• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Introduction
 History
 Anatomy of the eyeworm, o....
 Materials and methods
 Examination of the eye of...
 Experimental data
 Transmission of eyeworm
 Examination of the cockroach
 Tests with larvae from cockroa...
 Development in the eye
 Development in the cockroach
 Life history
 The cockroach
 Treatment of the eyeworm
 Control of the eyeworm
 Summary
 Acknowledgement
 Bibliography






Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station - no. 206
Title: Manson's eyeworm of poultry
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027531/00001
 Material Information
Title: Manson's eyeworm of poultry
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: p. 565-585 : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Sanders, D. A ( Dorsey Addren )
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1929
 Subjects
Subject: Helminths   ( lcsh )
Chickens -- Parasites   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 585.
Statement of Responsibility: by D.A. Sanders.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027531
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000923513
oclc - 18173697
notis - AEN4064

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Page 565
        Page 566
    Introduction
        Page 567
    History
        Page 567
    Anatomy of the eyeworm, o. mansoni
        Page 568
    Materials and methods
        Page 568
    Examination of the eye of chickens
        Page 569
    Experimental data
        Page 569
    Transmission of eyeworm
        Page 570
        Page 571
        Page 572
    Examination of the cockroach
        Page 573
    Tests with larvae from cockroaches
        Page 574
        Page 575
        Page 576
        Page 577
        Page 578
    Development in the eye
        Page 579
    Development in the cockroach
        Page 579
        Page 580
    Life history
        Page 581
    The cockroach
        Page 581
    Treatment of the eyeworm
        Page 582
    Control of the eyeworm
        Page 583
    Summary
        Page 583
    Acknowledgement
        Page 584
    Bibliography
        Page 585
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida








Bulletin 206


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
Wilmon Newell, Director










MANSON'S EYEWORM OF POULTRY

By D. A. SANDERS










TECHNICAL BULLETIN











Bulletins will be sent free upon application to the
Agricultural Experiment Station
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


June, 1929








BOARD OF CONTROL


P. K. YONGE, Chairman, Pensacola
E. W. LANE, Jacksonville
A. H. BLANDING, Leesburg
W. B. DAVIS, Perry


FRANK J. WIDEMAN, W. Palm Beach
J. T. DIAMOND, Secretary, Talla-
hassee.
J. G. KELLUM, Auditor, Tallahassee


STATION EXECUTIVE STAFF


JOHN J. TIGERT, M.A.,LL.D., President
WILMON NEWELL, D. Sc., Director
S. T. FLEMING, A.B., Asst. Director
J. FRANCIS COOPER, M. S. A., Editor
ERNEST G. MOORE, M. S., Asst. Ed


IDA KEELING CRESAP, Librarian
RUBY NEWHALL, Secretary
K. H. GRAHAM, Business Manager
RACHEL MCQUARRIE, Accountant


MAIN STATION-DEPARTMENTS AND INVESTIGATORS


AGRONOMY
W. E. STOKES, M. S., Agronomist
W. A. LEUKEL, Ph. D., Asso.
C. R. ENLOW, M. S. A., Asst.*
FRED H. HULL, M. S. A., Asst.
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
A. L. SHEALY, D.V.M., Veterinarian,
in Charge
D. A. SANDERS, D.V.M., Asst. Vet.
E. F. THOMAS, D.V.M., Asst. Vet.
R. B. BECKER, Ph.D., Asso. in Dairy
Husbandry
C. R. DAWSON, B. S. A., Asst. Dairy
Investigations
W. N. NEAL, Ph. D., Asst. in Ani-
mal Nutrition
CHEMISTRY
R. W. RUPRECHT, Ph.D., Chemist
R. M. BARNETTE, Ph. D., Asso.
C. E. BELL, M. S., Asst.
H. L. MARSHALL, M. S., Asst.
J. M. COLEMAN, B. S., Asst.
J. B. HESTER, B. S., Asst.
COTTON INVESTIGATIONS
W. A. CARVER, Ph. D., Asst.
M. N. WALKER, Ph. D., Asst.
E. F. GROSSMAN, M. A., Asst.
RAYMOND CROWN, B.S.A., Field Asst.


ECONOMICS, AGRICULTURAL
C. V. NOBLE, Ph. D., Ag. Economist
BRUCE McKINLEY, A.B., B.S.A., Asst.
M. A. BROKER, M. S. A., Asst.
R. H. HOWARD, B.S.A., Field Asst.
JOHN L. WANN, B. S. A., Asst.
ECONOMICS, HOME
OUIDA DAVIS ABBOTT, Ph. D.. Chief
L. W. GADDUM, Ph. D., Asst.
C. F. AHMANN, Ph. D., Asst.
ENTOMOLOGY
J. R. WATSON, A. M., Entomologist
A. N. TISSOT, M. S., Asst.
H E. BRATLEY, M. S. A., Asst.
HORTICULTURE
A. F. CAMP, Ph. D., Horticulturist
M. R. ENSIGN, M. S., Asst.
HAROLD MOWRY, B. S. A., Asst.
G. H. BLACKMON, M. S. A., Pecan
Culturist
PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. TISDALE, Ph. D., Plant Path.
G. F. WEBER, Ph. D., Asso.
A. H. EDDINS, Ph. D., Asst.
K. W. LOUCKS, B. S., Asst.
ERDMAN WEST, B. S., Mycologist


BRANCH STATION AND FIELD WORKERS
Ross F. WADKINS, M. S., Lab. Asst. in Plant Pathology (Quincy)
JESSE REEVES, Foreman, Tobacco Experiment Station (Quincy)
J. H. JEFFERIES, Superintendent, Citrus Experiment Station (Lake Alfred)
W. A. KUNTZ, A. M., Assistant Plant Pathologist (Lake Alfred)
J. FRANKLIN FUDGE, Ph. D., Assistant Chemist (Lake Alfred)
GEO. E. TEDDER, Foreman, Everglades Experiment Station (Belle Glade)
R. V. ALLISON, Ph. D., Soils Specialist (Belle Glade)
L. O. GRATZ, Ph. D., Associate Plant Pathologist (Hastings)
A. N. BROOKS, Ph. D., Associate Plant Pathologist (Plant City)
A. S. RHOADS, Ph. D., Associate Plant Pathologist (Cocoa)
STACY O. HAWKINS, M. A., Field Assistant in Plant Pathology (Homestead)
D. G. A. KELBERT, Field Assistant in Plant Pathology (Bradenton)
R. E. NOLEN, M. S. A., Field Assistant in Plant Pathology (Monticello)
FRED W. WALKER, Assistant Entomologist (Monticello)

*In cooperation with U. S. Department of Igriculture.










MANSON'S EYEWORM OF POULTRY
By D. A. SANDERS

INTRODUCTION

The occurrence of Manson's eyeworm (Oxyspirura mansoni
(Cobbold) Ransom)--(Filaria mansoni)-(Spiroptera emmer-
ezii), has been reported from various tropical and sub-tropical
countries throughout the world, including China (1)'; Mauri-
tius (3); Brazil (7); Hawaii (10); Jamaica and Florida (8);
and many islands (2). According to Johnston (6) the worms
from Australia are probably 0. parvovum.
In certain sections of Florida, Manson's eyeworm is of such
frequent occurrence and of such economic importance as to
make it desirable to study its habits and life history. For these
purposes, experiments were begun in November, 1925.

HISTORY

Reference to this species was first made by Cobbold (1)
where he says: "Here I may mention that on the 10th of April,
1878, I received a letter from Doctor Manson of Amoy announc-
ing his acquaintance with a filaria infesting the eye of the fowl.
On the 9th of May I also received from Doctor Manson the head
of a bird showing examples of the worm. As the species is new
to science I have proposed to call it Filaria mansoni after the
discoverer."
In 1888 Magalhaes (7) encountered this worm among speci-
mens collected in Brazil and later (1895), after studying speci-
mens collected by Manson in China, he positively identified the
Brazilian form with Filaria mansoni.
In 1901 Emmerez and Megnin (3) described a peculiar oph-
thalmia of chickens on the island of Mauritius and stated that
when the nictitating membrane was lifted a large number of
little white slender worms were seen in active motion beneath.
In 1909 Ransom (8) reported its presence in the United States
and the prevalence of nematodes in wild birds. Later Wilcox
and McClelland (1913) (10) reported upon the presence of this
species in Honolulu and gave results of experiments conducted
at the Hawaiian Experiment Station.
1Numbers in parentheses (italic) refer to literature cited in the Bibli-
ography in the back of this bulletin.










MANSON'S EYEWORM OF POULTRY
By D. A. SANDERS

INTRODUCTION

The occurrence of Manson's eyeworm (Oxyspirura mansoni
(Cobbold) Ransom)--(Filaria mansoni)-(Spiroptera emmer-
ezii), has been reported from various tropical and sub-tropical
countries throughout the world, including China (1)'; Mauri-
tius (3); Brazil (7); Hawaii (10); Jamaica and Florida (8);
and many islands (2). According to Johnston (6) the worms
from Australia are probably 0. parvovum.
In certain sections of Florida, Manson's eyeworm is of such
frequent occurrence and of such economic importance as to
make it desirable to study its habits and life history. For these
purposes, experiments were begun in November, 1925.

HISTORY

Reference to this species was first made by Cobbold (1)
where he says: "Here I may mention that on the 10th of April,
1878, I received a letter from Doctor Manson of Amoy announc-
ing his acquaintance with a filaria infesting the eye of the fowl.
On the 9th of May I also received from Doctor Manson the head
of a bird showing examples of the worm. As the species is new
to science I have proposed to call it Filaria mansoni after the
discoverer."
In 1888 Magalhaes (7) encountered this worm among speci-
mens collected in Brazil and later (1895), after studying speci-
mens collected by Manson in China, he positively identified the
Brazilian form with Filaria mansoni.
In 1901 Emmerez and Megnin (3) described a peculiar oph-
thalmia of chickens on the island of Mauritius and stated that
when the nictitating membrane was lifted a large number of
little white slender worms were seen in active motion beneath.
In 1909 Ransom (8) reported its presence in the United States
and the prevalence of nematodes in wild birds. Later Wilcox
and McClelland (1913) (10) reported upon the presence of this
species in Honolulu and gave results of experiments conducted
at the Hawaiian Experiment Station.
1Numbers in parentheses (italic) refer to literature cited in the Bibli-
ography in the back of this bulletin.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


ANATOMY OF THE EYEWORM, O. MANSONI
The worms as found beneath the nictitating membrane of
fowls are white with the slender threadlike form characteristic of
nematodes. The body is attenuated at both ends, the anterior
end being rounded and the posterior end being pointed. An ex-
amination of the worms under 10 mm. in length shows that they
are sexually immature. Measurements of mature worms taken
from the eye show that the males are 12 to 14 mm. in length
by 200 to 350 microns in diameter at the middle of the body,
and that the females are 12 to 18 mm. in length by 400 to 430
microns in diameter at the middle of the body. The males may,
therefore, be distinguished from the females by their smaller
size and also by their tail, which is curved ventrally. The cuti-
cula is smooth and transparent and the muscle fibers of the body
wall may be seen through it. The mouth is oval and is sur-
rounded by a six-lobed chitinous ring, with six small papillae
arranged in a circle and in relation with the clefts of the ring.
Four sublateral papillae occur on the sides of the head posterior
of the circle of papillae just mentioned. The buccal cavity or
pharynx is triangular in cross section and consists of a short,
wide anterior portion and a long narrow posterior portion. The
esophagus is club-shaped and gradually increases in size pos-
teriorly. A pair of very small conical papillae occur near the tip
of the tail in both sexes. In the male there are four pairs of
preanal and two pairs of postanal papillae.. The cloacal aperture
is 320 to 400 microns from the tip of the tail. The spicules are
unequal, one being long and slender while the other is short and
thick. In the female the anus is situated 400 to 530 microns
from the tip of the tail and the vulva is 1 to 1.4 mm. from the
tip of the tail.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
In order to make observations and to conduct experiments to
the best advantage the work was carried out in a field laboratory,
located in Manatee County. The conditions for poultry raising
in that portion of the State are typical for southern Florida.
For the chicken experiments 12 pens were constructed, four
large living-pens and eight small insect-proof pens for the ex-
perimental birds and for the recovery of their feces. The eight
small pens were constructed with one-half inch wire platforms
which permitted the feces to be collected beneath, on clean
paper.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


ANATOMY OF THE EYEWORM, O. MANSONI
The worms as found beneath the nictitating membrane of
fowls are white with the slender threadlike form characteristic of
nematodes. The body is attenuated at both ends, the anterior
end being rounded and the posterior end being pointed. An ex-
amination of the worms under 10 mm. in length shows that they
are sexually immature. Measurements of mature worms taken
from the eye show that the males are 12 to 14 mm. in length
by 200 to 350 microns in diameter at the middle of the body,
and that the females are 12 to 18 mm. in length by 400 to 430
microns in diameter at the middle of the body. The males may,
therefore, be distinguished from the females by their smaller
size and also by their tail, which is curved ventrally. The cuti-
cula is smooth and transparent and the muscle fibers of the body
wall may be seen through it. The mouth is oval and is sur-
rounded by a six-lobed chitinous ring, with six small papillae
arranged in a circle and in relation with the clefts of the ring.
Four sublateral papillae occur on the sides of the head posterior
of the circle of papillae just mentioned. The buccal cavity or
pharynx is triangular in cross section and consists of a short,
wide anterior portion and a long narrow posterior portion. The
esophagus is club-shaped and gradually increases in size pos-
teriorly. A pair of very small conical papillae occur near the tip
of the tail in both sexes. In the male there are four pairs of
preanal and two pairs of postanal papillae.. The cloacal aperture
is 320 to 400 microns from the tip of the tail. The spicules are
unequal, one being long and slender while the other is short and
thick. In the female the anus is situated 400 to 530 microns
from the tip of the tail and the vulva is 1 to 1.4 mm. from the
tip of the tail.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
In order to make observations and to conduct experiments to
the best advantage the work was carried out in a field laboratory,
located in Manatee County. The conditions for poultry raising
in that portion of the State are typical for southern Florida.
For the chicken experiments 12 pens were constructed, four
large living-pens and eight small insect-proof pens for the ex-
perimental birds and for the recovery of their feces. The eight
small pens were constructed with one-half inch wire platforms
which permitted the feces to be collected beneath, on clean
paper.








Bulletin 206, Manson's Eyeworm of Poultry


Microscopic search was made of certain suspected secondary
hosts which occurred on infested premises for any evidence of
eggs or larvae of Manson's eyeworm. In order to study possible
secondary hosts of the eyeworm, 15 insect-proof cages were
used in which to confine and raise certain of these.

EXAMINATION OF THE EYES OF CHICKENS

The method employed in making examinations for the para-
site consisted of anesthetizing the eye with a local anesthetic
and lifting the outer margin of the nictitating membrane with
a pair of finger forceps, exposing the tear sac beneath the mem-
brane in the inner corner of the eye. In case worms were pres-
ent they could be seen wriggling violently beneath the membrane
in the inner corner of the eye. In very severe infestations the
worms were. detected without the use of a local anesthetic by
placing the fowl securely under the left arm, holding the head
motionless with the left hand, and with the tip of the index fin-
ger of the right hand, pressing firmly over the tear-sac from
within, outward over the eyeball. Worms thus pressed out on
the surface of the eyeball immediately disappeared again be-
neath the nictitating membrane.
In light infestations of full grown fowls the worms may not
be seen by this casual examination of the eye unless the nicti-
tating membrane is lifted in such a manner as to obtain a view
of the tear sinus beneath the membrane. For this reason when
only two or three worms occur in a single eye of a full grown
fowl a casual examination may fail to disclose the worms and
the erroneous conclusion might be reached that no infestation
exists.
In the case of a severe infestation among very young chicks
where the tear sinus is too small to accommodate the worms,
they may sometimes be observed crawling upon the anterior sur-
face of the cornea or lying closely beneath the posterior surface
of the outer eyelids.

EXPERIMENTAL DATA
EFFECT OF NEMATODE ON HOST
Experiment 1 .-On January 17, 1926, a young fowl was ob-
tained which showed a severe infestation of eyeworms. Re-
peated microscopic examinations of excreted material showed








Bulletin 206, Manson's Eyeworm of Poultry


Microscopic search was made of certain suspected secondary
hosts which occurred on infested premises for any evidence of
eggs or larvae of Manson's eyeworm. In order to study possible
secondary hosts of the eyeworm, 15 insect-proof cages were
used in which to confine and raise certain of these.

EXAMINATION OF THE EYES OF CHICKENS

The method employed in making examinations for the para-
site consisted of anesthetizing the eye with a local anesthetic
and lifting the outer margin of the nictitating membrane with
a pair of finger forceps, exposing the tear sac beneath the mem-
brane in the inner corner of the eye. In case worms were pres-
ent they could be seen wriggling violently beneath the membrane
in the inner corner of the eye. In very severe infestations the
worms were. detected without the use of a local anesthetic by
placing the fowl securely under the left arm, holding the head
motionless with the left hand, and with the tip of the index fin-
ger of the right hand, pressing firmly over the tear-sac from
within, outward over the eyeball. Worms thus pressed out on
the surface of the eyeball immediately disappeared again be-
neath the nictitating membrane.
In light infestations of full grown fowls the worms may not
be seen by this casual examination of the eye unless the nicti-
tating membrane is lifted in such a manner as to obtain a view
of the tear sinus beneath the membrane. For this reason when
only two or three worms occur in a single eye of a full grown
fowl a casual examination may fail to disclose the worms and
the erroneous conclusion might be reached that no infestation
exists.
In the case of a severe infestation among very young chicks
where the tear sinus is too small to accommodate the worms,
they may sometimes be observed crawling upon the anterior sur-
face of the cornea or lying closely beneath the posterior surface
of the outer eyelids.

EXPERIMENTAL DATA
EFFECT OF NEMATODE ON HOST
Experiment 1 .-On January 17, 1926, a young fowl was ob-
tained which showed a severe infestation of eyeworms. Re-
peated microscopic examinations of excreted material showed








Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


the presence of eggs. Both eyes contained numerous adult para-
sites. All the parasites which could be found in the left eye
were transferred to the right eye, making a total of about 60
worms in the right eye. After the bird had been under observa-
tion for about one month, the right eye suddenly showed a
marked irritation which caused a disturbance of vision shown
by a continuous winking of the eye as if to dislodge a foreign
body. Other symptoms noticed consisted of an apparent burn-
ing of the eye evidenced by frequent rubbing of the head on
the feathers of the wing, lacrimation, a nasal discharge, a white
corneal opacity, and an inflammation of the nictitating mem-
brane together with a puffy elevation on this organ. This irri-
tation caused the bird to scratch at the eye frequently with the
foot, which produced laceration of the outer surface of the eye-
lids.
The bird was immediately given a thorough clinical examina-
tion with the result that no worms whatever were found in the
right eye on this day, while on the preceding day just before
these symptoms occurred, numerous worms were present, as was
Determined by a careful examination. The worms therefore
left the eye very suddenly, within 24 hours, and the symptoms
just mentioned occurred in connection with their disappearance.
A microscopic examination of the fecal material passed by
this bird during the following 24 hours revealed the presence of
hundreds of eggs and a few larvae. The eggs and larvae were
carefully identified by comparing them with eggs obtained from
sexually mature worms and larvae hatched from eggs of sex-
ually mature worms.
The irritation produced by large numbers of worms in the
eyes was subsequently followed by inflammatory products, sec-
ondary infection, exfoliation of tissue, adhesion of the eyelids,
an accumulation of the products of inflammation, together with
portions of decomposed worms, and, finally, blindness.
The above symptoms are descriptive of a typical case in which
numerous eyeworms are present, as similar results were ob-
tained later on a number of birds which were experimentally
infested with the larvae. Mild infestations develop less marked
disturbances and may not show any of the above symptoms.
TRANSMISSION OF EYEWORM
Experiment 2.-As the life cycle of Manson's eyeworm was
unknown and as embryonated (coiled embryo) eggs of this






Bulletin 206, Manson's Eyeworm of Poultry


nematode were passed in the feces, several tests were run to as-
certain if transmission of the worms from one chicken to
another occurred by means of the embryonated eggs. On De-
cember 14, 1925, 12 sexually mature female worms were re-
moved from the eye of a chicken and placed in normal salt solu-
tion. A few hours later these worms were teased into bits by
the use of a tenaculum and forceps, thereby setting free a large
number of eggs containing embryos. These eggs were placed
in the eyes of six pullets. Repeated observations were made,
but no evidence of an infestation could be found. At the close
of five months, the birds were destroyed and upon a detailed
post mortem examination no eyeworms could be detected.
On December 18, 1925, eggs containing embryos were intro-
duced far down the trachea of each of six birds by means of a
long pipette. These birds were destroyed five months later and
each of them was given a post mortem examination with the
result that no evidence of eyeworm infestation could be found.
From the results of these tests it appeared that transmission of
Manson's eyeworm from one chicken to another was not by
means of embryonated eggs.
Experiment 3.-To ascertain if healthy birds could be in-
fested by placing recently hatched larvae in the eye, and in the
trachea, the following tests were carried out: On December 30,
1925, six mature female worms were removed from the eye of
an infested chicken and placed in distilled water. A few hours
later these worms were teased into bits and a large number of
embryonated eggs secured. The culture was kept at room tem-
perature and protected from light. Two days later no appreci-
able change had occurred in the development of the eggs, but on
the third day a great number of them had hatched. A large num-
ber of these recently hatched larvae about 0.2 mm. in length
were placed in the eye of one chicken and in the trachea of an-
other chicken. Repeated observations over a period of five
months were made to determine if infestation could occur from
placing newly hatched larvae in the eye and in the trachea, but
in no case did an infestation result.
Experiment 4.-The next problem attacked was that of ex-
posing non-infested birds to infested chickens in the same cage
to see if the worms could be transmitted by contact. In this ex-
periment four infested and four healthy birds were used. The
non-infested birds were confined with the infested ones in an in-
sect-proof cage for a period of five months. Sanitation similar






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


to that given an average farm poultry flock was maintained.
Under this condition the non-infested birds were therefore ex-
posed to the active living stage of the parasite and to the con-
taminated cage. No infestation was transmitted from infested
to healthy birds in this manner. Neither could eggs or larval
forms of the parasite be found in the bronchial or nasal secre-
tions of infested or exposed fowls.
The result of this experiment led to several inferences, such
as: (1) The elimination of immature, non-infective stages of
the parasite; (2) The need of a period of incubation in the
soil or water longer than the exposure allowed in the experi-
ment; (3) That adult parasites are not transmitted directly
from one bird to another; (4) The existence of an intermediate
host.
An attempt was then made to determine an intermediate host
which transmitted the eyeworm. Consequently, attention was
directed toward various insects which were encountered on
premises where infested chickens were ranging. It appeared
reasonable to suspect the stick-tight or Southern chicken flea as
being a possible intermediate host, since a portion of the life his-
tory of the flea is spent in feeding upon and crawling in organic
material, including the droppings of birds and in later life col-
lecting in clusters near the eyes of chickens. A microscopic ex-
amination was therefore made of numerous fleas collected from
chickens severely infested with eyeworm with the result that
no evidence of transmission by this insect was obtained. Like-
wise in these experiments, mites, lice, water crabs, flies, earth-
worms and crickets taken from infested premises were exam-
ined without finding the larvae.
In making examinations of infested flocks it was observed
that decidedly more severe infestation existed on premises
where the birds roosted out in trees, or under sheds or other
places about the runs, where only an occasional or no disposal
of the droppings was made and where loose boards, boxes, grass,
trash, or filth were present in the lots and runs and at the bases
of the trees. An examination of the soil in the moist shady
portions of the runs beneath the boards and trash or in the
grass at the edges of the fences revealed the presence of numer-
ous cockroaches, Pycnoscelus (Leucophaea) surinamensis Linn.
These cockroaches hid beneath the boards and trash and in
the loose moist soil or in any dark place during the day and at
night they came forth and fed upon whatever food material was







Bulletin 206, Manson's Eyeworm of Poultry


available, including feces of chickens. An examination of these
roaches found on premises where infested chickens ranged and
roosted showed the presence of larvae resembling the eyeWorm.


Fig. 161. An encysted larva of Manson's eyeworm, taken from the body
cavity of a cockroach. (Camera lucida, magnified, original.)

EXAMINATION OF THE COCKROACH
In examining the cockroach for larvae, the insect was choloro-
formed and pinned on its back, one pin being placed in the region
of the head and another in the anal region. The legs were re-
moved and the ventral abdominal segments carefully dissected
away one at a time, exposing the underlying adipose tissue and
organs. The organs of the thoracic region were also exposed by
dissection. After the roach had been dissected as just described,
and with the aid of a dissecting microscope, a hand lens, or even
with the unaided eye, cysts containing larvae of Manson's eye







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


worm could be seen imbedded in the adipose tissue or along the
course of the alimentary canal. The deeply located cysts were
more readily detected if the adipose tissue and the abdominal
and thoracic organs were placed in a petri dish containing a
small amount of water. When the more mature cysts were thus
exposed the encysted larvae, stimulated to vigorous movements,
freed themselves from the cysts, wriggled about in the water or
hid from the light beneath the tissues. Few or many cysts were
present in the body cavity. In numerous instances a great num-
ber of cysts were situated in cluster-like formation around the
posterior intestine while at other times only two or three were
found in the same roach.













Fig. 162., Left: Larvae of Manson's eyeworm taken from the body cavity
of a cockroach; right: adults of Manson's eyeworm, taken from the
eye of a chicken.

Dissection of roaches later in the season revealed that some
larvae were no longer in the cysts but had released themselves
from the capsules and were free in the body cavities and legs
of the roaches and in this stage they were at the height of in-
fectivity.
TESTS WITH LARVAE FROM COCKROACHES
Experiment 5.-Having found nematode larvae in the bodies
of:the roaches, the next step was to ascertain if the larvae would
migrate into the chickens' eyes. Mature larvae placed on the
surface of the head near the eye of a chicken began immediately
to wriggle violently and soon some of them found their way
into the moist eye where they disappeared by their own move-
ments or were carried out of sight by the opening and closing
of the nictitating membrane. After the more mature larvae







Bulletin 206, Manson's Eyeworm of Poultry


were placed in the eye, examination showed that some of these
larvae had located in the inner canthus in the tear sac beneath
the nictitating membrane. When large numbers of young worms
about 8 to 9 mm. in length were placed in the eye many passed
into the mouth through the naso-lacrimal duct and wandered
around for a time, after which they again located in the tear sac.
Experiment 6.-In order to determine if these larvae were
those of the eyeworm and if they would remain in the eye, sev-
eral tests were carried out. The chickens used in these experi-
ments were seven weeks' old White Leghorn cockerels which
were hatched in an incubator and kept on premises where no
eyeworm had been detected. After careful examination which
showed that they were free from eyeworms, the birds were con-
fined for six weeks in insect-proof cages built especially for the
purpose.
(1) Twelve larvae varying from 4 to 8 mm. in length were
removed from the bodies of several cockroaches, P. surinam-
ensis, and placed near the right eyelids of chicken number 401.
A number of these larvae migrated to the surface of the eyeball
and immediately disappeared beneath the nictitating membrane.
On the following morning 12 larvae from 4 to 7 mm. in length
were placed in the left eye of the same fowl. An examination
at this time of the tear sac of this bird's right eye showed that
the young worms were still present.
(2) Nine larvae were removed from the bodies of two cock-
roaches and placed in the left eye of chicken number 402; like-
wise on the following day 16 additional larvae, varying from
4 to 8 mm. in length, were placed in it, making a total of 25 lar-
vae in the left eye of this bird. Frequent examinations were
made on the following days and these observations showed that
the largest larvae remained in the eye while apparently the
smaller larvae, about 4 mm. in length, were unable to do so.
(3) Twenty-one larvae were placed in the eyes of chicken
number 403. Later examinations of the tear sac showed the
presence of eyeworms and on a microscopic examination of the
feces of this bird two months later eggs of the eyeworm were
detected.
(4) Four larvae were transferred from a cockroach to the
left eye of chicken number 404. Two months later one dead
worm was removed from this eye and three living worms were
present. The right eye was negative.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Thus it is seen from Experiment 6 that the larvae found in
these roaches remained in the chickens' eyes, located in the tear
sac and produced infection.
Experiment 7.-This experiment was run to ascertain the
fate of the larval worms when they gained entrance to the
mouth of chickens. Eleven larvae were removed from the body
of a cockroach and placed, one at a time, on the roof of the mouth
and on the tongue of chicken number 405. Immediately upon
touching the warm moist mucus membrane of the mouth these
larvae began to make vigorous snake-like movements and all
succeeded in gaining entrance to the slit-like posterior nares and
disappeared. A later examination of the eyes of this bird showed
that some of the larvae had migrated to the tear sac of the right
eye while others gained access to the left eye. The result of this
experiment therefore shows that the young worms after being
freed in the chicken's mouth migrated to the eyes and located
beneath the nictitating membrane.
After the above observations had been made the report of
Fielding (4) was received. This investigator stated that he
had found the same species of roach to be the intermediate host
of eyeworm of Australian poultry.
Experiment 8.-In order to determine if infestation of the
eyes would occur from feeding infested roaches, six tests were
made. (1) Chicken number 408 was fed six partly dissected
and broken roaches. Eyeworms were later found in the tear
sac beneath the nictitating membrane of both right and left
eyes. The fowl died several days later. (2) The above test was
repeated on bird number 409. After feeding the roaches the
presence of eyeworms was noted in the tear sac beneath the
nictitating membrane of both the right and left eyes. (3) Chick-
en number 410 was fed 10 whole roaches, care being taken not
to rupture them while they were being introduced into the crop.
An examination of the eyes on the following day showed the
presence of eyeworms. (4) Chicken number 411 was fed 10
whole roaches which had been dead for 24 hours. On the fol-
lowing day a close examination revealed the presence of numer-
ous eyeworms. (5) Chicken number 413 was fed 10 live roaches,
care being taken to introduce them into the crop without being
ruptured. On the following day the eyes of this fowl were con-
siderably inflamed and upon a careful examination the presence






Bulletin 206, Manson's Eyeworm of Poultry


of numerous eyeworms was detected. Six controls were nega-
tive. (6) Chicken number 419 was fed four live unbroken
roaches between 9:00 o'clock and 9:01 A.M. From seven and
one-half to eight and one-half minutes later worms were seen
in the mouth; two minutes later some of the worms were at
the posterior nares, and at 9:20 A.M. worms were present in
the right eye. On this occasion, worms were seen issuing into
the eye through the naso-lacrimal duct.
The results of Experiment 8 show that infestation of the
eyes may be produced by feeding infested roaches.
Experiment 9.-To ascertain the fate of the larvae within the
dead intermediate host, two tests were made. (1) Ten roaches
were killed and placed in a
moist chamber. Forty-eight
hours later eyeworms were
seen protruding and wrig-
gling from the leg of one
roach and from the body of
another roach. (2) Several
roaches which had been
dead for 48 hours and kept
in a moist chamber were
placed in a moist vial and
the vial then placed in a
water b a t h, temperature
1 0 7 degrees Fahrenheit.
Thirty minutes later num-
erous worms were wrig-
gling about on the inner
S Fig. 163. The intermediate host of
walls of the vial, showing Manson's eyeworm, the cockroach
that the larvae lived and Pycnoscelus (Leucophaea) suri-
namensis Linn.
were able to leave the bod-
ies of the roaches 48 hours after the death of the insects, and
that apparently an increase of temperature in a moist medium
favors their escape.
Experiment 10.-This experiment was carried out to deter-
mine if some of the larvae would pass further than the crop
and be lost. Chicken number 415 was starved for 18 hours and
then given four live roaches, followed by a small amount of mash
and water. Forty minutes afterwards a post mortem examina-
tion was made and eyeworms were recovered from the follow-
ing organs in the numbers and condition indicated.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


No.
Organ. of worms. Condition.
Gizzard ....... ...................................... 43 ..................---- Dead and partly broken
True stomach ................................... 2 ....................Alive 4.5 and 9 mm. long
Second portion of oesophagus........ 1 ................................Alive 9 mm. long
Crop ...........................................--------..... 15 ........All alive and varying in length
Oesophagus ...----.............. ................... 3 ............Alive 8.5, 9 and 8.5 mm. long
Trachae ....- ..................... --1 .... -----.. ............. Alive 9 mm. long
Right eye.......................... ....... 14 ..-----.............Alive from 8 to 9 mm. long
Left eye ........................................------------ 12 ................Alive from 8 to 9 mm. long
From this experiment it is seen that a large percentage of the
larvae passed into the gizzard and were destroyed, and that it is
necessary for the young worms to escape hurriedly from the in-
termediate host in order to prevent death by being crushed in
the gizzard.
Experiment 11.-It was thought that various wild birds
might be capable of spreading the infestation. Consequently five
tests were made. (1) Two live roaches were fed to a blackbird,
Agelaius phoeniceus phoeniceus Linn., at 10:42 A.M. and at
10:51 A.M. worms were seen at the base of the tongue. Thirty
minutes after the bird was fed the roaches, both eyes were in-
fested. Two controls were negative. (2) Five bobolinks, Doli-
chonyx oryzivorus Linn., were fed a number of roaches and
placed in an insect-proof cage. All five became infested in both
eyes. The control was negative. (3) Two roaches were intro-
duced into the mouth of a pigeon at 2:00 P.M., and at 2:30 P.M.
both eyes of the pigeon were infested with worms. A micro-
scopic examination of the nematodes 75 days later showed that
the worms were sexually mature, and a microscopic examination
of the pigeon's feces at this time showed the presence of worm
eggs. The pigeon was kept in an insect-proof cage. (4) A log-
gerhead shrike, Lanis ludovicianus ludovicianus Linn., was
given three cockroaches and placed in an insect-proof cage.
Forty minutes later both eyes were positive for eyeworm. The
control was negative. (5) Four roaches were fed to a blue jay,
Aphelocoma cyanea Viellilot. An examination of the eyes one
hour later showed the presence of worms. The bird died 104
days after being put on the experiment. A few hours after the
bird had died, four sexually mature eyeworms were removed
from the right eye. A microscopic examination of the intestinal
contents of the jay revealed the presence of eyeworm eggs.
The above experiment leads to the belief that various wild
birds are capable of becoming infested, thereby giving roaches
in remote places access to infested droppings.







Bulletin 206, Manson's Eyeworm of Poultry


DEVELOPMENT IN THE EYE
Some of the nematodes in the eyes of the experimental birds
were removed at various intervals in order to make observa-
tions on their development. Thirty days after the infestation
had occurred the sex organs were well developed but lack of eggs
showed that the female worms were not wholly mature. Forty-
eight days after infestation a dead worm was taken from the eye
of a bird. The uterus was broken down and numerous eggs, many
of which contained the coiled embryo, occurred throughout the
length of the body. Forty-eight days after infestation the uteri
of live worms taken from the eye contained numerous eggs. A
microscopic examination of the eye fluid and of the intestinal
contents of diseased birds 48 days after infestation revealed
the presence of eggs of the parasite. However, this period
varied in other birds according to the development of the worms
at the time of infestation.
DEVELOPMENT IN THE COCKROACH
Experiment 12.-Since the manner in which the embryos
reach the body cavity of their intermediate host and the subse-
quent development, including the length of time required for
the larvae to reach the infective stage after the egg gained en-
trance to the roach, was unknown, it was thought advisable to
conduct experiments in order to secure data on these questions.
The cockroaches used in the present experiments were raised
under control conditions in insect-proof cages. Mature roaches
taken from a poultry yard were placed in the small cages. When
the nymphal roaches were born the parent roach was discarded.
It was deemed advisable to raise the cockroaches under control
conditions in view of the fact that it was extremely difficult to
obtain non-infested roaches from Nature. In the experimental
cages the roaches were given food and water with care and in
this manner the control roaches fed and handled in a way sim-
ilar to the experimental roaches have been free from larvae in
all cases. Food provided for the roaches consisted of a commer-
cial poultry feed; in addition, some carefully selected lettuce
leaves were given daily.
Embryonated eggs were secured by teasing in normal saline
solution, mature female eyeworms that were extracted from a
fowl which had previously been experimentally infested. The
eggs were set aside to incubate for 48 hours, after which time







Bulletin 206, Manson's Eyeworm of Poultry


DEVELOPMENT IN THE EYE
Some of the nematodes in the eyes of the experimental birds
were removed at various intervals in order to make observa-
tions on their development. Thirty days after the infestation
had occurred the sex organs were well developed but lack of eggs
showed that the female worms were not wholly mature. Forty-
eight days after infestation a dead worm was taken from the eye
of a bird. The uterus was broken down and numerous eggs, many
of which contained the coiled embryo, occurred throughout the
length of the body. Forty-eight days after infestation the uteri
of live worms taken from the eye contained numerous eggs. A
microscopic examination of the eye fluid and of the intestinal
contents of diseased birds 48 days after infestation revealed
the presence of eggs of the parasite. However, this period
varied in other birds according to the development of the worms
at the time of infestation.
DEVELOPMENT IN THE COCKROACH
Experiment 12.-Since the manner in which the embryos
reach the body cavity of their intermediate host and the subse-
quent development, including the length of time required for
the larvae to reach the infective stage after the egg gained en-
trance to the roach, was unknown, it was thought advisable to
conduct experiments in order to secure data on these questions.
The cockroaches used in the present experiments were raised
under control conditions in insect-proof cages. Mature roaches
taken from a poultry yard were placed in the small cages. When
the nymphal roaches were born the parent roach was discarded.
It was deemed advisable to raise the cockroaches under control
conditions in view of the fact that it was extremely difficult to
obtain non-infested roaches from Nature. In the experimental
cages the roaches were given food and water with care and in
this manner the control roaches fed and handled in a way sim-
ilar to the experimental roaches have been free from larvae in
all cases. Food provided for the roaches consisted of a commer-
cial poultry feed; in addition, some carefully selected lettuce
leaves were given daily.
Embryonated eggs were secured by teasing in normal saline
solution, mature female eyeworms that were extracted from a
fowl which had previously been experimentally infested. The
eggs were set aside to incubate for 48 hours, after which time







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


they were thoroughly stirred into a custard mixture and placed
before caged nymphal roaches which had been starved for sev-
eral days. Forty-eight hours afterwards, the experimental food
was consumed. Observations made as to the stage of develop-
ment of Manson's eyeworm in these roaches are presented below.
Length
Day. of worm. Location in roach. Remarks.
1 ............... Crop and intestine Embryonated eggs
2 ................ Crop and intestine Embryonated eggs
3 0.2 mm. Lumen of intestine Larvae, free
4 0.2 mm. Lumen of intestine Larvae, free
5 0.2 mm. Lumen of intestine Larvae, free
8 0.4 mm. Body cavity Larvae, free
20 1.0 to 1.5 mm. Body cavity Larvae, encysted; non-infective
30 2.5 to 3.0 mm. Body cavity Larvae, encysted; non-infective
40 4.0 to 5.0 mm. Body cavity Larvae, encysted; non-infective
50 6.0 mm. Body cavity Larvae, encysted; infective
Larvae 8 to 9 mm. in length were collected from roaches on
infested premises and at this size they were highly infective.
Eight days after the experimental feeding, 13 roaches had died.
Larvae were found in the body cavities of roaches which died on
and after the eighth day. No attempt was made to section the
roaches in order to demonstrate penetration but the injury pro-
duced by large numbers of larvae migrating through the in-
testine at one time is sufficient in the opinion of the writer to
produce death of the insect in some cases.
No infestations of the eyes of chickens were obtained by feed-
ing the experimentally infested roaches at various intervals
until the fiftieth day after the roaches had eaten the custard
containing the incubated eggs. At this time six young cockerels
were fed a number of infested nymphal stage roaches and all
six birds became infested. Examinations of roaches which have
been heavily infested, as in this experiment, show that it is com-
mon for two or three larvae to be present in the same cyst, while
the cysts contained in roaches taken from Nature commonly har-
bor only one larva.
Experiment 13.-Whether roaches would become infested by
ingesting droppings of diseased birds and if the interval re-
quired for the larvae to reach the infective stage was subject to
variation remained to be determined. A number of roaches were
isolated in test cages, starved for several days and then allowed
access for 72 hours to freshly voided feces of a chicken severely
infested with the eyeworm. The roaches began feeding upon this
material immediately and evidence was very apparent that the
insects consumed a sufficient quantity for the purpose of the ex-







Bulletin 206, Manson's Eyeworm of Poultry


periment. The roaches were then allowed the usual commercial
poultry feed, minus the lettuce. Examination of the roaches
at various intervals showed that they became infested by hav-
ing access to such droppings and that the time period required
for the larvae to reach the infective stage in this experiment
was approximately 100 days after the last possible feeding. Ap-
parently the character of food eaten by roaches and the season
of the year cause a variation in the length of time required for
the larval stage of the eyeworm to reach the infective stage in
the roach. Periods as short as 50 days were observed in Experi-
ment 12.
LIFE HISTORY

Sexually mature male and female worms occur in the inner
canthus of the eye of chickens and other birds, beneath the nicti-
tating membrane where the female worms lay their eggs. The
eggs are washed down the tear-duct, with the eye-fluid, into the
pharynx and are swallowed. Occasionally eggs may hatch in
the intestinal canal of the chicken, but most of them pass from
the body with the feces. Should the eggs be taken into the diges-
tive tract of the roach, as would be possible through the indis-
criminate feeding habits of the insect, they hatch and the young
larvae encyst in the abdominal cavity. Here further growth and
development take place and under favorable conditions the lar-
vae reach the infective stage in about 50 days (Experiment 12).
The roaches are readily eaten by chickens and the larval eye-
worms contained in these insects gain a position in the mouth
and pass into the eye through the naso-lacrimal duct. In case the
roaches are swallowed whole and the larvae reach the crop of
the fowl, they free themselves from the intermediate host and
migrate up the oesophagus into the mouth, thence to their desti-
nation through the tear-duct. They reach sexual maturity in
the tear-sac, beneath the nictitating membrane, and lay their
eggs.
THE COCKROACH

The cockroach (Pycnoscelus surinamensis) is circumtropical
in distribution, having spread from its tropical home, probably
the East Indies, through the influence of trade. Its range is
frequently extended into subtropical regions and it is abundant
in the peninsula of Florida and the Brownsville region of Texas.
It has been found established as far north as Jacksonville,







Bulletin 206, Manson's Eyeworm of Poultry


periment. The roaches were then allowed the usual commercial
poultry feed, minus the lettuce. Examination of the roaches
at various intervals showed that they became infested by hav-
ing access to such droppings and that the time period required
for the larvae to reach the infective stage in this experiment
was approximately 100 days after the last possible feeding. Ap-
parently the character of food eaten by roaches and the season
of the year cause a variation in the length of time required for
the larval stage of the eyeworm to reach the infective stage in
the roach. Periods as short as 50 days were observed in Experi-
ment 12.
LIFE HISTORY

Sexually mature male and female worms occur in the inner
canthus of the eye of chickens and other birds, beneath the nicti-
tating membrane where the female worms lay their eggs. The
eggs are washed down the tear-duct, with the eye-fluid, into the
pharynx and are swallowed. Occasionally eggs may hatch in
the intestinal canal of the chicken, but most of them pass from
the body with the feces. Should the eggs be taken into the diges-
tive tract of the roach, as would be possible through the indis-
criminate feeding habits of the insect, they hatch and the young
larvae encyst in the abdominal cavity. Here further growth and
development take place and under favorable conditions the lar-
vae reach the infective stage in about 50 days (Experiment 12).
The roaches are readily eaten by chickens and the larval eye-
worms contained in these insects gain a position in the mouth
and pass into the eye through the naso-lacrimal duct. In case the
roaches are swallowed whole and the larvae reach the crop of
the fowl, they free themselves from the intermediate host and
migrate up the oesophagus into the mouth, thence to their desti-
nation through the tear-duct. They reach sexual maturity in
the tear-sac, beneath the nictitating membrane, and lay their
eggs.
THE COCKROACH

The cockroach (Pycnoscelus surinamensis) is circumtropical
in distribution, having spread from its tropical home, probably
the East Indies, through the influence of trade. Its range is
frequently extended into subtropical regions and it is abundant
in the peninsula of Florida and the Brownsville region of Texas.
It has been found established as far north as Jacksonville,







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Gainesville, and Cedar Keys, Florida; New Orleans, Louisiana,
and San Antonio, Texas. Elsewhere in the United 'States the
species has become temporarily established in greenhouses and
places similarly heated during cold weather. It has been taken
in the reptile-house of the New York Zoological Society, in New
York City; also at Rutherford, N. J., Washington, D. C., and
Cromwell, Conn. An immature specimen taken from a bunch of
bananas has been recorded from Toronto, Ontario. This species
and the Australian cockroach (Periplaneta australasiae Fabr.)
have been reported as doing damage in a conservatory at Welles-
ley, Mass.
Outside of the United States, P. surinamensis has been taken
in Cuba, Bahamas, Porto Rico, Dominica, Trinidad, Barbados,
Martinique, Grenada, St. Vincent and Jamaica, islands of the
West Indies; Bermuda, Mexico, Costa Rica, Brazil and Guiana,
on the American continents. Its distribution outside the Ameri-
can continents includes Great Britain, France, Spain, and Aus-
tralia; Sumatra, Lombok, and Java of the East Indies; Burmah,
India; Amoy, Southern China; Philippine Islands; Lower Siam;
Singapore, Straits Settlement; Senegal; it is also frequently
found on ships. It is to be noted that the reported geographical
distribution of 0. mansoni closely agrees with the distribution
of the cockroach, P. surinamensis.

TREATMENT OF THE EYEWORM
The treatment recommended by Wilcox and McClelland (10)
for destroying eyeworms in the tear-sac of infested birds has
been modified somewhat for use in these investigations. The
treatment consists of anesthetizing the eye by means of a local
anesthetic and, after exposing the worms in the tear-sac by lift-
ing the membrane, placing one or two drops of a 5 percent solu-
tion of creolin directly on the worms beneath the membrane.
The eye should then be immediately irrigated with pure water
to wash out excess creolin solution. The worms die immediately
upon coming in contact with the creolin solution and therefore
irrigating the eye does not interfere with the effectiveness of
the treatment. Birds so treated will stand around for a time
in the shady portions of the runs with their eyes closed; they
open their eyes, however, when feed is offered, and, in from 48
to 60 hours after the treatment, the eyes show improvement and
gradually clear up if the destructive process has not advanced
too far.







Bulletin 206, Manson's Eyeworm of Poultry


CONTROL OF THE EYEWORM

In view of the widespread occurrence of the cockroach (P.
surinamensis) throughout tropical and subtropical countries, it
seems impossible to rid premises completely of this insect for
any great length of time. The favorite hiding-places of this spe-
cies should be removed as far as possible, hence all trash, loose
boards, boxes, logs and filth should be removed from the houses,
lots and runs, and the premises kept in a sanitary condition at
all times. Where daily sanitary disposal of all droppings is main-
tained, the gross infection of roaches is less general and the se-
verity of the infestation is proportionately lessened. It has been
observed on premises where severe outbreaks occurred that thor-
oughly treating the eyes, maintaining strict sanitary disposal
of the droppings and clearing the runs of all trash, filth, loose
boards, boxes, logs, etc., resulted in controlling the disease to
such an extent that it was of little economic importance.

SUMMARY

1. Manson's eyeworm (Oxyspirura mansoni) is a parasitic
nematode found beneath the nictitating membrane of the eyes of
poultry.
2. A severe eyeworm infestation often results in blindness.
3. Embryonated eggs of 0. mansoni are not infective when
placed in the eyes of chickens.
4. The newly hatched larvae likewise are not infective when
placed in the eyes of chickens.
5. The adult parasites are not transmitted directly from one
bird to another.
6. Larvae resembling 0. mansoni may be found in a species
of cockroach (Pycnoscelus surinamensis) on premises where
infested birds range and roost.
7. Infestation of the eyes of chickens has been produced
within 20 minutes after feeding P. surinamensis.
8. The larval eyeworms, after being swallowed along with
the intermediate host, reach the eye cavity by migrating up the
oesophagus to the mouth, thence through the naso-lacrimal duct
to the eye.
9. Escape of the larval worms from their intermediate host
apparently is facilitated by placing the insect in a moist medium
with an increase of temperature.







Bulletin 206, Manson's Eyeworm of Poultry


CONTROL OF THE EYEWORM

In view of the widespread occurrence of the cockroach (P.
surinamensis) throughout tropical and subtropical countries, it
seems impossible to rid premises completely of this insect for
any great length of time. The favorite hiding-places of this spe-
cies should be removed as far as possible, hence all trash, loose
boards, boxes, logs and filth should be removed from the houses,
lots and runs, and the premises kept in a sanitary condition at
all times. Where daily sanitary disposal of all droppings is main-
tained, the gross infection of roaches is less general and the se-
verity of the infestation is proportionately lessened. It has been
observed on premises where severe outbreaks occurred that thor-
oughly treating the eyes, maintaining strict sanitary disposal
of the droppings and clearing the runs of all trash, filth, loose
boards, boxes, logs, etc., resulted in controlling the disease to
such an extent that it was of little economic importance.

SUMMARY

1. Manson's eyeworm (Oxyspirura mansoni) is a parasitic
nematode found beneath the nictitating membrane of the eyes of
poultry.
2. A severe eyeworm infestation often results in blindness.
3. Embryonated eggs of 0. mansoni are not infective when
placed in the eyes of chickens.
4. The newly hatched larvae likewise are not infective when
placed in the eyes of chickens.
5. The adult parasites are not transmitted directly from one
bird to another.
6. Larvae resembling 0. mansoni may be found in a species
of cockroach (Pycnoscelus surinamensis) on premises where
infested birds range and roost.
7. Infestation of the eyes of chickens has been produced
within 20 minutes after feeding P. surinamensis.
8. The larval eyeworms, after being swallowed along with
the intermediate host, reach the eye cavity by migrating up the
oesophagus to the mouth, thence through the naso-lacrimal duct
to the eye.
9. Escape of the larval worms from their intermediate host
apparently is facilitated by placing the insect in a moist medium
with an increase of temperature.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


10. When large numbers of the young worms about 8.0 to 9.0
mm. in length are placed in the eye of a chicken, many pass into
the mouth through the naso-lacrimal duct and wander about for
a time, after which they again locate in the tear-sac.
11. After gaining entrance to the tear-sac, the larval worms
develop to sexual maturity and lay their eggs in the lacrimal
fluid.
12. In the present experiments the time required for the
larvae to reach the infective stage in roaches which have eaten
eggs of the eyeworm was 50 to 100 days. Forty-eight days after
the worms gained entrance to the eyes of chickens embryonated
eggs were observed in the mature females.
13. Data from experiments showed that the following wild
birds are capable of becoming infested and may spread infested
droppings: blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus phoeniceus), bobo-
link (Dolichonyx oryzivorus), loggerhead shrike (Lanius ludo-
vicianus ludovicianus), Florida jay (Aphelocoma cyanea) and
the pigeon.
14. The most effective treatment used to destroy the worms
in the eye consists of anesthetizing the eye with a local anes-
thetic and then lifting the nictitating membrane and placing one
or two drops of a 5 percent solution of creolin directly on the
worms. Immediately after the creolin is instilled, the eye should
be irrigated with water.
15. The most efficient control measures observed up to the
present time consist of thoroughly treating the eyes and put-
ting into practice strict sanitary measures, especially including
the disposal of the droppings at short intervals and clearing the
runs of all trash.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The author is indebted to Dr. J. E. Ackert, of the Kansas State
Agricultural College, for examining specimens of the nematode,
confirming their identity and for helpful suggestions and criti-
cisms given in the preparation of the manuscript; to Dr. A. L.
Shealy, of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, for
complete cooperation and many helpful suggestions during the
progress of the work; to Professor T. H. Hubbell of the Univer-
sity of Florida, for identifying the cockroach and giving data
on its distribution; and to Mr. D. G. A. Kelbert, of the Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station, for making the photographs.








Bulletin 206, Manson's Eyeworm of Poultry 585

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