• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 Center information
 Summary
 Introduction
 Objectives
 Procedures
 Findings
 Reference
 Appendix














Group Title: Industry report - University of Florida Florida Agricultural Market Research Center ; 91-1
Title: Marketing alternatives for North Florida shiitake mushroom producers
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027558/00001
 Material Information
Title: Marketing alternatives for North Florida shiitake mushroom producers
Series Title: Industry report - University of Florida Florida Agricultural Market Research Center ; 91-1
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Degner, Robert L.
Williams, M. Beth
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Market Research Center, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Publication Date: 1991
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027558
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Acknowledgement
        Page i
    Table of Contents
        Page ii
    Center information
        Page iii
    Summary
        Page iv
        Page v
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Objectives
        Page 1
    Procedures
        Page 2
    Findings
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Reference
        Page 12
    Appendix
        Page 13
        Page 14
Full Text

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Industry Report 91-1


Marketing Alternatives for
North Florida
Shiitake Mushroom
Producers












by

Robert L. Degner
and
M. Beth Williams


November 1991









Florida Agricultural Market Research Center
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida
Gainesville, FL 32611









ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


We are indebted to the Center for Cooperative Agricultural Programs at Florida

A & M University for their financial support of research on Shiitake mushrooms and to

Clay Olson, County Extension Director, Taylor County for his technical and financial

support of this market research. We also express appreciation to Donna Hyde for typing

the manuscript.







TABLE OF CONTENTS



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ......................................... i

TABLE OF CONTENTS ........................................... ii

SUM M ARY ................................................... iv

INTRODUCTION ............................................... 1

FIN D IN G S .................................................... 3
ASIAN GROCERY STORES ................................. 3
RESTAURANTS .......................................... 4
ORIENTAL .............................................. 5
ITALIAN ................................................ 5
HIGH-VOLUME INDEPENDENT RESTAURANTS ............... 6
Produce W holesalers ................................... 8

CONCLUSIONS ................................................ 9

REFERENCES ................................................. 12

APPENDIX .................................................... 13











Florida Agricultural Market Research Center

A Service of the

Food and Resource Economics Department

of the

Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences



The purpose of the Center is to provide timely, applied research on current and

emerging marketing problems affecting Florida's agricultural and marine industries. The

Center seeks to provide research and information to production, marketing and

processing firms, and groups and organizations concerned with improving and expanding

markets for Florida agricultural and marine industries.

The Center is staffed by a basic group of economists trained in agriculture and

marketing. In addition, cooperating personnel from other IFAS units provide a wide

range of expertise which can be applied as determined by the requirements of individual

projects.







SUMMARY


* A joint research and demonstration project by Florida A & M University
and the University of Florida has shown that Shiitake (Japanese)
mushrooms can be successfully grown in North Florida using abundant
hardwoods that presently have little economic value.

* The objective of this study was to explore the market potential for direct
sales of Shiitake mushrooms to retail Asian grocery stores and restaurants
where prevailing market prices are in the $5.00 to $6.00 per pound range.

* Telephone interviews of 48 Asian grocery store managers revealed that
only one store was selling fresh Shiitake mushrooms. For this one store,
sales were intermittent and volume was only 3 pounds per week.

* Less than 10 percent of the Asian grocers handle fresh produce. Only
four expressed any interest in selling fresh Shiitake mushrooms, and
projected weekly sales were 10 pounds or less. Thus, the market potential
for direct sales to Asian grocery stores appears to be very limited.

* Approximately 100 Oriental, Italian and mixed menu high volume
independent restaurants were contacted by telephone and 30 were
successfully interviewed.

* Of the 14 Oriental menu restaurants interviewed, only half used fresh
mushrooms of any kind, and none used Shiitake mushrooms in any form.
among Oriental restaurants using common mushrooms, volume was
relatively low.

* Oriental menu restaurant managers expressed little interest in using
Shiitake mushrooms, because of their cost and lack of familiarity with
Shiitakes. The market potential for direct sales to this market segment
appears to be quite low.

* Among Italian restaurants, those that are classified as "white tablecloth"
use modest quantities of fresh mushrooms, including Shiitakes. Current
users of Shiitakes are generally satisfied with their quality, but they
expressed interest in buying directly from growers if prices were
competitive. Quantities used ranged from 2 to 40 pounds per week.

* Italian restaurants, with the exception of the white tablecloth type,
represent limited market potential.







* Among the high volume independent restaurants, those with French menus
have the greatest incidence of Shiitake mushroom usage. Even so, typical
volume is small, usually about 5 pounds per week.

* Of 25 foodservice suppliers interviewed, 16 sold fresh mushrooms and 10
handled Shiitakes.

* Of the 10 produce wholesalers currently selling Shiitake mushrooms, 8
were interested in buying directly from North Florida growers. Weekly
volume ranged from 35 to 200 pounds, and averaged slightly over 100
pounds.

* About three-fourths of the produce wholesalers' supplies currently come
from suppliers in Pennsylvania, with the remainder coming from North
Florida growers. Thus, North Florida producers are likely to have a
competitive edge with respect to shelf life and transportation costs.

* The immediate focus for market development should be on sales to
produce wholesalers because usage by Asian grocery stores and restaurants
is very limited. Serving individual business establishments is likely to be
costly and sales volume low.

* Longer term market development should include educational materials,
recipes, and product samples for chefs.









INTRODUCTION


In 1986, the Center for Cooperative Agricultural Programs (CCAP) at Florida

A & M University initiated a multi-year research and demonstration project in

conjunction with the University of Florida which focused on the Japanese edible

mushroom, commonly known as the "Shiitake mushroom." This project sought to adapt

Shiitake mushroom production technology to North Florida conditions and provide

small-scale agricultural producers with a profitable alternative enterprise. Clay Olson,

County Extension Director of Taylor County, coordinated the project.

Although there were some production problems at the outset, it soon became

apparent that Shiitake mushroom production was technically feasible in North Florida.

By 1990, the Florida Mushroom Growers Association had been formed with thirty-four

(34) active members. One of the Association's priorities was to identify viable market

outlets. The Florida Agricultural Market Research Center (FAMRC) was asked to assist

with this task.



OBJECTIVES



The original objective of this research was to explore the market potential for

direct sales of Shiitake mushrooms by producers to Asian grocery stores in the North

Florida trade area. The scope of the project was later expanded to include independent

ethnic restaurants and produce wholesalers, especially wholesalers catering to the









INTRODUCTION


In 1986, the Center for Cooperative Agricultural Programs (CCAP) at Florida

A & M University initiated a multi-year research and demonstration project in

conjunction with the University of Florida which focused on the Japanese edible

mushroom, commonly known as the "Shiitake mushroom." This project sought to adapt

Shiitake mushroom production technology to North Florida conditions and provide

small-scale agricultural producers with a profitable alternative enterprise. Clay Olson,

County Extension Director of Taylor County, coordinated the project.

Although there were some production problems at the outset, it soon became

apparent that Shiitake mushroom production was technically feasible in North Florida.

By 1990, the Florida Mushroom Growers Association had been formed with thirty-four

(34) active members. One of the Association's priorities was to identify viable market

outlets. The Florida Agricultural Market Research Center (FAMRC) was asked to assist

with this task.



OBJECTIVES



The original objective of this research was to explore the market potential for

direct sales of Shiitake mushrooms by producers to Asian grocery stores in the North

Florida trade area. The scope of the project was later expanded to include independent

ethnic restaurants and produce wholesalers, especially wholesalers catering to the








foodservice trade. The trade area was defined as encompassing the Tampa-Orlando-

Tallahassee geographic region.

Specific objectives were to: (1) Determine current quantities of exotic mushrooms

handled by each major type of buyer, i.e., Asian grocery stores, ethnic restaurants and

produce wholesalers (2) Determine current marketing channels for Shiitake mushrooms

and identify major handlers (3) Determine prevailing prices for Shiitake mushrooms and

estimate potential direct sales at selected price levels.




PROCEDURES


Asian food stores and Oriental restaurants were identified in the 1991-92 Florida

Business Directory (American Publishing Company, 1991). The restaurant contact list

was also augmented with Tablecloth/Gourmet listings from the 1990-91 Directory of

High Volume Independent Restaurants (Business Guides, Inc., 1990). Finally,

foodservice distributors handling fresh produce in the North Florida region were

identified from the 1990 Directory of Foodservice Distributors (Business Guides, Inc.,

1990).

Asian grocery managers, restaurant kitchen managers and managers of

foodservice distributors handling produce, gourmet and specialty items were interviewed

by telephone in April and May, 1991 by FAMRC staff. Separate questionnaires were

developed for each of the three types of respondents.








FINDINGS


ASIAN GROCERY STORES


Forty-eight Asian grocery store managers were interviewed, and only one was found to

be selling fresh Shiitake mushrooms and only one other had ever tried selling them.

Both of these stores complained that sales volume was too low to make it worth their

while, and shelf life was too short. The one store currently selling Shiitake mushrooms

sold them intermittently, and weekly sales were usually one three-pound container. Both

said small restaurants were their best customers for Shiitake mushrooms. Two wholesale

suppliers of Shiitake mushrooms were identified by the Asian stores: Orlando Specialties

based in Orlando, and T & S Mills Research Center, located in North Carolina. Only

three stores were found to be selling dried Shiitake mushrooms. During the six month

period prior to the interviews (late 1990 and early 1991) the dried mushrooms were

retailing for an average of $4.75 per pound, with a range of $4.00 to $5.50 per pound.

As for other exotic mushrooms, one firm was selling canned straw mushrooms.

The market potential for fresh Shiitake mushrooms appears quite limited among

the Asian stores. One firm expressed a willingness to buy them at a delivered price of

$6.00 per pound, and a total of four were willing to buy at $5.00 per pound. At $4.00

per pound, no additional store managers were willing to buy. As for projected sales at

various price levels, the four managers expressing an interest in handling fresh Shiitake

mushrooms were reluctant to make estimates; at $4.00 per pound, one manager said

weekly sales would be about 10 pounds. All managers interested in Shiitake mushrooms

said they would have to see samples before buying.







A major limiting factor is the lack of fresh produce departments in the Asian

stores. Only four of the forty-eight carry fresh produce of any kind, and most of these

have very limited produce departments. For the most part, Asian grocers are not

interested in stocking fresh produce of any kind, particularly relatively expensive

mushrooms with low turnover and short shelflife.

Based upon the limited expression of interest in Shiitake mushrooms and

extremely low anticipated volume by Asian grocery stores, it appears that they are not

likely to be a significant market outlet for North Florida mushroom producers.



RESTAURANTS


It was hypothesized that Oriental and Italian restaurants would be most likely to

use Shiitake mushrooms. Accordingly, 54 Oriental restaurants and 26 Italian restaurants

were identified in the trade region that bought display advertising in the telephone

Yellow Pages. It was assumed that display advertising would be done by larger firms.

The interview cooperation rate for these firms was extremely low. Only four of the 26

Italian and 14 of the 54 Oriental menu restaurants identified through Yellow Page

advertising were willing to be interviewed. The majority of the non-cooperators refused

because they use no fresh mushrooms and had no interest in using them. In addition to

the Italian and Oriental restaurants identified through Yellow Page advertising, a list of

44 high-volume independent restaurants (HVI) was obtained from a another trade

directory (Business Guides, Inc. 1990). Several of the HVI restaurants had Italian

menus, but there was considerable menu diversity. The HVI list included seafood,

Spanish, general American and French menus. About half of the HVI restaurant








managers submitted to an interview. Results of the restaurant survey appear below in

three sections: (1) Oriental, (2) Italian, (3) High-volume Independent Restaurants.


ORIENTAL


Of the 14 Oriental restaurants contacted, only half used fresh mushrooms of any

kind and none used Shiitake mushrooms. Very few kitchen managers were familiar with

Shiitakes. Several managers were curious about Shiitakes, and said they would like to

have samples. However, when asked about their willingness to purchase them at prices

of $4.00 to $6.00 dollars per pound, only one manager still appeared interested--at $4.00

per pound. Most of the Oriental restaurant managers appeared to be extremely cost

conscious, and several expressed concern over the relatively high price of Shiitakes.

Further, the Oriental restaurants using fresh mushrooms tended to use relatively small

quantities. Typical fresh white button mushroom volume ranged from 5 to 30 pounds

per week, with most firms using 5 to 10 pounds. Thus, even if Shiitake mushrooms could

be successfully introduced to Oriental restaurants, the volume per outlet would probably

be quite small.


ITALIAN


Only six Italian menu restaurants were willing to provide information about their

mushroom use. However, many of the uncooperative firms specialized in pizza. Five

of the six cooperators were white tablecloth" general menu Italian restaurants, and all

used fresh mushrooms. Three used Shiitakes, and usage ranged from about 2 to 40

pounds per week, at a cost of $5.75 to $7.00 per pound. For the most part, they were







satisfied with the quality of Shiitakes they were receiving, although one expressed a

preference for smaller sizes. One firm, the largest user of Shiitakes, expressed interest

in buying them from North Florida growers at $6.00 per pound; although the manager

said he would be pleased to be able to buy them for $4 and $5 per pound, he did not

expect a significant increase in the total usage of Shiitakes at the lower prices. The

current users of Shiitakes were ambivalent as to the source of fresh mushrooms; they

were willing to buy directly from producers or from produce wholesalers.

Non-users expressed little interest in buying Shiitake mushrooms. Their menus

and the relatively high price of Shiitakes were the major reasons for lack of interest.

High volume "white tablecloth" Italian restaurants offer some potential for direct sales

by North Florida mushroom growers, but once again, low volume may make it difficult

to serve this segment of the market efficiently.


HIGH-VOLUME INDEPENDENT RESTAURANTS


Approximately half of the 44 listed high-volume independent (HVI) restaurants

in the market region were contacted, and 14 were successfully interviewed. Two of the

cooperators had Italian menus, and their responses were included in the Italian section

above. The remaining 12 restaurants represented a wide variety of menu types, including

seafood, Spanish, general American menu, and French.

All of the HVI restaurants use the common white button mushroom, in quantities

ranging from about 30 to 120 pounds per week. However, only four HVI restaurants

were found to use Shiitake mushrooms. Three of the four using Shiitakes specialized








in French cuisine, and the fourth was a general American menu restaurant. Three of

the four use about five pounds per week, and one about 15 pounds.

Prices paid by the restaurants for Shiitake mushrooms ranged from about $4.70

to $6.00 per pound. None reported problems with quality or service by current suppliers.

All current users expressed an interest in buying Shiitake mushrooms produced in North

Florida, but only at $4.00 to $5.00 per pound. Even at the lower price, volume would

remain unchanged. All stipulated that quality would be an important consideration. For

the most part, managers of the HVI restaurants were ambivalent as to their preferences

with respect to direct grower deliveries or wholesaler deliveries, saying that price and

dependability of supply and quality were the most important considerations. One was

currently buying directly from a grower, but the others were getting their supplies of

Shiitakes from area produce wholesalers.

Restaurants that do not currently use Shiitake mushrooms offered little

encouragement for future potential. Managers of the HVI restaurants with seafood or

Spanish menus felt that Shiitake mushrooms could not be used advantageously in their

traditional dishes. However, several managers of restaurants with American menus

expressed an interest in seeing samples. But, given their relatively small volume of

common mushroom usage, it appears very unlikely that these restaurants would use more

than 5 to 10 pounds of Shiitake mushrooms if they could be convinced to try them.

Among HVI restaurants, the greatest potential appears to be among French and

American menu establishments. Even so, the relatively small numbers of users, their

geographic dispersion and weekly volumes of only five to 15 pounds would make it

difficult for growers to serve this market efficiently with direct sales.








Produce Wholesalers


Twenty-five foodservice distributors handling produce, specialty or gourmet items

serving the market region were identified through a leading trade directory (Business

Guides, Inc. 1990).

Sixteen of the 25 firms currently handle fresh mushrooms, and 10 of the 16 sell

Shiitakes. The nine wholesalers that do not sell fresh mushrooms said they were very

unlikely to do so within the foreseeable future for various reasons; some were suppliers

of processed gourmet items, others handled fresh produce but no mushrooms because

their established clientele did not use them.

Of the 10 firms handling Shiitake mushrooms, 8 were interested in possibly buying

directly from North Florida growers but two firms were not. One of the firms that was

not interested in buying North Florida Shiitake mushrooms handled Shiitakes on a

special order basis, and purchases were erratic and usually small. However, the other

firm handled "hundreds of pounds" per week, receiving them from a supplier in

Pennsylvania.

Of the eight wholesalers interested in buying Shiitake mushrooms from North

Florida growers, two handled relatively small quantities on a special order basis for their

customers. However, the remaining six handled them on a regular basis, with weekly

volumes ranging from 35 to 200 pounds and averaging slightly over 100 pounds per week.

About one-fourth of the total quantity handled by these six wholesalers was supplied by

a mushroom producer in North Florida, with the remainder supplied by mushroom

growers in Pennsylvania, largely Elite Mushrooms (Avondale, PA) and Jim Paxon &

Sons (Oxford, PA). All eight firms currently selling Shiitake mushrooms reported having








no quality problems. Although many of the produce wholesalers sell to retail food stores

as well as foodservice customers, virtually all Shiitake mushrooms go to upscale "white

tablecloth" restaurants. Many are independent restaurants, but some are affiliated with

hotels or country clubs.

The prevailing wholesale prices at the time of interviewing were consistent with

those obtained from the restaurants, i.e., $5.33 to $7.00 per pound, with most around

$5.50. Most of the eight wholesalers favorably predisposed to buying North Florida

Shiitake mushrooms were noncommittal on prices they were willing to pay, but three

expressed interest at $5.00 per pound and four at $4.00. Several said quality was a

critical factor and that they would negotiate price after seeing samples. As with the

restaurants, price elasticity of demand appears to be quite low, that is, volume sold is not

very responsive to price. For example, lowering the price to wholesalers from $5.00 to

$4.00 per pound is not likely to result in significantly larger sales.







CONCLUSIONS


The initial target market of retail Asian grocery stores in the Tampa-Orlando-

Tallahassee marketing region proved to be a disappointment. Very few such stores

handle fresh produce, and many managers were unfamiliar with Shiitake mushrooms.

Only one of 48 stores contacted was currently selling Shiitakes, and sales volume was

extremely low. A few managers of Asian grocery stores expressed interest in selling

Shiitake mushrooms, but potential sales are likely to be 10 pounds or less per week per







store. Thus the market development opportunities for this type of outlet appear to be

very limited.

The next phase of this study focused on independent restaurants, and proved

equally disappointing. A survey of Oriental, Italian, Spanish and American menu

restaurants found few users of Shiitake mushrooms. However, French menu restaurants

appear to have considerably more potential. Weekly sales among French restaurants

ranged from 5 to 40 pounds, which may make this market segment attractive to

mushroom growers if enough French restaurants can be identified in a given geographic

area to make direct sales economically worthwhile.

The greatest potential for immediate sales is to produce wholesalers that serve

the foodservice trade. Eight produce wholesalers expressed interest in obtaining Shiitake

mushrooms directly from North Florida growers, and these firms are listed in the

appendix. Six of these firms reported weekly sales ranging from 35 to 200 pounds, with

virtually all Shiitake mushrooms going to upscale restaurants. Deliveries to produce

wholesalers would likely be more stable and more efficient than sales directly to

restaurants. Because most Shiitake mushrooms are obtained from distant, out-of-state

sources, Florida growers may have a slight shelf-life advantage as well as a transportation

cost advantage which should make them more competitive.

The immediate focus for market development should be on product wholesalers,

but the restaurants should not be forgotten. Growers can target upscale continental

restaurants which can be served efficiently. Further, the North Florida mushroom

growers should develop educational materials directed at chefs because many are

unfamiliar with Shiitake mushrooms. Personal calls on restaurant managers and chefs,





11


product samples and educational materials including recipes should be integral

components of future market development plans for the rapidly growing Florida industry.

Educational materials for chefs can benefit the entire industry by increasing total

demand for Shiitake mushrooms, but such materials can be particularly effective for

individual growers that invest their own time and money in sales calls. A combination

of joint and individual market development efforts can assure the Florida mushroom

industry of a profitable future.





12


REFERENCES


1. American Directory Publishing Company. 1991-92 Florida Business Directory.
Omaha, Nebraska, 1991.

2. Business Guides, Inc. 1990 Directory of Foodservice Distributors. New York,
New York, 1989.

3. Business Guides, Inc. 1990-91 Directory of High Volume Independent
Restaurants. New York, New York, 1990.































APPENDIX











Appendix Table .-Potential Shiitake Mushroom Customersa


CUSTOMER TYPE

WHOLESALERSb


BASS & SWAGGERTY
CITY PROVISIONERS, INC.
GULF PRODUCE
RED FISHER
UNITED PRODUCE OF PINELLAS,INC
MOVSOVITZ
EAST COAST FRUIT CO.
ORLANDO SPECIALTY
CREWS & GARCIA


ASIAN GROCERY STORESE

MANDARIN SUPER MARKET
ORIENTAL FOOD & GIFTS
DONG & PHOUNG ORIENTAL
WONG KAI IMPORTS INC.


BUYER'S NAME



BOB CONE
TONY POWERS
NEIL SANDLER
PAUL
SAMUEL V. LUMIA
PAM WHOOTEN
JERRY PORTNOY
BARRY
RICK


BEITY
KOCHA ADAM
ROSE
JOHN WONG


RESTAURANTSd


LE POMPANO RESTAURANT
BENTLEY'S
CHRISTINI'S RISTORANTE ITALIANO
THE INN BETWEEN
ENZO'S
MONTE CARLO
SPANISH PARK
LE CORDON BLEU
BON APETIT
BOB HEILMAN'S BEACHCOMBER
CHINA DRAGON


ANDREW DENNIS
KEN
CARLO FILANDE
MANUEL CANTHO
ENZO
ROMEO
CHRIS VALDEZ
GEORGE
KARL RIELL
GORDON
JAMES CHIN


PHONE


904-255-0423
904-673-2443
904-356-0026
813-621-3481
813-822-4051
904-764-7671
904-355-7591
407-856-1611
813-236-5536



904-268-5215
813-924-8066
407-894-7013
813-758-1432



813-596-0333
813-797-1177
407-345-8770
813-349-7117
407-834-9872
813-879-6245
813-248-6138
407-647-7575
813-733-2151
813-442-4144
904-252-3839


ADDRESS


ANTICIPATED VOLUME


330 CARSWELL AVE., HOLLY HILL, 32017
PO BOX 2246, DAYTONA BEACH, 32015
3335 BRIGHT AVE., JACKSONVILLE, 32205
5302 E. DIANA, TAMPA, 33610
1830 3RD AVE SOUTH, ST PETE., 33712
3100 HILTON ST., JACKSONVILLE, 32209
3335 N. EDGEWOOD AVE., JACKSONVILLE, 32205
1213 E. PINE AVE., ORLANDO, 32824
2801 E. HILLSBOROUGH, TAMPA, 33610



11408 SAN JOSE BLVD., JACKSONVILLE, 32217
7280 TAMIAMI TRAIL S., SARASOTA,
1121 VIRGINIA DR., ORLANDO,32803
8959 US HWY 301, SARASOTA,



19325 GULF BLVD., INDIAN SHORES, 34635
2516 MCMULLEN-BOOTH RD.,CLEARWATER, 34621
7600 DR.PHILLIPS BLVD., ORLANDO, 32819
431 BEACH RD., SARASOTA, 34242
1130 S. HWY 17-92, LONGWOOD, 32750
3940 W. CYPRESS ST., TAMPA, 33607
3517 E. 7TH AVE., TAMPA, 33605
537 W. FAIRBANKS AVE., WINTER PARK, 32789
150 MARINA PLAZA, DUNEDIN, 34689
447 MANDALAY AVE., CLEARWATER, 33515
1415 N. RIDGEWOOD, DAYTONA BEACH, 32014


a The firms appearing here consented to be listed as potential customers for Shiitake mushrooms grown in North Florida.

b For wholesalers, potential volume is defined as follows: low=less than 50 pounds per week, medium=50 to 100, high more than 100 pounds per week.

c All Asian grocery stores had sales of 10 pounds per week or less.

d Restaurants' potential volume is defined as follows: low=less than 15 pounds per week; medium 15 to 20 pounds and high= more than 20 pounds per week.


LOW
LOW
LOW
HIGH
LOW
MEDIUM
LOW
HIGH
HIGH


LOWd
LOW
HIGH
LOW
MEDIUM
LOW
LOW
LOW
MEDIUM
LOW
LOW




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