• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Early planting in Florida
 Time of ripening and blooming
 Propagation
 Culture
 Fertilization
 Marketing
 Mango groups
 Culinary recipes
 Literature






Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station - no. 127
Title: Mangoes in Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027530/00001
 Material Information
Title: Mangoes in Florida
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: p. 103-138 : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rolfs, P. H ( Peter Henry ), 1865-1944
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1915
 Subjects
Subject: Mango -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 138.
Statement of Responsibility: by P.H. Rolfs.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027530
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000922743
oclc - 18161527
notis - AEN3252

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Page 103
    Table of Contents
        Page 104
    Introduction
        Page 105
    Early planting in Florida
        Page 106
    Time of ripening and blooming
        Page 107
    Propagation
        Page 108
        Seeds
            Page 108
        Inarching young seedlings
            Page 109
            Page 110
        Inarching bearing trees
            Page 111
            Page 112
            Page 113
        Budding
            Page 114
            Page 115
            Page 116
        Striking cuttings
            Page 117
        Effects of stock on scion
            Page 118
    Culture
        Page 118
        Page 119
    Fertilization
        Page 120
    Marketing
        Page 121
    Mango groups
        Page 122
        Page 123
        Page 124
        Page 125
        Turpentine group
            Page 126
        Eleanor group
            Page 127
        No. eleven group
            Page 128
        Bombay group
            Page 129
        Pineapple group
            Page 130
        Cambodia group
            Page 131
            Page 132
        Sandersha group
            Page 133
        Mulgoba group
            Page 134
            Page 135
        Gola group
            Page 136
        Indian varieties
            Page 136
    Culinary recipes
        Page 137
    Literature
        Page 138
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







Bulletin 127


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

Agricultural Experiment Station



MANGOES IN FLORIDA

BY

P. H. ROLFS


Fig. 41.-The way to peel a fibrous mango (No. Eleven).

The Station Bulletins will be sent free upon application to the Experiment
Station, Gainesville, Florida.

2ME E.O.PAINTER PRINTING CO.of LANO.Fl.N9 10377


vO -
June, 1915
























CONTENTS
PAGE
Introduction ---------.......--------------------------------- 105
Early Planting in Florida--------------------------------------- Io6
Time of Ripening and Blooming-------------------------------- Io7
Propagation ....-------------------- ------------------------ io8
Seeds ---------------------------------------------- o8
Inarching Young Seedlings------------------------------ Io9
Inarching Bearing Trees------- --------------------------- iII
Budding -------------------------------------------- 114
Striking Cuttings ------------- ------------------------ 117
Effects of Stock on Scion----------- -------------- ----- --- 118
Culture .-------------- -------------------------------------- I18
Fertilization --------- ---------------------------------------- 120
Marketing .-------- -------------------------------------------------- 121
Mango Groups ---- ----------------------------------------------- 122
Turpentine Group -------------------------------------- 126
Eleanor Group ------------.------------------------- -- 127
No. Eleven Group------....--- ----------------------------- 128
Bombay Group -----------.------ -------------------- -- 129
Pineapple Group ----------------------------------------- 130
Cambodiana Group ---------------------------------------- 131
Sandersha Group -------------------------------------- -- 133
Mulgoba Group --------------------------------------------- 134
Gola Group ---- ----------------- -------------------- 136
Indian Varieties ---------------------------------------- 136
Culinary Recipes ----------------- ------------------- ---- 137
Literature ---- ---------------------------------------------------- 138











MANGOES IN FLORIDA
BY
P. H. ROLFS


INTRODUCTION
The history of mango growing in Florida may be divided into
two periods. The period when only seedling trees were grown
lasted from about 1840 to the end of the century. The period of
grafted or budded varieties began in 1889 with the introduction of
the grafted Mulgoba. Even now, much more fruit is produced
from seedling trees than from budded or grafted trees. However,
the total value of the fruit produced by the finer varieties approaches
or equals that of the fruit from seedling trees. Mangoes from
seedling trees are mostly sold within the State of Florida, and in a
few special markets where mangoes are known and appreciated,
such as New Orleans and New York. The finer varieties, however,
can procure an entrance into nearly any market even in the presence
of an abundance of other fine fruit.
So many nurserymen are now offering plants of the fancy
varieties of mango, that there is no reason for setting out any but
the fine varieties. Opinions as to what is the best variety of mango
to grow will probably be as numerous as the growers propagating
the varieties. The Mulgoba bears the finest fruit; but it ripens
rather late, and is an indifferent producer. Among the earliest
ripening kinds, Amini seems to be a good producer.
The importance of this crop in the tropics is not appreciated by
those who are living in sib-tropical regions. It is probably of as
much importance to the inhabitants of India and other southern
Asiatic countries as the apple is to the people of temperate Europe
and America. The people of Florida have in general but a slight
appreciation of the many ways in which the mango can be used
and applied to the family maintenance. The literature of southern
Asia, from the most ancient times, contains reference to this im-
portant fruit. (Those interested in the history of the mango will
find a rather full compilation of the literature and extensive refer-
ences in Bulletin 18 of the Bureau of Agriculture of the Philippines,
by P. J. Wester, 1911. A copy of this bulletin can probably be






io6 Florida Agricultural Experiment'Station

obtained by writing to the Chief of the Division of Experiment
Stations, O. W. Barrett, at Manila, P. I.
S The southern part of Florida, from as far north as Punta Gorda
'on the west and in the neighborhood of Palm Beach on the east, is
the best adapted to mango growing for commercial purposes. Mango
trees may, however, be cultivated for home use to the north of this
region. Trees may be planted as far north as Tarpon Springs on
the west, and New Smyrna on the east, if the plantings are of
small extent and confined to sheltered places. The amount of cold
that the mango tree can withstand depends largely upon its condi-
tion of growth at the time. If the tree is thoroughly dormant and
of large size, 25 degrees F. will not materially injure it; and even
a temporary depression to 20 degrees F. will not cause serious dam-
age. If, however, the mango tree is in active growth, it is nearly
sure to be killed to the ground level if the temperature goes down
to 25 degrees. A freezing temperature does not necessarily prove
fatal to the mango. Such cold spells are only temporary in South
Florida, and usually last but a few hours.

EARLY PLANTING IN FLORIDA

The first planting of mangoes in Florida was probably made
on the Keys by Dr. Perrine in the 40's. This planting was brought
to an unhappy end by the Indian massacre. At about the same
time, a few mango trees were set out on the shores of Biscayne Bay,
farther north. A small planting was made at Snapper Hammock
about four miles south of Cocoanut Grove. One of these trees
continued to thrive until about 1908, when it was killed by fire. It
was probably the oldest mango tree in Florida. This tree was
visited repeatedly by the writer from 1901 to 1906. As well as
could be learned from inquiries in 1902 among the old settlers, this
tree was planted at about the same time as the above-mentioned
mangoes planted by Dr. Perrine on Indian Key. This would make
the tree nearly seventy years old. It belongs to what is commonly
termed the "turpentine kind." At no time during the five years
of my observations of this tree did it bear a heavy crop, though
every year at least a few fruits were produced.
On page 86 of the Proceedings of the Florida State Horticul-
tural Society for 1892, Mr. R. D. Hoyt, in his report on tropical
fruits, said: "The trees throughout Hillsboro and parts of Orange
and Polk Counties, and even in parts of Lake are now loaded with






Bulletin 127


bloom, fruit well set, and the prospect is good for a heavy crop."
In the Proceedings of the Society for 1895, on page 57, T. B.
Richards of Eden spoke of the mango being cut dead to the ground
at that place. In the Proceedings for 1896, on page 88, Mr. W.
A. Marsh referred to the mangoes of Fort Myers section as having
recovered nicely, and said that they "will probably bear considerable
fruit." During the early go's, the most extensive plantings and the
best fruiting mangoes in the State were on the Pinellas Peninsula,
near St. Petersburg.
The most extensive plantings at the present time are in Dade
and Palm Beach Counties. Mangoes are also planted out exten-
sively around Fort Myers. A smaller number of trees are in the
region around Manatee. At Oneco, the Reasoner Brothers' Nursery
has the finest lot of bearing varieties in the State. At West Palm
Beach, Mr. J. B. Beach has been propagating some of the best
varieties. Mr. G. B. Cellon of Miami should probably be considered
the most active propagator of the finest mangoes. The plant intro-
duction garden of the Bureau of Plant Industry has probably more
of the named Indian varieties growing than may be found else-
where in Florida in one collection. Prof. Elbridge Gale, formerly
professor of horticulture in the Kansas Agricultural College, was
the pioneer in mango-growing in the Palm Beach Region. The
first Mulgoba tree to fruit in Florida was planted out by him on
his place at Mangonia. It was received by him from the U. S.
Department of Agriculture in 1889 as an imported inarched tree.
This was the beginning of real mango growing in Florida. Since
that time scores of trees of the finer varieties have been imported.


TIME OF RIPENING AND BLOOMING

The time of ripening of the mango varies somewhat in differ-
ent years and for different varieties. The earliest fruits come from
No. Eleven, which usually ripens about May; though occasionally
it may ripen as early as April. The latest mango is Sandersha,
which normally ripens its fruit as late* as September. Towards
the north, the mango bloom appears a little later, and the fruit
ripens later than farther south. Usually bloom is produced but
once during the year, but sometimes two blooming periods occur.
The 1914 crop had several periods for blooming, beginning in De-
cember, 1913, and continuing more or less intermittently until Mafy.
Again, in December, 1914, a small amount of bloom occurred, none






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


of which produced fruit. A second blooming period occurred in
March and April, 1915. This peculiarity of repeated blooming
seems to be independent of the variety, and must be ascribed to
peculiar climatic conditions.

PROPAGATION

SEEDS
The earliest form of propagation of the mango was doubtless
by the seed; though for probably hundreds of years it has been
propagated in India by means of inarching.
The seed method of propagation has been more commonly
employed in Florida than any other. It was the only method in use
up to about fifteen years ago, when some efforts were made at in-
arching and budding.
Some of the varieties of mango, such as the one known in
Florida as No. Eleven, reproduce the parent type pretty closely; so
closely, indeed, that it has generally been considered that the "seeds
come true." The seeds of these mangoes are polyembryonic; that
is, they produce more than one seedling. As many as 12 or 14
seedlings have grown from a single one of these mango seeds. Man-
goes of the Cambodiana group also produce polyembryonic seeds;
and the progeny resembles the parent more or less closely. The
Bombay is also polyembryonic. Many of the finer varieties, as well
as Eleanor, turpentine, and other nondescripts, produce but one
embryo, and the progeny is likely to be more variable than that of
those trees where several embryos are produced in each seed.
The simplest way to handle the seedlings is to remove the seed
or kernel from the stone, and plant this seed direct. It is, however,
not at all necessary to remove the stony coat, especially if the seed
is planted immediately after the pulp has been removed. At the
sub-tropical laboratory at Miami we removed the stony endocarp
from several hundred seeds, and as many were planted without
removing the stony hull. The result was that the difference in
germination in favor of removing the stony coat was not sufficient
to pay for the time and trouble involved. The cost of the labor was
greater than the cost of sufficient additional seeds to make up for
the loss. When the stony envelope is removed the seeds germinate
much more rapidly.
The simplest method employed for setting out seedlings is to
germinate them in boxes or fruit cans, or other such vessels. When






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


of which produced fruit. A second blooming period occurred in
March and April, 1915. This peculiarity of repeated blooming
seems to be independent of the variety, and must be ascribed to
peculiar climatic conditions.

PROPAGATION

SEEDS
The earliest form of propagation of the mango was doubtless
by the seed; though for probably hundreds of years it has been
propagated in India by means of inarching.
The seed method of propagation has been more commonly
employed in Florida than any other. It was the only method in use
up to about fifteen years ago, when some efforts were made at in-
arching and budding.
Some of the varieties of mango, such as the one known in
Florida as No. Eleven, reproduce the parent type pretty closely; so
closely, indeed, that it has generally been considered that the "seeds
come true." The seeds of these mangoes are polyembryonic; that
is, they produce more than one seedling. As many as 12 or 14
seedlings have grown from a single one of these mango seeds. Man-
goes of the Cambodiana group also produce polyembryonic seeds;
and the progeny resembles the parent more or less closely. The
Bombay is also polyembryonic. Many of the finer varieties, as well
as Eleanor, turpentine, and other nondescripts, produce but one
embryo, and the progeny is likely to be more variable than that of
those trees where several embryos are produced in each seed.
The simplest way to handle the seedlings is to remove the seed
or kernel from the stone, and plant this seed direct. It is, however,
not at all necessary to remove the stony coat, especially if the seed
is planted immediately after the pulp has been removed. At the
sub-tropical laboratory at Miami we removed the stony endocarp
from several hundred seeds, and as many were planted without
removing the stony hull. The result was that the difference in
germination in favor of removing the stony coat was not sufficient
to pay for the time and trouble involved. The cost of the labor was
greater than the cost of sufficient additional seeds to make up for
the loss. When the stony envelope is removed the seeds germinate
much more rapidly.
The simplest method employed for setting out seedlings is to
germinate them in boxes or fruit cans, or other such vessels. When






Bulletin 127


the second flush of foliage has hardened and is thoroughly mature,
the plants are set in the field where the trees are wanted. If the
plants are retained in the pots or other vessels until they have
reached a height of three or four feet, transplanting becomes more
precarious, and the results are not so satisfactory. No particular
difficulty is encountered in transplanting seedlings of about eight
or ten inches high.
The seeds of polyembryonic varieties may be planted as usual,
and when the largest seedlings have reached a height of six to ten
inches, the individuals may be separated and planted singly in pots
or boxes. Some of the seedlings will be lost, however, and all will
be more or less retarded in growth.

INARCHING YOUNG SEEDLINGS
This method has been employed for hundreds of years. The
practice probably antedates horticultural records. It is a simple and
certain way of securing the variety of fruit desired. Considerable
variation occurs in the methods employed in Florida. Each person
doing inarching may make some slight change which he may con-
sider as rather important in the work.
A convenient way is to plant the seed directly in a box made
from shingles; purchasing 5-inch cypress shingles, and sawing off
3 or 4 inches of the thin ends before making the box. This would
leave a box deep enough to hold 12 or more inches of soil. A block
of wood, 5 inches square and about an inch thick, may be used for
the bottom. The sides are made of the shingles. Nailing these
together with ordinary crate nails gives a wooden box approximately
5 inches square and 14 inches deep. This is filled with ordinary
potting soil rather nearer to the top than would be done in ordinary
potting. The niango seed is then put in and the seedling grown
until it has matured the second flush, when it will be from 8 to 12
inches tall.
This box containing the mango is then brought near the tree
from which the scion is to be secured. Where the tree is so tall
that the limbs cannot be readily bent to the ground, a scaffold may
be built up on which the boxes are securely placed. One set of
about one hundred such inarchings passed through a hurricane with
a loss of less than a quarter. From this it would seem that this
method can ordinarily be relied upon to give satisfactory results.
All kinds of methods have been introduced to expedite and
cheapen the work of making inarches. These are more of the






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


nature of conveniences than of essentials. The essential matter in
making inarchings is to use seedlings at the youngest possible stage
and to transplant the inarches as soon as they are in fit condition.
A large number of successful inarches have been made on seedlings
less than o1 inches tall, in their first flush of growth, and growing
in 5-inch flower-pots.
In choosing a scion to use for iiarching, it is important to
select one that is not making a flush of new leaves at the time,
but that promises to push into a flush soon after the inarching is
complete. This can usually be told from inspection of the tree.
After a suitable tree has been found and all preparations have been
made, it is necessary to remove from the scion a strip of bark 3
inches or more long, and a similar strip from the stock. Care must
be taken that the two cut surfaces fit together securely and smoothly.
The scion is then tied firmly to the stock, and the first step in inarch-
ing is completed. In two weeks, if favorable growing weather
occurs, the first cross-cuts can be made into both stock and scion.
With a sharp knife a notch is cut in the stock just above the union
with the scion. This notch may go half through. A similar notch
is made in the scion just below the union. Two weeks after this
the notches in stock and scion should be deepened to about two-
thirds or three quarters through. In the course of another fortnight,
all the plants should be gone over thoroughly, and the unions be-
tween stock and scion carefully examined. If good knitting has
occurred, the top may be entirely removed from the stock, and the
scion severed from the tree. If, however, the fusion is not progress-
ing as rapidly as might be desired, it will pay to wait another ten
days or two weeks before removing the top, or severing the scion
from the parent tree. Undue haste and lack of attention at this
point are likely to cause the loss of many inarches. Little risk and
only a small additional expense arises from waiting 8 or o1 weeks
before making a complete severance between the scion and the
parent tree. On the whole, inarching involves a considerable
amount of work, since the pots must be visited daily for watering
and general care.
Immediately after severing the scion from the parent tree, the
inarchings should be put in a plant house, or under the shade of a
tree. How long they should remain in the shade will vary but it is
usually advisable to allow the plants to remain in a sheltered situa-
tion until they have matured one strong flush of growth. Then the
sooner they are set out the better; providing the weather is favorable.






Bulletin 127


INARCHING BEARING TREES

The bearing mango trees found in Florida are for the most
part seedling trees with inferior or nearly worthless fruit. Many
of these can be made useful by inarching into them scions from the
better varieties. This has been done more successfully, and may be
carried on more expeditiously than is often thought. Inarching is
more generally applicable than budding, since larger branches of the
bearing trees may be employed. IFor this purpose, one needs in-
arched trees established in pots as described above./ These pots
should be fastened to the growing trees at the most convenient place,
and in as substantial a way as possible. One may nail the box con-
taining the inarched plant to the bearing tree in the proper place,
and inarch the scion, using limbs less than 4 or 5 inches in diameter.
The scion is applied to the branch so that it will fit well for 5 or 6
inches. A strip of bark is removed from the stock; and the scion,
after a corresponding strip of bark has been also cut from it, is
fitted on. The strong and vigorous growth of the tree will produce
an abundance of cambium, and the junction will be effected in a
short time. There is, however, some difficulty in keeping the small
scion firmly attached to the stock. This difficulty, however, may be
overcome by nailing strips of wood across the scion, or by driving
thin nails through the scion into the stock. Tying with cord is
usually ineffective, since the bark of the stock is so thick that the
string will not hold th! scion in place. In two or three weeks the
union will have commenced, and at the end of four weeks a consid-
erable amount of the branches of the stock above the scion may be
removed, thus causing an extra amount of growth at the point of
union. The severing of the scion from its potted stock is carried on
in the same way as already described. As soon as the union is well
made the scion may be cut off completely. The small inarched tree
may be used again, or planted out and grown to full size, if it is suf-
ficiently vigorous. Fig. 42 shows how such inarching is carried on.
Some care must be exercised in removing the tops of these
large trees. (An attempt to force the scion beyond its growing ca-
pacity frequently ends in producing -frenching in the scion.) A
tree may, however, be made over in this way in a remarkably short
time. Where it is properly handled, the top will assume a normal
shape in four or five years.
Fig. 42 illustrates this inarching method. The main trunk of
the tree is shown at the left. The inarch was made into the four-






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


A1


Fig. 42.-


-Sandersha inarched on No.
Eleven.


Fig 43 shows two inarches
made in limbs about 4 inches in
diameter and about 6 feet from
the ground. The illustration
shows the result when the in-
arches were 2 years old. The
central main portion of the tree
is still present. This serves to
form a support for the tops of
the inarches, and also keeps the
roots vigorous, enough of the top
having been removed for the
inarches to receive all of the
growth material that they could
use. It will be noticed that the
sawn-off portion of the stock at
the places of inarching has been
completely covered by new
growth. The branch on the
right has a roughened area where
the scion united with the stock.


inch branch at the right. The
box holding, the scion plant was
securely nailed to the branch
whose stump is shown in the fig-
ure. Later, when the inarch,
which is shown at the right as a
small sprig, was strong enough
to maintain the rqot of a large
tree, the branch on the left was
sawed off obliquely, the cut ex-
tending just below the union be-
tween the large branch and the
smaller branch. The exposed
wood was treated with antiseptic
and painted over. The smaller
branch, represented here after
being sawed off, was purposely
cut some four inches above
where the small inarch joins it.
The growth of wood in the angle
was rapid, and a strong union
resulted.
I M


















Fig. 43.-Paheri (left), and Cambodi-
ana (right), inarched on No. Eleven.






Bulletin 127


Fig. 44 shows the same tree
photographed in Fig. 43, three
years later, the central trunk hav-
ing been cut out, and the wound
properly treated. The cut sur-
face had by this time become
partially covered with bark. It
will be noticed that the branches
that were inarched are standing
more erect and that their diam-
eter has increased decidedly.
(Fig. 44 is more reduced in size
as compared with the original
than Fig. 43).
Fig. 45 shows the appearance
of this tree in 1911. Although Fig. 44.-The same tree shown in Fig.
the inarches were from mangoes 43. Cambodiana inarch on left,
of two different groups, the tree Paheri on right.
has produced a
fairly symmetri-
cal top.
Fig. 46 shows
a Totafari inarch
on a No. Eleven
seedling. The in-
arching on this
tree was done in
the same way as
that illustrated in
the other figures.
Fig. 46 shows
the top that has
been produced on
the tree in the
course of between
3 and 4 years,
the central trunk
having been re-
moved. It also
shows the large
scar produced by
Fig. 45.-The same tree shown in Figs. 43 and 44.
Paheri on left, Cambodiana on right, cutting out the






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


trunk of the tree. When these large wounds are treated with anti-
septic and then kept covered with paint, the bark soon grows over
them perfectly. Care, however, must be taken during the operation,
otherwise the tree will be lost through infections entering these
large wounds.
BUDDING
Many methods for the transference of buds from scion to
stock have been advocated, and nearly all have been successful in
the hands of some
of their advocates.
SHIIELD BUD. -
This is the simplest
and most usual
form of budding
employed in the
propagation of fruit
trees. It has been
tried many times
with mangoes. As
far back as the early
9o's, Mr. J. B.
Beach reported
good success by the
S shield-bud method.
In later trials, the
method seemed to
prove unfavorable.
In all, a score of
persons might be
found in Florida
who, at one time or
another, put shield
buds in the mango
and found that
most of the buds
Fig. 46.-Totafari inarch. took; but on at-
tempting to contin-
ue the work later, found that they were unable to repeat the oper-
ations with the same success.
Higgins' Method.-Prof. Higgins of the Hawaiian Experi-
ment Station has experimented to a considerable extent in propa-






Bulletin 127


gating mangoes. His method of shield-budding differs from the
ordinary form in that a very long slit is cut in the bark, and the bud
is made of the extraordinary length of 2 or 3 inches. This long
bud piece is then inserted under the bark in the usual manner, and
wrapped with waxed tape. Prof. Higgins considers it important to
make the cross cut for the T-shaped opening at the bottom, and to
push the bud upwards. He finds that buds take more readily if cut
from limbs that are an inch or more in diameter, and prefers to use
stems that are a year or two old, where the bark has already become
roughened.
Florida and Hawaii Compared.-In our experience in Florida
there has been considerable difficulty in ascertaining just when the
stock is in the right condition to receive the bud. This seems to
be the determining element in success or failure. In my own ex-
perience I have found that when the bark separates readily from the
stock without leaving any fibers, and discloses a smooth, shining
surface, then the buds take readily. Prof. Higgins recommends
that budding be done in Hawaii just at the time when the new flush
is about to form; that is, when the first signs of new growth occur
in the buds. This, in Florida experience, would seem to be a few
days too late. In Florida we have used smaller branches than those
that have been used in Hawaii, and this may account for the dif-
ference.
PATCH BUDDING.-This is an old and favorite method of bud
propagation, not only for mangoes, but also for many fruit and nut
trees, and it is still largely employed. It consists in taking out a
rectangular piece bearing the bud from the scion, and transferring
this to a similarly-shaped opening cut in the bark of the stock.
As in shield-budding, it is necessary to have the stock in a recep-
tive condition. The tree from which the bud is taken must also be
in the proper condition, otherwise the operator is unable to remove
the bark bearing the bud. Mr. G. B. Cellon, of Miami, altered this
method by trimming the lower end of the bud to a V-shape, and cut-
ting a similar opening in the bark. He found that it was possible
to insert the bud more accurately than by the ordinary method. The
important matter in this form of budding is to cut the opening in
the stock accurately and smoothly, and then to transfer the properly
shaped bud expeditiously. If the operation is not done quickly, the
exposed cambium cells in both the stock and scion will be more or
less dried, and union will be less likely to occur.
Mangoes differ from the ordinary fruits in the matter of bud-
ding in that the union of cambium layers takes place directly under-






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


the bark taken up with the bud, and rarely takes place along the cut
edges. If all the cambium cells be removed from the stock in pre-
paring it for budding, no union takes place. Of numerous buds
that had taken, every one when examined showed growth of cam-
bium on the stock where the bark had been removed, and no union
around the edges of the bark. It is of importance, therefore, to
have some active cambium both on the stock and the bud. All of
the successful methods of budding make use of this principle.
CARE OF THE BUD.-Immediately after the bud has been put
in place, it should be wrapped securely with waxed strips about one
half or three-quarters of an inch broad. The wrapping is begun
below the cut surface and extended upward in a spiral way. The
cloth must be wrapped as firmly as possible, so as to hold the bud
in close contact with the cambium of the stock. When the eye of the
bud is reached, it should be left exposed. After the bud has been
completely wrapped, an end of the waxed strip should be allowed
to hang over the eye of the bud in such a way as to shield it against
rain and to keep off the direct rays of the sun. This can be done
easily by turning the end of the waxed strip under the last round.
In the course of ten days, the buds may be examined. Some
of them by their plumpness and greenness will show that union be-
tween the bud and stock has taken place. These can then be par-
tially unwrapped, taking care to leave the main part of the bud pro-
tected by the waxed cloth, but giving the eye more space than be-
fore. Other buds that are still green but are lacking in plumpness
should be left securely wrapped for a week or ten days longer. If
a bud has taken, it is almost certain to grow. It may, however,
be somewhat tardy in doing so. All buds that are still green at the
end of three weeks are pretty certain to spring sooner or later.
As soon as the bud has taken, the top of the stock should be
lopped. This can be done readily by nicking it io inches or more
above the bud, and then bending it over carefully. As soon as
the bud begins to grow, the stock may be cut off above the bud, at
one or two inches distance. The cut surface of the stock should be
immediately protected by some antiseptic against the invasion of
fungi. A coat of paint, liquid grafting wax, or something of that
kind will be found useful. If the stock is cut at once too close to
the bud, the bud may be injured and killed. If the bud has made a
vigorous growth, the stock may be cut close to the bud and a smooth
union result.
TIME OF BUDDING.-The best time of the year to insert buds
depends on several conditions. As already mentioned, it is of im-






Bulletin 127


portance to have the stock in a receptive condition. This occurs
annually, from the latter part of February to about the first of May.
After the first of May the rainy season may be expected to begin.
While this does not entirely prevent budding, the stock is usually
not in so receptive a condition, and the repeated rains are likely to
cause a deterioration of the bud. Dormant budding has not been
looked upon with favor, though there is a possibility in this direc-
tion. Generally speaking, we will find the stock in good budding
condition some time between the middle of April and the first of
June.
STRIKING CUTTINGS

If one has thoroughly ripened healthy mango wood, it is pos-
sible to strike cuttings from it with the help of ordinary green-
house appliances. The cuttings are made in the usual way, and
struck in the ordinary bench with bottom heat. If sharp sand is
employed in the bench, the cuttings should be removed to pots when
they have struck root.
Another way of striking cuttings may be employed. This has
not been brought to general notice. On the terminals of well-rip-
ened branches about twelve or eighteen inches from the tip, a cir-
cular ring of bark is removed. This ring should be an inch or more
across. If the ring of bark is too narrow, the growth of the cam-
bium will cause it to unite before one has an opportunity of severing
the cutting from the main plant. By taking out a ring of bark,
and allowing the terminal to remain on the tree for about six weeks,
a rather prominent callus will form at the upper edge of the ring.
When this callus has reached a fair size, and before it hardens, the
cutting should be severed from the tree. It can then be placed in
sand for striking, and we may expect to have roots produced in
twelve to twenty weeks. After removing the cuttings from the
parent tree, the leaves should be taken off.
This method should also be employed for sending bud wood to
distant places, since the cutting hardens up thoroughly and will re-
main alive for a sufficient length of time to be shipped half-way
around the world. The leaves, of course, should be cut off before
packing. It is also quite likely that if these cuttings were suitably
packed, they might strike root in transit.
Many of the cuttings made in this way struck readily enough,
but the root system was weak. On this account, this method is less
desirable for propagation than the use of seedling stock.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


EFFECTS OF STOCK ON SCION
So little attention has been given to this, that it is somewhat
difficult to tell what is the best stock for any particular variety.
The mango, as-it occurs in Florida, is made up of an assemblage of
different groups. I have one tree of Totafari inarched on a seed-
ling stock, probably belonging to the Eleanor group. This tree
began to bear fruit before it had been set out 3 years, and it has
been a constant cropper. A scion from this tree was inarched into
a bearing No. Eleven. This made a fine growth, but in the course
of 8 years it has borne only a small amount of fruit, having bloomed
very sparingly. There can be no other difference in these two trees
than the difference of stock, since the scions were from the same
tree. I have another tree of No. Eleven (shown in Figs. 43 to 45),
one side of which was inarched to a seedling Cambodiana scion, and
the other side was inarched to a Paheri. The two sides of this
tree have grown about equally as shown in Fig. 45. The Paheri
made a little more growth than the Cambodiana. The Cambodiana
has been producing fruit for 5 or 6 years, while the Paheri has as
yet produced no fruit. From this it would seem that the No. Eleven
is not an equally good stock for Paheri and for Cambodiana, and
that it is also a rather inferior stock for Totafari.

CULTURE
CHOICE OF SOIL.-In Florida the "hammock" land is the favor-
ite soil in which to plant mangoes. The rolling pine land is also
excellent, and probably from a commercial standpoint, as good or
better than the hammock land. The spruce-pine land and the
higher, thirstier lands will grow mango trees; but these will re-
quire a great deal more care and attention. The wetter soils, such
as improperly drained lands, have usually given bad results, al-
though they have been tried many times.
PREPARATION OF THE LAND.-In preparing lands for mango
groves the same care and attention should be given as is given to
preparing lands for citrus groves. It is sometimes considered that
mango trees will grow anywhere and under any conditions. This,
however, is a mistaken idea, which has probably originated from
seedling trees of the turpentine group being found in almost any
out-of-the-way place where the country has been inhabited for any
considerable time.
If the trees are set out during midsummer, as is usually the
case, it is advisable to protect them by half shade, making the






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


EFFECTS OF STOCK ON SCION
So little attention has been given to this, that it is somewhat
difficult to tell what is the best stock for any particular variety.
The mango, as-it occurs in Florida, is made up of an assemblage of
different groups. I have one tree of Totafari inarched on a seed-
ling stock, probably belonging to the Eleanor group. This tree
began to bear fruit before it had been set out 3 years, and it has
been a constant cropper. A scion from this tree was inarched into
a bearing No. Eleven. This made a fine growth, but in the course
of 8 years it has borne only a small amount of fruit, having bloomed
very sparingly. There can be no other difference in these two trees
than the difference of stock, since the scions were from the same
tree. I have another tree of No. Eleven (shown in Figs. 43 to 45),
one side of which was inarched to a seedling Cambodiana scion, and
the other side was inarched to a Paheri. The two sides of this
tree have grown about equally as shown in Fig. 45. The Paheri
made a little more growth than the Cambodiana. The Cambodiana
has been producing fruit for 5 or 6 years, while the Paheri has as
yet produced no fruit. From this it would seem that the No. Eleven
is not an equally good stock for Paheri and for Cambodiana, and
that it is also a rather inferior stock for Totafari.

CULTURE
CHOICE OF SOIL.-In Florida the "hammock" land is the favor-
ite soil in which to plant mangoes. The rolling pine land is also
excellent, and probably from a commercial standpoint, as good or
better than the hammock land. The spruce-pine land and the
higher, thirstier lands will grow mango trees; but these will re-
quire a great deal more care and attention. The wetter soils, such
as improperly drained lands, have usually given bad results, al-
though they have been tried many times.
PREPARATION OF THE LAND.-In preparing lands for mango
groves the same care and attention should be given as is given to
preparing lands for citrus groves. It is sometimes considered that
mango trees will grow anywhere and under any conditions. This,
however, is a mistaken idea, which has probably originated from
seedling trees of the turpentine group being found in almost any
out-of-the-way place where the country has been inhabited for any
considerable time.
If the trees are set out during midsummer, as is usually the
case, it is advisable to protect them by half shade, making the






Bulletin 127


shelter from such material as is convenient and cheap. It will usual-
ly be found that used fertilizer sacks or cheese-cloth will prove
economical. By driving four stakes in the ground and tacking the
covering to the east, south, west and over the top, a convenient shade
will be afforded to each tree. The open north side makes it possible
to inspect the tree and give it such attention as may be necessary
during the early stages of its growth. During these early stages,
special care should be given to warding off scale insects, red spider,
and fungus blight (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides). The fungus
is likely to prove quite annoying, since it enters readily at the wound
where the stock or the scion has been cut off. It is advisable, there-
fore (as has already been stated), to keep the wounds covered with
paint or liquid grafting wax. Should this fungus gain an entrance,
it will then be advisable to cut back into sound wood beyond where
the fungus extends; which can usually be told by the yellowish ap-
pearance of the part that has been invaded.
CULTIVATION.-During the dry portions of the year, cultiva-
tion should be kept up to conserve the moisture of the grove. As
soon as the rainy season sets in, cultivation may be discontinued,
and the grove either planted to some legume, or allowed to grow up
to weeds. Should the weeds become annoying, it will be sufficient
to use the mower for cutting them down. They may be gathered
and used for mulching around the trees. After the rainy season has
passed, cultivation may be resumed, as in the earlier portion of the
year.
DISTANCE BETWEEN TREEs.-The distance at which the trees
should be planted will depend somewhat upon the variety set out
and the ideals of the owner; but, if the trees are set at the rate of
64 (26 by 26 feet) to ioo (21 by 21 feet) to the acre, they will be
close enough for practical purposes. It is assumed that the less
profitable trees will be cut out.when they begin to crowd the more
profitable ones. It is preferable, with some of the more vigorous
varieties, to set the trees even farther apart than 26 feet each way.
Some of the mango trees now growing in Florida are so large that
they would crowd each other at the rate of 36 to the acre (35 by
35 feet).
We have not had sufficient experience with mangoes in Florida
to enable us to say whether the large trees will become more profit-
able than the smaller ones, but general appearances seem to indicate
that trees while small give much better fruit, and give a much better
commercial return than after they have grown to a large size. The
crop can be most economically handled on trees less than twenty
feet tall.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


FERTILIZATION.
The mango tree is as sensitive to the kind of fertilizer as is
the citrus tree. Generally speaking, the same fertilizer as used for
citrus groves will be found appropriate. During the early growth
of the tree, and before it begins to produce a crop, organic ammo-
nia, such as dried blood or cotton-seed meal, may be used at times
to advantage; but this is easily overdone, and then frenching of the
tree will occur, even in the nursery rows. Generally speaking, how-
ever, it is safe to use the fertilizers employed for citrus trees, either
in the nursery, or for bearing trees. A good and fairly safe fertil-
izer for nursery trees and newly-set groves may be made of the fol-
lowing ingredients: sulphateofamm nia, 125 pounds; dried blood,
200 pounds; high-grade sulphate of potash, 200 pounds, an--aid
phosphate (14 per cent) 800 pounds.
The amount of this fertilizer to be used will have to be de-
termined by the conditions; but from one to three pounds per tree
for the first year, with probably double the amount for the second
year, would seem to be sufficient under ordinary conditions. The
fertilizer should be scattered in a circle not less than four feet in
diameter and well worked into the soil.
For bearing mango trees a good fertilizer may be made up
from 250 pounds sulphate of ammonia, 300 pounds high-grade sul-
phate of potash, and 850 pounds (14 per cent) acid phosphate.
Large bearing trees may be given from 10o to 40 pounds per year.
One fourth may be applied about the first of October, one half about
the middle of January, and the remainder about the first of March.
The amounts should be varied according to the needs of the tree.
A tree exhausted by a heavy crop should have an application of I
to 5 pounds of sulphate of ammonia or nitrate of soda immediately
after the crop has been taken off. During some excessively dry
periods, the ammonia of the soil available to the tree becomes too
low for the health of the tree as shown by a loss of green color.
This may be partially remedied by an application of nitrate of soda
or nitrate of potash at the rate of one to several pounds per tree,
according to the individual need. During some years a period of
heavy rains occurs and the available ammonia is leached out of the
soil. After such periods, the trees take on a yellowish and sickly
look. This can be quickly remedied by an application of nitrate of
soda. Potash and phosphorus do not leach out readily, and trouble
from deficiency of these elements is less likely to occur.
It frequently happens that mango trees, even with the best of






Bulletin 127


care and attention, and with a reasonable amount of fertilizer, fail
to respond and grow as do the rest of the trees of the grove. Such
trees are frequently helped materially by being given an application
of stable manure. Stable manure used as a constant fertilizer will
be found as unsatisfactory in the mango grove as in the citrus grove.
The amount of stable manure to be given at one time will have to be
determined by the surrounding conditions; a pail full to a two-year-
old tree is usually sufficient. It is not advisable to use any stable
manure in groves that are making a reasonably good growth.

MARKETING
Up to the present time the marketing of Florida mangoes has
been done on a small scale, and more as private offerings than as a
standard fruit supply for the general market. This is largely due
to the .fact that the varieties we have produced in sufficient quanti-
ties to place on the general market were of so inferior a type that
no one but a confirmed mango-eater would bother with the fruit.
We cannot hope to establish anything like a reasonable mango
market until the finer varieties which can be eaten with a teaspoon
are produced in sufficient abundance to make them a regular com-
modity. Any mango that cannot be cut into halves and served like
other fruit for dessert cannot be regarded as worthy of general at-
tention and general propagation in Florida. Mango eaters may
differ widely as to what is the best tasting variety, and the fibrous
varieties may be ever so pleasant in taste, but they will never be
regarded as more than novelties in the large markets. The finer
more or less fiberless varieties, however, will command a distinct
place, and sell readily in competition with all northern fruits. We
have more than a dozen tested varieties whose fruits would sell
readily in markets already well stocked with other fruits.
PICKING.-There is a considerable variation in the different
varieties of the finer mangoes as to the time when they should be
picked. Some varieties, such as the Sandersha, may be picked a
considerable time, even weeks, before they have reached their full
color on the tree, and yet make a very acceptable dessert dish. The
Mulgoba, on the other hand, must be allowed to approach the stage
of pink coloring on the tree before being picked for market. It
must not be assumed, however, that any mango which is picked be-
fore it has reached full maturity will be equal to what it would have
been if allowed to ripen on the tree. If it is possible to deliver the
fruit to the consumer within two or three days, it may be allowed


121






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


to remain on the tree until the full coloring has developed, and just
before it is beginning to soften. It should then be picked carefully
and without bruising, transferred to the packing case, and shipped
to the consumer.
PACKING.-The common varieties, such as No. Eleven, the
Bombay group, and the Eleanor group may be gathered at the time
of coloring, and packed in the six-carrier crate. This should then
be shipped by express, so as to be delivered to the general market
in the course of three or four days. These mangoes will remain
in prime condition for a week or two from the time they were taken
from the tree. For the finest varieties, which sell from fifty cents
to three dollars a dozen, f. o.b. at the shipping point, special crates
are desirable. The fruit should be wrapped in tissue paper, and
packed with excelsior or other soft material.
SHIPPING.-Mangoes shipped from New Zealand to London
in cold storage at 45 degrees F., arrived in the market in prime con-
dition. Mangoes have also been shipped from India to London in
cold storage and arrived in fine condition. From this it will be seen
that we have no occasion to suppose that it will always be necessary
to ship this fruit by express. As soon as we have the finer varie-
ties ripening in sufficient abundance to warrant shipping under re-
frigeration, there will be no difficulty in sending these mangoes to
the market as freight.

MANGO GROUPS
The number of varieties that occur in Florida is perhaps limited
only by the number of seedling trees in bearing. We know nothing
of the amount of natural crossing among the varieties. Even the
varieties that are polyembryonic produce some trees that vary con-
siderably, as is shown in the fruiting trees of No. Eleven. At one
time these were regarded as coming "true to seed." It required
only the time necessary to bring the trees into fruiting to disprove
the statement. The same is true with the Eleanor. Prof. Hobbs
of Cocoanut Grove showed me some trees growing at his home
place produced from seeds taken from a single tree known as
Apricot. The progeny produced fruit ranging in size from less
than one inch in diameter and weighing about one and a half ounces
(about the size of a Japanese plum), to fruits weighing.six or eight
ounces. There was a general similarity in the color of the fruit,
and a similarity in the general shape, but there were at least seven
types of fruit. Mr. A. C. Hartless, Superintendent of the govern-






Bulletin 127


ment botanical gardens at Saharanpur, India, has sent me line
drawings and descriptions of 87 varieties of mango. These descrip-
tions included the form of the fruit, nature of the skin, color and
texture of the flesh, and dimensions of the fruit and stone. These
accounts are useful in studying the Florida varieties. Mr. Hart-
less has also noted the color of the flowers, coloring of the flower-
stalk, and length of panicle of 57 varieties. Almost every publica-
tion on mangoes includes a description of a larger or smaller number
of varieties.
We shall probably not succeed in estab-
lishing a system of classification for mangoes
that will be satisfactory to everybody. They
have probably been crossbred to such an ex-
tent that all sorts of intermediate forms can
be found. It has been suggested that two
primary divisions of monembryonic and poly-
embryonic (Fig. 47) be established. This
is untenable, since polyembryony occurs in
such divergent forms as the Cambodiana, the
No. Eleven, and the Florida Bombay. Even
on the same tree of No. Eleven one may dis-
cover monembryonic and polyembryonic
seeds. Amini in 1914 produced many fruits
without seeds, a smaller number with one
embryo, and two seeds that appeared to be
polyembryonic. (The seeds of the No. Eleven
and Cambodiana appear to have the embryos Fig. 47.-Contents of
seed of No. Eleven
placed without any reference to position, mango showing sev-
while the Florida Bombay appears to have the eral embryos.
radicle placed near the stem end with the
cotyledons developing distally.)
To associate varieties into groups, it becomes necessary to con-
sider a few characters that are more or less distinctive and easily
recognized.
THE FRUIT.-A description of the fruit with its outward ap-
pearance and edible portion, is a time-honored method of separating
varieties. The shape of the mango is so peculiar that it almost de-
fies a description that is intelligible to the average reader. Good
photographs and colored plates are best for this purpose. Line
drawings, such as those sent to me by A. C. Hartless are admirable.
The general shape may be used to good advantage as one of the
characters to separate the groups.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Fig. 48.-Tree of No. Eleven on left, Eleanor on right.


THE TREE.-(Fig. 48.) The general appearance and character
of the tree serves in a general way to separate groups. The Bom-
bay group is generally low-growing and spreading, and shows
affinities in this respect to the Mulgoba and Eleanor. The No.
Eleven is more upright and taller, and more inclined to produce a
central trunk. The Sandersha'is less vigorous, and more inclined to
have drooping willowy limbs. The character of the new leaves
when nearly grown is also useful. In the No. Eleven the young
leaves are dark red, nearly wine-colored and drooping; in the Mul-
goba they are much lighter in color, and more rigid. In the San-
dersha they are yellowish brown and flaccid.
THE PANICLE.-Mr. Wilson Popenoe has called my attention
to his observations that certain characters of the panicle and flower
possess value in separating groups.
THE STONE.-(See Fig. 49.) This may be readily prepared
by removing the skin, washing under the tap to remove the pulp
adhering to the fiber, and then drying. The seed may be removed
from most varieties without injury, by inserting the ivory end of
a budding knife into the ventral opening and spreading the sides of







Bulletin 127


Fig. 49.-1. Nucka, 2. Gola, 3. Sandersha, 4. Cecil, 5. Mulgoba, 6. Amini,
7. Paheri, 8. Cambodiana, 9. Turpentine, o1. No. Eleven, II. Bombay,
12. Cuban Seedling.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


the stone. The shape and character of the stone is difficult to de-
scribe, but may be brought out readily by line drawings or photo-
graphs.
In all desirable varieties there is little fiber except at the ventral
edge. Ribbing may be prominent as in No. Eleven, Cambodiana,
Amini, and Cuban seedling; or quite wanting as in Gola, Sandersha,
and Cecil. The veins may run diagonally as in Amini, Nucka and
Mulgoba; or parallel to the edges of the seed in others. The veins
branch variously, but have a general type for each group, and fol-
low closely the type of the variety. Cambodiana and Cecil at first
sight appear divergent. This is due to ribbing in Cambodiana and
absence of ribbing in Cecil. In both varieties the two dorsal veins
branch about midway of the stone, while the ventral veins run paral-
lel until close to the tip, where they branch.
The beak of the stone is a good character to assist in separating
the varieties into groups. It is wanting in the Cambodiana and
Bombay groups; blunt and flat in the Gola and Paheri, and promi-
nent and pointed in Sandersha, No. Eleven and Cuban Seedling.

TURPENTINE GROUP
From study of this group I am inclined to believe that it is an
assemblage of poor seedlings. The general characters of the stone
are so divergent that it seems probable that the trees really belong
to several groups. The turpentine mangoes have only one quality
in common, and that is that the fruits have a strong turpentine
flavor. In some of them this flavor is so strong that it is unpalatable
even to the practised mango-eater.
Origin.-The turpentine mangoes came to Florida from var-
ious places in the Antillean region, and from South America. None
are grown from buds or inarchings.
Size.-The fruit varies from very small to 8 or Io ounces in
weight (about the size of a medium No. Eleven mango).
Color.-In some cases the color approaches that of the No.
Eleven in redness; in others the crown color is lemon with more or
less green or red. Many have the ripe fruits of a greenish color.
Stone.-(Fig. 49, No. 9.) This is variable, frequently with
deep ribs, the veins usually running more or less parallel, or branch-
ing; the beak absent or present. The characters are usually hidden
by the fiber.
Shape.-Usually more elongate than No. Eleven, sometimes
distinctly shorter and approaching the Bombay.






Bulletin 127


Stigmatic area.-Usually depressed.
Season-Variable, but usually later than No. Eleven.
VARIETIES.-The fruit is so inferior that no attention is paid
to the propagation of varieties.

ELEANOR GROUP
A miscellaneous lot of mangoes grown from seed. Inarched
or budded varieties have not been offered on the market. This
group is more closely related to the Bombay than to the others. It
is distinct from the Bombay, however, in the shape of the fruit,
although similar in color. Intermediate shapes occur. The tree
usually grows low and spreading (Fig. 48).
Origin.-Seed was brought in from the Antillean regions, and
planted throughout the mango-growing districts of Florida.
Size.-Variable, from I or 2 ounces up to 8 or Io ounces.
Color.-Clear lemon-yellow.
Fiber.-Coarse and stout.
Shape.-Distinctly elongate. The lateral diameter is equal to
or larger than the dorso-ventral diameter. There is usually a fur-
row running down the ventral side, and at times a furrow on the
dorsal side, giving the fruit the appearance of developing in lateral
halves. The tip somewhat resembles that of the Bombay, but is
not so blunt.
Stigmatic Area.-Usually depressed.
Season.-Later than No. Eleven, about the same as Bombay.
VARIETIES.-(I) Eleanor, a handsome fruit, which gives the


Fig. 50.-No. Eleven, showing variation in size. (Two-fifths


natural length.)






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


group its name. About the size of Apple, but usually longer. (2)
Apple. Similar to Eleanor; the best, however, have a decided apple
flavor. (3) Apricot. Rather smaller, and more nearly spherical
than the other two varieties. At its best it has a decided apricot
flavor.
NO. ELEVEN GROUP
This group is not likely to be confused with others, and is
quite distinct. The fruits are generally long, and usually distinctly
flat. (Fig. 50.) The tree is a vigorous upright grower. The young
leaves are dark wine color. Seed polyembryonic. (Fig. 47.) Fig.
51 shows the manner of fruiting.
Origin.-Seeds were received
from Jamaica by Reasoner
Brothers, who distributed the
seedlings under the name of No.
Eleven to various places in Flor-
ida, largely along Lake Worth
and Biscayne regions.
Size.-The largest fruit ap-
proximates 12 or 14 ounces, the
smallest are from 4 to 5 ounces.
Color.-This varies from deep
red to light orange; the fruits
sometimes ripen green, and fre-
quently have a waxy bloom.
Shape.--(Fig. 50.) Variable,
approaching Eleanor in some of Fig. 51.-No. Eleven, showing fruiting
the variations, and in others dis- character.
tinctly long with a high ventral shoulder, generally more elongate
than the Mulgoba group or the Bombay group.
Stigmatic Area.-Sometimes prominent, ending in a tip; in
other trees depressed.
Stone.-(Fig. 51, No. io) Prominently ribbed, veins running
parallel to the tip. Beak prominent, acute but not so sharp as in
Amini; characters hidden by fiber. Fiber abundant, but weak and
fine.
Season.-This is the earliest of the groups to ripen, hence its
popularity for local planting. December bloom usually ripens in
April; and January and February bloom, about the middle of June.
Occasionally a late bloom is produced that ripens fruit as late as
September, and sometimes the later crops are heavier than the earlier.







Bulletin 127


VARIETIES.-(I) No. Eleven, including an assemblage of seed-
lings; (2) Roberts, probably a descendant from No. Eleven, which
has been propagated by budding to some extent. It is to be preferred
to No. Eleven. Originated by Mr. John F. Roberts, Cutler, Fla.,
who had grown some seedlings from seeds secured at Key West,
among which this one occurred.

BOMBAY GROUP
This group (Fig. 52) is dis-
tinct from the Eleanor in that
the fruits are shorter and round-
er, the two diameters being
about equal. The two groups
are separated rather for conven-
ience than because of a distinct
line of demarcation. Seed poly-
embryonic. (Fig. 93c, in Engler
and Prantl's Natuerlichen
Pflanzenfamilien, III: 5, belongs
apparently in this group.)
Origin.-The seedlings in I
Florida have reached here _
through the Antillean and South
American regions by trading Fig. 2.-Bombay, showing fruiting
character.
vessels and by plant introduction.
This was the earliest group to attract attention in Florida.
Size.-Fruits usually run quite large, some of them reaching
a weight of 12 or 14 ounces.
Color.-The general ground
color of this group is dark lemon
or light orange. In some cases
the fruit ripens with a distinct
greenish color, and rarely with
any reddish blush.
Sheape.-(Fig. 53) This ap-
proximates as nearly as might
be to a sphere, slightly flattened
at the stigmnatic end, with the
ventral shoulder higher.
Stigmatic Area.-Occurs well
up in the fruit where it is either
Fig. 53.-Bombay. (Two-fifths natural prominent or slightly depressed.
length.) Stone.-(Fig. 49, No. II)







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


General shape short and broad, usually thick. Fiber abundant,
coarse and stout. Ribbing, shallow; veining and ribbing hidden by
fiber in seedlings. Larger veins at the stem end free from one
another.
VARIETIES.-( I) Bombay; golden-yellow; weight 7 to 9 ounces,
variable. (2) Indian; larger than Bombay, 11 to 14 ounces; green-
ish yellow; generally more flattened than Bombay.

PINEAPPLE GROUP
This .differs from other groups in having short thick fruit with
a symmetrically curved outline on both ventral and dorsal surfaces,
and ending, in a distinct point at the stigmatic area. The shape of
the tree approaches that of group No. Eleven.
Origin.-Probably from Mexico. Fruits found in the market
of Tampa and said to have been grown in Florida. The finer variety
was imported through the U. S. Department of Agriculture from
India.
Size.-Seedlintg fruit rather small, rarely weighing over 6 or
8 ounces. The finer variety of this group weighs more.
Color.-In the seedling varieties, light orange or lemon, striped
with red.
Stone.-In Totafari, S. P. I. 8732, long, prominently ribbed,


Fig. 54.-Totafari. (One-half natural
length.)


with acute dorsal beak. Fiber
in the seedling varieties abundant
and fine, but weak; wanting in
the imported varieties.
Shape.-This is distinct from
the usual run of mangoes in Flor-
ida. The ventral shoulder is
moderately prominent. The
largest diameter is the dorso-
ventral above the middle.
Stigmatic Area. The stig-
matic area is decidedly prominent
and runs to a tip.
Season.-From about the end
of No. Eleven to later than the
Bombay or Eleanor.
VARIETIES. (I) Pina or
Pineapple. Seeds imported from
Mexico. (2) Totafari S. P. I.







Bulletin 127


8732, probably belongs here. Received as inarched tree from India
through the Department of Agriculture (Fig 54). Fiber scant,
coarse; veins branching above the middle. (3) Cuban Seedling
probably belongs here (see Fig. 49, No. 12).

CAMBODIANA GROUP
This group differs more from others grown in Florida than
any of the former groups differ from their nearest relatives. It
seems to be the native mango of the Malayan Peninsula. In some
of the varieties the seed fails to develop. In others, the seeds are
polyembryonic. Frequently one large and another very small em-
bryo are found. In general ap-
pearance the trees have a distinc-
tive character, being upright and
producing rather large leaves.
The character of the young
leaves approaches that of the
Sand.ersha.
Origin.-The Florida varieties
have been received as seeds, prin-
cipally from Cuba, and a very
few from Mexico. The U. S.
Department of Agriculture has
also imported a considerable
number of seeds, and distributed
a quantity of the seedlings in
Florida.
Size.-This is quite variable,
running from 4 or 5 ounces up Fig. 55.-Cambodiana. (One-half
to over 12 ounces. natural length.)
Color.-Rather light yellow, tending towards greenish. This
is quite constant for the entire group.
Shape.-(Fig. 55) decidedly elongate. In some of the varie-
ties, thick above the middle. The shape of the frtlit is a character
that enables one to separate it quickly and with certainty. It is.
much longer and narrower than No. Eleven.
Stigmatic Area.-Close to the tip, and usually quite prominent.
Stone.-(Fig. 49, Nos. 4 and 8). Variable in different varie-
ties; rib prominent in Cambodiana, none in Cecil. Veins varying
from 4 to 7; dorsal ones branching, ventral ones running paralleL







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


to near the tip, and then branching; beak absent; sometimes seed-
less; fiber wanting, excepting along the ventral surface.
Season.-About two weeks later than No. Eleven.
VARIETIES.-(I) Manila, an assemblage of seedlings grown
in eastern Mexico, superior to No. Eleven; usually smaller than
Philippine. (2) Philippine, an assemblage of seedlings grown in
Cuba and Florida. (3) Cambodiana (see Fig. 45). Seeds (S. P.
I. No. 8701) imported by the U. S. Department of Agriculture and
distributed as inarched trees to various places in Florida. (4) Cecil,


~.jjj,4


Fig. 56.-Cecil, cut in halves. Stone above, showing thickness.


(Fig. 56; also Yearbook of the U. S. Department of Agriculture
for 1910, colored plate opposite page 432.) Originated as a seedling
from the Philippine; the seed was imported and planted by S. A.
Belchor of Miami, Fla., and scions were propagated from this tree
by Hixson Brothers and others. It is the handsomest and besh
mango of this group now fruiting in Florida. (5) Carabao of the






Bulletin 127


Philippines belongs to this group. (6) Malmain, local variety at
Miami, weight of fruit 5 ounces, ventral shoulder high for this
group, fruit long, slender. Seed polyembryonic.

SANDERSHA GROUP

The mangoes in Florida
known by this name originated
from introductions by the U. S.
Department of Agriculture. The
first tree was received at the sub-
tropical garden in go19. (Fig.
57, and Yearbook U. S. Depart-
ment of Agriculture for 1907,
opposite page 314, colored plate).
It was in a low state of vitality,
the scion having become attacked
by Colletotrichum gloeosporio-
ides in transit. The Sandersha
tree is lacking in robustness. The
general shape of the fruit differs
markedly from what is known as
Soonder-Shah in Hartless' de-
scriptions.
Origin.-The tree received at
the sub-tropical aborator y
through the U. S. Department of
Agriculture.
Size.-This is among the larg- Fig. 57.-Sandersha. (One-half natur-
est of the mangoes that have al length.)
been ripened in Florida. Some of the largest fruits weigh over two
pounds.
Color.-In general color it is somewhat like the Cambodiana
group. Some of the fruits ripen partially green.
Stone.-(Fig. 49, No. 3) Markedly different from the other
groups; ribs wanting; veins running parallel to the tip, or branch-
ing slightly close to the end; beak large and prominent; fiber want-
ing, excepting along the ventral surface.
Shape.-The dorso-ventral diameter is largest below the mid-
dle. The ventral shoulder is less depressed than the dorsal. The
lower portion of the fruit on the dorsal side is decidedly prominent,
while the ventral side is more prominent at about the middle.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Stigmatic Area.-This is near the lower end, and ends in a
prominence, at times approaching a nipple.
Season.-This is the latest of the mangoes to ripen, though the
season of blooming occurs at about the close of the season of bloom-
ing for the other varieties. The season of ripening extends over a
much longer period than with the other varieties of mango. San-
dersha is one of the most desirable varieties. It is especially useful
as a canning or preserving mango. This is the only one of the group
that has ripened fruit in the United States thus far. The indi-
vidual fruits are heavy, and hang low on the tree, which is a strik-
ing peculiarity of this variety.

MULGOBA GROUP
In general shape of the fruit (see colored plate in the Yearbook
of the U. S. Department of Agriculture for 1901, facing page 389),
general shape of the tree, and thickness of rind, the Mulgoba group
approaches most closely to the Bombay. It differs, however, mark-
edly from the Bombay in the characteristics of the stone (Fig. 49,
Nos. 5 and 7).
Origin.-The first tree of the Mulgoba group was introduced
by the U. S. Department of Agriculture, and sent (as already stated)
to Prof. Elbridge Gale at Mangonia, Florida. Since that time
other introductions have been made.
Size.-The fruits range from 6 or 7 ounces to a little over a
pound.
Color.-The general color of this group is yellowish, or some-
what greenish yellow, with a considerable amount of red which
often covers the yellow. Some of the fruits may ripen to dark red,
almost approaching brown.
Stone.-(Fig. 49, No. 5) Ribs are wanting; the veins are
heavy and well marked, some uniting near middle, branching at tips
and passing diagonally over the seed; beak absent.
Stigmatic Area.-Located well up on the fruit, but farther
down than in the Bombay group. It may be either prominent or
depressed (variations occur in different fruits on the same tree).
often depressed above the stigmatic area; sometimes a small furrow
running up the ventral side from the stigmatic area.
Season.-The usual time of ripening for the fruit is later than
the Bombay and Eleanor, the earlier of the fruits coming in about
the same time that these two groups ripen, the main crop com-
ing later.






Bulletin 127


VARIETIES.-(I) Mulgoba. This tree (as already stated)
was introduced by the U. S. Department of Agriculture in 1889.
The fruit is the finest of all the
mangoes. To compensate for
this good quality our trees are
unproductive, so that, as a rule,
it is an unprofitable variety. (2)
Alfooz. Smaller than the Mul-
goba, but resembling it in most
characteristics. (3) Rajpuri.
Fruit seem to run somewhat
larger than the Alfooz, and
smaller than the Mulgoba; rather
flatter than the Mulgoba; other
characteristics quite similar. (4)
Paheri. (Fig. 45) Differs from
the Mulgoba in the stone (Fig.
49, No. 7) which has a beak-like
prominence; less brilliant color-
ing, but excellent quality. (5) Fig. 58.-Nucka. (One-half natural
b lengthh)
Nucka. (Fig. 58, S. P. I. No.
9544). In coloring of fruit and
taste, as well as in size, it closely
resembles Mulgoba. The stone
(Fig. 49, No. I) of the fruit is
broader at the lower end than in
the Mulgoba. The fruit is in-
clined to be less regular in out-
line around the stem than the
Mulgoba. The coloring of the
new leaves is darker, and the
leaves are generally larger. (6)
Haden. A variety produced from
the seed of the Mulgoba obtained
from the original tree. Grown
and propagated by Mrs. iFlorence
Haden of Cocoanut Grove. Re-
sembles the Mulgoba closely, but
is thought to be more productive
Fig. 59.-Gola. (One-half natural and to have higher colored fruit.
length.) In quality similar to Mulgoba.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


GOLA GROUP
This group differs markedly (Fig. 59) from all the other
groups grown in Florida, in shape of fruit, and in the shape
of the stone. The ventral shoulder is excessively developed and the
ventral region near the stigmatic area much depressed. The dorsal
side is rather uniform and symmetrical.
Origin.-This variety was introduced from India by the U. S.
Department of Agriculture. The fruit shown in Figure 59 was
grown by Mr. J. B. Beach of West Palm Beach, Fla., on an inarched
tree.
Size.-The fruit is of medium size, or large, running from 7
or 8 ounces, to a pound.
Color.-Greenish yellow, with more or less dark brown on the
upper surface.
Shape.-Ventral shoulder excessively prominent. Dorsal shoul-
der normal. Region at the stigmatic area, and above, depressed.
Stigmatic Area.-Only slightly above the end, rounded, not
usually prominent.
Stone.-(Fig. 49, No. 2). Flat, fitting loosely around the
seed, ribbing wanting; veins prominent, dorsal ones divided above
the middle; middle and ventral ones branching below the middle;
beak prominent, but flat. Fiber wanting, excepting along the ventral
side.
VARIETIES.-Only one variety of the Gola group appears to be
fruiting in Florida, though apparently there are a number of varie-
ties in India that fall into this group.

INDIAN VARIETIES
According to Mr. Hartless' notes, the Indian varieties vary in
size from I ounce (the Chirongea seedling) to 2 pounds 8 ounces
(the Beanzir). In this our Florida mangoes resemble the Indian
varieties to a considerable extent. There is, however, no end of
confusion in the names of the varieties. Soonder-Shah in Hartless'
drawings, is a very different fruit from our Sandersha. The variety
illustrated by Hartless belongs to an entirely different group.
Sufaida is possibly the same as our Gola, at least it would seem to
belong to that group. Romani is quite similar to our Bombay.
Punia shows strong affinities to our Cambodiana group, especially
the Malmain variety. Fajari shows rather strong Cambodiana re-
lationship. Nucka is probably a close relative to our Nucka, but
the presence of much fiber would indicate that it is a different variety.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


GOLA GROUP
This group differs markedly (Fig. 59) from all the other
groups grown in Florida, in shape of fruit, and in the shape
of the stone. The ventral shoulder is excessively developed and the
ventral region near the stigmatic area much depressed. The dorsal
side is rather uniform and symmetrical.
Origin.-This variety was introduced from India by the U. S.
Department of Agriculture. The fruit shown in Figure 59 was
grown by Mr. J. B. Beach of West Palm Beach, Fla., on an inarched
tree.
Size.-The fruit is of medium size, or large, running from 7
or 8 ounces, to a pound.
Color.-Greenish yellow, with more or less dark brown on the
upper surface.
Shape.-Ventral shoulder excessively prominent. Dorsal shoul-
der normal. Region at the stigmatic area, and above, depressed.
Stigmatic Area.-Only slightly above the end, rounded, not
usually prominent.
Stone.-(Fig. 49, No. 2). Flat, fitting loosely around the
seed, ribbing wanting; veins prominent, dorsal ones divided above
the middle; middle and ventral ones branching below the middle;
beak prominent, but flat. Fiber wanting, excepting along the ventral
side.
VARIETIES.-Only one variety of the Gola group appears to be
fruiting in Florida, though apparently there are a number of varie-
ties in India that fall into this group.

INDIAN VARIETIES
According to Mr. Hartless' notes, the Indian varieties vary in
size from I ounce (the Chirongea seedling) to 2 pounds 8 ounces
(the Beanzir). In this our Florida mangoes resemble the Indian
varieties to a considerable extent. There is, however, no end of
confusion in the names of the varieties. Soonder-Shah in Hartless'
drawings, is a very different fruit from our Sandersha. The variety
illustrated by Hartless belongs to an entirely different group.
Sufaida is possibly the same as our Gola, at least it would seem to
belong to that group. Romani is quite similar to our Bombay.
Punia shows strong affinities to our Cambodiana group, especially
the Malmain variety. Fajari shows rather strong Cambodiana re-
lationship. Nucka is probably a close relative to our Nucka, but
the presence of much fiber would indicate that it is a different variety.







Bulletin 127


Karelia shows strong Sandersha relationship, especially at the stem
end of both the fruit and the stone. The stigmatic area, however,
is different. Hathijhul apparently belongs in the Gola group. The
Gola is certainly a different variety to our Gola, but shows group
relationship. The various Bombays do not seem to have any particu-
lar relationship with one another, but were probably from the lo-
cality regardless of type. The same seems to be true with most of
the varieties of Alfonso.

CULINARY RECIPES

The number of ways in which mangoes may be used is almost
endless, and not sufficiently appreciated in Florida. The following
brief recipes have been adapted from various sources, but all have
been tried in Florida and found useful.
MANGO JELLY.-For jelly-making, the green fruit (before it softens) is pre-
ferred. Peel and slice the pulp from the seed. Cook until tender and strain.
To each cup of boiling juice add a cup of sugar and boil till jelly forms when
the juice is dropped from a spoon.
MANGO MARMALADE.-USe ripe fruit. Peel, and put into a pan with water
enough to half cover. The pulp may or may not be cut from the seed (the latter
makes a smoother marmalade). When tender, rub through a granite colander.
Add a cup of sugar to each quart of the pulp, and boil thirty minutes. Seal at
once.
MANGO PRESERVEs.-Select fruit just showing color. Peel and cut in sec-
tions. In making the syrup, allow, for each pound of sliced fruit, one pound of
granulated sugar and a teacupful of water. Boil the sugar and water together
till it drops heavily from the spoon. Pour over the fruit, and let stand till
cold. Drain off the liquid, and boil down as before. When the syrup is quite
thick, put in the fruit, boil hard for twenty minutes. Seal at once.
Tests have proved the Mulgoba to be one of the best for preserving.
MANGO SWEET PICKLE.-Select small ripe mangoes. Peel and place in a
stone jar, covering with a syrup made by boiling equal parts of sugar and vine-
gar; with sufficient whole cloves, allspice and cinnamon to produce the desired
flavor. When cold, drain, reheat the liquid and pour over the fruit. Repeat
several times. The last time place the fruit in the boiling syrup, and when well
heated put in wide-mouthed jars and seal at once. The continued draining off
of the liquid and reheating cooks the fruit without breaking it.
MANGO CHUTNEY.-Take a quart of green mangoes, peel and cut into half-
inch cubes.' Chop together one onion, six sweet peppers, and six hot peppers,
add a tablespoonful of salt. Let this stand an hour and drain (discarding the
liquid). Heat to boiling a half pint of grapefruit or lime juice with a half pint
of vinegar and a half pint of brown sugar. Add a half pound of raisins, a
tablespoonful of white mustard seed, the prepared mangoes, onion, and'peppers.
Boil all for about thirty minutes. Put in jars and seal at once. All chutneys
are better after standing for several weeks.
FRIED MANGOES.-Peel and cut in sections. Fry in butter or drippings,
sprinkle with salt and sugar, and serve hot.
MANGO ICE-CREAM.-Use plain ice-cream custard made by any favorite recipe
as a basis. To each quart, add one pint of ripe mango pulp and freeze.
MANGO SUNDAE.-Have the fruit well iced. Cut in halves and remove the
seed. Fill the cavity with ice cream (plain vanilla is best), and serve at once.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Grateful acknowledgment is hereby given to Mr. Wilson
Popenoe for reading and criticizing the manuscript of this bulletin.

LITERATURE
The following publications are among the most important on
the production of mangoes. A complete bibliography would extend
the list beyond the purport of this bulletin.

1903. COLLINS, G. N. The Mango in Porto Rico. U. S. Dept. of Agr.,
Bur. of Plant Ind., Bul. 28.
1904. WoonDow, G. M. The Mango, its Culture and Varieties. H. G.
Cove, London.
1906. HIGGINs, J. E. The Mango in Hawaii. Hawaii Agr. Exp. Sta.,
Bul. 12.
1910. HIGGINS, J. E. Shield-budding the Mango. Hawaii Agr. Exp. Sta.,
Bul. 2o.
1911. OLIVER, G. W. The Seedling, Inarch, and Nurse-Plant Method of
Propagation. U. S. Dept. of Agr., Bur. of Plant Ind., Bul. 202.
19II. POPENOE, F. W. The Mango in Southern California. Pomona Coll.
Jour. of Econ. Bot., Vol. I, pp. 153-200oo.
1911. RoLFS, P. H. The Mango in Florida. Proc. of the Amer. Pomo-
logical Soc. for 1911. Pp. 34-49.
1914. McMURRAN, S. M. The Anthracnose of the Mango in Florida. Bul.
52 of the U. S. Dept. of Agr.




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