 2 7 57.1
Hernando 2 0 2 50.0
Highlands 5 2 7 42.3
Hillsborough 758 18 776 29.3
Indian River 12 3 15 26.7
Jackson 2 0 2 50.0
Lake 20 5 25 20.0
Lee 52 8 60 28.3
Leon 88 1 39 24.7
Levy 6 0 6 16.7
Madison 1 0 1 100.0
Manatee 36 8 44 43.2
Marion 35 7 42 33.3
Martin 9 3 12 41.7
Monroe 7 1 8 37.5
Nassau 4 0 4 0.0
Okaloosa 13 2 20 55.0
Okeechobee 4 1 5 20.0
Orange 271 19 290 27.6
Osceola 17 1 18 11.1


Tuesday, April 01, 2003 (2).max











Appendix Table


a
County Convenience store Supermarket Total Clearance
robberies robberies robberies rate


------------------ Number --------------- Percent

Palm Beach 144 20 164 29.3
Pasco 48 2 50 38.0
Pinellas 157 12 169 23.1
Polk 125 14 139 23.0
Putnam 9 4 13 7.7
St Johns 11 1 12 25.0
St Lucie 17 6 23 34.3
Santa Rosa 9 0 9 55.6
Sarasota 16 1 17 55.6
Seminole 60 2 62 25.8
Sumter 0 1 1 0.0
Taylor 5 0 5 40.0
Union 1 0 1 100.0
Volusia 72 9 81 33.3
Walton 2 0 2 50.0
Washington 1 0 1 100.0


Totals 3,858 465 4,323 27.5

aHolmes County recorded no food store robberies in 1981.


Tuesday, April 01, 2003 (2).max


1.--Continued








Appendix Table 2 .--Total food store robberies, food store robberies
relative to population and per 100 food stores.



Food store robberies

Per 100,000 Per 100,000 Per 100
County Total population population food stores


----------------------- Number -----------------------

Alachua 107 69.34 68.98 248.84
Baker 1 6.33 5.31 6.25
Bay 0 0 0 0
Bradford 18 39.47 39.32 112.50
Brevard 75 26.64 65.32 127.12
Broward 490 46.79 46.39 288.24
Calhoun 0 0 0 0
Charlotte 5 3.12 3.03 29.41
Citrus 3 5.06 5.00 12.50
Clay 13 18.64 18.57 48.15
Collier 18 19.76 19.33 48.65
Columbia 12 33.50 32.92 46.15
Dade 753 71.90 71.14 133.99
De Soto 3 15.49 15.44 25.00
Dixie 2 24.56 24.44
Duval 496 86.13 85.56 378.63
Escambia 127 53.05 52.12 208.20
Flagler 2 16.47 16.14 25.00
Franklin 0 0 0 0
Gadsen 12 28.53 28.50 44.44
Gilchrist 0 0 0 0
Glades 0 0 0 0
Gulf 2 18.79 18.55 18.18
Hamilton 0 0 0 0
Hardee 2 10.06 10.03 13.13
Hendry 7 36.01 35.89 41.18
Hernando 2 4.10 4.08 9.52
Highlands 7 14.07 13.92 28.00
Hillsborough 776 117.36 116.42 510.53
Holmes 0 0 0 0
indian River 15 23.77 23.52 68.18
Jackson 2 5.04 5.01 8.00
Jefferson 0 0 0 0
Lafayette 0 0 0 0
Lake 25 23.14 22.78 49.02
Lee 60 27.92 27.51 88.24
Leon 89 58.52 58.06 222.50
Levy 6 29.18 29.02 42.86
Liberty 0 0 0 0


Tuesday, April 01, 2003 (2).max








Appendix Table 2.--Continued


Food store robberies

Per 100,000 Per 100,000 Per 100
County Total population populationa food stores

----------------------- Number -----------------------

Madison 1 6.63 6.61 6.25
Manatee 44 28.52 28.08 167.32
Marion 42 32.48 31.98 61.77
Martin 12 17.76 17.67 44.44
Monroe 8 12.47 11.98 22.22
Nassau 4 1.36 11.62 14.82
Okaloosa 20 17.72 16.93 46.51
Okeechobee 5 23.65 23.50 23.81
Orange 290 50.20 58.56 287.13
Osceola 13 32.53 30.90 35.71
Palm Beach 164 26.66 24.16 129.13
Pasco 50 24.44 24.27 123.21
Pinellas 169 22.74 22.48 139.67
Polk 139 42.02 41.67 156.18
Putnam 13 25.37 24.83 68.42
St. Johns 12 22.35 21.57 52.17
St. Lucie 23 24.28 24.10 53.49
Santa Rosa 9 15.73 15.62 50.00
Sarasota 17 8.12 7.97 44.74
Seminole 62 33.18 33108 163.16
Sumter 1 4.02 3.99 5.56
Suwannee 0 0 0 0
Taylor 5 29.60 24.50 35.71
Union 1 9.63 9.63 25.00
Volusia 81 30.20 28.07 94.19
Wakulla 0 0 0 0
Walton 2 9.22 9.12 11.76
Washington 1 2.39 2.39 10.00


Florida 4,323 42.78 42.36 147.29

aThe average daily number of tourists is included in the population.


Tuesday, April 01, 2003 (2).max










Appendix Table 3.--Average daily number of convenience store and supermarket robberies by day of month.


Convenience stores


Supermarkets


Average daily number
of robberies


Robbery
likelihood index


Average daily number
of robberies


Robbery
likelihood index


Ave. = 100.0

108.0
96.2
87.5
81.2
82.8
100.1
89.1
107.2
98.6
96.2
87.5
89.1
96.2
104.8
98.6
112.8
113.5
108.0
92.2
110.4
110.4
102.5
90.6
114.3
109.6
102.5


Ave. = 100.0


1.67
1.25
1.42
1.33
1.50
0.92
2.17
1.08
1.58
0.83
1.08
1.67
0.75
0.50
1.33
1.17
1.42
1.58
1.19
0.58
1.75
1.75
1.17
1.00
1.17
1.75


131.1
98.1
11.5
104.4
117.7
72.2
170.3
84.8
124.0
65.2
84.8
131.1
78.5
39.3
104.4
91.8
111.5
124.0
93.4
45.5
137.4
137.4
91.8
78.5
91.8
137.4


Day of
month


11.42
10.17
9.25
8.58
8.75
10.58
9.42
11.33
10.42
10.17
9.25
9.42
10.17
11.08
10.42
11.92
12.00
11.42
9.75
11.67
11.67
10.83
9.58
12.08
11.58
10.83


---








Appendix Table 3.--Continued


Convenience stores Supermarkets

Day of Average daily number Robbery Average daily number Robbery
month of robberies likelihood index of robberies likelihood index


Ave. = 100.0


100.7
101.7
104.1
93.8
116.3


Ave. = 100.0


1.33
1.33
1.55
1.46
0.43


104.4
104.4
121.7
114.6
33.8


aMeans for the 28th through 31st days were calculated using the appropriate numbers of days to
account for shorter months.


10.67
10.75
11.00
9.91
12.29







Appendix Table 4.--Convenience store and supermarket robberies in Florida, 1977-1981


Type of store
Year


Number


Total value stolen


eoinal
Doll ars


1967
Dollars


Average value


Nominal
Dollars


1967
Dollars


Convenience

1977
1978
1979
1980
1981a

Supermarket

1977
1978
1979
1980
1981a

All stores


1977
1978
1979
1980
1981a


2,220
2,435
2,921
3,709
3,811


178
167
235
374
460


2,398
2,602
3,165
4,083
4,271


350,123
509,594
502,320
752,459
883,790


144,080
211,048
187,512
544,260
625,493


494,203
720,642
689,832
1,296,719
1,509,283


192,905
260,795
231,058
304,886
324,446


79,383
108,008
86,252
220,527
229,623


272,288
368,803
317,310
525,413
554,069


158
209
172
203
232


809
1,264
798
1,455
1,360


967
1,473
970
1,658
1,592


446
647
367
590
499


533
754
446
672
584


aThese figures were published by FDLE before all records had been siilmiited by reporting agencies.
Value of property stolen in subsequent tables is greater. The published values w.re used here in order
to be consistent with previous years' figures.
bAll figures were deflated by the Consumer Price Index, 1967-11o.

Source: Florida Department of Law Enforce':iit, UL urm Crime Reports, A\'.l.,li Summaries, 1977-1981.


-----








REFERENCES


Athena Research Corporation. Robber Interview Report presented to the
Crime Committee of Southland Corporation, Dallas, Texas, June 9,
1981.

Chambers, Ray. Robbery Fact Sheet, Little General Stores, Tampa,
Florida, (Mimeograph) September, 1982.

Crow, Wayman J. and James L.- Bull. Robbery Deterrence: An Applied
Behavioral Science Demonstration, Western Behavioral Sciences
Institute, La Jolla, California, September, 1975.

Flores, Ike. "Convenient Crime: Customers and Robbers Like the Night
Shift." Gainesville Sun, Gainesville, Florida, July 26, 1982.

Florida Department of Criminal Law Enforcement. Florida Uniform Crime
Reports: UCR Guide Manual 1982 ed., Tallahassee, Florida, 1982.

Florida Department of Labor and Employment Security, Division of
Employment Security, Office of Research and Analysis, ES-202 Data,
1981-1982.

Florida Department of Law Enforcement. Crime in Florida, Annual Report,
1977-1981, Tallahassee, Florida.

Hanson-Treen, Barbara. "What It Feels Like to be Robbed at Gunpoint."
Progressive Grocer, June 1977, pp. 62-64.

McAuliffe, Gerry. "The Milk of Human Kindness." Maclean's, November 3,
1980, pp. 28-29.

Restaurants and Institutions, "Security: Crime Prevention Made Easier,"
Vol. 89, October 15, 1981, p. 54.

Shestack, M.B., "Exclusive: Interview with a Man Who Preyed on Supers,"
Progressive Grocer, June 1977, p. 70.

Texas Department of Public Safety, Crime Records Division, Uniform Crime
Reporting Section, Crime In Texas, 1981, 1982, Austin, Texas.

U.S. News and World Report. "Key to Criminals' Future: Their Past."
October 18, 1982, p. 17.

Vastine, William J., James E. Ritchey, Leroy Belcher, Jr., Seth Burgess,
and Gordon Statham. Crime In Convenience Stores, Results of
National Association of Convenience Stores' Loss Prevention Survey,
Texas Agricultural Extension Service, College Station, Texas, 1974.


Tuesday, April 01, 2003 (2).max




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