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Title: Enterprise budgets for beef cattle and improved pasture alternatives in the Gulf Coast area of central Florida
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 Material Information
Title: Enterprise budgets for beef cattle and improved pasture alternatives in the Gulf Coast area of central Florida
Series Title: Enterprise budgets for beef cattle and improved pasture alternatives in the Gulf Coast area of central Florida
Alternate Title: Economics report 55 ; Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Brodnax, H. Doss Jr.
Eddleman, B. R.
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Publication Date: December, 1973
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Bibliographic ID: UF00027550
Volume ID: VID00001
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Holding Location: University of Florida
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Resource Identifier: oclc - 23451740

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Foreword
        Page i
    Acknowledgement
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
    List of Tables
        Page iv
        Page v
    Main
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Bibliography
        Page 37
        Page 38
Full Text
-C December, 1973


Enterprise Buc

and Improved


Economics Report 55


gets for Beef Cattle

Pasture Alternatives


in the Gulf Coast Area


of Central


Florida


.U \ 9 r"0 17/174

....S..- U. :'. of Fiorida



Food and Resource Economics Department
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville 32611
in cooperation with
Commodity Economics Division
Economic Research Service
U. S. Department of Agriculture


H. D.
B.R.


Brodnax, Jr.


Eddleman


Is ~ I -'I I _1 I -- I __,, ~L I _L a













FOREWORD


The pi).ro;e of this report is to furnish technical information
,erul to beef cattle producers, extension workers, lending agencies,
and others concerned with beef cattle production in the gulf coast
area of Central Florida.
The pasture and beef cattle budgets presented provide infor-
mation on (1) physical input requirements, (2) costs, (3) returns,
(4) i.:.nch].y labor requirements, (5) annual capital requirements,
and (6) annual labor, power, and machinery requirements for the
b-id-eLcd enterprises. The budgets were developed for use in a
linear programming study of ranch firm planning over time. Results
of the linear programming study are presently included in a Ph.D.
dissertation by H. D. Brodnax, Jr. (University of Florida, 1972).
Results of the linear programming analysis will be presented for
publication in another manuscript.
This report is intended to provide information that can be
useful in evaluating returns from alternative enterprises and
production practices on beef cattle ranches in Central Florida
as technologic and economic conditions change.















ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS


Dr. H. L. Chapman and personnel of the Ona Agricultural Research
Center provided technical assistance in generating the information
necessary for this study. Grateful appreciation is extended to personnel
in the Animal Science and Agronomy Departments at the University of
Florida which provided inputs to this study.
Special appreciation is due the Farm Production Econo ics Division
of the Economic Research Service, USDA, which furnished financial
support for this work. The authors also wish to convey appreciation to
members of the review committee, Charles Anderson, John Holt, George
Perkins, and Charles Walker in particular, for their critical review
of earlier drafts of this manuscript.
The authors are indebted to Mrs. Christine Ward for her untiring
efforts in typing the many drafts of this paper.







TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
F- Li0RD . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ACKNOI LE'D.ELT ENTS . . . . . . . .. . . .. ii

Li ' TAI, LES:; . . . . . . . . . . .iii
LiSt ,_ O .' l TA..ES............................. iii

LIST UF .-PPLtFDIX TABLES . . . . . . . . . v

SOURCES OF DATA . . . . . . . . . . 1

AREA OF APPLICATION ............. . . . 2

DEFI!ilTIOi'S AND ASSUMPTIONS FOR PRICES AND COSTS . ... 2

LIVESTOCK AND FORAGE PRODUCTION .... . ........ . 5

LABOP. AND MACHINERY REQUIREMENTS . . . . . 6

INTERPRETATION OF RETURN AND COST ESTIMATES . . . .. 6

E'NTELPRESE EUDGErS . . . . . . . . . . .'7

FC C..'l'[TEKS TO TABLES . . . . . . . . . .

P.. EFrJE CES .. . . . .... . . . .. '37

LIST OF TABLES

Table

1 Estimated annual production requirements and income for a
beef cow herd (500-cow unit), with calves born March 1 and
feeder calves sold October 1, gulf coast area of Central
Florida . . . . . . . . . . . 9

2 Estimated production requirements and income for producing
feeders (100-calf unit) on grazing from October 1 to April
1 in the gulf coast area of Central Florida . . .. 10

3 Estimated production requirements and income for producing
feeders (100-calf unit) on grazing from April 1 to October 1
in the gulf coast area of Central Florida .... 11

4 Estimated per acre requirements and costs for initial
clearing of unimproved native rangeland in the gulf coast
area of Central Florida . . . . . . .. 12

5 Estimated per acre requirements and yield of temporary
winter '.izinc (ryegrass)in the gulf coast area of
Central Florida . . . . . ..... . ... .13






LIST OF TABLES-continued


Table Page

6 Estimated per acre requirements for initial establishment
of bahiagrass for permanent pasture in the gulf coast area
of Central Florida ... . . . . . . . . 14

7 Estimated per acre annual requirements and yield for
bahiagrass for permanent pasture with medium level of
fertilization in the gulf coast area of Central Florida. 15

8 Estimated per acre annual requirements and yield for
bahiagrass for permanent pasture with high level of
fertilization in the gulf coast area of Central Florida. 16

9 Estimated per acre requirements for initial establishment
of Pangola digitgrass for permanent pasture in the gulf
coast area of Central Florida . . .. . . 17

10 Estimated per acre annual requirements and yield for
Pangola digitgrass for permanent pasture with medium level
of fertilization in the gulf coast area of Central Florida 18

11 Estimated per acre annual requirements and yield for Pangola
digitgrass for permanent pasture with high level of'fertili-
z4tion in the gulf coast area of Central Florida .... 19

12 Estimated per acre requirements for initial establishment of
perennial grass for forage production in the gulf coast area
of Central Florida. . . . . . . . .... . 20

13 Estimated per acre annual requirements and yield for perennial
grass topseeded with ryegrass (winter grazing) for pasture in
the gulf coast area of Central Florida . . . ... .21

14 Estimated per acre annual requirements and yield for perennial
grass for grazing and hay production in the gulf coast area of
Central Florida . . . . . . . . .... .. 22

15 Estimated per acre requirements for initial establishment of
irrigated perennial grass and clover for permanent pasture in
the gulf coast area of Central Florida. .. . . .. 23

16 Estimated per acre annual requirements and yield for irrigated
perennial grass and clover for permanent pasture in the gulf
coast area of Central Florida . . . . . ... .24








iv






LIST OF APPENDIX TABLES

Appendix Table Page

1 Estimated yield per acre by pasture alternatives
and fertilization rates in gulf coast area of Central
Florida .. . . . . . . . . 25

2 Assumed monthly prices for cattle by specified classes
and grades, Central Florida . . . . .. 26

3 Assumed prices paid by ranchers for selected input items,
Central Florida . . . . . . .. . 27

4 Estimated investment, annual overhead costs, and variable
expenses for machinery and equipment in the gulf coast
area of Central Florida . . . . . .28

5 Estimated investment, annual fixed costs, and repairs
for buildings and specific livestock equipment for
initial cow-calf herd (500-cow unit) on 3,500 acres in
the gulf coast area of Central Florida . . .. 30

6 Estimated returns, costs, and capital requirements per
unit for specified livestock and pasture enterprises in
the gulf coast area of Central Florida . .. 31

7 Estimated investment, annual fixed costs, and annual
operating costs of seepage irrigation system for
pastures (350 acre unit) in the gulf coast area of
Central Florida .. . . . . . . ... 32

8 Beef cattle inventory: Estimated animal unit months
of grazing required for cow-calf herd of 500 mature
cows, calves born March sold October 1 in the gulf
coast area of Central Florida. . . . . . 33

9 Estimated annual grazing requirements for specified
livestock and grazing yields by specified pasture
enterprises in the gulf coast area of Central Florida. 34

10 Estimated annual labor requirements for specified
livestock and pasture enterprises in the gulf coast
area of Central Florida . . . .. . . 35

11 Estimated annual machinery and equipment requirements
for specified livestock and pasture enterprises in the
gulf coast area of Central Florida . . . .. 36














ENTERPRISE BUDGETS FOR BEEF CATTLE AND IMPROVED'PASTURE
ALTERNATIVES IN THE GULF COAST AREA OF CENTRAL FLORIDA


H. D. Brodnax, Jr. and B. R. Eddleman


Beef cattle producers continually need information that
can be useful in re-evaluating the organization of their
businesses as technological and economic conditions change.
This publication provides information that can be useful in
evaluating returns from alternative enterprises and produc-
tion practices on beef cattle ranches in Central Florida.
Although not directly applicable to all beef cattle operations
in the area, the information is presented in such a manner
that adjustments in input-output data (yields, prices, input
requirements, etc.) can be made and the estimates applied to
a specific set of circumstances.

SOURCES OF DATA

Data applicable to the area were obtained from agricultural
experiment station results at Gainesville and the Range Cattle
Station at Ona, farm surveys (including an earlier report by
the authors of this one) and consultations with scientists
of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations.



H. D. BRODNAX, Jr., formerly an agricultural economist
with the Farm Production Economics Division, Economic Research
Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, stationed at University
of Florida, is presently extension economist at Mississippi
State University. B. R. EDDLEMAN is-associate professor of
food and resource economics at the University of Florida.






AREA OF APPLICATION

The information presented is designed for general application
to the fine sand and Leon series type soils in West Central
Florida. This area of the state is mainly in the southern Florida
flatwoods region with native vegetation of pond pines, numerous
hardwoods, herbs, palmetto, cypress, wiregrass, and other native
grasses. The geographical area consists of nine counties (Pasco,
Charlotte, and Lee). Being a coastal region, the area is domin-
ated by somewhat poorly drained soils. Estimated yield levels
for the various pasture alternatives on these soils are summarized
in Appendix Table 1. The pasture yields are designed to reprer
sent productive capacities of the soils in the nine county area.
The livestock budgets are generally applicable to the entire
central and southern Florida area.

DEFINITIONS AND ASSUMPTIONS FOR PRICES AND COSTS

The prices used in this publication are shown in Appendix
Tables 2 and 3. They reflect average prices paid and received
and should not be interpreted as forecasts of prospective
prices for any future period.
Prices received are 3-year averages (1969-1971) adjusted
for current trends. Prices paid were determined from retail
merchants, local agricultural research and extension personnel,
and unpublished data from the Food and Resource Economics
Department.
In calculating the estimates of cost and returns for a
particular enterprise, ajlevel of production practices (i.e.,
feed, fertilizer, machinery use, etc.) was assumed. Advanced
technology was assumed based upon the latest recommendations
of experiment station personnel located at Gainesville and Ona.
All costs are allocated to individual enterprises when-
ever possible. In general, the cost of input items are sepa-
rated into two main categories: (1) total specified costs
and (2) a labor charge. Total operating costs include such








items as costs of feed, fertilizer, livestock-taxes, and machinery
operation and ownership costs. These costs are directly associated
with a given enterprise. Depreciation is included in machinery
ownership costs. Costs of owning and operating machinery and
equipment are presented in Appendix Table 4.
The cow-calf budget presents a unique problem for users of
this information since different livestock systems would require
varying quantities of items such as hay storage, permanent fencing,
.and corrals. The annual cost for upkeep on these items is charged
under annual copts of buildings and improvements, and the capital
requirements are included in fixed capital.
Available data indicate that fencing requires about $700 of
fixed capital per mile. If a straight line depreciation schedule
is assumed, the average investment would reduce to $350 on an
annual basis. This figure multiplied by a selected interest rate
would give the cost of capital on an annual basis. Annual repair
costs are assumed to be 2 percent (not including a labor charge for
repair) of the construction cost, or $14 per mile. The total annual
capital charge for fencing, in any enterprise budget not requiring
the same amount of fencing assumed in the cow-calf budget presented,
would be the miles of fencing required for that enterprise multiplied
by the average capital ($350) times a selected rate of interest.
Annual repair costs would be computed by multiplying the initial
capital cost ($700) by 2 percent and then by the number of miles
required.
Since substantial corrals for handling a 500-cow herd can be
constructed for $5,500, the capital requirement is $11 per cow.
Average annual capital requirements, assuming straight line deprec-
iation, would be half this figure. Annual repairs are assumed to
be 2 percent of new cost (excluding labor costs). An estimate of
hay storage charges can be obtained from Appendix Table 5. Since
the feeder and stocker steer enterprises would normally be produced
in conjunction with the cow-calf system, no fixed costs for hay
storage, corrals, and fencing were charged to these budgets.






Farm wages for full-time hired labor are assumed to be
$4,500 annually, not including the value of any food produced
on the ranch for consumption by full-time employees and their
families. Farm wages are therefore estimated to be $2.10 per
hour.
Capital cost is assumed to be 8 percent.per annum for both
operating and investment capital. In the budgets the quantity
of annual capital and labor required for production are specified
so that persons using this information can recompute annual
capital and labor costs if their unit costs differ from those
used in this publication.
The capital charge for each enterprise is annual capital
invested times the 8 percent interest rate. Annual capital
was computed by adjusting total cash inputs to an annual e-
quivalent basis and adding machinery and other investment
capital. Components of annual capital (i.e,; operating and
fixed capital) are given at the bottom of each enterprise
budget. The charge for interest is an interest charge on
annual capital. '
An example of total and annual capital concepts is helpful .
in distinguishing between the two concepts. Brood cows in
the cow-calf budget represent a year-round investment. The
total investment requirement is the same as that computed on
an annual basis. Thus, total capital and annual capital are
equal in this case. Steers kept for only six months represent
a different situation. The annual capital requirement is only
one-half the total capital requirement. Total capital will
always be greater than (or equal to) annual capital. A sum- .
mary of total capital and annual capital requirements for all
budgets is given in Appendix Table 6.
The equipment (including ditches) required for seepage
irrigation of 350 acres is shown in Appendix.Table 7. Ditching
and the investment in water control structures are based on a
system to irrigate the entire acreage even though only a portion
of the acreage might be renovated annually.







N







General overhead costs such as bookkeeping, tax consultants,
and taxes and interest on investment in land are not included in
the enterprise budgets in this publications. These overhead
costs do represent expenses against the total farm business.
However, these costs are normally fixed regardless of the
output level and can be allocated only arbitrarily among
enterprises.

LIVESTOCK AND FORAGE PRODUCTION
Livestock production rates are given in terms of numbers
and pounds. The cow-calf budget is in terms of a 500-cow
unit. Replacement heifers and cull bull sales are not shown
in production. Enough heifers are retained to maintain the
average herd inventory as shown in Appendix Table 8. A
bull depreciation charge is included in the specified costs
of production. Thus, production'numbers and weights marketed
relate to production of calves and cull cows (including any
cull replacement heifers) for sale.
The production of grazing is measured in terms of animal
unit months of grazing (AUM). One AUM is the amount of grazing
required by one animal unit for one month. An animal.unit is
defined as one mature cow. Cows with calf and bulls were
considered to be 1.25 animal units. The animal unit. equivalents
for growing cattle and the animal unit months of grazing required
for the livestock enterprises are given in Appendix Table 9.
The AULM's of grazing produced per acre is an estimate of
the number of animal units that can be grazed for one month,
or alternately, the number of months one animal unit could be
grazed on one acre. For example, assume that 15 acres of
unimproved native rangeland will carry one cow with calf for
12 months. The AUM's per acre can be determined by:
12 (months) x 1.25 (A) = 1.00 A per acre
-= 1.00 AUM per acre
15 (acres)

In the cow-calf enterprise budget the requirements for a
500-cow herd will be greater than 1.25 AUM's per cow to allow
grazing for the bulls and replacement heifers. Estimates of
the AUM's of grazing produced by the pasture enterprises are
presented in Appendix Table 9.






LABOR AND MACHINERY REQUIREMENTS

Estimates of the labor requirements for each enterprise
are given at the bottom of the budgets. These labor require-
ments are in terms of man-hours per cow, per steer, or per
acre of pasture enterprises for four selected periods and
annually. Detailed labor requirements by each month for all
enterprises are given in Appendix Table 10. The estimated
hours of machinery and equipment required each month for
the considered enterprises are presented in Appendix Table 11.


INTERPRETATION OF RETURN AND COST ESTIMATES
Generally, farm resources can be used by two or more farm
enterprises. Additionally, many farm products are intermediate
goods to be used as resources by other enterprises. .Thus,
the allocation of returns to specific enterprises is somewhat
arbitrary. For the purposes of this report the following
guidelines have been used:
1. Two return estimates have been made for the beef
cattle enterprises producing a product for market.
These are: (a) returns above total specified costs
excluding labor costs (returns to land, labor, man-
agement, and risk), and (b) returns above total spec-
ified costs including a labor charge (returns to land,
management, and risk). All returns estimates implicitly
include returns to overhead capital that were not
allocated to the specific enterprises.
2. Cost estimates have been made for intermediate products
such as unimproved and improved native rangeland, improved
permanent pasture crops, and temporary grazing crops
(total specified costs above land, overhead capital,
labor, management and risk). Total cost per acre or

AUM of pasture can be computed by adding land, labor,
and other overhead charges applicable to an individual's
farm business.


ft *








ENTERPRISE BUDGETS

The included budgets are not presumed to include all
alternative production possibilities for the study area, but
give results for representative systems. The cow-calf and
feeder steer budgets may be slightly altered to meet the needs
of a particular farm. For example, the cow-calf budget includes
costs of owning and operating hay. making equipment and hay
can be used to provide part of the grazing requirements (expres-
sed as AUM's). If hay were purchased, the annual cost of
machinery and equipment would be less but hay costs would need
to be included in the budget.
The budgets for native rangeland and improved pasture
give expected production on the particular types of soils in the
study area, but also may require some adjustment when applied
to an individual farm.






FOOTNOTES TO TABLES

atonthly requirements and yields are presented in Appendix
Table 9.

bMachinery operating costs reflect variable cost per hour
(Appendix Table 4) times hours of use (Appendix Table 11).

CInitial cost ($750) minus salvage value ($500) adjusted
for expected death loss divided by years (5) of useful life.

l Lchinery ownership costs reflect cost per hour (Appendix
Table 4) times hours of use (Appendix Table 11).

eReflects the annual cost of depreciation, taxes, insurance,
and repair for buildings and equipment (Appendix Table 5).

All returns estimates implicitly include a return to general
overhead costs not allocated to a specific enterprise.

gInitial clearing costs prorated over 20 years.

hEstablishment costs prorated over 10 years.


Cash inputs on an annual equivalent basis.

jInvestment in beef cow herd, buildings, and prorated share of
equipment.

kprorated share of equipment investment.


1Includes prorated share of equipment investment and average
per acre investment in seepage irrigation system (Appendix Table 7).









Table I.--Eatlmored annual production requirements and income for a beef cow herd (500-cou unit); with
calves born March 1 and feeder calves sold October 1, gulf coast area of Central Florida


Item Unit Rate Nubber Total Price or Total
quantity cost per value or
unjt csat



(1) Livestock Ivestment
Mature cows head 500 250.00 125,00.00
Bulls head 22 750.00 16,500.00
Heifers, bred head 98 200.00 19,600.00
Hielfer., open head 100 150%00 1__5O.00
Total Investm~ett 176,1Oju.0u

(2) Production
Cull cows cut. 8.75 60 525.0 21.31 11,187.75
Cull heifers cut. 7.00 26 182.0 27.93 5,083.26
Calves cut. 4,00 370 1,480.0 32.28 47,774.40
Total income 64,045.41

(3) Inputs
Pasturea AUM 12.0 698.0 8,386.0
Supplemental feed ton .156 643 100.3 85.00 8,525.50
Minerals and salt cut. .3 699 209.7 5.25 1,100.92
Veterinary & medicine AU 1.0 699 699.0 1.85 1,293.15
LMchinery operating
eastsb head 1.0 100 500.0 1.62 810.00
Hired labor mgr. 1.0 4,500.00 4,500.00
turketlng costs dol, 64,043.41 .035 2,241.59
Bull depreciationc dol. 49.0 22 1,078.0 1,078.00
Livestock taxes dol. 176,100.00 .0035 616.35
Hachinery ownership
cost;. head 1.0 500 500.0 1.79 895.00
Annual cotr of
buldirnge and
equirencre dol. 4,151.61 4.151.61
Anr.u31 interest on
capital dol. 214,365.78 .08 17,149.26

(4) Total Epecified costs 42,361.38

(5) Returns to land, labor,
cLiragement, and risk' 21,684.03

(6) Labor hr. 2.018 500 1,009.0 2.10 2,118.90

(7) Returns to land, manage-
ment, and risk 19,565.13

Libor req ireamnts (man hr/cou) Annual capital requirements (doa.)
Nov.-Feb. -Mar.-June July-Oct. Total Operating capital 8,114.78
.739 .759 .52 2.018 Fixed capital. 2"C'o,251. .00

: Seo pggea 8S-orfootntaes a, b, c, d, e, f, i, and j.


9 V'






10





Table 2.--Estimated production requirements and income for producing feeders (100-calf unit) on
grazing from October 1 to April 1 in the gulf coast area of Central Florida

Total Price or Total
Item Unit Rate Number ca cost per value or
Quantity tnl nt cot
---------[Jll ar ---------...

(1) Livestock investment
Calves head 100 129.12 12,912.00
Total investment 12,912.uO

(2) Production
Feeders cwt. 6.25 99 618.75 30.96 19,156.50
Total income 19,14o.50

(3) Inputs
Pasture AUM 6.0 72.5 435.0
Supplemental feed ton .345 72.5 25.0 85.00 2,125.00
Minerals and salt cwt. .207 72.5 15.0 5.25 78.75
Veterinary & medicine AU 1.0 72.5 72.5 1.75 126.87
Machinery operating
costs head 1.0 100.0 100.00 .25 57.25
Marketing costs dol. 19,156.50 .035 670.48
Livestock taxes dol. 12,912.00 .0035 45.19
.Machinery ownership
costs head 1.0 100.0 100.0 .5916 59.16
Calves cwt. 4.00 100.0 400.0 32.28 12,912.00
Annual interest on
capital dol. 7,344.18 .08 587.53
(4) Total specified costs 16,662.23

(5) Returns to land, labor,
management, and risk 2.494.27

(6) Labor hr. 1.66 100 166.0 2.10 348.60

(7) Returns to land,
management, and risk 2,145,67


Labor requirements (man hr/steer) Annual capital requirements (dol.)
Nov-Feb. Mar-June July-Oct Total Operating capital 7,052.98-
.96 .34 .36 1.66 Fixed capital 291.20

See page 8 for footnotes a, b, d, f, 1, and k,


'~~a ~ur~~""~~~~'"~"~















Table 3.--Estlmated production requirements and income for producing feeders (100-calf unit) on
grazing from April 1 to October 1 in the gulf coast area of Central FlorldJ


Total Price or Total
Item Unit Rate Number uantit cost per value or

--------- o Ij-r s---------
(1) Live3tock investment
Calves head 100 139.20 1i290.00
Total investment 13,'42u.0u

(2) Production
Feeders cwt. 6.25 99 618.75 30.05 18,593.19
Total income 18 .19

(3) Inputs
Pasturea AUM 6.0 72.5 435.0
Supplemental feed ton .276 72.5 20.0 85.00 1,700.00
Minerals and salt cwt. .207 72.5 15.0 5.25 78.75
Veterinary and
medicine AU 1.0 72.5 72.5 1.75 126.87
Machinery operating
costs head 1.0 100.0 100.0 .25 52.25
Marketing costs dol. 18,593.19 .035 650.77
Machinery ownership
sots head 1.0 100.0 100.0 .5024 50.24
Calves cwt. 3.75 100.0 375.0 37.12 13,920.00
Annual interest on
capital dol. 7,701.08 .08 616.09
(4) Total specified costs 17,194.97

(5) Returns to land, lbor,
management & risk 1,398.22

(6) Labor hr. 1.46 .100.0 146.0 2.10 306.60

(7) Returns to land, f
managementt and risk 1,091.92


Labor requirements (mian hr/steer) Annual capital requirement (jol.)
Nov-Feb. Mat-June July-Oct. Total Operating capital 7,449.48
-- .76 .70 1.46 Fixed capital 251.60

See page 8 for footnotes a, b, d, f, i, and k.







Table 4.--Estimated per acre requirements and costs for initial clearing
of unimproved native rangeland in the gulf coast area of Central
Florida


(1) Inputs
Bulldozer
(custom) hr. 1.5 1.0
Machinery op-
erating
costs acre
Machinery o~ner-
ship costs acre
Hired labor
(seasonal) hr.
(2) Total clearing costs


Total labor requirements by periods (hrs.)


Nov-Feb.
2.1


Mar-June


July-Oct.


1.0

1.0


20.00


3.93

3.05

1.85


30.00


3.93

3.05

3.89
40.87


Total
2.1


See page 8 for footnotes b and d.


- -







Table 5.--Estimated per acre requirements and yield of temporary winter
grazing (ryegrass) in the gulf coast area of Central Florida

Totl Price or Total
Item Unit Rate Number quantity cost per value or
entity .unit cost
-------Dollars-------


(1) Production
Grazing

(2) Inputs
Seed
Fertilizer:
Lime
Trace ele-
ments
10-10-10
33.5-0-0
Spreading
(custom)
Machinery op-
eratigg
costs
Machinery
ownership
costs

Annual interest
on capital
Annual charge
for clearing
Interest on
clearing cost
(3) Total specified
costs


(4) Labor


AUM 1.37 6.0


lb.

ton

unit
cwt.
cwt.

acre 2.0 1.0


acre


acre


dol.


dol. .05 1.0


dol.


.50 40.87


8.2


30.0


.05
5.0
3.0

2.0


1.0


1.0


21.28


.125

7.50

15.00
2.65
3.30

1.00


4.42


5.20


.05 40.87


20.43


2.99


2.10


Total labor requirements


by periods (hrs.) Ann. capital requirements (dol.)


Total Operating capitali
2.99 Fixed capital


See page 8 for footnotes a, b, d, g, i, and k.


3.75

2.50

.75
13.25
9.90

2.00


4.42


5.20


1.70

2.04

1.63

47.14

6. 28


Nov-Feb. Mar-June July-Oct.
.14 .7 2.15


12.19
9.09


Toa lageb or footmnotes a







Table 6.--Estimated per acre requirements for initial establishment of
bahiagrass for permanent pasture in the gulf coast area of
Central Florida


------Dollars-------


(1) Inputs
Seed Ibs.
Fertilizer:
Lime ton
Trace.
elements unit
10-10-10 cwt.
Spreading
(custom) acre
Machinery op- b
rating costs acre
Machinery
ownership
costs acre
(2) Total specified
costs


1.0


.25

7.50


.25 15.00
3.5 2.65


1.0

1.0


1.00

3.85


3.45


Total labor requirements


Nov-Feb.
.8


by periods (hrs.)


See page 8 for footnotes b and d.


3.75


7.50

3.75
9.28

1.00

3.85


3.45

32.58


Mar-June July-Oct. Total
1.4 -- 2.2


_ __










-Estimated per acre annual requirements and yield for bahiagrass
for permanent pasture with medium level :of 'fertilization in the
gulf coast area of Central Florida


Price or Total
Item Unit Rate Number at cost -per value or
quantity unit cos
------Dollars-------


(1) Production
ara
Crazing


AUM


.5 12.0


6.0


(2i Inputs
Fertilizer:
Lime
Trace
elements
10-10-10
33.5-0-0
Spreading
customm)
Machinery op-
erating costs
Machinery o-ner-
ship costs
Annual interest
on capital
Annual charge
for clearing
Annual charge
for estap-
lishment
Interest on
clearing cost
Tnceresc on
establishment
cost
(3) Iotal specified
cnsts


ton

unit
,cwt.
cwt.


.33 1.0

.05 1.0


acre 2,0 1,0


.33

.05
3.5
1.0

2,0


1.0


-acre

acre

dol.


13.01


dol. .05 1.0


.dol. .10 1.0

dol. .50 40.87


dol. .50 32.58


7.50

15.00
2.65
3.30

1.00

1.53

1.43

.08


.05 40.37


.10 32.58


20.43


16.29


(I, i ibor


Tocal labor reauirements


by periods (hrs,)


Ann. capital


requirements (dol.)


Mar-3une .July-Oct.
1.22 .04


Total
1.3


Operating cap tali
Fixed capital


3S. page 8 for footnotes a, b, d, g, h, i, and k.


Ti i ", -


2.50

.75
9.28
3.30

2,00

1.53

1.43

1.04

2.04


-.3.26

1.63


1,30

30.06


2.73


9.68
3.33


~"" I


;+







Table 8.--Estimated per acre annual requirements and yield for bahiagrass
for permanent pasture with high level of fertilization in the
gulf coast area of Central Florida


(1) Production
Grazinga AUM .658 12.0 7.9


(2) Inputs
Fertilizer:
Lime
Trace
elements
10-10-10
33.5-0-0
Spreading
(custom)
Machinery op- b
rating costs
Machinery
ownership
costs
Annual interest
on capital
Annual charge
for clearing
Annual charge
for estab-
lishment
Interest on
clearing cost
Interest on
establishment
cost
(3) Total specified
costs


ton


unit
cwt.
cwt.


acre 2.0


1.0


acre


acre

dol.


dol. .05 1.0


dol. .10 1.0

dol. .50 40.87


dol. .50 32.58


.05
5.0
2.5

2.0


1.0


7.50

15.00
2.65
3.30

1.00

1.63


1.0 "' 1.49


17.77


.08


.05 40.87


.10 32.58


20.43


16.29


(4) Labor


Total labor requirements by periods


(hrs.) Ann. capital requirements(dol


Total
1.39


Operating capital'
Fixed capital


See page 8 for footnotes a, b, d, g, h, i, and k.


2.50

.75
13.25
8.50

2.00

1.63


1.49

1.42

2.04


3.26

1.63


1.30

39.77


1.39


Nov-Feb. Mar-June July-Oct.
.04 1.22 .13


2.10


2.92


14.31
3.'46


---~~


w








TaLlc. ..--Esrium.ted per acre requirements for initial
Paa ,ila digictrass for permanent pasturein
of C.intral Florida


establishment of
'the.g lf coas t ;.area


Price or Total
Total
iLeL Unit Rate INumber cost pie value or
quantity
unic Co03t
-------Dollars-------

(1 laILruti
SpriLs bale 10 1.50 15.,00
Fertilizer:
ILine -ton .1.0 7,50 7.50
Trace
elements unit .25 15.00 3.75
10-10-10 cwt. 3.5 2.65 9.28
Spreading
(custom) -acre 1.0 .1,00 1.00
Machinery op- b
rating costs acre 1.0 4.57 4.57
Machinery ower-
ship costs acre 1.0 3.53 3.58
(2) Total specified
costs 4A.68


To;--i labor requirements by periods (hrs.)
No~'F'ieb. Mar-June July-Oct. Total
1.6 1.7 3.3


3re page 8 for footnotes b and d.







Table 10.--Estimated per acre annual requirements and yield for Pangola
digitgrass for permanent pasture with medium level of fertiliz-
ation in the gulf coast area of Central Florida


Item Unit Rate


Total
value or
cost
ars-------


(1) Production
Grazing


AUM .525 12.0


(2) Inputs
Fertilizer:
Lime
Trace
elements
10-10-10
33.5-0-0
Spreading
(custom)
Machinery op- b
rating costs
Machinery
ownership
costs
Annual interest
on capital
Annual charge
for clearing
Annual charge
for estab-
lishment
Interest on
clearing cost
Interest on
establishment
cost
(3) Total specified
costs


ton


unit
cwt.
cwt.


acre 2.0


1.0


acre


acre

dol.


.05
3.5
1.0


2.0

1.0


1.0

13.19


dol. .05


dol. .10 1.0

dol. .50 40.87


dol. .50 44.68


7.50

15.00
2.65
3.30

1.00

1.63


S1.48

.08


.05 40.87


.10 44.68


20.43


22.34


(4) Labor


Total labor requirements by periods


(hrs.1 Ann. caDital


requirements(dol.)


Total
1.39


Operating capital
Fixed capital


See page 8 for footnotes a, b, d, g, h, 1, and k.


6.3


2.50

.75
9.28
3.30

2.00

1.63


1.48

1.06

2.04


4.47

1.63


1.79

31.93


1.39


Nov-Feb. Mar-June July-Oct.
.43 .92 .04


2.10


2.92


9.73
3.46


-- --


"-


- --- -- --- --- -------- --








Table 11.--Estimated par, acre annual requirements and yield
digit;rass for permanent pasture with high level
action in the gulf coast area of Central Florida


Total Price
Item Unit Rate Number cost
quantity
uni


for Pangola
of fertiliz-


.ars-----


(1) Production
Grazing


AUM .683 12.0-


(2) Inputs
Fertilizer:
Lime
Trace
elements
10-10-10
33.5-0-0
Spreading
(custom)
Machinery op-
erating costs
Machinery
ownership
costs
Annual interest
on capital
Annual charge
for clearing
Annual charge
for esta -
lishment
Interest on
clearing cost
Interest on
establishment
eost
(3) Total specified
ec-os'ts


unit
cwt.
cwt.


.05
5.0
2.5


acre 2.0


1.0


acre


acre

dol.


dol. .05 1.0


dol. .10 1.0

dol. .50 40.87


dol. .50 44.68


1.0


7.50

15.00
2.65
3.30

1.00

1.82


1.0 1.53


18.10


.05 40.87


.10 44,68


20.43


22.34


(4) Labor


Total labor requirements by periods (hrs.)


Ann. capital requirements(dol.)


lmo'v-F eb. M.ir-June
.4.3 .92


July-Oct.
.13


Total
1.48


Operating capitali
Fixed capitalk


See page 8 for footnotes a, b, d, g, h, i, and k.


8.2


2.50

.75
13.25
8.50

2.00

1.82


1.53

1.45

2.04


4.47

1.63


1.79

41.73


1.48


2.10


3.11


14.41
3.69


I i. .







Table 12.--Estimated per acre requirements for initial establishment of
perennial grass for forage production in the gulf coast area
of Central Florida

Total Price or Total
Item Unit Rate Number cost per value or
quantity unit cost
------Dollars------


(1) Inputs
Seeding
material acre 1.0 8.50 8.50
Fertilizer:
Lime ton 1.0 7.50 7.50
Trace
elements unit .25 15.00 3.75
10-10-10 cwt. 3.5 2.65 9.28
Spreading acre 1.0 1.00 1.00
Machinery op- b
rating costs acre 1.0 4.57 4.57
Machinery
ownership
costs acre 1.0 3.58 3.58
(2) Total specified
costs 38.18


Total labor requirements by period (hrs.)
Nov-Feb. Mar-June July-Oct. Total
-- 2.4 .9 3.3


See page 8 for footnotes b and d.






21 v/


Table 13.--Estimated per acre annual requirements.and yield for perennial
grass topseeded with ryegrass (winter grazing) for pasture in
the gulf coast area of Central Florida


------ Dollars------


(1) Production
Grazing


.875 12.0


(2) Inputs
Seed
(ryegrass)
Fertilizer:
Lime
Trace
elements
10-10-10
16-8-8
33.5-0-0
Spreading
(custom)
Machinery op- b
rating costs
Machinery
ownerh ip
costs
Annual interest
on capital
Annual charge
for clearing"
Annual charge
for esta -
lislmrent
Interest on
clearing cost
Inceresc on
establishment
cos.
(3) Total sp-cified
costs


Ibs.


30.0


ton .33 1.0


unit
cwt,
cwt.
cwt.


acre 3


acre


acre


dol.

dol. .05 1.0


dol. .10 1.0

dol. .50 40.87


dol. .50 38,18


(4) Labor


.05
5.0
4.0
3.0

3.0


.125

7.50

15.00
2.65
2.55
3.30

1.00


1.0 -" 2.77


1.0


32.50


4.05

.08


.05 40.87


.10 38.18


20.43


19.09


3.8


2.10


Total labor reuiLrements by periods


(hrs.) Ann. capital


requirements(dol.)


Total
3.8


Operating capitali
Fixed capitalk


See page 8 tor footnotes a, b, d, g, h, i, and k.


10.5


3.75

'2.50

.75
13.25
10.20
9.90

3.00

2.77


4.05

2.60

2.04


3.82

1.63


1.53

61.79

7.98


Nov-Feb. Mar-June July-Oct.
.0.3 2.01 1.71


23.06
9.44.


~"~"; '"^~ -~` I~`~'"~"""""~" '~~ ~""


AUM







Table 14.--Estimated per acre annual requirements and yield for perennial
grass for grazing and hay production in the gulf coast area of
Central Florida


(1) Production
Grazinga AUM .90 5.0 4.5
Hay ton 2.5 1.0 2.5


(2) Inputs
Fertilizer:
Lime
Trace
elements
10-10-10
16-8-8
33.5-0-0
Spreading
(custom)
Twine
Machinery op- b
rating costs
Machinery
ownership
costs
Annual interest
on capital
Annual charge
for clearing
Annual charge
for estab-
lishment
Interest on
clearing cost
Interest on
establishment
cost
(3) Total specified
costs


(4) Labor


ton .33 1.0


unit
cwt.
cwt.
cwt.

acre
bdl.

acre


acre

dol.


.05


1.0


1.0
.33 1.0


.05
5.0
4.0
3.0

3.0
.33


7.50

15.00
2.65
2.55
3.30

1.00
9.00


1.0 3.26


1.0

35.55


dol. .05


dol. .10 1.0

dol. .50 40.87


dol. .50 38.18


5.23

.08


.05 40.87


.10 38.18

20.43 .0.8


19.09


4.95


2.10


Total labor requirements


by periods


(hrs.) Ann. capital


requirements (dol.)


Total
4.95


Operating capitali 22.93
Fixed capital 12.62


See page 8 for footnotes a, b, d, g, h, i, and k.


2.50

.75
13.25
10.20
9.90

3.00
3.00

3.26


5.23

2.84

2.04


3.82

1.63


1.53

62,95

10.40


Nov-Feb. Mar-June July-Oct.
3.51 .43 1.01


II ; \_ ...


r








Table 15.--Estimated per acre requirements for initial establishment of
irrigated perennial grass and clover for permanent pasture in
the gulf coast area of Central Florida


Total Price or Total
Total
em Unit Rate Number entity cost per value or
quantity
unit cost
------ Dollars-------

(1) Inputs
Seeding
(perennial) acre 1.0 8.50 8.50
Seed (clover) lbs. 5.0 1.20 6.00
Fertilizer:
Lime ton 2.5 1.0 2.5 7.50 18.75
Trace
elements unit .25 1.0 .25 15.00 3.75
10-10-10 cwt. 4.0 2.65 10.60
0-10-20 cwt. 3.0 2.20 6.60
0-0-60 cwt. 1.0 2.60 2.60
Spreading
(custom) acre 3.0 1.0 3.0 1.00 3.00
Hired labor hr. 3.0 2.10 6.30
Machinery op-
erating costs acre 1.0 7.47 7.47
Machinery
ownership
costs acre 1.0 6.62 6.62
(2) Total specified
costs 80.19


Total labor requirements by periods (hrs.)
Nov-Feb. Mar-June July-Oct. Total
-- 5.8 2.5 8.3

See page 8 for footnotes b and d.








Table 16.--Estimated per acre annual requirements and yield for irrigated
perennial grass and clover for permanent pasture in the gulf
coast area of Central Florida

Total Price or Total
Total
Item Unit Rate Number uantit cost per value or
qu y unit I cost
-------Dollars------


(1) Production
Grazinga


AUM 1.03


(2) Inputs
Fertilizer:
Lime
Trace
elements
0-8-24
w/B203
0-0-60
Spreading
(custom)
Power for
pump
Machinery op-
erating costs
Machinery
ownership
costs
Annual interest
on capital
Annual charge
for clearing
Annual charge
for estab-
lishmenth
Interest on
clearing cost
Interest on
establishment
cost
(3) Total specified
costs


ton


7.50


.05 15.00


unit

cwt.
cwt.


acre 2.0


1.0


acre

acre


acre

dol.


dol. .05


dol. .10 1.0


3.0
1.0

2.0

1.0


39.26


2.15
2.60

1.00

.2.15

2.59


2.33

.08


.05 40.87


.10 80.19


dol. .50 40.87 20.43


dol. .50 80.19 40.10


.08


.08


(4) Labor


Total labor requirements


by periods (hrs.)


Ann. capital


requirements (dol.)


Total Operating capitali
2.3 Fixed capital


See page 8 for footnotes a, b, d, g, h, i, and 1.


10.0


10.3


3.75

.75

6.45
2.60

2.00

2.15

2.59


2.33

3.14

2.04


8.02

1.63


3.21.

40.66


Nov.-Feb. Mar.-June July-Oct.
.7 1.1 .5


2.10


4.83


10.15
29.11


Total labor requirements


J h









Appendix Table l.--Estimated yield per acre by
fertilization rates in gulf
Florida


pasture alternatives and
coast area of Central


FertilizatLon rate3
Enterprise Fertilizer Unit ertil on r
None Medium High


Unimproved native range AUM .98

Improved native range AUM 1.22
10-10-10
Babiagrass 10-10-10 AUM -- 6.0 7.9
Bah i agras s 33.5-0-0


10-10-10 A 8
Pangola digitgrass 33.5-0-0 AUM -- 6.3 8.2

10-10-10
Ryegrass 33.5-0-0 AM -- -- 8.2

10-10-10
Perennial grass top seeded 16-8-8 AUM -- 10.5
with ryegrass 33.5-0-0

10-10-10
Perennial grass for.grazing 16-8-8 AUM -- -- 4.5
& hay production 33.5-0-0 Tons hay -- .-- 2.5

0-8-24 w/B 0
Perennial grass and 2 3 M 3 A B 10
clover, irrigated 0-0-60 AU -- -- 10.3

aAll fertilization programs on improved pasture include application of
lime and trace elements in addition to the indicated fertilizer.










ii i
N
r
p\
i









i
i


Appendix Table 2.--Assumed monthly prices for cattle by specified classes and grades, Central Floridaa

____ iMfonthly average Y earl
Class and grade Mnh a.. e Yearly
Jan. Feb. Mar. April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. average
- --------------- -- --l per w.t.--------- -------------- -------- --
Cows
Commercial 21.82 21.11 21.31 21.64 22.01 21.51 21.26 20.02 20.25 20.16 20.23 21.56 21.07
Utility 21.56 22.24 22.90 23.27 22.87 22.82 22.37 22.05 21.95 21.51 21.50 22.31 22.28
Bulls
Commercial 25.50 26.43 27.10 27.47 27.44 27.43 27.24 26.72 26.61 25.49 26.07 26.28 26.65
Utility 23.91 24.S9 25.47 25.96 25.93 25.90 25.81 25.28 25.13 24.44 24.33 24.81 25.16
Calves
Good 31.21 -33.65 35.48 37.12 36.74 36.45 34.32 33.44 33.05 32.28 32.06 33.61 34.12
Standard 28.78 30.98 31.91 32.75 32.26 32.69 31.78 30.61 30-66 29.60 29.58 30.34 31.00
Feeder steers
Choice 28.79 30.27 30.71 30.96 31.06 31.39 31.29 30.58 30.33 30.05 30.27 31.54 30.64
Good 27.35 28.78 29.62 30.10 29.97 29.76 29.14 28.70 28.27 28.26 28.64 29.16 28.98
Feeder heifers
Choice 26.23 27.34 27.93 29.67 28.07 29.55 29.24 28.03 28.34 27.09 27.03 28.03 28.05
Good 25.41 26.38 27.22 28.26 27.99 27.83 27.41 26.91 26.40 25.91 26.43 26.90 26.92


*Three year (1969-71) price levels adjusted for current

Sources Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service,


Florida Agricultural Statistics Livestock Summary, 1969-71.


q-:.-


i "'






27 /

Appendix Table 3.--Assumed prices paid by ranchers for selected input
items, Central Florida

Item Unit Price
----Dollars----

Regular labor "hour 2.10

Seasonal labor hour 1.85

Bull head 550.00

Fertilizer
Lime (spread) b ton 7.50
Trace elements unit 15.00
0-8-24 with B203 cwt. 2.15
0-10-20 with B203 cwt. 2.20
0-0-60 cwt. 2.60
10-10-10 cwt. 2.65
16-8-8 cwt. 2.55
33.5-0-0 cwt. 3.30

Seeds and seedlings
Pensacola bahiagrass lb. .40
Pangola digitgrass sprigs bale 1.50
Bermudagrass sprigs bale 1.50
Ryegrass lb. .125
Clover (La. S-1) lb. 1.20

Feeds
Supplemental feed ton 85.00
Urea-molasses ton 35.00
Minerals and salt cwt. 5.25

Custom operations
Clearing, bulldozer hour 20.00
Ditching hour 12.50
Leveling & disking, bulldozer hour 17.00
Spreading fertilizer (bulk) acre 1,00

aIncludes base wage plus 5.2 percent for employer's contribution to
Social Security taxes.

bTrace elements usually applied at the rate of one-fourth unit every
five years, resulting in an annual cost of $.75 per acre.



















Appendix Table 4.--Estimated investment, annual overhead costs, and variable expenses for machinery and equipment in the gulf coast area of Central Floridaa


Annual fixed costs Total Annual repairs Other Total
Ttalvari- vari- Fixed
SInannual
Depre- Taxes Interest fixed total Per able ales courts/

I_ c r/" oss h..-ur
---------- -.----- 5------ ------------- IJlr...----------------------------------------


Tractor 35 hp.
Tractor 60 hp.
Tractor 80 hp.
Mower, rotary 6 ft.
Mover, rotary 10 ft.
Mower, sickle 7 ft.
Rake, side-delivery 8 ft.
Baler, FTO
Harrow, disk 12 ft.
Harrow, disk 8 ft.
Plow, disk 4-D
Harrow, spiketooth 12 ft.
SCultipacker 10 ft.
Grain drill 12 ft.
Chopper 6 ft.
Fertilizer spreader 8 ft.
Grassland drill 6 ft.
Truck 3/4 ton
Truck 2 ton
Wagon
Miscellaneous tools
Total


4,500 2,475
6,500 3,575
9,500 5,225
500 275
800 440
525 288
625 344
2,500 1,375
1,200 900
750 412
925 510
250 138
400 220
950 523
625 344
500 275
1,450 798
2,600 1,430
4,475 2,462
500 275
10,oo 550
41,075 22,834


12,000 270.00 8.66 22.50 198.00 499.16 90.00 .314 .466 .780 .624
12,000 487.50 12.51 35.00 286.00 821.01 130.00 .600 .740 1.34 .821
12,000 712.50 18.28 42.00 418.00 1,190.78 190.00 .730 .980 1.710 1.191
2,000 45.00 .96 1.04 22.00 69.00 10.00 .095 .011 .1d6 .345
2,000 72.00 1.54 1.67 35.20 110.41 16.00 .130 .025 .155 .552
2,000 47.30 1.01 1.09 23.04 72.44 10.50 .169 .011 .180 .362
1,500 56.00 1.20 1.31 27.52 86.03 12.50 .184 .011 .195 .574
2,500 218.25 4.81 5.22 110.00 401.28 50.00 .317 .050 .367 1.605
2,000 90.00 3.15 3.42 72.00 168.57 24.00 .141 .019 .160 1.011
2,000 56.25 1.44 1.57 32.96 92.22 15.00 .030 .015 .095 .553
2,000 69.42 1.78 1.94 40.80 113.94 18.50 .049 .012 .061 .684
2.500 15.00 .48 .52 11.04 27.04; 5.00 .027 .027 .162
2,500 24.00 .77 .84 17.60 43.21 8.00 .021 .020 .041 .326
1,000 85.50 1.83 1.99 41.84 131.16 19.00 .405 .150 .555 1.750
2,000 56.30 1.20 1.31 27.52 86.33 12.50 .094 .145 .239 .648
2,500 45.00 .96 1.04 22.00 69.00 10.00 .200 .450 .650 1.080
2,500 130.50 2.79 3.03 63.84 201.16 29.00 .075 .045 .120 .274
80,000/mi 234.00 5.01 43.00 114.40 396.41 154.00 .770 .050 .820 1.982
80,000/mi. 402.70 8.62 31.50 196.96 639.78 189.00 .945 .OSO 1.025 3.198
30.00 .96 1.04 22.00 54.00 10.00
S 60.00 1.93 2.C09 12 ..03 U8 .02 20..'.
3,:u7.2 79.0 203.12 1,b.6.72 ,30.95 l,023.0-


See page 29 for footnotes.


if' ' ,


See age 29 for fonrnoree.







'29


notess for Appendix Table 4.

aThe system includes an open range herd of 500 mature cows.

Initial cost plus salvage value divided by 2 (salvage value is 10 percent

initial cost on equipment and zero on buildings and improvements.)

CInicial cost less salvage value divided by length of life.

dTaxes on equipment and machinery equals average cost times 3.5 mills.


Average cosc times .38 percent except for trucks and tractors.

Average cost times 8 percent.


Initial cost times 2 percent.


Includes gas, oil, grease, etc.

Based on 75 percent of capacity.

Annual hours of truck use based on 8,000 miles at average speed of 40 mph.















Appendix Table 5.--Estimated investment, annual fixed costs,and repairs for buildings and specific livestock equipment for initial cow-calf herd (500-cow
unit) on 3,500 acres in the gulf coast area of Central Florida


Ite Life Initial Average Depre- fb d I anced Interest Anualal
Item costs costs cation Taes Insurance Interestepair annual
fixed costs
Years -----------Dollars ------------------------------------------------------

Corrals (2) 12 5,500 2,750 412.50 41.25 10.45 220.00 110.00 794.20
Pole barn (100 x 75) 20 7,500 3,750 337.50 56.25 14.25 300.00 -- 708.00
Machinery shed 20 2,200 1,100 99.00 16.50 4.18 88.00 -- 207.68
Deep wells (2) (4" x 300') 25 3,000 1,500 108.00 22.50 5.70 120.00 60.00 316.20
Shallow wells (3) 15 600 300 36.00 4.50 1.14 24.00 12.00 77.64
Squeeze chutes (2) 10 460 253 41.40 .89 .96 20.24 9.20 72.69
Spray rig 10 250 138 22.50 .48 .52 11.04 5.00 39.54
Mineral and salt boxes (20) 10 800 400 72.00 1.40 1.52 32.00 16.00 122.92
Pumps (2) 15 3,000 1,650 180.00 5.78 6.27 132.00 60.00 384.05
Windmills (3) 25 1,200 660 43.20 2.31 2.51 52.80 24.00 124.62
Fencing (35 miles) 15 24,500 12,250 1,470.00 183.75 46.55 980.00 490.00 3,170.30
Water troughs (10) 10 .,000 5P00 "0.00 1.75 1.90 .00 .I,0 15j.20
Total 50,010 25,251 2,;12.10 337.36 95.95 2,c010.0C, i.-j c,171.69

aInitial cost plus salvage value divided by 2 (salvage value is 10 percent of initial cost on machinery and equipment and zero on buildings and
improvements).
bInitial cost lass salvage value divided by length of life.

eTaxes on buildings and improvements at a rate of 15 mills (average cost times .015) and taxes on equipment is average cost times 3.5 mills.

dAverage cost times .38 percent except for trucks and tractors.

eAverage cost times 8 percent.

Initial cost times 2 percent excluding labor cost for repairing buildings, fencing, and improvements.


0

















App.r.dix la.le 6.--Escime.id reLr-ns, co,.t, and c pitol requglrcncrt per unic fr sp.cifled liveStock and pasture en.trprises In the S lf coast area of
Central Florida

Returns to
Total land, labor, Returns to
Total overhead land, over- Total Annual Fie
Enterprise Unit spe ed ovradn Labor head capital, capital capital i
returns spcis s capital, man- capital
costs agement, and management, requirementsa requirements p
risk ,and risk
-------------*-----------------------------------------Dollars---------------------------------------------- ----------

Cow-calf 500 cow 64,045.41 42,361.38 21,684.03 2,118.90 19,565.13 222,480.56 214,365.78 206,251.00
E.y-sell (Oct. 1-April 1) 100 steer 19,156.50 16,662.23 2,494.27 348.60 2,145.67 15,299.87 7,344.18 291.20
Buy-sell (April 1-Oct. 1) 100 steer 18,593.19 17,194.97 1,398.22 306.60 1,091.92 15,877.88 7,701.08 251.60
Temporary winter pasture acre -- 47.14 -- 6.28 45.66 21.28 9.09
Eah.larasr pasture (medium
fertilization level) acre -- 30.06 -- 2.73 -- 22.69 13.01 3.33
EahiagrasF pasture (high
fcrctli:tior, level) acre -- 39.77 -- 2.92 32.08 17.77 3.46
Par.ola digiStrass pasture
(aediti fercilizacion level) acre -- 31.93 -- 2.92 -- 22.92 13.19 3.46
Fangola digircrass pasture
(ra h fertilization level) acre -- 41.73 -- 3.11 -- 32.51 18.10 3.69
Crass pasture top.eaedd with
ry~arass acre 61.79 7.98 -- 55.56 32.50 9.44
Grass pasture used for
gra:ir.g ad haying acre -- ;62.95 10.40 -- 58.48 35.55 12.62
Cr:ss-clo-er pasture
irrigated acre -- 40.66 -- 4.83 -- 49.41 39.26 29.11


aEquals fixed investment capital plus cash inputs,
bEquals fixed investment capital plus cash inputs adjusted to an annual equivalent basis.






L--


Appendix Table 7.--tstimated investment, annual fixed costs, and annual operating costs of seepage irrigation system for pastures (350 acre unit) in the
gulf coast area of Central Florida

S Initial Average Depre- d Te f Annual Total Annual
Item life on Taxesd Insurance Interest annual o operating
costs _osts ciation repair h
Nears --...........----------------------------------------------------- ollar-------------------------------------------------------

Ditches 10 5,250 2,625 525 39.37 9.98 210.00 105.00 889.35 --

Distribution boxes,
flashboards 10 1,750 875 175 13.12 3.32 70.00 35.00 296.44

Well (12" x 1,000) 20 5,000 2,500 250 37.50 9.50 200.00 100.00 597.00

Pump and engine 15 4,500 2,475 :70 9.66 9.20 195 C0 90.00 5"6.06 752.50
Total lo,5 0 6,.75 1,220 98.o5 .20 7.0 0.0 2,3j.55 )52.50

Average per acre 47.14 24.21 3.48 .28 .09 1.94 .94 6.73 2.15

aThese requirements are directly related to irrigated pasture.
bInitial cost plus salvage value divided by 2 (salvage value is 10 percent on machinery and equipment and zero on buildings and improvements).

cInitial cost less salvage value divided by length of life.

dTaxes on buildings and improvements at a rate of 15 mills (average cost times .015) and for taxes on equipment is average cost times 3.5 mills.
eAverage cost times .38 percent except for trucks and tractors.
Average cost times 8 percent.
Initial cost times 2 percent excluding labor costs.

hDoes not include labor costs.













Appendix Table E.--P.:ef cattle lnvincoy: Esti.ated ar,ir.:,l unit manch. of grazinr requir.c far ccw-calf hard of 500 mature cows, calves born
!l.rch sld ,'tcober 1 ir the gulf coas~ jrLa of Cr,,ral Floridj


Ar. .-.al
un r Annual
Cattle herd equ'L Jan. Feb. March April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. average
l anc


Couis
Mature (500)
Calves (400)
Dry (30)
Culled (60)
DldJ (10)

Eulls (22)
Total ALU
AUM per cow

Peifers
Bred (98)
With calves (70)
Dry & culled (26)
Died (2)
Total AIM
AUM per heifer

earlier, heifers,
Open (100)


1.0 500 500
1.25
1.0
1.0
1.0


500 500 .500


500 500 500 500 500 500 500
30 30 30 30 30 30 30


1.25 55 28 28 28 28 28 28 8 28 28 28 28
35S 528 628 558 558 558 558 558 558 528 528 528 551.3
1.06 1.06 1.26 1.12 1.12 1.12 1.12 1.12 1.12 1.06 1.06 1.06 1.10


1.0
1.25
.1.0
1.0


98 98
88 88 88 88 88 88 88
26
2
9.0 9. 11 8 ? 9 a 8 88 88 88
1.0 1.0 1.18 .90 .90 .90 .90 .90 .90


.65 65 65


65 65 65 65 65


65 65 65 65 65 65


701
.71


Heifer calves,
Replacements (100) .50

Total AUK
AUM per mature cow


50 50 50 12.5

691 691 809 711 711 711 711 711 711 643 643 643 698.8
1.38 1.38 1.62 1.42 1.42 1.42 1.42 1.42 1.42 1.29 1.29 1.29 1.40


aRequirements to maintain beef herd at 500 cow level with 80 percent calf crop, 12 percent culling rate for mature cows (cow in herd 8 years)
and 2 percent death loss. Culled animals sold in March.

bAnimal unit month (AUI) based on one month requirement for a mature cow weighing approximately 1,000 pounds.


--














Appendix Table 9.--Estimated annual grazing requirements for specified livestock and grazing yields by specified pasture enterprises in the gulf coast area
of Central Florida

Enterprise Unit Jan. Feb. ar. April May June July Aug. Sept. Oct._ Nov. Dec. Total
---------------------------------------------------Animal unit months--------------------------------------------------


Co.--calf
2 Buy-sell. (Oct. 1-April 1).
Puy-ll'(April 1-Oct. 1);
Unii.r.ri.ed native range-
land
Improved native range-
land
Temporary winter pasture
Bahiagrass pasture (medium
fertilization level)
Sahiagrass pasture (high
fertilization level)
Pangola digitgrass pasture
(medium fertilization
level)
Pangola digitgrass pasture
(high fertilization level)
Grass pasture topseeded
with ryegrass
Grass pasture used for
grazing and haying
Grass-clover pasture
irrigated


500 cow
100 steer
100 steer

acre

acre
acre

acre

acre


acre

acre

acre

acre

acre


691.0
75.0


.07

.09
1.8


691.0
75.0


.07

.09
1.8


809.0 711.0
80.0 --
65.0

.09 .09

.11 .11
1.8 1.2


. .1 .1

.1 .3


.1 .1

.2 .3

1.5 1.5



.6 1.0


711.0

65.0

.10

.12
.9

1.0

1.2


.8

1.0

.6

1.0

1.1


711.0

75.0

.10

.12



1.0
1.0


711.0

75.0

.09

.11


.9D

1.0


711.0

75.0

.08

.10


.7

.9


711.0

80.0

.08

.10


.5

1.0


1.1 1.0 1.0 .7

1.3 1.1 1.1 1.1

.9 1.1 1.1 .8

1.0 1.0 1.0

1.1 1.2 1.1 1.0


643.0
65.0


.07

.09


643.0 643.0 8,386.0
65.0 75.0 435.0
435.0

.07 .07 .98

.09 .09 1.22
S .7 8.2

.2 .1 6.0

.3 .1 7.9


.4 .2 .1 6.3

.6 .2 .1 8.2

-- .7 10.05

-. a -- 4.5

.7 -- -- 10.3


aRaying during fall with an annual yield of 2.5 tons per acre.

















A;;-ijdx Tr le 1'~ .--FrZircced ar.'.-Al l.tr rc jtrer..nts for spccifll d likoertc and p.srure enctrprprses in the uh li coau t .ri .f Certrall TFlrida

E. rp ,rii it Jnr. Fe. I .r. A pril I.:.y iJun I July I u. SE. p. ,.cc. IEn.c. I Lc. Total
----.------- ---------------------------------------------- 11 Ur6 ----------------------- ---------

Cou-calf 500 cow 99.7 99.7 129.6 105.0 80.0 65.0 55.0 55.0 65.0 85.0 85.0 85.0 1,009.0
Zuy-sell (Oct. 1-Aprli 1) 100 steer 24.0 24.0 24.0 10.0 -- -- -- 36.0 24.0 24.0 166.0
Euy-Etll (April 1-Oct. I) 100 steer -- -- 36.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 10.0 146.0
Unimproved native range-
land acre i01 .01 .01 .01 .. .-- .01 .05 .10
Improved native range-
land acre .01 .01 .01 -.01 -- -- .01 .05 .10
Temporary winter pasture acre .05 .03 .7 -- -- 1.4 .7 .05 .03 .03 2.99
Bahiagrais pasture mediumum
fertilization level) acre .01 .01 .4 .8 .01 .01 .01 .01 .01 .01 .01 .01 1.3
BahissraS. pascure (high
fertilization level) acre .01 .01 .4 .8 .01 .01 .01 .1 .01 .01 .01 .01 1.39
Pangola diEltgrass pasture
(medium firtilizatioo
level) acre .01 .4 .1 .8 .01 ,01 .01 .01 .01 .01 .01 .01 1.39
Pangola diitgraes pasture
(hih fertUl zaL ln level) acre .01 .4 .1 .8 .01 .01 .01 .1 .01 .01 .01 .01 1.48
GrasE paEiure tLpseeded
Uvic. ryegrass acre .05 .01 .4 .8 .01 .8 .01 .8 .8 .1 .01 .01 3.8
Crts. p& aure used for .
Erazir.g and haying acre .01 .1 .4 .01 .01 .01 .01 .8 .1 .1 3.0 .4 4.95
Crass-cl;ver pasture
irri ated acre .1 .4 .1 .8 .1 .1 .1 .2 .1 .1 .1 .1 2.3


U(
Lii











y t




Appendix Table ll.--Estinated annual machinery and equipment requirements for specified livestock -and pasture enterprises in the gulf coast area of Central
Florida

Enterprise Unit Jan. Feb. Mar. April May June July Aug. Sept. ct. Nov. FDec. Total
--------- ---- ----------------------------------ours----------------------------------------------------

Cow-calf 500 cow 55.0 55.0 75.0 40.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 30.0 32.5 50.0 40.0 45.0 512.5
Buy-sell (Oct. 1-April 1) 100 steer 6.0 6.0 6.0 8.0 -- 7.5 6.0 6.0 45.5
Buy-sell (April 1-Oct. 1) 100 steer -- -- 6.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 5.0 8.0 -- 39.0
Unimproved native range-
land acre -- -- -- -- -- .05 .05
Improved native range-
land acre -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- -- .05 .05
Temporary winter pasture acre .02 -- .7 -- -- 1.4 .7 .02 -- -- 2.84
Bahiagrass pasture (medium
fertilization level) acre -- .34 .7 -- -- -- -- 1.04
Bahiagrass pasture (high
fertilization level) acre -- .34 .7 -- -- .04 -- -- 1.08
Pangola digitgrass pasture
(medium fertilization
level) acre -- .3 .08 .7 -- -- -- 1.08
Padgola digitgrass pasture
(high fertilization
level)- acre -- .3 .08 .7 -- -- .08 -- -- -- 1.16
Grass pasture topseeded
with ryegrass acre .04 -- .03 .7 -- .7 -- .7 .7 .08 -- 2.95
Grass pasture used for
grazing and haying acre -- .08 .3 -- -- .7 .08 .08 1.5 .3 3.04
Grass-clover pasture
irrigated acre .05 .4 .05 .7. .05 .05 .05 .15 .05 .05 .05 .05 1.7








REFERENCES


Brodnax, H. D., Jr. and B. R. Eddleman. Economic and Operational
Characteristics of Beef Cattle Ranches In West Central Florida.
Univ. of Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. A. E. Research Report EC 69-9.
Gainesville: April 1969.

Chapman, H. L,, Jr., D. W. Beardsley, et al. Developing Calves and
Steers on Pastures in South and Central Florida. Univ. of Fla.
Agr. Exp. Sta. Eul. 719. Gainesville: September 1967.

Chapman, H. L., Jr. and W. G. Kirk. Management Guide for a Cow-Calf
Program in Central and South Florida. Univ. of Fla. Agr. Exp.
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Chapman, H. L., Jr., F. M. Peacock, et al. Supplemental Feeding of
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Cunha, T. J. and Gifford N. Rhodes. Beef Cattle in Florida.
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Eddleman, B. R. and James 0. Phillips, Jr. Monthly Variations of
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Greene, R. E. L. Cost of Producing Principal Field Crops and Cost
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Harrison, D. S., J. M. Myers, et al. Seepage Irrigation for Pastures.
Univ. of Fla. Agr. Ext. Ser. Cir. 309. Gainesville: May 1971.

Hodges, E. ;'., G. B. Killinger, et al. Pangolagrass. Univ. of Fla.
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Jones, D. W., E. M. Hodges, et al. Year-Round Grazing on a
Combination of Native and Improved Pasture. Univ. of Fla. Agr.
E:p. Sta. Bul. 554A. Gainesville: -lay 1960.

Koger, N., U. G. Blue, et al. Beef Production, Soil and Forage
Analyses, and Economic Returns from Eight Pasture Programs in
North Central Florida; Beef Research Unit Experimental Phase
No. 1. Univ. cf Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 631 (Tech.). Gainesville:
May 1901.

Koger, M., W G. Blue, et al. Production Response and Economic Returns
from Five Pasture Programs in North Central Florida; Beef Research
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740 (Tech.). Gainesville: July 1970.

Marhis, Kary and B. R. Eddleman. Seasonal Changes in FloKida Cattle
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38


-/

McCaleb, J. E. and E. M. Hodges. Slenderstem Digitgrass. Univ. of
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Cir. S-201. Gainesville- September 1969.




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