• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Cover
 Types of buttermilk
 Equipment needed
 The culture
 Quality of milk
 Heating the milk
 Transferring the cultures
 Incubating the milk
 Cooling the cultures
 Standardizing the buttermilk
 Flake or churned buttermilk
 Use of condensed skimmilk
 Time schedule for the manufacture...
 The cottage cheese problem






Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station - no. 382
Title: The manufacture of cultured buttermilk and cottage cheese
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027532/00001
 Material Information
Title: The manufacture of cultured buttermilk and cottage cheese
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 18 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Fouts, E. L ( Everett Lincoln ), b. 1890
Mull, L. E ( Leon Edmund ), 1913-
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1943
 Subjects
Subject: Buttermilk   ( lcsh )
Cottage cheese   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by E.L. Fouts and L.E. Mull.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027532
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000925185
oclc - 18232168
notis - AEN5831

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Types of buttermilk
        Page 3
    Equipment needed
        Page 4
    The culture
        Page 5
    Quality of milk
        Page 5
    Heating the milk
        Page 5
    Transferring the cultures
        Page 6
    Incubating the milk
        Page 7
    Cooling the cultures
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Standardizing the buttermilk
        Page 9
    Flake or churned buttermilk
        Page 10
    Use of condensed skimmilk
        Page 10
    Time schedule for the manufacture of buttermilk
        Page 10
    The cottage cheese problem
        Page 11
        The cottage cheese problem
            Page 11
        Equipment needed
            Page 11
            Page 12
        Quality of skimmilk
            Page 13
        Pasteurization of the skimmilk
            Page 14
        Setting the skimmilk
            Page 14
        Cutting the curd
            Page 14
        Heating the curd
            Page 15
        Washing the curd
            Page 16
            Page 17
        Creaming and salting the curd
            Page 16
        Storing cottage cheese
            Page 16
        Time schedule for making cottage cheese
            Page 18
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida






Bulletin 382


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
WILMON NEWELL, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA



THE MANUFACTURE OF

CULTURED BUTTERMILK AND

COTTAGE CHEESE
By E. L. FOUTS and L. E. MULL


Fig. 1.-Inoculating intermediate culture from mother culture, a sterilized
glass tube being used to make the transfer.


Single copies free to Florida residents upon request to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


January, 1943







EXECUTIVE STAFF
John J. Tigert, M.A., LL.I., President
Wilmon Newell, D.Sc., Directors
Harold Mowry, M.S.A., Asso. Director
L. 0. Gratz, Ph.D., Asst. Dir., Research
W. M. Fifield. M.S., Asst. Dir., Admin.'
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editors
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Assistant Editor3
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editors
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
Ruby Newhall. Administrative Managers
K. H. Graham, Business Managers
Claranelle T. Alderman, Accountants

MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE
AGRONOMY
W. E. Stokes, M.S., Agronomist1
W. A. Leukel, Ph.D., Agronomists
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist
G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Agronomist2
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate
Roy E. Blaser, M.S., Associate
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Associate
Fred A. Clark, B.S.A., Assistant
ANIMAL INDUSTRY
A. L. Shealy, D.V.M., An. Industrialist' 8
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman3
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Technologists
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarian3
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist 4
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husb.3
T. R. Freeman, Ph.D., Asso. in Dairy Mfg.
R. S. Glasscock, Ph.D., Asso. An. Husb.
D. J. Smith, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.'
P. T. Dix Arnold. M.S.A., Asst. Dairy Husb.s
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Nutr. Tech.
S. P. Marshall, M.S., Asst. in An. Nutr.
C. B. Reeves, B.S., Asst. Dairy Tech.
L. E. Mull, M.S., Asst. in Dairy Tech.4
0. K. Moore, M.S., Asst. Poultry Husb.
J. E. Pace, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.
ECONOMICS, AGRICULTURAL
C. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agr. Economist1 3
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Associate
Max E. Brunk. M.S., Assistant
ECONOMICS, HOME
Ouida D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ.1
Ruth 0. Townsend, R.N., Assistant
R. B. French, Ph.D., Asso. Chemist
ENTOMOLOGY
J. R. Watson, A.M., Entomologist'
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Associate
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant
HORTICULTURE
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist'
A. L. Stahl, Ph.D., Associate
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Truck Hort.
R. J. Wilmot, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
R. D. Dickey, M.S.A., Asst. Hort."
J. CHrlton Cain, B.S.A., Asst. Hort.4
Victor F. Nettles. M.S.A., Asst. Hort.'
Byron E. Janes, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
A. L. Kenworthy, M.S., Asst. Hort.
F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.2
H. M. Sell, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.2
PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist' '
George F. Weber, Ph.D., Plant Path.3
Phares Decker, Ph.D., Aeso. Plant Path.
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Asst. Botanist
SOILS
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Chemist" '
Gaylord M. Volk, M.S., Chemist
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologists
C. E. Bell, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
H. W. Winaor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
J. Russell Henderson, M.S.A., Associate3
L. H. Rogers, Ph.D., Asso. Biochemist4
Richard A. Carrigan, B.S., Asso. Chemist'
L. E. Ensminger, Ph.D., Asso. Soils Chemist
Geo. D. Thornton, M.S., Asst. Chemist
R. E. Caldwell, M.S.A., Soil Surveyors
Olaf C. Olson, B.S., Soil Surveyors


BOARD OF CONTROL
H. P. Adair, Chairman, Jacksonville
R. H. Gore, Fort Lauderdale
N. B. Jordan, Quincy
T. T. Scott, Live Oak
Thos. W. Bryant, Lakeland
J. T. Diamond, Secretary, Tallahassee
BRANCH STATIONS
NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY
J. D. Warner, M.S., Agronomist in Charge
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
Elliott Whitehurst, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.'
W. C. McCormick, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.
Jesse Reeves, Asst. Agron., Tobacco
W. H. Chapman, M.S., Asst. Agron.4
Mobile Unit, Monticello
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Associate Agronomist
Mobile Unit, Milton
J. H. Wallace, M.A., Associate Agronomist
CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Charge
V. C. Jamison, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
B. R. Fudge, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Associate Ento.
W. W. Lawless, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist'
R. K. Voorhees, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
C. R. Stearns, B.S.A., Asso. Chemist
H. 0. Sterling, B.S., Asst. Hort.
T. W. Young. Ph.D., Asso. Hort., Coastal
J. W. Sites, M.S., Asso. Hort.
EVERGLADES STA., BELLE GLADE
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Biochemist in Charge
J. W. Wilson, Sc.D., Entomologist
F. D. Stevens, B.S., Sugarcane Agron.
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Sugarcane
Physiologist
G. R. Townsend, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. W. WKidder, M.S., Asst. An. Hush.
W. T. Forsee. Ph.D., Asso. Chemist
B. S. Clayton, B.S.C.E., Drainage Eng.2
F. S. Andrews, Ph.D., Asso. Truck Hort.'
Roy A. Bair, Ph.D., Asst. Agron.
E. C. Minnim, M.S., Asst. Truck Hort.
SUB-TROPICAL STA., HOMESTEAD
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge
S. J. Lynch, B.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist
E. M. Andersen, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
W. CENT. FLA. STA., BROOKSVILLE
W. F.Ward, M.S., Asst.An.Husb.in Charges
RANGE CATTLE STA.. ONA
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., An. Hush. in Charge
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Asso. Agron., Wauchula
Gilbert A. Tucker, B.S.A., Asst. An. Hush.'
FIELD STATIONS
Leesburg
M. N. Walker, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge"
K. W. Loucks, M.S., Asst. Plant Path.
E. E. Hartwig, Ph.D., Asst. Agron. & Path.
Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. N. MeCubbin, Ph.D., Asso. Truck Hort.
Monticello
S. O. Hill, B.S., Entomologist2s
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Asst. Entomologists
Bradenton
J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Truck Hort. in Chg.
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
F. T. McLean, Ph.D., Horticulturist
A. L. Harrison, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
David G. Kelbert, Asst. Plant Pathologist
Sanford
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Chemist in Charge
Jack Russell. M.S., Asst. Entomologist
Lakeland
E. S. Ellison, Meteorologists "
Harry Armstrong, Asso. Meteorologist"
1 Head of Department.
2 In cooperation with U. S.
s Cooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
SIn Military Service.
5 On leave.

Gift of Issuing Office







THE MANUFACTURE OF CULTURED BUTTERMILK
AND COTTAGE CHEESE
By E. L. FOUTS and L. E. MULL
CONTENTS
CULTURED BUTTERMILK COTTAGE CHEESE
Page Page
Types of Butterm ilk ........................................ 3age
Equipment Needed ...................................... 4 The Cottage Cheese Problem ....................... 11
The Culture ...... ................ ........ 5 Equipm ent Needed ......................................... 11
Quality of M ilk .............................................. 5 Quality of Skim m ilk ........................................ 13
Heating the Milk ............................................ 5 Pasteurization of the Skimmilk .................. 14
Transferring the Cultures ............................ 6 Setting the Skimmilk .............................. 14
Incubating the Milk ........................................ 7 Cutting the Curd ........................................ 14
Cooling the Cultures ................................ 7 Heating the Curd 15
Standardizing the Buttermilk ...................................................... 15
Flake or Churned Buttermilk .................... 10 Washing the Curd ....................................... 16
Use of Condensed Skimmilk ....................... 10 Creaming and Salting the Curd .................. 16
Time Schedule for the Manufacture Storing Cottage Cheese ............................... ... 16
of Buttermilk ............................................. 10 Time Schedule for Making Cottage Cheese 18
CULTURED BUTTERMILK
Buttermilk occupies an important place on the list of products
sold by many dairy plants and farm dairies in Florida. While
buttermilk is classed as a minor product in relation to the total
volume of milk sold by dairies throughout the state, it serves
as a leader to stimulate the sale of other dairy products. Every
dairyman should have an understanding of the processes involved
in the manufacture of this product.

TYPES OF BUTTERMILK
In general, there are two types of buttermilk-churned and
cultured. Churned buttermilk is the product resulting from the
churning of sour milk or cream. Cultured buttermilk is the pro-
duct resulting from the growth of certain species of micro-
organisms under carefully controlled conditions in whole,
skimmed or partly skimmed milk which previously has been
heated and cooled according to recommendations which will ap-
pear in another section of this bulletin.
It is not possible to say that one type of product is superior
to the other because either is excellent when properly prepared.
Which to make depends largely upon the products available at
the dairy and the demands of the consumer. If churned butter-
milk is made, cream or whole milk must be available for churn-
ing, whereas cultured buttermilk can be made from milk or skim-
milk without the problems involved in the churning and the sale
of butter. In most instances when churned buttermilk is sold,
the milk or cream is churned primarily to obtain the buttermilk,
the butter being a by-product. Cultured buttermilk frequently
is churned before bottling to make the product resemble regular
churned buttermilk.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


EQUIPMENT NEEDED
Comparatively few dairies and milk plants are equipped to
propagate starters for cultured buttermilk in the proper manner.
This is due primarily to the cost of commercial equipment which,
in many cases, is prohibitive to the small plant. Factory-made
culture equipment is desirable and should be purchased by those
dairymen who can afford it. However, it is possible for the
operator of a small plant to make a good quality product with-
out expensive equipment. Much of the needed equipment can
be made at low cost.
Any tinsmith can make a small galvanized box with a lid,
which will be entirely satisfactory for heating the milk to be
used for mother cultures. If quart milk bottles are to be used the
box should be 81/ x 81/2 x 11 inches high. If containers of other
sizes are to be used, the box should be made to fit them. It is
advisable to install a perforated metal rack, about 1/2 inch from
the bottom of the box, to support the bottles and permit free
circulation of water under them. This will aid in the uniform
heating and cooling of the milk. The water in the box may be
heated by a gas burner or steam, and water connections may
be arranged to facilitate cooling. Arrangement must be pro-
vided to maintain the inoculated milk for the culture at a tem-
perature of 680 to 70 F. during the incubation period. For
the small plant such an incubator for the mother cultures can
be constructed at low cost with the help of an electrician who
can supply the thermostat and other needed electrical appara-
tus.1 Bulk buttermilk may be made either in milk cans or in a
special buttermilk vat, depending on the equipment available.
If it is made in cans, a satisfactory arrangement is to set the
cans in a vat of water as indicated under "incubation." Where
a large investment in equipment is not justified a satisfactory
product may be prepared in bright well-tinned milk cans.
If a vat is used for buttermilk the entire process of pasteuriza-
tion, incubation, cooling and storage may be carried on in it.
The milk is held at a uniform temperature by water in the jacket
of the vat. Some vats are equipped with automatic temperature
regulators.
Since most of the buttermilk sold is of the cultured type, this
bulletin will be devoted almost entirely to a discussion of this
type of product.

SFouts, E. L., and J. I. Keith. Improving the Quality of Oklahoma
Butter. Okla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 226. 1935.






Cultured Buttermilk and Cottage Cheese


People drink buttermilk primarily because its flavor appeals
to their taste; they like its pleasant appetizing aroma and its
mild acid taste. Whether or not buttermilk has these desirable
characteristics depends upon many factors.

THE CULTURE
The culture used to ferment the milk is the most important
consideration. It must contain certain species of bacteria hav-
ing the ability to bring about the fermentations which yield a
desirable aroma and flavor. Such cultures may be obtained from
almost any dairy supply house and when cared for according to
instructions will usually produce good results. The proper care
of cultures and the manufacture of buttermilk involve several
important points. These points are discussed in the following
paragraphs.
QUALITY OF MILK
The use of milk of good quality is essential for carrying the
mother cultures and for preparing buttermilk. Whole milk
should always be used for mother cultures; either whole milk,
skimmilk or partly skimmed milk may be used for the butter-
milk. In any case, buttermilk should be standardized before
bottling. Standardization will be discussed in another section
of this bulletin.
HEATING THE MILK
Some provision must be made to heat the milk to be used for
mother cultures. Fruit jars or milk bottles are satisfactory con-
tainers. The bottles 2/3 filled with fresh whole milk are set in
a covered, partly filled water bath. The water level should be
slightly higher than the milk level in the bottle. The water sur-
rounding the bottles of milk should be heated until the milk
reaches a temperature of 1800 to 190 F. The milk should be
held at this temperature for 1 hour and then cooled in water
to 700 F. The cooling should be done gradually to avoid break-
ing the bottles. The milk is then ready to be inoculated with
the mother culture.
The larger quantity of milk that is to be made into butter-
milk is heated in the same manner in a can or vat. If the
buttermilk is to be made in milk cans, only bright well-tinned
cans showing no rust spots should be used. A milk can is a
satisfactory container to use for small quantities of buttermilk,
but if a considerable amount of the product is being made a






Cultured Buttermilk and Cottage Cheese


People drink buttermilk primarily because its flavor appeals
to their taste; they like its pleasant appetizing aroma and its
mild acid taste. Whether or not buttermilk has these desirable
characteristics depends upon many factors.

THE CULTURE
The culture used to ferment the milk is the most important
consideration. It must contain certain species of bacteria hav-
ing the ability to bring about the fermentations which yield a
desirable aroma and flavor. Such cultures may be obtained from
almost any dairy supply house and when cared for according to
instructions will usually produce good results. The proper care
of cultures and the manufacture of buttermilk involve several
important points. These points are discussed in the following
paragraphs.
QUALITY OF MILK
The use of milk of good quality is essential for carrying the
mother cultures and for preparing buttermilk. Whole milk
should always be used for mother cultures; either whole milk,
skimmilk or partly skimmed milk may be used for the butter-
milk. In any case, buttermilk should be standardized before
bottling. Standardization will be discussed in another section
of this bulletin.
HEATING THE MILK
Some provision must be made to heat the milk to be used for
mother cultures. Fruit jars or milk bottles are satisfactory con-
tainers. The bottles 2/3 filled with fresh whole milk are set in
a covered, partly filled water bath. The water level should be
slightly higher than the milk level in the bottle. The water sur-
rounding the bottles of milk should be heated until the milk
reaches a temperature of 1800 to 190 F. The milk should be
held at this temperature for 1 hour and then cooled in water
to 700 F. The cooling should be done gradually to avoid break-
ing the bottles. The milk is then ready to be inoculated with
the mother culture.
The larger quantity of milk that is to be made into butter-
milk is heated in the same manner in a can or vat. If the
buttermilk is to be made in milk cans, only bright well-tinned
cans showing no rust spots should be used. A milk can is a
satisfactory container to use for small quantities of buttermilk,
but if a considerable amount of the product is being made a






Cultured Buttermilk and Cottage Cheese


People drink buttermilk primarily because its flavor appeals
to their taste; they like its pleasant appetizing aroma and its
mild acid taste. Whether or not buttermilk has these desirable
characteristics depends upon many factors.

THE CULTURE
The culture used to ferment the milk is the most important
consideration. It must contain certain species of bacteria hav-
ing the ability to bring about the fermentations which yield a
desirable aroma and flavor. Such cultures may be obtained from
almost any dairy supply house and when cared for according to
instructions will usually produce good results. The proper care
of cultures and the manufacture of buttermilk involve several
important points. These points are discussed in the following
paragraphs.
QUALITY OF MILK
The use of milk of good quality is essential for carrying the
mother cultures and for preparing buttermilk. Whole milk
should always be used for mother cultures; either whole milk,
skimmilk or partly skimmed milk may be used for the butter-
milk. In any case, buttermilk should be standardized before
bottling. Standardization will be discussed in another section
of this bulletin.
HEATING THE MILK
Some provision must be made to heat the milk to be used for
mother cultures. Fruit jars or milk bottles are satisfactory con-
tainers. The bottles 2/3 filled with fresh whole milk are set in
a covered, partly filled water bath. The water level should be
slightly higher than the milk level in the bottle. The water sur-
rounding the bottles of milk should be heated until the milk
reaches a temperature of 1800 to 190 F. The milk should be
held at this temperature for 1 hour and then cooled in water
to 700 F. The cooling should be done gradually to avoid break-
ing the bottles. The milk is then ready to be inoculated with
the mother culture.
The larger quantity of milk that is to be made into butter-
milk is heated in the same manner in a can or vat. If the
buttermilk is to be made in milk cans, only bright well-tinned
cans showing no rust spots should be used. A milk can is a
satisfactory container to use for small quantities of buttermilk,
but if a considerable amount of the product is being made a






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


special buttermilk vat should be used. There are several suit-
able types of buttermilk vats on the market. When buying a
vat, durability, good construction and ease of cleaning and
sterilizing are of importance. Durability is essential because
extremes of temperature are employed and a poorly constructed
vat will tend to warp, buckle and split at the seams. Stainless
steel is preferable, although glass lined or well-tinned vats are
satisfactory. In making buttermilk a high temperature is em-
ployed in heating the milk and after the buttermilk has coagu-
lated it must be cooled to a low temperature in the vat. For
best results suitable arrangements for maintaining high and low
temperatures should be provided. Sanitation is important and
the vat should be constructed so that it can be cleaned and
sterilized easily.

TRANSFERRING THE CULTURES
The inoculation of the previously heated and cooled milk should
be done with care. This is a process of introducing a desirable
bacterial culture into the milk and to obtain satisfactory results,
care must be taken that only the culture bacteria gain entrance
into the milk. The organisms in the mother culture are desirable
ones, and any others from the air, from transferring equipment
or any other source are considered contaminants. To make
satisfactory culture transfers all equipment must be practically
sterile and no contaminating organisms allowed to enter the milk.
This is a relatively simple procedure but certain instructions
must be followed, chief of which is always to use clean, sterile
equipment for making the transfer. A long-handled teaspoon
is excellent for transferring mother cultures. A pipette or small
glass tube is also satisfactory (see Fig. 1). Before use, the spoon
or pipette should be completely submerged in boiling water for
10 minutes or wrapped in paper and heated in a moderate oven
(350 F.) for 1 hour. The mother culture should be added
to the previously heated and cooled milk to the extent of 1 to 2
percent. (This applies to the inoculation of both the mother
culture and the bulk buttermilk.) The added culture should be
mixed in well by rotating the bottle, or by stirring thoroughly
the milk in the can or vat. The covers then should be replaced
on the containers. The milk for both culture and buttermilk
having been inoculated then is ready for incubating.
When a large quantity of buttermilk is to be made it is neces-
sary to carry an intermediate culture. The small bottle in the






Cultured Buttermilk and Cottage Cheese


picture (Fig. 1) contains the mother culture and the contents
of the larger bottle being inoculated will be the intermediate
culture after incubation. The mother and intermediate cultures
are cared for in an identical manner. The only difference be-
tween them is that the mother culture is small and transferred
daily, whereas the intermediate culture is prepared only when
needed and in a large enough quantity to set up a batch of butter-
milk. For example, if a 100-gallon batch of buttermilk is to be
made, 11/2 to 2 gallons of intermediate culture must be prepared.
When relatively small quantities of buttermilk are to be made
some operators simply carry the mother cultures in quart jars
and eliminate the intermediate culture.

INCUBATING THE MILK
Incubation is the process of holding the inoculated milk be-
tween 68 and 70 F., at which temperature the desirable organ-
isms grow well. The inoculated milk should be held at this
temperature until it has coagulated or thickened.
The mother and intermediate cultures should be placed in an
insulated water bath or incubator which will maintain the de-
sired temperature. The bulk milk in cans may be set in a tank
of water which is held at about 700 F. (see Fig. 2). Usually 12
to 14 hours at 680 to 70' F. are required for the proper ripening.
Unless an incubator is used, allowance must be made for weather
changes. During cold weather, the setting temperature should
be a few degrees higher than 700 F., and in warm weather, a
few degrees lower.
To determine when the cultures have incubated long enough,
a simple test may be applied. The culture is ready to remove
from the incubator when the coagulated milk will break away
cleanly from the side of the container upon slight tilting of bottle
or can. There should be little or no whey on top of the coagu-
lated milk. When these conditions are evident, the culture is
ready to be cooled.

COOLING THE CULTURES
Cooling may be accomplished by setting the bottle or can in
ice water or in cold storage at 36 to 40 F. The mother and
intermediate cultures in the bottles should be held in this cold
storage until time to transfer cultures and set the buttermilk
again the next day. The bulk buttermilk should be allowed to
remain in cold storage until its temperature is below 50 F.






Cultured Buttermilk and Cottage Cheese


picture (Fig. 1) contains the mother culture and the contents
of the larger bottle being inoculated will be the intermediate
culture after incubation. The mother and intermediate cultures
are cared for in an identical manner. The only difference be-
tween them is that the mother culture is small and transferred
daily, whereas the intermediate culture is prepared only when
needed and in a large enough quantity to set up a batch of butter-
milk. For example, if a 100-gallon batch of buttermilk is to be
made, 11/2 to 2 gallons of intermediate culture must be prepared.
When relatively small quantities of buttermilk are to be made
some operators simply carry the mother cultures in quart jars
and eliminate the intermediate culture.

INCUBATING THE MILK
Incubation is the process of holding the inoculated milk be-
tween 68 and 70 F., at which temperature the desirable organ-
isms grow well. The inoculated milk should be held at this
temperature until it has coagulated or thickened.
The mother and intermediate cultures should be placed in an
insulated water bath or incubator which will maintain the de-
sired temperature. The bulk milk in cans may be set in a tank
of water which is held at about 700 F. (see Fig. 2). Usually 12
to 14 hours at 680 to 70' F. are required for the proper ripening.
Unless an incubator is used, allowance must be made for weather
changes. During cold weather, the setting temperature should
be a few degrees higher than 700 F., and in warm weather, a
few degrees lower.
To determine when the cultures have incubated long enough,
a simple test may be applied. The culture is ready to remove
from the incubator when the coagulated milk will break away
cleanly from the side of the container upon slight tilting of bottle
or can. There should be little or no whey on top of the coagu-
lated milk. When these conditions are evident, the culture is
ready to be cooled.

COOLING THE CULTURES
Cooling may be accomplished by setting the bottle or can in
ice water or in cold storage at 36 to 40 F. The mother and
intermediate cultures in the bottles should be held in this cold
storage until time to transfer cultures and set the buttermilk
again the next day. The bulk buttermilk should be allowed to
remain in cold storage until its temperature is below 50 F.






It










































ki
w












71:":






Cultured Buttermilk and Cottage Cheese


before stirring or breaking the curd. This aids in preventing
the bottled product from wheying off. If a buttermilk vat is
used the product may be cooled in the vat by the use of either
crushed ice or cold brine in the jacket of the vat. This cooling
process may require several hours.

STANDARDIZING THE BUTTERMILK
After the buttermilk has cooled to about 500 F. it is ready
to be prepared for bottling. Many dairymen simply stir the
buttermilk and bottle it just as it is after coagulation without
further preparation. This results in a heavy, viscous product
which often is difficult to pour out of the bottle. The average
consumer prefers buttermilk with a moderately heavy con-
sistency, yet one which pours readily. The following directions
for standardizing will yield a product acceptable to most butter-
milk consumers.
The coagulated cooled buttermilk should be gently, yet thor-
oughly stirred until it has a smooth consistency. Care must be
exercised not to incorporate an excessive amount of air into the
product. To 5 gallons of buttermilk 1 pint of 40 percent cream,
2 gallons of whole milk (4.5 percent) and 1 level teaspoon of
table salt should be added. After stirring thoroughly, it should
be allowed to stand at a low temperature several hours before
being bottled. If the buttermilk is permitted to stand in the can
or vat several hours at low temperature before it is bottled the
foam caused by the agitation will disappear. Otherwise, the pro-
duct may be foamy when bottled. After a few hours the foam
will disappear, leaving the bottles incompletely filled. The stand-
ardized product will contain approximately 2 percent butterfat.
Stdre the bottled buttermilk at 360 to 400 F. and sell as soon
as possible. The flavor and aroma of buttermilk are the result
of bacterial growth and care must be taken to keep the product
cold after the desired characteristics are obtained. If the pro-
duct is not kept cold further growth of the bacteria will occur
and the buttermilk may become too sour and whey off. Each
day buttermilk is made all of the steps listed are repeated. It is



Fig. 2.-Adding culture to a can of properly prepared milk. Note that
can is placed in a water bath to maintain proper temperature (700 F.)
during the incubation period. After culture is added and stirred in thor-
oughly the lid should be replaced on the can.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


desirable to transfer the cultures daily even though buttermilk
may be made less frequently.

FLAKE OR CHURNED BUTTERMILK
Some markets desire a flake or churned buttermilk rather than
plain cultured buttermilk. This product may be made by churn-
ing the milk after coagulation in an ordinary churn until the
butter granules appear. A similar effect may be obtained by
churning a small quantity of pasteurized cream to the small
granule stage and adding these granules directly to the cultured
milk just before bottling. Equipment is available to produce
this type of buttermilk by pumping the coagulated milk through
a special churning chamber which causes the flakes of butter to
appear.
USE OF CONDENSED SKIMMILK
At times fresh fluid skimmilk may not be available for use in
the manufacture of buttermilk. If legal restrictions do not pro-
hibit its use, condensed skimmilk of good quality may be used
to make a fairly satisfactory product.
Condensed skimmilk is made in various concentrations, the
most common containing 36 percent solids. To make butter-
milk from this concentrated product, mix 1 gallon of condensed
skimmilk with 3 gallons of water and proceed according to in-
structions given for skimmilk.
TIME SCHEDULE FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF BUTTERMILK
9 A. M. Separate milk.
10 A. M. Heat milk to 180 to 1900 F. for 1 hour.
11 A. M. Cool milk to 40 to 450 F.
5 P. M. Temper milk to 68' to 70 F. Transfer cultures
and inoculate bulk milk. Place newly inoculated
cultures in incubator at 68 to 70 F.
8 A. M. Remove cultures from incubator, store at 36 to
40' F. Cool bulk buttermilk to 500 F., stand-
ardize. Allow buttermilk to stand at 50 F. or
below until foam has disappeared, and bottle.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


desirable to transfer the cultures daily even though buttermilk
may be made less frequently.

FLAKE OR CHURNED BUTTERMILK
Some markets desire a flake or churned buttermilk rather than
plain cultured buttermilk. This product may be made by churn-
ing the milk after coagulation in an ordinary churn until the
butter granules appear. A similar effect may be obtained by
churning a small quantity of pasteurized cream to the small
granule stage and adding these granules directly to the cultured
milk just before bottling. Equipment is available to produce
this type of buttermilk by pumping the coagulated milk through
a special churning chamber which causes the flakes of butter to
appear.
USE OF CONDENSED SKIMMILK
At times fresh fluid skimmilk may not be available for use in
the manufacture of buttermilk. If legal restrictions do not pro-
hibit its use, condensed skimmilk of good quality may be used
to make a fairly satisfactory product.
Condensed skimmilk is made in various concentrations, the
most common containing 36 percent solids. To make butter-
milk from this concentrated product, mix 1 gallon of condensed
skimmilk with 3 gallons of water and proceed according to in-
structions given for skimmilk.
TIME SCHEDULE FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF BUTTERMILK
9 A. M. Separate milk.
10 A. M. Heat milk to 180 to 1900 F. for 1 hour.
11 A. M. Cool milk to 40 to 450 F.
5 P. M. Temper milk to 68' to 70 F. Transfer cultures
and inoculate bulk milk. Place newly inoculated
cultures in incubator at 68 to 70 F.
8 A. M. Remove cultures from incubator, store at 36 to
40' F. Cool bulk buttermilk to 500 F., stand-
ardize. Allow buttermilk to stand at 50 F. or
below until foam has disappeared, and bottle.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


desirable to transfer the cultures daily even though buttermilk
may be made less frequently.

FLAKE OR CHURNED BUTTERMILK
Some markets desire a flake or churned buttermilk rather than
plain cultured buttermilk. This product may be made by churn-
ing the milk after coagulation in an ordinary churn until the
butter granules appear. A similar effect may be obtained by
churning a small quantity of pasteurized cream to the small
granule stage and adding these granules directly to the cultured
milk just before bottling. Equipment is available to produce
this type of buttermilk by pumping the coagulated milk through
a special churning chamber which causes the flakes of butter to
appear.
USE OF CONDENSED SKIMMILK
At times fresh fluid skimmilk may not be available for use in
the manufacture of buttermilk. If legal restrictions do not pro-
hibit its use, condensed skimmilk of good quality may be used
to make a fairly satisfactory product.
Condensed skimmilk is made in various concentrations, the
most common containing 36 percent solids. To make butter-
milk from this concentrated product, mix 1 gallon of condensed
skimmilk with 3 gallons of water and proceed according to in-
structions given for skimmilk.
TIME SCHEDULE FOR THE MANUFACTURE OF BUTTERMILK
9 A. M. Separate milk.
10 A. M. Heat milk to 180 to 1900 F. for 1 hour.
11 A. M. Cool milk to 40 to 450 F.
5 P. M. Temper milk to 68' to 70 F. Transfer cultures
and inoculate bulk milk. Place newly inoculated
cultures in incubator at 68 to 70 F.
8 A. M. Remove cultures from incubator, store at 36 to
40' F. Cool bulk buttermilk to 500 F., stand-
ardize. Allow buttermilk to stand at 50 F. or
below until foam has disappeared, and bottle.






Cultured Buttermilk and Cottage Cheese


COTTAGE CHEESE
THE COTTAGE CHEESE PROBLEM
During certain seasons of the year in normal times there is
a considerable quantity of surplus skimmilk in Florida dairy
plants. For want of a satisfactory means of disposal it fre-
quently is not used to best advantage. At the same time a large
quantity of creamed cottage cheese is imported by dairy products
distributors in Florida from other states. Cottage cheese after
creaming is a perishable product and should be consumed as soon
as possible. Considerable time is required to ship the cheese
from other states to Florida and it frequently is held several
days by distributors and retailers before being sold. Sometimes
the quality is questionable when the cheese finally reaches the
consumer.
A major portion of the surplus skimmilk in this state could
be converted easily into cottage cheese, thus eliminating waste
and at the same time providing the consuming public with a
nutritious, palatable, high quality product.
It has been reported 2 that, during surplus seasons when all
the milk produced cannot be sold as bottled milk, highest returns
are obtained when the whole milk is converted into sweet cream
butter and cottage cheese.
To begin the manufacture of cottage cheese in the average
dairy plant requires only a small amount of additional equipment.
A certain degree of skill must be developed before high quality
in the finished product can be maintained consistently.

EQUIPMENT NEEDED
The equipment needed for the manufacture of cottage cheese
is essentially the same for all plants. The size of the equipment
will depend upon the amount of skimmilk to be handled. Some
of the equipment required for the process is already in use in
most dairy plants, thus eliminating the expense of installing a
large amount of additional equipment.
The items ordinarily required are as follows:
Pasteurizer Whey strainer for vat
Cheese vat and cover Curd scoop
One-half inch curd knives Acidity tester
(horizontal and vertical) 1 milliliter pipette graduated
Curd fork in tenths
Strainer-bottomed dipper Floating thermometer
SFreeman, T. R. Disposal of Surplus Milk by Producer-Distributors.
Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Press Bul. 568. 1942.






Cultured Buttermilk and Cottage Cheese


COTTAGE CHEESE
THE COTTAGE CHEESE PROBLEM
During certain seasons of the year in normal times there is
a considerable quantity of surplus skimmilk in Florida dairy
plants. For want of a satisfactory means of disposal it fre-
quently is not used to best advantage. At the same time a large
quantity of creamed cottage cheese is imported by dairy products
distributors in Florida from other states. Cottage cheese after
creaming is a perishable product and should be consumed as soon
as possible. Considerable time is required to ship the cheese
from other states to Florida and it frequently is held several
days by distributors and retailers before being sold. Sometimes
the quality is questionable when the cheese finally reaches the
consumer.
A major portion of the surplus skimmilk in this state could
be converted easily into cottage cheese, thus eliminating waste
and at the same time providing the consuming public with a
nutritious, palatable, high quality product.
It has been reported 2 that, during surplus seasons when all
the milk produced cannot be sold as bottled milk, highest returns
are obtained when the whole milk is converted into sweet cream
butter and cottage cheese.
To begin the manufacture of cottage cheese in the average
dairy plant requires only a small amount of additional equipment.
A certain degree of skill must be developed before high quality
in the finished product can be maintained consistently.

EQUIPMENT NEEDED
The equipment needed for the manufacture of cottage cheese
is essentially the same for all plants. The size of the equipment
will depend upon the amount of skimmilk to be handled. Some
of the equipment required for the process is already in use in
most dairy plants, thus eliminating the expense of installing a
large amount of additional equipment.
The items ordinarily required are as follows:
Pasteurizer Whey strainer for vat
Cheese vat and cover Curd scoop
One-half inch curd knives Acidity tester
(horizontal and vertical) 1 milliliter pipette graduated
Curd fork in tenths
Strainer-bottomed dipper Floating thermometer
SFreeman, T. R. Disposal of Surplus Milk by Producer-Distributors.
Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Press Bul. 568. 1942.






Cultured Buttermilk and Cottage Cheese


COTTAGE CHEESE
THE COTTAGE CHEESE PROBLEM
During certain seasons of the year in normal times there is
a considerable quantity of surplus skimmilk in Florida dairy
plants. For want of a satisfactory means of disposal it fre-
quently is not used to best advantage. At the same time a large
quantity of creamed cottage cheese is imported by dairy products
distributors in Florida from other states. Cottage cheese after
creaming is a perishable product and should be consumed as soon
as possible. Considerable time is required to ship the cheese
from other states to Florida and it frequently is held several
days by distributors and retailers before being sold. Sometimes
the quality is questionable when the cheese finally reaches the
consumer.
A major portion of the surplus skimmilk in this state could
be converted easily into cottage cheese, thus eliminating waste
and at the same time providing the consuming public with a
nutritious, palatable, high quality product.
It has been reported 2 that, during surplus seasons when all
the milk produced cannot be sold as bottled milk, highest returns
are obtained when the whole milk is converted into sweet cream
butter and cottage cheese.
To begin the manufacture of cottage cheese in the average
dairy plant requires only a small amount of additional equipment.
A certain degree of skill must be developed before high quality
in the finished product can be maintained consistently.

EQUIPMENT NEEDED
The equipment needed for the manufacture of cottage cheese
is essentially the same for all plants. The size of the equipment
will depend upon the amount of skimmilk to be handled. Some
of the equipment required for the process is already in use in
most dairy plants, thus eliminating the expense of installing a
large amount of additional equipment.
The items ordinarily required are as follows:
Pasteurizer Whey strainer for vat
Cheese vat and cover Curd scoop
One-half inch curd knives Acidity tester
(horizontal and vertical) 1 milliliter pipette graduated
Curd fork in tenths
Strainer-bottomed dipper Floating thermometer
SFreeman, T. R. Disposal of Surplus Milk by Producer-Distributors.
Fla. Agr. Expt. Sta. Press Bul. 568. 1942.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Equipment of stainless steel is desirable, but steel, copper or
other metals, if well tinned, are satisfactory. Most dairy plants
are equipped with suitable pasteurizing equipment.
It is possible to pasteurize and cool the skimmilk directly in
the cheese vat. This process, however, usually is not satisfactory
because most cheese vats are not constructed to permit efficient
heating and cooling of the milk. Careful thought should be
given to the selection of the cheese vat. The vat should be water-
jacketed, equipped with steam and water connections, and of
such size as to hold somewhat more milk than will be processed
at one time. This additional capacity permits ease of stirring
the curd during the heating process.
The horizontal and vertical curd knives may be of either blade
or wire type, and should be of sufficient height to cut the com-
plete layer of curd from surface to bottom of the vat, and of
proper width to permit complete cutting of the curd without
overlapping that previously cut.
Fig. 3.-A vat of cottage cheese curd being drained preparatory to
creaming for immediate sale or to be placed in a brine solution for storage.
On the table may be seen all the tools and materials required by the cheese-
maker. Note that the cheesecloth vat cover is laid back so the cheese can
be observed more easily.










i '






-f- pr;.....






Cultured Buttermilk and Cottage Cheese


Some operators attempt to make cheese without the aid of
standard curd knives, by breaking the curd with a stirring rod
or other apparatus. Many markets today require cottage cheese
with a uniform flaky appearance. This type of product cannot
possibly be produced without the aid of standard curd knives.
Cutting the curd into cubes of uniform size also enables the
operator to cook it to a uniform firmness. If large and small
pieces of curd are present in the same batch, which is unavoid-
able unless standard curd knives are used, the curd will not be
uniform in firmness at the completion of the cooking process.
The curd fork is used to stir the curd to insure uniform cooking
and to prevent matting together of the curd particles. It is
made of wood usually and the tines are wide enough apart to
permit the curd particles to pass between them easily so that
the curd will not be broken up unduly.
The strainer-bottomed dipper and the whey strainer are used
to enable the operator to drain the whey and the wash water
without excessive loss of curd. They are usually made of tinned
steel and contain 50 1/16-inch perforations to the square inch.
The curd scoop is a metal or wooden utensil, used to handle the
curd after it has been drained. This scoop enables the operator
to handle the curd with a minimum of agitation, thus preserving
the desired texture of the product.
Temperature and acidity are important factors in the manu-
facture of cottage cheese. The use of a floating dairy ther-
mometer is recommended and acidity testing apparatus makes
it possible to determine the exact time to cut the curd for best
results. The acidity testing apparatus is inexpensive, simple to
operate and should be included in the cheesemaker's equipment.
Rennet extract is used in very small quantities to aid in the
coagulation of the milk. A 1-milliliter pipette, graduated in
1/10 milliliters, should be available to the cheesemaker, to en-
able him to measure the small quantity of rennet extract re-
quired. Most of these items are inexpensive, yet to do without
any one may mean the difference between high and low quality
cheese.
QUALITY OF SKIMMILK
The quality of cottage cheese can be no better than the
quality of the products used in its manufacture. Skimmilk must
be clean, sweet, and free from off-flavors. The same precautions
and care must be taken in handling milk to be made into cottage






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


cheese that are taken in handling milk to be used for bottling
purposes.
The short-time method of manufacturing cottage cheese has
been used for some time at the Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station with highly satisfactory results. Directions for making
cottage cheese by this method follow.
PASTEURIZATION OF THE SKIMMILK
High quality raw skimmilk should be pasteurized at 143 F.
for 30 minutes as soon as possible after separation. The milk
should be cooled rapidly to a setting temperature of 900 F.
Pasteurization of the skimmilk is essential if a uniform quality
of cottage cheese is to be maintained from day to day. Careful
control of the temperature of the milk during pasteurization is
important. Too high pasteurization temperature results in a
weak curd which shatters easily when handled. If the milk is
not to be set immediately, it should be cooled to 40 F. and held
at that temperature until time to set.
SETTING THE SKIMMILK
The culture used to coagulate the milk should be prepared
by the same procedure that is described for the manufacture of
cultured buttermilk. However, it is not standardized before use
in the manufacture of cottage cheese.
The pasteurized skimmilk in the cheese vat should be tempered
to 90 F., culture added at the rate of 10 pounds to 100 pounds
of skimmilk (10 percent), and rennet extract (diluted 1 to 40
with cold water) at the rate of 0.85 milliliter to each 1,000 pounds
of milk. For example, if a 100-gallon lot (860 pounds) of skim-
milk is to be made into cottage cheese, 10 gallons (86 pounds)
of culture and 3/4 milliliter of rennet extract diluted in approxi-
mately 1 ounce of cold water are added to the milk. The
skimmilk-culture-rennet mixture should be stirred vigorously
for 1 to 2 minutes to insure uniform mixing. After a final
check on the temperature of the milk, the vat should be covered
with cheesecloth or other cover. The milk should be left un-
disturbed until properly coagulated, a process which requires
ordinarily 31/2 to 4 hours.
CUTTING THE CURD
The acidity of the whey is used as an indication of the proper
time for cutting the curd. It should be cut when coagulation
has occurred and when the acidity of the clear whey has reached






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


cheese that are taken in handling milk to be used for bottling
purposes.
The short-time method of manufacturing cottage cheese has
been used for some time at the Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station with highly satisfactory results. Directions for making
cottage cheese by this method follow.
PASTEURIZATION OF THE SKIMMILK
High quality raw skimmilk should be pasteurized at 143 F.
for 30 minutes as soon as possible after separation. The milk
should be cooled rapidly to a setting temperature of 900 F.
Pasteurization of the skimmilk is essential if a uniform quality
of cottage cheese is to be maintained from day to day. Careful
control of the temperature of the milk during pasteurization is
important. Too high pasteurization temperature results in a
weak curd which shatters easily when handled. If the milk is
not to be set immediately, it should be cooled to 40 F. and held
at that temperature until time to set.
SETTING THE SKIMMILK
The culture used to coagulate the milk should be prepared
by the same procedure that is described for the manufacture of
cultured buttermilk. However, it is not standardized before use
in the manufacture of cottage cheese.
The pasteurized skimmilk in the cheese vat should be tempered
to 90 F., culture added at the rate of 10 pounds to 100 pounds
of skimmilk (10 percent), and rennet extract (diluted 1 to 40
with cold water) at the rate of 0.85 milliliter to each 1,000 pounds
of milk. For example, if a 100-gallon lot (860 pounds) of skim-
milk is to be made into cottage cheese, 10 gallons (86 pounds)
of culture and 3/4 milliliter of rennet extract diluted in approxi-
mately 1 ounce of cold water are added to the milk. The
skimmilk-culture-rennet mixture should be stirred vigorously
for 1 to 2 minutes to insure uniform mixing. After a final
check on the temperature of the milk, the vat should be covered
with cheesecloth or other cover. The milk should be left un-
disturbed until properly coagulated, a process which requires
ordinarily 31/2 to 4 hours.
CUTTING THE CURD
The acidity of the whey is used as an indication of the proper
time for cutting the curd. It should be cut when coagulation
has occurred and when the acidity of the clear whey has reached






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


cheese that are taken in handling milk to be used for bottling
purposes.
The short-time method of manufacturing cottage cheese has
been used for some time at the Florida Agricultural Experiment
Station with highly satisfactory results. Directions for making
cottage cheese by this method follow.
PASTEURIZATION OF THE SKIMMILK
High quality raw skimmilk should be pasteurized at 143 F.
for 30 minutes as soon as possible after separation. The milk
should be cooled rapidly to a setting temperature of 900 F.
Pasteurization of the skimmilk is essential if a uniform quality
of cottage cheese is to be maintained from day to day. Careful
control of the temperature of the milk during pasteurization is
important. Too high pasteurization temperature results in a
weak curd which shatters easily when handled. If the milk is
not to be set immediately, it should be cooled to 40 F. and held
at that temperature until time to set.
SETTING THE SKIMMILK
The culture used to coagulate the milk should be prepared
by the same procedure that is described for the manufacture of
cultured buttermilk. However, it is not standardized before use
in the manufacture of cottage cheese.
The pasteurized skimmilk in the cheese vat should be tempered
to 90 F., culture added at the rate of 10 pounds to 100 pounds
of skimmilk (10 percent), and rennet extract (diluted 1 to 40
with cold water) at the rate of 0.85 milliliter to each 1,000 pounds
of milk. For example, if a 100-gallon lot (860 pounds) of skim-
milk is to be made into cottage cheese, 10 gallons (86 pounds)
of culture and 3/4 milliliter of rennet extract diluted in approxi-
mately 1 ounce of cold water are added to the milk. The
skimmilk-culture-rennet mixture should be stirred vigorously
for 1 to 2 minutes to insure uniform mixing. After a final
check on the temperature of the milk, the vat should be covered
with cheesecloth or other cover. The milk should be left un-
disturbed until properly coagulated, a process which requires
ordinarily 31/2 to 4 hours.
CUTTING THE CURD
The acidity of the whey is used as an indication of the proper
time for cutting the curd. It should be cut when coagulation
has occurred and when the acidity of the clear whey has reached






Cultured Buttermilk and Cottage Cheese


0.52 to 0.53 percent. Clear whey may be obtained for testing
by cutting out a small portion of the curd with a spoon. The
resulting depression in the curd will fill with clear whey. The
proper degree of acidity is important. A variation of only a few
hundredths percent either way may seriously affect the texture
and the yield of cheese. If an acidity tester is not available it
is difficult to determine the proper time for cutting. The curd
should be cut first lengthwise of the vat with the horizontal
knife, then crosswise with the vertical knife and finally length-
wise with the vertical knife. This 3-way cut, if properly done,
results in uniform 1/2-inch cubes of curd. After the curd is
cut it should not be disturbed for 10 to 15 minutes. During
this period a film forms over the surface of the curd cubes which
makes them more resistant to shattering during the heating
process.
HEATING THE CURD
Heating is necessary to expel part of the whey from the curd
and to control the texture and firmness of the finished cheese.
The temperature should be increased slowly and uniformly
throughout the heating period. Beginning at 900 F., the tem-
perature of the curd and whey should be raised 10 F. every 2
or 3 minutes for 1 to 11/2 hours until the final cooking tempera-
ture of about 1180 F. is reached. A more rapid rate of heating
has a tendency to produce a tough, rubbery curd and therefore
should be avoided. Cooking is accomplished by heating the water
in the jacket of the vat with steam in such a manner that its
temperature is never more than 10 to 15 F. above the tem-
perature of the curd and whey in the vat. At the same time,
hot water (1500 F.) is added directly to the curd and whey. The
added hot water should be directed through a strainer and should
not be permitted to hit the curd cubes with force. Violent con-
tact of the water with the curd will cause shattering of the
particles. It is necessary to stir the curd occasionally to prevent
matting and to insure uniform distribution of heat. Stirring
should be held to a minimum, especially at the beginning of the
heating process, to prevent shattering.
The cooking is complete when the curd has attained the de-
sired firmness. This may be determined by placing a few parti-
cles of curd in cold water and noting the firmness after thor-
ough cooling. If the curd is not firm enough when the tempera-
ture reaches 1180 F., it should be held at this temperature until
the desired firmness is obtained.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


WASHING THE CURD
After the curd is properly firmed the whey should be drained
from the vat through the whey strainer. At the same time the
water should be drained from the vat jacket. Washing the curd
with cold water causes it to become more firm and removes the
excess whey, thus producing a milder flavored cottage cheese.
Two applications of water are employed usually in the washing
procedure. The curd should be stirred thoroughly in the wash
water to facilitate cooling and to break up masses of matted curd
particles which form while the whey is draining. Two washings
with tap water, directly from the hose, may produce satisfactory
results. It is preferable, however, to use colder water (400 F.)
for the second washing. The curd should be allowed to remain
in each wash water at least 10 minutes before draining. When
the second wash water is drained the curd should be piled at the
sides of the vat, forming a trench in the middle which allows
most of the free moisture to drain from the curd. After drain-
ing for at least 1 hour the curd is ready to be creamed and salted.
CREAMING AND SALTING THE CURD
Creaming and salting the curd results in a product known as
"creamed cottage cheese." Enough fresh sweet cream and salt
may be added to the curd so that the mixture will contain about
5 percent butterfat and 1 percent salt. If a fairly dry product
is desired, heavy cream must be used; if a more moist product
is desired, light cream should be used. The following rules for
creaming and salting produce satisfactory mixtures:
To 7 pounds of dry cottage cheese curd add:
For a dry product-1 ounce salt and 1 pint 40 percent cream.
For a moist product-1 ounce salt and 2 pints of 20 percent
cream.
The salt should be dissolved in the cream and the cream poured
over the proper quantity of curd and stirred into the cheese with
the curd fork. Care should be exercised in mixing the curd with
cream and salt to prevent breaking the curd cubes into fine parti-
cles. Mechanical equipment designed especially for mixing and
packaging cottage cheese is available but is not essential.
STORING COTTAGE CHEESE
Creamed cottage cheese will become off-flavored, even when
stored at a low temperature, if not consumed within a few days
after manufacture. When larger amounts of cottage cheese are






Cultured Buttermilk and Cottage Cheese


made than can be sold within two or three days, it is desirable
to store the curd uncreamed. Uncreamed cottage cheese may
be stored successfully for 60 to 90 days by covering it with a
4 percent brine solution and holding it at 36' to 400 F. The
brine solution may be prepared by dissolving 31/3 pounds of
common table salt in 10 gallons of cold water. Fifty pounds
of drained curd should be placed in a 10-gallon stainless steel,
aluminum or well-tinned milk can and completely covered with
the brine solution. It is imperative that the brine cover the
curd completely throughout the entire storage period. Failure
to observe this precaution will result in an off-flavored product.
Changing the brine occasionally will aid in preserving the flavor
of the cheese.


Fig. 4.-Placing drained curd in an aluminum can for storage. About
50 pounds of curd should be placed in the can and sufficient 4 percent brine
solution added to cover the curd. For best results a storage temperature
of 36-40 F. is required.






'*41






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


WASHING THE CURD
After the curd is properly firmed the whey should be drained
from the vat through the whey strainer. At the same time the
water should be drained from the vat jacket. Washing the curd
with cold water causes it to become more firm and removes the
excess whey, thus producing a milder flavored cottage cheese.
Two applications of water are employed usually in the washing
procedure. The curd should be stirred thoroughly in the wash
water to facilitate cooling and to break up masses of matted curd
particles which form while the whey is draining. Two washings
with tap water, directly from the hose, may produce satisfactory
results. It is preferable, however, to use colder water (400 F.)
for the second washing. The curd should be allowed to remain
in each wash water at least 10 minutes before draining. When
the second wash water is drained the curd should be piled at the
sides of the vat, forming a trench in the middle which allows
most of the free moisture to drain from the curd. After drain-
ing for at least 1 hour the curd is ready to be creamed and salted.
CREAMING AND SALTING THE CURD
Creaming and salting the curd results in a product known as
"creamed cottage cheese." Enough fresh sweet cream and salt
may be added to the curd so that the mixture will contain about
5 percent butterfat and 1 percent salt. If a fairly dry product
is desired, heavy cream must be used; if a more moist product
is desired, light cream should be used. The following rules for
creaming and salting produce satisfactory mixtures:
To 7 pounds of dry cottage cheese curd add:
For a dry product-1 ounce salt and 1 pint 40 percent cream.
For a moist product-1 ounce salt and 2 pints of 20 percent
cream.
The salt should be dissolved in the cream and the cream poured
over the proper quantity of curd and stirred into the cheese with
the curd fork. Care should be exercised in mixing the curd with
cream and salt to prevent breaking the curd cubes into fine parti-
cles. Mechanical equipment designed especially for mixing and
packaging cottage cheese is available but is not essential.
STORING COTTAGE CHEESE
Creamed cottage cheese will become off-flavored, even when
stored at a low temperature, if not consumed within a few days
after manufacture. When larger amounts of cottage cheese are






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


WASHING THE CURD
After the curd is properly firmed the whey should be drained
from the vat through the whey strainer. At the same time the
water should be drained from the vat jacket. Washing the curd
with cold water causes it to become more firm and removes the
excess whey, thus producing a milder flavored cottage cheese.
Two applications of water are employed usually in the washing
procedure. The curd should be stirred thoroughly in the wash
water to facilitate cooling and to break up masses of matted curd
particles which form while the whey is draining. Two washings
with tap water, directly from the hose, may produce satisfactory
results. It is preferable, however, to use colder water (400 F.)
for the second washing. The curd should be allowed to remain
in each wash water at least 10 minutes before draining. When
the second wash water is drained the curd should be piled at the
sides of the vat, forming a trench in the middle which allows
most of the free moisture to drain from the curd. After drain-
ing for at least 1 hour the curd is ready to be creamed and salted.
CREAMING AND SALTING THE CURD
Creaming and salting the curd results in a product known as
"creamed cottage cheese." Enough fresh sweet cream and salt
may be added to the curd so that the mixture will contain about
5 percent butterfat and 1 percent salt. If a fairly dry product
is desired, heavy cream must be used; if a more moist product
is desired, light cream should be used. The following rules for
creaming and salting produce satisfactory mixtures:
To 7 pounds of dry cottage cheese curd add:
For a dry product-1 ounce salt and 1 pint 40 percent cream.
For a moist product-1 ounce salt and 2 pints of 20 percent
cream.
The salt should be dissolved in the cream and the cream poured
over the proper quantity of curd and stirred into the cheese with
the curd fork. Care should be exercised in mixing the curd with
cream and salt to prevent breaking the curd cubes into fine parti-
cles. Mechanical equipment designed especially for mixing and
packaging cottage cheese is available but is not essential.
STORING COTTAGE CHEESE
Creamed cottage cheese will become off-flavored, even when
stored at a low temperature, if not consumed within a few days
after manufacture. When larger amounts of cottage cheese are






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


The curd may be removed from storage at any time in any
amount desired. It is necessary to drain off the salt solution,
to wash the curd thoroughly, and allow it to drain for at least
1 hour before creaming. After several days in the brine, enough
salt is retained by the curd so that it may not be necessary to
add salt with the cream, as is done with fresh curd.
TIME SCHEDULE FOR MAKING COTTAGE CHEESE
In order to give the reader a general idea of the time required
to make a batch of cheese by this method the following time
schedule for necessary operations is given. This will allow the
operator to determine where to fit this plan into the day's work.
The following data were taken from one of the regular vats of
cheese. The time will vary slightly from one vat of cheese to
another.
8:00 A. M.-Separate, pasteurize, and cool skimmilk.
10:00 A. M.-Set skimmilk.
1:30 P. M.-Cut curd.
1:45 P. M.-Begin cooking.
3:15 P. M.-Finish cooking.
3:15 P. M.-Begin draining curd.
3:30 P. M.-Wash curd.
4:30 P. M,-Salt and cream for immediate sale or place curd
in salt solution for storage.
It may be observed that this entire process from setting to
completing of the cooking requires only 51/2 hours. Allowing
until 10:30 A. M. to separate, pasteurize and cool the skimmilk,
a batch of cheese can be completed easily within the normal
working day.




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