• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 History
 Distribution of the mango...
 Uses and food value
 Botany
 Varieties
 Propagation
 Cultural practices
 Production and marketing
 Diseases
 Insects and other pests
 Mango dermatitis
 Literature cited






Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station - no. 574
Title: Mango growing in Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027529/00001
 Material Information
Title: Mango growing in Florida
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 90 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Ruehle, George D
Ledin, R. Bruce ( Robert Bruce ), 1914-1959
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1956
 Subjects
Subject: Mango -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Geo. D. Ruehle and R. Bruce Ledin.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "A contribution from the Subtropical Experiment Station"--T.p.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027529
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000926780
oclc - 01884343
notis - AEN7480

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
    History
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
    Distribution of the mango in Florida
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Uses and food value
        Page 8
        Page 9
    Botany
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Varieties
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Propagation
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
    Cultural practices
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
    Production and marketing
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
        Page 63
    Diseases
        Page 64
        Page 65
        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
        Page 73
        Page 74
        Page 75
        Page 76
        Page 77
        Page 78
        Page 79
    Insects and other pests
        Page 80
        Page 81
        Page 82
        Page 83
        Page 84
    Mango dermatitis
        Page 85
    Literature cited
        Page 86
        Page 87
        Page 88
        Page 89
        Page 90
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







Bulletin 574


July 1955


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
JOSEPH R. BECKENBACH, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
(A contribution from the Subtropical Experiment Station)




MANGO GROWING IN FLORIDA

By GEO. D. RUEHLE and R. BRUCE LEDIN




Grown in Florida.













CONTENTS
PAGE
INTRODUCTION ...--......... ...-. .....- .. ....-......... 3

HISTORY .............. ........ ........... ...... 3

DISTRIBUTION OF THE MANGO IN FLORIDA --..-.....--......---... ...----- --... 6
Distribution by counties, soils and sites, climatic requirements

USES AND FOOD VALUE -..---.... ---....... ---------------------.....- 8

BOTANY ....~--- .......-- ......- .... --...-.... .........-----------..-.----..... 10
Relationships and races, floral characteristics, pollination and
fruit set

VARIETIES ..--....-- ..--........-...-.... -....----- ..... ----- ------.... ... 17
Classification, Florida mango varieties, commercial varieties,
varieties for home planting, classification according to season,
development of new varieties

PROPAGATION ..--........... ....... ...... ...------------------------...-------- .............--- .. 32
Rootstocks, preparing and planting the seed, grafting, budding,
top-working

CULTURAL PRACTICES ...-......-................ ---------..--------------------- 43
Land preparation, planting distances, time of planting, plant-
ing techniques, fertilization, minor elements, cultivation and
cover crops, pruning, windbreaks, cold protection

PRODUCTION AND MARKETING .....----............ ---------------.---..---. 58
Typical yields, harvesting, packing, marketing, storage

DISEASES ...--...--........-- ----........... ..----------------------------. 64
Anthracnose and its control, mango scab, powdery mildew, red
rust, stem end rot, non-parasitic diseases

INSECTS AND OTHER PESTS ....-...-.....-...-............--- ---- ...--..--. 80
Scale insects, thrips, mites, other insects

MANGO DERMATITIS ..---..........----..- .....-----......--..---.---- --...---- .. 85


LITERATURE CITED ....................--.........


.... 86








MANGO GROWING IN FLORIDA


By GEO. D. RUEHLE and R. BRUCE LEDIN

The mango is an important fruit in tropical countries through-
out the world. It is probably of more importance to the people
of the tropics than the apple and peach are to people in temperate
countries. The mango, along with many other tropical and sub-
tropical fruits, can be grown successfully in the United States
only in peninsular Florida. It is well known to many Floridians
and has been planted for many years as a dooryard fruit tree and
in commercial groves. In recent years commercial plantings
have greatly increased and the fruit is beginning to take on im-
portance in Northern markets. As better varieties become known
and better marketing procedures are developed, the mango will
become even more popular throughout the United States.
This bulletin has been prepared to bring together the informa-
tion available from observations and experiments made in Florida
and pertinent cultural data reported from other countries. In-
valuable assistance was received from County Agents in supply-
ing estimates of mango plantings in Florida and from J. C.
Noonan in supplying and preparing many of the photographs.
Dr. D. O. Wolfenbarger read the section on insects.
HISTORY

The mango is native to southeastern Asia from India to the
Philippines. It has been cultivated in India for at least 4,000
years and over 1,000 varieties are recognized there today (34).
Its culture gradually spread to tropical and subtropical countries
throughout the world, most areas having developed varieties that
are adapted to their particular growing conditions. The Portu-
guese carried it to Africa during the 16th Century, then to Brazil
by 1700. It was growing in Barbados in 1742 and in Jamaica in
1782 (45).
The first successful introduction of the mango to the Florida
east coast was in the 1860's (73) and to the west coast in the
1870's (48). Previous to 1900 only seedling mangos of Turpen-
tine and Number 11 were grown. The USDA Division of Po-
mology in 1889 made the first successful introductions of grafted
Indian varieties (73), the Mulgoba being one of these. Many
Indian mangos have been introduced subsequently but none has
proven worthwhile as a commercial variety in Florida. A seedling
of Mulgoba fruiting in Coconut Grove in 1910 was named the
"Haden" (Fig. 2) (15). It at once became a popular variety.








MANGO GROWING IN FLORIDA


By GEO. D. RUEHLE and R. BRUCE LEDIN

The mango is an important fruit in tropical countries through-
out the world. It is probably of more importance to the people
of the tropics than the apple and peach are to people in temperate
countries. The mango, along with many other tropical and sub-
tropical fruits, can be grown successfully in the United States
only in peninsular Florida. It is well known to many Floridians
and has been planted for many years as a dooryard fruit tree and
in commercial groves. In recent years commercial plantings
have greatly increased and the fruit is beginning to take on im-
portance in Northern markets. As better varieties become known
and better marketing procedures are developed, the mango will
become even more popular throughout the United States.
This bulletin has been prepared to bring together the informa-
tion available from observations and experiments made in Florida
and pertinent cultural data reported from other countries. In-
valuable assistance was received from County Agents in supply-
ing estimates of mango plantings in Florida and from J. C.
Noonan in supplying and preparing many of the photographs.
Dr. D. O. Wolfenbarger read the section on insects.
HISTORY

The mango is native to southeastern Asia from India to the
Philippines. It has been cultivated in India for at least 4,000
years and over 1,000 varieties are recognized there today (34).
Its culture gradually spread to tropical and subtropical countries
throughout the world, most areas having developed varieties that
are adapted to their particular growing conditions. The Portu-
guese carried it to Africa during the 16th Century, then to Brazil
by 1700. It was growing in Barbados in 1742 and in Jamaica in
1782 (45).
The first successful introduction of the mango to the Florida
east coast was in the 1860's (73) and to the west coast in the
1870's (48). Previous to 1900 only seedling mangos of Turpen-
tine and Number 11 were grown. The USDA Division of Po-
mology in 1889 made the first successful introductions of grafted
Indian varieties (73), the Mulgoba being one of these. Many
Indian mangos have been introduced subsequently but none has
proven worthwhile as a commercial variety in Florida. A seedling
of Mulgoba fruiting in Coconut Grove in 1910 was named the
"Haden" (Fig. 2) (15). It at once became a popular variety.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


5000


2300


Fig. 1.-Map of peninsula Florida on which is recorded the number of
mango trees by counties as of February 1954.







Mango Growing in Florida


Before 1900 mangos were propagated mostly by seed. In 1900
George B. Cellon used the patch bud successfully. He established
a nursery in Miami and in 1912 published a catalog offering
budded Haden and other mangos for sale (5). His efforts con-
tributed much to the success of the Haden mango.
The Florida Mango Forum, organized in 1938, has done much
for the development and advancement of the mango in Florida,


Fig. 2.-The original Haden tree photographed in 1934 when it was 32
years old. The tree is still standing in Coconut Grove.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


particularly in the search for varieties better adapted to com-
mercial production.

DISTRIBUTION OF THE MANGO IN FLORIDA

A census taken in February 1954 (22) shows that the mango
is grown throughout South and Central Florida, with plantings
concentrated mainly along the east coast from Brevard to Dade
County, and along the west coast from Pinellas to Lee County
(Fig. 1, Table 1). Commercial production centers mainly in Dade,
Broward, Palm Beach, Lee and Manatee counties, with Dade alone
accounting for 60 percent of all plantings. Small plantings are in
Brevard (on Merritt Island), Martin, St. Lucie, Charlotte, and
Sarasota counties. Plantings in other counties, particularly in
the central part of the state, consist mainly of dooryard plants
but few commercial groves.

TABLE 1.-MANGO CENSUS, PENINSULAR FLORIDA COUNTIES, 1954.

Commercial groves No.
County No. No. Non- Door- I Total
Bearing Bearing yard
Trees Trees Trees_

Brevard .............-............... 2,500 500 500 3,500
Broward ........ .... .. ...... 10,000 2,000 5,000 17,000
Charlotte ................... .... 500 500 1,500 2,500
Collier ..... ... .......- 150 150
Dade ......................--- ......... 54,000 66,000 74,000 194,000
DeSoto ............ .............. 500*
Glades _.............................. I 200*
Hardee ....................... ..-. I 200 200
Hendry ....................... ..... 300 300
Highlands ................... .... 1,500*
Hillsborough ...-......-............ 1,500 1,500
Indian River ...-..... ..............3,000*
Lake ..........- ..........-....... 1,000 1,000
Lee ....................................... I 13,000*
Manatee ........... .... .........-.. 3,600 1,600 8,000. 13,200
Martin ..................... ........ 500 2,000 2,500 5,000
M onroe ................................ I 200*
Okeechobee ............ ........... 200*
Orange .-.... ......... ......... 200 200
Osceola ............................. 100 100
*Palm Beach ....... ...-. 6,000 12,000 35,000 53,000
*Pinnellas ............... ........ 5,000 5,000
,Polk ............. ............... 1,500 1,500
St. Lucie .......... ............... 160 150 3,000 3,310
Sarasota ....-............... 100 200 2,000 2,300
Seminole .... -........-.. ........ 100 100
Volusia ....... ......... ..... 60 60

Total ...........- ............. 77,360 I 84,950 141,610 322,520
Estimates







Mango Growing in Florida


Nearly 350,000 trees are recorded in Florida, amounting to
approximately 7,000 acres. More than half of the trees, or about
4,000 acres, are in commercial plantings, with a little over 2,000
of these acres being planted since 1950.
Soils and Sites.-Mangos will grow successfully on soils of
widely diverse types. Although the tree thrives best on deep
loam containing a high percentage of humus, it will flourish on
light, acid sands as well as on alkaline limestone soils if properly
fertilized. The mango is less affected by soil quality than any
other fruit tree, but it is not thrifty nor prolific in low, poorly
drained lands, such as the flatwoods, or on higher grounds where
the subdrainage is poor. Although mango trees have been known
to survive six weeks of flooding without apparent ill effects,
plantings should be made where the elevation is sufficient to
avoid flooding and at the same time give good soil drainage.
Air drainage also is important, particularly in hilly areas where
cold air settles in depressions. In South Florida where the terrain
is flat, air drainage is not an important factor; but a difference
of a few feet is important, for cold air will settle in low places.
Climatic Requirements.-The mango is a subtropical plant and
grows best in areas known as the "dry tropics" where frost is
absent but where there is a definite alternation of dry and wet
seasons. The dry season should occur several months previous to
flowering in order to induce a rest period and should extend
through the time of flowering and fruit development to dis-
courage anthracnose. A wet season after fruit production is de-
sirable to encourage vegetative growth. Rainfall can be as low
as 20 inches a year, but it can be as high as 100 inches provided
it is followed by a timely dry season.
The rainfall and alternation of dry and wet seasons in Florida
are favorable for mango growing, but the limiting factor is the
minimum temperature during the winter months. The mango
is more sensitive to cold than citrus and some other subtropical
fruits. Severe prolonged cold spells with below freezing tempera-
ture in the past have killed large trees. Cold of short duration
has not harmed mature trees but new flushes of growth and
flower clusters may be injured. Young trees are more sensitive
to cold and can be killed outright at temperatures below 330 F.
unless protected.
Plantings on any large scale should be along the coastal coun-
ties where the proximity to the ocean helps to modify the cold
spells. Mangos may be grown as far north as Ocala in Central







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Florida if planted in areas protected from cold, such as along lake
shores, river banks, and near dwellings.


Fig. 3.-Half mango on plate.

USES AND FOOD VALUE
The mango has many uses. It can be eaten as a fresh fruit
and it can also be cooked, frozen and dried. It can be used when
green, half ripe or fully ripe. Recipes regularly appear in local
papers during the mango season, and several publications which
describe the uses of the fruit are available (26, 35).
As a fresh fruit, ripe, chilled mangos can be peeled and sliced
and served as a salad or a dessert. Mango blends well with ice
cream and there are many ways of serving it in this manner,
the most popular being as a sundae. The slices also mix well
with other fruit, such as oranges, grapefruit, and papaya. The
unpeeled fruits can be cut lengthwise or crosswise and the two
halves twisted to pull them apart from the stone; they are served
on the half shell and eaten with a spoon (Fig. 3). In some
countries a special mango fork (Fig. 4) is used in which the center
prong pierces the stone. The fruit is held with the fork while it
is peeled and eaten. A fresh puree can be made with sugar
added to serve over ice cream.







Mango Growing in Florida


Fig. 4.-Mango fork used in
Mexico for holding peeled man-
go. The long center tine is
thrust through the stem end into
the seed. The short tines, pierc-
ing the flesh, hold the fruit
firmly in place. (Courtesy Mor-
ton Collectanea, University of
Miami.)


In cooking, green or half-ripe fruit as
well as ripe fruit may be used. Such
dishes as pies, tarts, shortcakes, brown
Betty and nutbread can be made. Man-
go chutney, jam, jelly, preserves, sauce,
pickles and butter also can be made.
Mangos can be preserved by canning
(Fig. 5), the process being similar to
that used for other fruit. Occasionally
canned mangos appear in the local mar-
kets. For home canning, almost any
variety can be used, some preferring
large mangos such as Anderson and
Springfels. Mangos may be frozen.
They have appeared from time to time
in the market prepared in this man-
ner (Fig. 5). For this purpose, the
fruits must be ripe, peeled, and sliced,
and a sugar syrup with or without lime
juice may be added. Whole, unpeeled
mangos do not freeze well. Edward,
Florigon, Kent, and Zill are more satis-
factory for freezing than Haden. A
new injection method of making ice
cream has been described (20, 21).
A survey of the literature (11, 12,
34, 36, 38, 68) shows that mango com-
pares favorably in food value with both
temperate and tropical fruits. Indeed,
in tropical countries no other well known
fruit contributes as much toward an
adequate diet. A high amount of total
solids is present in the fresh fruit.
Starch is present in the green fruit but
changes to sugar as the fruit ripens.
The sugar content is high compared to
other fruits, varying from 6 to 20 per-
cent. The protein content is generally
a little higher than that found in other
fruits.
The mango is considered a good to
excellent source of vitamin A. Vitamin







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


C content varies with the variety, but the majority of Florida
mangos are good to excellent sources of this vitamin. Mangos are
also considered as fair sources of thiamin and niacin, but they
contain only a small amount of riboflavin. The mango contains
a fair amount of calcium and iron, but is a poor source of other
minerals.




M' ?RE.-RIPENED















BOTANY


or shrubs with inconspicuous flowers often produced in large
clusters, the fruit frequently being attractive and edible.
Examples of other members of this family with edible fruit are
the cashew (Anacardium occidentalis L.), pistachio (Pistacia
vera L.), ambarella (Spondias cythera Sonn.), yellow mombin
(Spondias mombin L.), red mombin (Spondias purpurea L.), and
imbu (Spondias tuberosa Arruda). There are also a number of
ornamental trees and shrubs in this family, the most popular one
in South Florida being, the Brazilian pepper tree (Schinus tere-
binthifolius Radd.). The family includes a number of native
plants, two of which are the poison wood (Metopium toxiferum
(L.) Krug. and Urb.) and poison ivy (Rhus toxicodendron L.).
According to Mukherjee (33), there are 41 species of Mangi-
fera distributed throughout the Indo-Malaysian area from India







Mango Growing in Florida


to New Guinea and the Philippines, 17 of these bearing edible
fruit. Besides the mango, M. foetida Lour, M. odorata Griff.,
M. caesia Jack, and M. verticillata Rob. are occasionally culti-
vated, especially in Malaya where the climate prevents successful
growing of the mango.
The mango tree is evergreen, the height and shape varying
considerably among seedlings and varieties (Figs. 6, 7, and 8).
The thick and leathery, short-pointed leaves are elliptic-oblong or
lanceolate in shape and are relatively long and narrow, often be-
coming 12 inches or more in length; they are usually deep green
in color when mature but in varying shades of brownish-red in
new flushes. The leaves are borne on short petioles swollen at
the base. The stem contains a milky or watery sap which is
more prominent in some varieties than others.
The growth of the mango tree occurs in cycles or vegetative
flushes and takes place mainly in the spring and summer months


Fig. 6.-A six-year-old Kent tree showing the
growth of this variety.


characteristic upright







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


when from one to three or more flushes will develop. Flushes
do not appear on all branches at one time; rather, only part of the
tree or often a few branches will be in an active state of growth
during one period.
Flowers are produced from December to March, depending
mostly on weather conditions. It is not too uncommon to find
individual trees flowering as early as October and November and
as late as April and May. If fruit did not set on the first bloom,
a second and even a third bloom might occur. The very late
bloom seldom sets fruit. There seems to be little difference in
time of bloom in most varieties, but the Edward and Haden
usually are the first mangos to come into bloom in a given season.
The inflorescence is a pyramidal terminal panicle (Fig. 9) to
24 inches or more in length. The nearly sessile flowers, 14 to %
inch in diameter, are produced in small groups on the lateral
branches. The number of flowers produced in one panicle will
vary from a few hundred to over 7,000. The flowers are either
staminate or perfect, both occurring in the same inflorescence.

Fig. 7.-A five-year-old Zill tree showing the characteristic spreading and
open type of growth.







Mango Growing in Florida


Both types have five small, green, hairy sepals and five small,
spreading petals which are red, orange, pink, greenish or yellow
in color. A five-parted fleshy nectary disk is located inside at
the base of the petals. The staminate flower has one functional
stamen with one or more staminodes. The perfect flower pos-
sesses a unicarpellate pistil which consists of a nearly globular
green ovary and a unilateral style. The perfect flowers tend to
be produced in largest numbers on the terminal portion of the
branch panicles.
The fruit (Fig. 10), which matures from late May to Septem-
ber in the different varieties, is produced singly or in clusters.
Botanically it is a drupe consisting of an outer skin, a fleshy
edible portion and a stone inclosing a single seed. Fibers at-
tached to the stone extend into the flesh, the number varying
from few to many and the character from fine non-objectionable
to long and coarse. Mango fruits are quite variable in size,
shape, color, and other characters; varying in size from 2 to 10
inches or more in length and in weight from a few ounces to 4 or
5 pounds.
Fig. 8.-A five-year-old Edward tree showing the characteristic compact
type of growth.



V, J '







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


The seed consists of either one embryo resulting from the
sexual process of union of a sperm with the egg, or two to five
or more embryos, one of which is produced sexually and the
others developed from the nucellar tissue. Mangos with only
one embryo, characteristic of the Indian types, are called mono-
embryonic and those with more than one, as in the West Indian
and Saigon types, are polyembryonic.






:r "p.-







^ '.-




4 4.3."
As8r'' <. .



i --m 4"
Ll r ;


Fig. 9.-Mango bloom panicle.






Mango Growing in Florida


Pollination and Fruit Set.-One of the worst defects of the
mango is the pronounced tendency to produce a light crop even
though the tree flowers profusely. A number of studies in Flor-
ida and India have brought out many factors regarding this.
A mango tree produces a large number of flowers per panicle,
but only a small percentage of these flowers are perfect and cap-
able of producing fruit, the portion varying with the variety. It
has been shown (40, 62) that varieties with the highest per-
centage of perfect flowers usually are more prolific. Studies in
India have indicated this variation may range from a low of
0.74 percent flowers for one variety to as high as 68 percent for
another variety (62). In Florida the Saigon mango may have 55
to 75 percent perfect flowers, while the Pettigrew, although
flowering profusely, produces less than 1 percent perfect flowers.
Cobin (7) studied the proportion of perfect flowers of five
varieties in 1950 and 1951 and found variation between varieties
and from year to year. The percent of perfect flowers varied
from 3 in Edward to 30 in Zill the first year. A higher per-


Fig. 10.-Fruiting habit of the Haden mango.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


centage of perfect flowers was found in each variety the second
year.
Mango flowers open from about 8 A. M. to noon. Pollen is
shed by noon and remains viable up to 48 hours (62). Although
only one stamen in each flower produces pollen, the large number
of flowers in a panicle insures a supply of pollen more than
adequate for pollination. The stigmas are generally receptive 18
hours before the flowers open (62) and remain receptive up to
48 hours or more after the flowers have opened.
The mango flower is adapted for insect pollination. Unfor-
tunately, bees are not attracted in large numbers to the mango
flower. Rather, such insects as thrips and various flies, including
the common housefly and carrion flies, frequent mango flowers.
The lack of efficient pollinators may be responsible in part for
the low yields experienced in some varieties. In India (62) it
was found that only 3 to 35 percent of the flowers were polli-
nated. Weather factors such as wind and rain might also affect
pollination directly and also indirectly by restricting the activi-
ties of pollinating insects. The effect of temperature on pollen
viability, growth of the pollen tube and fruit set is not entirely
clear. Popenoe (44) found that Haden pollen would not germi-
nate on artificial medium below 600 F. On the other hand,
Young (80), reporting on a study of 13 varieties of Florida
Mangos, found that the pollen held in the anthers at 32-40 F.
for several hours germinated well at room temperature. But he
also found that growth of the pollen tube was inhibited when
the cultures were incubated at 600 F. or less. It should be noted
that neither of these studies duplicates the conditions which
would occur in pollination and fertilization in the flowers.
In the mango there is a large amount of post-fertilization
fruit drop. In some varieties only 1 out of 150 apparently fer-
tilized flowers will develop fruit to maturity (33). Fruit drop
may be a result of inadequate soil fertility, insufficient water or
disease. Some mangos, particularly Haden, tend in some years to
produce small fruit in which the embryo is aborted. Pollination
apparently takes place but fertilization is not completed. Pos-
sibly because of the stimulus of the pollen tube the ovary grows
and forms a fruit without embryo formation. Many of these
embryoless fruits are shed before they become very large. Some
varieties, like Edward and Earlygold, produce a certain per-
centage of fruit with aborted seeds, but unlike the Haden the
fruit of these two varieties will develop to its full size.







Mango Growing in Florida


VARIETIES
CLASSIFICATIONS
The mangos grown in Florida are conveniently classified into
four groups, as follows:
1. Varieties Introduced from India.-These are known as the
Indian mangos and include the Mulgoba, Amini, Paheri, Sander-
sha, Alphonso, Ameeri, Bennett, Bombay Yellow, Borsha, Gola,
Rajpuri and Totapari. The plants or grafting material were
originally brought to this country many years ago by the United
States Department of Agriculture. These typically monoembry-
onic varieties have never performed well in commercial plant-
ings. Today they are found mostly in collections but they have
served as parents for several of the Florida varieties.
2. Varieties or Types Introduced Either Directly or Indirectly
from the Philippines and French Indo-China.-They are referred
to as Philippine and Saigon mangos. Some, like the Carabao and
Pico, are well-known varieties in the Philippines. Others, like
the Manila, Cecil, Cambodiana, and Saigon, were introduced to
Florida as seeds-the Manila from Mexico, Cecil from Cuba, and
Cambodiana and the Saigon from Indo-China. They are poly-
embryonic and are frequently propagated from seed. Because of
this they are generally referred to as types rather than varieties.
The Cambodiana and Cecil, however, are horticultural varieties
and are propagated vegetatively.
The Philippine mangos are principally found in collections and
as dooryard plants. The fruit is fiberless, sweet tasting, rich in
flavor and without the turpentine flavor which to a certain extent
is found in Indian mangos. They lack attractive coloration and
have not found favor commercially. They are generally better
producers than the Indian mangos and some, like the Saigon
types, are regular bearers and appear to be somewhat resistant
to anthracnose.
3. Varieties or Types Introduced from the West Indies and
South America.-Two of these types are known as Turpentine
and Number 11. Seedlings of these have been designated as
apple, peach, apricot, pineapple, etc. Turpentine and Number 11
were the first mangos brought into Florida nearly a century ago
and, although they are not planted commercially, there are a
large number of trees scattered throughout South and Central
Florida. They are polyembryonic and because they usually pro-
duce an abundance of fruit, they serve as a source of seed for
rootstock. The fruit of these seedlings is generally turpentine










TABLE 2.-FLORIDA MANGO VARIETIES.


Variety


Adams .........--- .
A lice -_....... ... ........
Anderson ................
Brooks .........-......

Cambodiana ..........
Carrie .....-..-...
Cecil .............. .....

Davis-Haden ...-....
Dixon ...............
Earlygold .... ....
Edward ..................

Eldon .... -.............. .
Fascell* ................
Florigon .........
Fragrance** .......
Gibbons ..............

Glenn ..............-.....
Golden Brooks ......
H aden .................

Heinlein ......-....-


Year
S Seed
SPlanted


1935
1926
1910, ca.

1902

1900 or
1902

1930, ca.

1923-28?

1939
1929
1932

1921

1940
1936
1902

1938, ca.


Year
Year Propagated
First Com-
}ruited I merciallv


1940
1931
1916, ca.


1940
1907

1942



1942
1936
1938
1930
1931

1945
1942
1910


1924


1949, ca.
(1910)

1945, ca.
1949

1948, ca.

1948
1942
1947, ca.
(1935)


1950, ca.

1910-12
1...


Year Name First
Published


i4 Ledin
iO Lynch & Mustard
18 Lynch & Krome
!3 Beach
!4 Wolfe & Lynch
.5 Rolfe
50 Lynch & Mustard
.0 Taylor

18 Lynch & Krome
iO Lynch
i4 Ledin
14 Sturrock & Wolfe
14 D. Sturrock
i4 Ledin
12 Wolfe & Lynch
17 Ruehle
12 Wolfe & Lynch
i4 Krome
iO Lynch & Mustard
18 Lincoln & Cobin
18 Lynch & Krome
12 Cellon
15 Rolfe
18 Lincoln & Cobin


Parent Tree


Unknown
Saigon
Sandersha
Sandersha

Seed from Saigon
Sophie Fry
Seed from Cuba

Mutation of Haden
Unknown
Unknown
Haden X Carabao

Haden
Brooks
Unknown
Unknown
Unknown

Haden
Brooks
Mulgoba

Mulgoba ?


Where
Originated


Pine Island
South Miami
Miami
Miami

Miami
Delray Beach
Miami

Miami
Coconut Grove
Pine Island
Miami

Miami
Miami
Ft. Lauderdale
Naples
Miami

Miami
South Miami
Coconut Grove

Redlands


* Plant patent number 451, 1941
** Plant patent number 119, 1934.


0




ca





p
0
=1.
<*
rr






3.

rr
S
w.


~











TABLE 2.-FLORIDA MANGO VARIETIES (Continued).


Variety


Herman .................
Irwin .............
Jacquelin ......-........
Keitt -..................
Kent ..... ..............
Lippens ................
Lucille .............
Palmer .................
Pettigrew ..........
Ruby .....................
Saigon (type) .....
Samini ....-.........

Sensation ..........
Simmonds ..............

Smith ..... ............
Springfels ..............
Strothman ............
Sunset .................
Zill ...............


Year
Seed
Planted

1934
1939

1939
1932
1931
1936, ca.
1925

1904
1923-28 ?

1935
1923-28?

1919
1918, ca.

1922


Year
First
Fruited


1940
1945
1950

1938
1938




1930

1941
1934

1938
1925

1930


Year
Propagated
Com-
mercially


1949, ca.
1954
1946, ca.
1944
1945

1945

1948


1949

1946, ca.
1930

1940


Year Name First
Published


1948
1949
1954
1947
1945
1947
1948
1949
1950
1954
1944
1944
1944
1954
1942
1944
1948
1942
1947
1954
1945


Lynch & Krome
Lynch & Krome
Ledin
Ruehle
Ruehle
Ruehle
Lincoln & Cobin
Lynch & Krome
Zill
Ledin
D. Sturrock
Sturrock & Wolfe
D. Sturrock
Ledin
Wolfe & Lynch
D. Sturrock
Lynch & Krome
Wolfe & Lynch
Ruehle
Ledin
Ruehle


Parent Tree


Saigon
Lippens
Unknown
Mulgoba ?
Brooks
Haden
Haden?
Unknown
Unknown
Unknown
Seed from Saigon
Saigon X Amini

Unknown
Haden X Carabao

Haden
Haden
Unknown
Unknown
Haden


Where
Originated


South Miami
Miami
Lake Worth
Homestead
Coconut Grove
Miami
South Miami
Miami
Palma Solo
Miami
Miami
Miami

Miami
Miami

Perrine
W. Palm Beach
Miami
Pine Island
Lake Worth







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


in flavor and contains a considerable amount of fiber. Other
varieties propagated vegetatively and quite unlike the Turpen-
tine and Number 11 are included in this group because they
came from the West Indies or South America. Three of these
are Julie from Trinidad, Madame Francis from Haiti, and Ita-
maraca from Brazil.
4. Varieties Originating in Florida as First-generation Seed-
lings of Indian Varieties (such as Brooks, Haden, Kent), or as
Second-generation Seedlings (such as Fascell, Irwin, Lippens,
Smith).-This group also includes three varieties (Edward, Sam-
ini, and Simmonds) that are considered to be crosses between
Indian and Philippine mangos, made by Edward Simmonds of
Miami in the 1920's and named by Sturrock, and one (Davis-
Haden) that is considered as a mutation or sport of the Haden.
Thirty-six of these varieties have been officially named and de-
scribed (see Table 2). The old varieties, such as Haden, Brooks
and Springfels, have been planted commercially for several dec-
ades. But during the past 15 years many new varieties have
appeared which tend to bear with more regularity and produce
good yields of fruit of high quality and good eye appeal. It is
considered that from this group of new varieties originating in
Florida will come mangos that will hold more promise for the
future of Florida's mango industry.

COMMERCIAL VARIETIES
For many years Haden was the only variety planted commer-
cially. But because of its irregular bearing in commercial plant-
ings, it has lost favor and is being replaced by some of the newer
varieties that have shown promise of bearing crops nearly every
year. Thirty-nine varieties originating in Florida have so far
been named (See Table 2), but of these only a few appear to
have the characteristics desirable in commercial varieties. Some
have not been grown long enough to determine their commercial
possibilities; others, though they may bear well, either do not
have quality or eye appeal or do not ship well.
In judging a mango for its commercial possibilities, the fol-
lowing should be considered:
1. Under favorable conditions, it should bear good crops every
year.
2. A high percentage of flowers should be perfect and there
should be little tendency to produce embryoless fruit.
3. The fruit should be attractively colored.







Mango Growing in Florida


4. The fruit should hold well when shipped and ripen with good
quality as much as 10-14 days after harvest.
5. The variety should be sufficiently resistant to anthracnose
so that commercial control is practicable.
6. The flavor should be satisfactory with flesh free of objec-
tionable fibers and the stone should be 10 percent or less of the
weight of the whole fruit.


Fig. 11.-Zill above; Irwin below.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Varieties that seem to meet most of these requirements,
especially in bearing good crops, and that are being planted com-
mercially include Zill, Irwin, Kent, Palmer, and Keitt. These,
listed according to time of maturity from early to late, are
briefly described below.
Zill (54) (Fig. 11).-Fruit small to medium-small, to 4 inches
long, averaging 8 to 12 ounces in weight; shape ovate; ground
color yellowish with a light to dark crimson blush and a lavender
bloom, lenticels many, small and yellow. Flesh juicy, fiberless
with flavor rich and sweet and quality good to very good. Stone
makes up about 8 percent of the weight of the fruit. Season
early, sometimes as early as May 15, and extending through
June and sometimes into early July. Packs well and holds up well
in shipping, and can be picked at mature-green stage and will
ripen satisfactorily with good quality. Tree becomes fairly large
but relatively open with leaves yellow-green in color.
Irwin (25) (Fig. 11).-Fruit medium size, to 5 inches long,
weighing up to 16 ounces, averaging about 12; shape is rather
elongate or narrow-ovate; ground color orange-yellow with a
bright red blush, lenticels small and white. Flesh fiberless with
mild flavor and quality good to very good. Stone relatively
small. Season June and July. Fruit holds up well in shipping.
Tree somewhat dwarf; fruits produced in clusters.


Fig. 12.-Kent.







Mango Growing in Florida


Kent (54) (Fig. 12).-Fruit large, becoming 5 inches or more
in length, averaging about 24 ounces in weight; shape ovate and
rather thick and plump; ground color greenish-yellow with a dark
red blush and gray bloom, lenticels numerous, small, and yellow.
Flesh juicy and fiberless, rich and sweet and quality very good to
excellent. Stone makes up 9 percent of the weight of the fruit.
Season is July and August and sometimes early September.
Fruit ships well and is one of the better late mangos. Growth
habit is upright with ascending branches.
Palmer (25) (Fig. 13).-Fruit large, to 6 inches long and to 2
pounds in weight, averaging about 25 ounces; shape elongated
but full; ground color orange-yellow with a red blush and pale
bloom, lenticels large and numerous. Flesh firm and with only a
small amount of fiber, quality fair to good. Stone long and of
medium size. Season July and August. Tree of moderate vigor
and open in growth.
Keitt (55) (Fig. 13).-Fruit large, to 4/4 inches long and to
24 ounces in weight; shape oval, plump and thick; ground color
yellow with a light pink blush and with a lavender bloom, lenti-
cels numerous, small and yellow to red in color. Flesh juicy,
fiberless, except near the seed, flavor rich and sweet, and quality
very good. Stone small, 7 to 8.5 percent of the weight of the
fruit. Season is August and September. Fruit ships well and
is considered the best of the very late mangos. Tree has a very
peculiar habit of growth, producing long arching branches and a
scraggly open appearance.
Other varieties that are being planted commercially but on a
smaller scale, include Davis-Haden, Fascell, Lippens, Haden,
Smith, Springfels, and Brooks, although the last named four are
not being planted as extensively as in previous years.
Davis-Haden (25).-Fruit large, to 6 inches long and to 2
pounds in weight; shape ovate and full; ground color orange-
yellow with a dark red to purple-red blush, lenticels large, white.
Flesh with only a few fine fibers; quality considered fair to good.
Season July and August.
Fascell (75) (Plant Patent No. 451, 1941).-Fruit medium
size, to 41/2 inches long and to 16 ounces in weight; shape ovate
and somewhat flattened; ground color pale yellow with a pink, red,
or old rose blush, lenticels large, white to yellow. Flesh nearly
fiberless, with flavor tart to sub-acid and quality rated as fair to
good. Season middle of June through July. Tree of moderate
vigor with a rather open growth.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Lippens (55).-Fruit medium size, to 41/2 inches long and 16
ounces in weight; shape ovate-oblong; ground color deep yellow
with a bright crimson blush and lavender bloom speckled with
rose; lenticels many, small, and yellow. Flesh juicy, fiberless,


Fig. 13.-Palmer above; Keitt below.


.^







Mango Growing in Florida


with flavor rich and sweet, and very good quality. Season is
June and July. Tree of moderate vigor with compact growth.
Haden (50) (Fig. 14).-Fruit large, to 51/2 inches long and to
24 ounces in weight; shape oval and plump; ground color yellow
with a crimson blush and with numerous white lenticels and a
heavy bloom, producing an attractive variegated appearance.
Flesh juicy, nearly fiberless with sub-acid flavor and good quality.
Season June and early July. Tree becomes quite large and
spreading. Formerly much planted in commercial groves and
dooryards.
Smith (25).-Fruit large, to 6 inches long and to 2 pounds in
weight; shape elongated and full; ground color orange-yellow
with a deep maroon to scarlet blush, lenticels large and white.
Flesh nearly fiberless, quality rated as fair to good. Season July
and August. Tree is upright and open and rather asymmetri-
cal in growth.
Springfels (75).-Fruit large, to 9 inches long and to 3 pounds
in weight; shape oblong; ground color orange-yellow with a
deep maroon blush, lenticels numerous, white. Flesh contains
only a small amount of fibers. Quality rated as fair to good.
Season is July and August. Tree tends to remain dwarf.
Brooks (75).-Fruit medium-large, to 6 inches long and to 24
ounces in weight; shape oval to oblong and plump; color greenish-
yellow, sometimes with a pale red blush; lenticels large and
white. Flesh moderately free of fibers, quality fair to good.
Season August and September and sometimes early October.
Somewhat dwarf and open in growth. Valued as a late variety,
but because of the lack of eye appeal, has lost favor as a com-
mercial variety.
Several new varieties have been under test at the Subtropical
Experiment Station for a number of years. Their commercial
possibilities have not been thoroughly tested, but they seem de-
sirable either because of their early season (Earlygold) or be-
cause of their small fruit (Adams, Ruby, Sensation, Sunset).
Adams (23).-Fruit small, to 33/4 inches long and to 10 ounces
in weight; shape oval to oblong; ground color bright yellow with
a crimson blush, lenticels small and yellow. Flesh juicy, rich,
sweet, fiberless; quality very good. Tree of moderate vigor, up-
right and only slightly spreading. Season June and July.
Earlygold (23).-Fruit medium size, to 51/4 inches long, and
to 12 ounces in weight; shape oblong; ground color orange-
yellow with an orange-red or orange-pink blush, lenticels small,







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


yellow to white. Flesh juicy, sweet, and fiberless; quality very
good to excellent. Stone often contains aborted seeds but the
fruit matures to its full size. Tree upright and of moderate
vigor. Season is May and June.
Eldon (23).-Fruit medium size, to 41/2 inches long and to 18
ounces in weight; shape oval; ground color pale yellow with a
bright tomato-red blush, lenticels medium-large, yellow in color.
Flesh juicy, sweet, and fiberless; quality good to very good. Tree
of moderate vigor, upright and with a dense crown. Season July
and early August.
Ruby (23).-Fruit small, to 5 inches long and to 8 ounces in
weight; shape long and slender; ground color yellow-orange with
a dark red to crimson blush, lenticels yellow and numerous. Flesh
sweet and fiberless; quality is good to very good. Fruit often
produced in clusters. Tree is of moderate vigor, upright and
somewhat open. Season July and early August.
Sensation (23) (Fig. 14).-Fruit medium-small, to 41/2 inches
long and averaging 10-12 ounces in weight, but individual fruit
weighs to 20 ounces; shape oval; ground color bright yellow to
yellow-orange with a dark plum-red blush, lenticels numerous,
small and pale yellow. Flesh slightly sweet and of a distinctive
mild flavor and with scanty fibers; quality good. Tree vigorous,
moderately open, and symmetrical in growth. Season August and
September.
Sunset (23).-Fruit medium-small, to 42 inches long and to
12 ounces in weight; shape oval to oblong; ground color yellow-
orange with a bright orange-red blush, lenticels small and yellow.
Flesh is juicy, fiberless, sweet to somewhat acidulous; quality
good to very good. Tree vigorous grower, upright and some-
what spreading. Season June and July.

VARIETIES FOR HOME PLANTING
All of the commercial varieties mentioned above are satis-
factory for home planting. In addition, a number of other
varieties that produce fruit of very good to excellent quality are
recommended for dooryard planting. They are not commercial
varieties because they are either low yielding or produce fruit
that lacks eye appeal. Some of these are the following:
Carrie (26) (Fig. 15).-Fruit medium size, to 4 inches long and
12 ounces in weight; shape oblong; color greenish-yellow, lenti-
cels small and white. Flesh very juicy, very rich, aromatic and
fiberless; quality excellent. Tree somewhat dwarf with a very







Mango Growing in Florida


dense crown, making this variety a very
yard planting. Season June and July.


attractive one for door-



*" x ,.


Fig. 14.-Haden above; Sensation below.

Edward (69) (Fig. 15).-Fruit medium-large, to 6 inches long
and 16-20 ounces in weight; shape oval to oblong, usually thick
and plump; ground color yellow-orange with a pink or bright red
blush, lenticels numerous, pale green. Flesh firm, fiberless,
moderately juicy; flavor rich and melting; quality excellent.
Stone small and sometimes contains aborted seeds. Season June
and July. Tree somewhat dwarf with a very dense crown, mak-







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


ing a handsome tree. Edward is highly recommended for door-
yard planting.



























Y-->
















Fig. 15.-Carrie above; Edward below.

Florigon (55) (Fig. 16).-Fruit medium size, to 5 inches long
and to 16 ounces in weight; shape ovate and plump; color is







Mango Growing in Florida


greenish-yellow to deep yellow, lenticels numerous, small and
yellow. Flesh juicy, fiberless; flavor rich and sweet; quality very
good to excellent. Season June and July, sometimes late May.
It is highly recommended for home planting.


i- r4 "














Fig. 16.-Florigon.

Jacquelin (23).-Fruit large, to 51/ inches long and to 22
ounces in weight; shape round to reniform, thick and plump and
rather asymmetrical; ground color greenish-yellow to yellow-
orange, with a dark red blush and usually when mature varie-
gated with several pastel shades; lenticels numerous, large and
yellow. Flesh juicy, sweet, fiberless; quality very good to ex-
cellent. Season June and early July. Tree is a vigorous grower,
upright and with a spreading dense head.
The polyembryonic Philippine mangos are desirable dooryard
mangos and are certainly far superior in quality to the common
Turpentine and Number 11 mangos that are so frequently found
in South Florida. The Philippine mangos can be propagated
from seed and come reasonably true to type. They are reliable
bearers and generally produce heavy yields, often fruiting in
clusters, and are rather resistant to anthracnose. Cambodiana
and Cecil are named varieties, while the Saigon is considered a
race or type.
Cambodiana (50) (Fig. 17).-Fruit medium size, to 41/2 inches
long, and to 10 ounces in weight; oblong-ovate, ground color
yellow-green. Flesh juicy, fiberless, mildly sub-acid, and quality
good. Season June and July.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Cecil (70).-Fruit small to medium size, to 6 inches long and
12 ounces in weight; shape oblong-elongate; color yellow to pale
orange. Flesh fiberless, juicy and of mild flavor and quality good.
Season is June and July.
Saigon (66).-Fruit generally medium-small to medium, to 3
or 4 inches long and to 12 ounces in weight; shape oval and
plump; color pale green to yellow. Flesh juicy and fiberless,
flavor mild, sweet, quality generally very good. Season June and
July.





















Fig. 17.-Cambodiana.

CLASSIFICATION OF VARIETIES ACCORDING TO SEASON
The time of fruit maturity varies in different years; in some
years the crop may be early with the early varieties beginning
to ripen in May and the late varieties in August or even earlier.
In other years the season may be late with no variety maturing
fruit until June and the late varieties in September and even
October. Some varieties, like Edward, will ripen over a period
of four to eight weeks and the longer the fruit is left on the
tree, the larger it becomes. Sometimes fruit matures from two
separate blooms and this results in variations in the mango
season. The following chart will aid the mango grower and the
home owner to choose a number of varieties of mangos in order
to have fruit maturing through the season.






Mango Growing in Florida


Early Varieties:
Earlygold .....--.......
Cambodiana .........
Florigon .-.........-
Haden ............-
Zill .......--- --.. ....-
Irwin -------


June, sometimes May
June and early July, sometimes May
June and July, sometimes May
June and early July, sometimes May
June and early July, sometimes May
June and early July


Early Midseason Varieties:


Carrie ........
Jacquelin .........---
Edward ..-....--
Lippens ...............
Fascell --......
Sunset ----
Adams ---.. ---.

Midseason Varieties:
Davis-Haden --
Eldon ............-- --.-
Ruby ...................
Springfels --
Smith ............---


June and July
June and July
June and July
Late June and July
Late June and July
Late June and July
Late June and July,


July
July
July
July
July


sometimes August


and August
and August
and August
and August
and August


Late Midseason Varieties:


Kent ..- ..--.- -- -.--
Palmer .-.---


Late Varieties:
Sensation .....
Keitt .....
Brooks --------


July and August, sometimes September
July and August, sometimes September


August and September
August and September
August and September, sometimes Oct.


DEVELOPMENT OF NEW VARIETIES
It would be desirable to develop new varieties of mangos by
hand-crossing two parents with several desirable qualities with
the purpose of incorporating the desired characters of each parent
in the offspring. However, in actual practice hand-crossing is
very difficult (81). Because of the inherent nature of the mango,
thousands of pollinations must be made to obtain only a few fruit.
Young (79) made 12,703 hand crosses and obtained only 45
fruit. Fourteen years later 43 of these "hybrids" were studied
and not one was found that was worthwhile. Similar results have






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


been reported from India (46, 47). A few good varieties, such
as Edward, have been obtained by purposeful breeding. How-
ever, the labor involved and the small number of fruit obtained
makes this method of producing new varieties hardly feasible.
Most mango varieties have come into being as chance seedlings.
This method is essentially one of planting seeds of choice fruits
and allowing the seedlings to bear fruit. Only a very small por-
tion of such seedlings will produce acceptable mangos. The Ex-
periment Station, commercial nurseries, growers, and interested
individuals plant many seeds each year but the chances of finding
a superior mango are very small. If a superior mango is found
it can be described and propagated as a new variety. The quali-
ties desired in a mango are outlined on page 20.

PROPAGATION
Mangos are propagated vegetatively and by seed. Seedlings
are grown sometimes to produce new varieties but mainly for
use as rootstocks. When grown from seed mangos vary con-
siderably in vigor, disease resistance and fruit characters. Vege-

Fig. 18.-Mango seedlings. Left, polyembryonic type showing five shoots;
right, monoembryonic type with one shoot.


3 4 5


--


-r:A







Mango Growing in Florida


tative propagation is used to perpetuate the desired variety or
clone and is accomplished in Florida by grafting and budding.
Propagation by cuttings and air layers have been reported by
many investigators (4, 9, 13, 43, 50, 61, 63, 71), but in general
these methods are mainly of academic interest and have not
proven practical for general use.


Fig. 19.-Mango rootstocks-seedlings 10 months old ready for grafting.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


ROOTSTOCKS
There has been very little study of the best rootstock to use
for propagation and most nurserymen will utilize whatever seeds
they can obtain in quantity. Of the polyembryonic forms the
Turpentine is the one most often used, since the seedlings gen-
erally are sturdy and because the trees bear well to supply a
sufficient quantity of seed. Number 11 is generally not desirable
because the bark is rough and uneven for grafting (66). Saigon
and other Philippine types of mangos are generally not favored,
as some propagators think the root system is rather weak and
the trees are not very drought tolerant (66). The monoembry-
onic types (Fig. 18) are preferred by some nurserymen, as the
sprout is vigorous when young. The monoembryonic seedlings
will show considerable variation and weak plants should be dis-
carded.
PREPARING AND PLANTING THE SEED
Mango seeds remain viable for only a short period. If more
than two weeks old the percentage of germination will be very
low, and seeds more than four weeks old usually will not germi-
nate. In preparing the seed for planting, the husk is removed
with clippers or a sharp knife, taking care not to injure the seed
inside. If the husk is allowed to dry out for a day or two it will
be less slippery and easier to handle.
The seeds should be planted with the convex side up with a
small portion exposed above the ground. The seeds will sprout
in one to two weeks and can be grafted the following spring
when six to nine months old, or budded sometime during the
summer months when only two to six weeks old. The seeds may
be planted in individual containers and budded or grafted with-
out repotting. The seeds may also be germinated in beds of
sawdust or coconut fiber and the healthiest seedlings are then
potted in soil.
Mango seeds can be planted directly in the nursery or seed-
lings can be transplanted to the nursery row after germination in
beds of sawdust or coconut fiber with the spacing usually one to
two feet apart. The seedlings can be budded when only a few
weeks old, or they can be grafted when four to nine months or
older. This method of grafting mangos in the nursery is adapted
only to areas with two feet or more of loose soil. The rocky soil of
South Dade County is hardly suitable for this purpose unless a
layer of sand of sufficient thickness is laid down over the rock.







Mango Growing in Florida


GRAFTING
Mangos may be grafted at any time of the year. The ideal
time is probably April through August if the buds and stocks are
in the right stage. The winter months are generally too cold and
it is difficult to find material in the right stage. Some months,
like September, are too wet and the scions show a tendency to
rot unless special precautions are taken.
The use of plastic vinyl film in recent years (14, 41) has greatly
facilitated grafting of mangos. This film allows the interchange
of gases but prevents moisture loss from the scion. Special rub-
ber budding strips are available and are much superior to raffia
and other material formerly used for wrapping the grafts. Par-
affin and beeswax may be used, but the plastic vinyl film has
largely replaced these materials.
The side veneer graft (8, 24) is the method most commonly
used in Florida for propagating mangos (Fig. 20). Other types
of grafts used include inarching (Fig. 21 left), bottle (Fig. 21
right), side tongue, whip, cleft, side and root grafting. Only the
side veneer graft will be described here.
The stock should be in an actively growing condition and
free of anthracnose, scab and zinc deficiency symptoms. During

Fig. 20.-Veneer graft, a, Scion (between fingers) and stock properly
cut; b, scion in place; c, scion wrapped with rubber budding strip; d, scion
wrapped with vinyl film.


a


b






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


the grafting operations the grafting knife should always be kept
razor sharp. The scions should be clean and free of disease and
insects. Best results will be had in using scions in which the
terminal bud is just beginning to swell. If there are no scions
in this condition, they can be preconditioned by either of two
methods. One is to ring or girdle the stem about 12 inches below
the apex. The other is to sever the leaves on the terminal shoot
for a distance of 6 to 8 inches from the apex, leaving a short
petiole stub about 1/4 inch long. In about two weeks the terminal
buds will begin to swell and the scions are then ready for graft-
ing. The scions may be used at once or they can be stored for
several days if wrapped in plastic film, moist peat-moss or
sphagnum moss and stored in a cool place.
Stocks 6 to 12 months old with stem diameters of 1/4 to 1 inch
are used in commercial nurseries for side veneer grafting (Fig.
19). A site is selected for the graft where the stock is straight
and one foot or less from the ground level. The cut is made
tangentially into and through the bark and just into the wood for
a length of two to three inches, cutting downward in one motion
parallel to the wood (Fig. 20a); a notch is formed at the base


Fig. 21.-Left, Inarching mangos; right, bottle grafting.


j

i:
~raYE






Mango Growing in Florida


of the cut in which the base of the scion will be placed. A scion
2-4 inches long, equal to the diameter of the stock or smaller, is
used. A slanting cut on one side of the scion is made, starting
just below the terminal bud and continuing all the way to the
base in one downward motion (Fig 20a). On the opposite side


A


a.4


Fig. 22.-Veneer graft several months old; stock cut back to the graft union.


"4~,


~C~sq(~j
I
't


~~llp






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


of the scion a small wedge at the base is made which will fit into
the notch of the stock.































Fig. 23.-Left, stock cut back properly and growing over the cut surface;
right, stock cut back improperly, with the portion above the graft beginning
to rot.

The scion is then placed in position (Fig. 20b) so that the
cambium of each piece joins. The cut surfaces should match as
perfectly as possible. A rubber budding strip is wrapped se-
curely around the stock and scion, starting from the bottom and
working upwards (Fig. 20c). A sheet of plastic vinylite, 0.004
inch thick and cut about 6 inches long and 4 inches wide, is
then tied to the stock 1 inch or so above and below the graft with
rubber budding strips. During wet periods, to prevent excessive
moisture accumulating beneath the wrap, vinylite may be tied
only at the upper end, leaving the lower part open (Fig. 20d).







Mango Growing in Florida 39

If the graft union is successful, new growth on the scion will
begin in two or three weeks. The stock just above the graft may
be nicked to encourage the springing of the scions. After the
first flush of growth has occurred, the rubber band may be
removed and the stock partially cut back. After the second
flush, the stock may be cut off completely (Fig. 22). It should
be trimmed with a sharp knife in such a way as to leave no part
of the stock remaining above the union and a water emulsion of
asphalt should be applied to the cut surface (Fig. 23). Buds and
new growth on the stock should be removed as they appear.
Zinc deficiency, mango scab and anthracnose should be prevented
by periodic applications of appropriate sprays to the new growth.

BUDDING
Budding differs from grafting in that only a single lateral bud
is used instead of a portion of a stem with several lateral buds
as well as a terminal bud. The principal advantage in budding is
that one terminal scion will furnish five or more buds for as
many trees. According to Nelson's method (27, 28), plants only
a few weeks old may be budded and thus help to shorten the time
for developing grafted plants. The main disadvantage in budding
is the difficulty in getting the buds to spring, which sometimes
takes six months or more. Preconditioning the buds by girdling
the branches on the tree and removing all leaves but three or four
at the apex two to three weeks before the buds are needed helps
to avoid this difficulty. Plump buds which are gray-green in color
from branches of the first to third cycles of growth are used.
Budding can be done anytime of the year but the months April
through August are probably the best.
Shield or inverted-T, chip, Forkert, and patch methods of
budding have been used successfully. Only the first two will be
described here.
Shield or inverted-T budding involves the use of a bud that
is shield-shaped and an inverted-T cut in the stock. A vertical
cut 112 to 3 inches long is made on the stock and a second
horizontal cut is made at the bottom of the vertical cut (Fig.
24a). The bud is prepared by cutting into the scion one-half
inch or more above the bud and cutting downward, going under
the bud and coming out well below it, leaving a long handle
on the lower part which is cut off after the bud is inserted.
The shield can be 1/4 to inch or more in diameter and 11/2 to
3 inches long, the bud being located in the center. The bark of
the inverted-T cut is raised at the corners and along the vertical






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


slit to admit the shield. The bud is forced into the cut and
under the edges of the bark, being careful not to split the bark
(Fig. 24b). After it has been inserted, the handle is cut off with
a horizontal cut at the bottom so the shield will slide completely
into the cut made in the stock (Fig. 24c).
Chip budding is similar to a veneer graft but only a part of
the scion with one bud is used. The chip can be 11/2 to 2 inches
long and is prepared by cutting into the scion above the bud and
coming out well below the bud. A second slanting cut is made
immediately below the bud to produce a wedge-shaped base. A
slanting cut (Fig. 25a)) for 2 inches in the stock is made and a
notch is formed in which the base of the chip is placed (Fig.
25b).
Buds are tied with rubber budding strips after insertion and
wrapped wtih 0.004 inch vinyl film or they may be wrapped di-
rectly with vinyl film, using half-inch-wide strips of 0.0035 inch
and covering the bud completely (Fig. 25c). In two or three
weeks the buds should be examined; if they are still green, part

Fig. 24.-Shield or inverted-T budding. a, Shield bud on right, cut in
stock on left; b, bud in place; c, bud wrapped with vinyl film and a rubber
budding strip.
a b c













I It
1. 5



i .-. *-, "^ 5 .







Mango Growing in Florida


of the wrap may be removed and the stem above the bud should
be nicked to encourage the buds to spring. After the bud has
sprung, the top of the stock can be cut back gradually. All new
growth on the stock during this time should be removed. After
the second flush the stock should be cut back to the bud union.

TOP-WORKING
Several methods may be used for top-working trees in the field
(42). The method selected depends mostly on the size of the
plant to be top-worked. The techniques of grafting and budding
are the same as those that have been described.
Young trees in the field with trunk diameters of 1 to 7 or 8
inches can be veneer grafted on the main trunk from 1 to 2 feet
from the ground (Fig. 26a, b, c). If the trunk is too large and
too difficult to graft, the veneer graft may be used on two or more
of the lowermost branches, especially those that are forming the
main branch system of the plant. In both cases, after the graft
has taken and produced growth, the stock is gradually cut back

Fig. 25.-Chip budding. a, Chip bud on left, cut in stock on right; b, bud in
place; c, bud wrapped with vinyl film and a rubber budding strip.
a b c






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


to the graft union. This method of grafting seedlings in situ
has many advantages and sometimes produces better results than
grafting plants in containers. In India this method has been
found to be more reliable than other methods of grafting.
Seedlings used for this purpose are planted in the location where
the tree is desired.
The tree may be cut back to the main trunk or branches and
veneer grafted, using only one scion if the diameter is only two
or three inches. Several scions may be placed around the stump
if it is larger than three inches in diameter (Fig. 27). Trees
20 to 30 years old and with branches 6 to 10 inches in diameter
may be grafted in this manner. In working old stems with thick
bark, a portion of the outer bark is shaved off before the final
cut to the wood is made in which the scion is placed. All cut sur-
faces should be painted with parafin or a water emulsion of as-
phalt and the trunk can be whitewashed to keep it from being
sunburned.
Instead of grafting the stumps of a tree that has been cut back,
new shoots may be allowed to grow from the stumps and veneer
grafted or budded when they are of sufficient size and hardiness.

Fig. 26.-Propagation in the field of a seedling tree with trunk 2 inches
in diameter by side veneer graft. The seedling tree was 3%4 years old
from seed and had been growing in the field for 21/2 years. a, The scion in
place with the cambium matched on one side; b, the scion wrapped with
rubber budding strips; c, the scion covered with a piece of vinyl film.
a b c



iA, i













,7
i ,~~~~~~;;I% ~~PT" .~ l~-Q~~:4F\







Mango Growing in Florida


It is advisable to leave some of the new branches on the tree
to furnish shade for the grafts.
Top-working of mangos can be done any time of the year but
probably the best time is spring and early summer, from April
through June. The new growth should be supported for several
months to avoid breaking at the union. When the graft has
grown to 8 or 10 inches long, the terminal bud should be cut off to
encourage branching. All suckers on the trunks and stumps of
the rootstock should be removed.

CULTURAL PRACTICES
PREPARATION OF LAND FOR PLANTING
The site chosen for planting mangos should be cleared and
prepared six months or more in advance of planting.
Preparation of land for planting on the Miami rock ridge in
Dade County usually involves scarification of the oolite. At the
northern end of the ridge sand often overlies the rock to a
depth which permits planting with little disturbance of the rock.
Farther south the oolite crops out over the surface so that there


Fig. 27.-An old tree that has been top-worked.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


is no tillable soil except in potholes. Until comparatively recent
years, dynamite was used to blast holes for planting after the
land was cleared and leveled. The usual practice after dyna-
miting was to remove the large fragments of rock and fill the
hole with a mixture of surface soil and manure compost. In
recent years it has become the practice to scarify the land with
heavy machinery. The scarifier breaks up the rock to a depth
of four to six inches and leaves a surface layer of broken rock
and soil in which tree roots can spread and feed. It usually is
necessary to scarify the land four times to get it into this condi-
tion Dynamiting holes where the trees are to go is still prac-
ticed to some extent in connection with this shallow scarification,
but has been discarded by most growers in favor of plowing
out the tree rows. By means of a heavy narrow scarifier the rock
is plowed out by repeated passage one way down the proposed
tree rows until a depth of 12 to 18 inches is achieved. The
larger rock particles moved out by the plow are ground further
beneath the treads of the tractor (Fig. 28). When the field is

Fig. 28.-Rockdale rockland in southern Dade County prepared for planting
mango trees without dynamiting.







Mango Growing in Florida


leveled there is ample depth of loose material in the tree rows
to plant without blasting.
In the deeper, well-drained sandy soils, land preparation after
clearing and before planting consists of plowing, disking or har-
rowing, and grading to remove small abrupt elevations that would
later interfere with many types of orchard work. On poorly
drained flatwoods sandy soils it is advisable to prepare beds 30 to
40 feet apart, leaving a deep water furrow for drainage between
the beds. In some cases wider beds with water furrows every 60
to 70 feet may be used. These wider beds allow the planting of
two rows of trees per bed, and they provide better roadways
for sprayers and automotive equipment commonly used in orchard
operations.
PLANTING DISTANCES
One of the common errors in planting a mango orchard is
spacing the trees too closely. Most of the fruit is borne on the
outside of the canopy of branches. When the side branches
meet due to overcrowding there is a tendency for them to pro-
duce few fruits which are apt to be poorly colored and infected
by the anthracnose fungus. Over-crowding not only creates
conditions more favorable for disease fungi but also increases
the difficulty in spraying thoroughly enough to control diseases
of fruit and foliage.
Planting closer than 30 by 30 feet is undesirable on the thin
limestone soils of the Miami rock ridge and 35 feet is recom-
mended for all but semi-dwarf varieties such as Brooks, Cecil
and Julie. On deep soils a minimum spacing of 40 feet with the
square system should be adhered to for the varieties now grown
commercially, and a spacing of 45 feet would not be too wide
under the best growing conditions.
Closer planting increases the volume of fruit per acre during
the early years but when over-crowding begins to occur it will
be necessary either to remove alternate trees or to prune rather
severely in order to tailor the trees to fit the space without
crowding. Wider spacing need not mean waste of land, since the
young mango trees may be inter-cropped with short-lived fruit
trees such as Tahiti lime or papayas or with annual crops.

TIME OF PLANTING
It is possible to plant well hardened nursery-grown mango
trees successfully at any time of the year in Florida, provided
the weather is warm, the trees are not in active growth and pre-







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


cautions are taken against certain weather conditions which
follow the setting of the trees. Much more expense, however,
attends the planting in some seasons than in others.
The best season for setting mangos is during the spring and
summer months, from early April to October. Temperatures
favor growth during this period and the amount of watering
necessary is likely to be small. Planting small mango trees from
cans in midsummer without resorting to shading is not hazardous
if the roots are not disturbed in setting and the trees are not in
active growth. The cost of watering trees planted from Novem-
ber to April during the drier months usually is considerable.
Protection from cold and from drying winds also is more difficult
for trees planted during this period than for trees that have had
a longer time to become established.

PLANTING
A few mango orchards are started in Florida by planting young
seedlings directly in the field to be top-worked later to the de-
sired varieties, but grafted or budded trees usually are planted.
Florida growers may now purchase in quantity grafted or
budded trees of several sizes. Some prefer to plant grafts of
about one year of age, grown and top-worked in gallon or No. 10
cans. Trees of this size can be purchased for as little as $1.25
each, and if well grown and not seriously pot bound will grow
satisfactorily when given good care. Others prefer to plant two-
to four-year-old grafted trees grown in five-gallon or larger
containers. Trees of this size cost two to several times as much
as the year-old grafts but the cost of caring for the small trees
an extra year or two in the orchard usually more than offsets
the higher price paid for the larger trees. Some commercial
nurseries are still propagating mango trees in nursery rows
rather than in containers. Such trees usually are root-pruned
some weeks prior to moving. When moved, they are lifted with
a ball of soil which is tightly wrapped with burlap, the top is
defoliated, and all tender growth is removed by pruning.
The method of planting the mango is essentially the same as
that used with other fruit trees. Trees removed from cans
or other containers may be planted without defoliating or cutting
back the top, provided the roots are not disturbed when re-
moved from the container. The roots of the trees should never
be allowed to dry out and it is a good plan to protect them while
preparing for planting by wrapping them in wet burlap or by
standing them in water in a bucket.







Mango Growing in Florida


A planting hole must be prepared large enough to easily ac-
commodate the root system. Before placing the trees it is ad-
visable to mix some topsoil fortified either with an ounce or
two of commercial fertilizer, a like amount of dried sheep
manure or steamed bone meal, or a shovelful of well-rotted
compost or barnyard manure with the soil in the bottom of the
hole. .It is not advisable to place large amounts of loose com-
post, manure, muck or peat under the trees, since these materials
will disintegrate over a period of years, leaving undesirable air-
pockets in the root zone. It is important to have the crown roots
no deeper than they were in the nursery or plant container. The
soil should be- very firmly packed around the roots and water
should be used liberally to avoid air pockets. When the hole is
completely filled a shallow basin should be formed around the
tree for water. After the trees are planted they should be
thoroughly watered and the ground about them covered with a
mulch made of weeds, hay or other litter which will keep the
soil surface moist and cool.
If large nursery trees are transplanted with only a compara-
tively small part of the root system, it is necessary to defoliate
the tree or even prune back some of the branches. In this case
it is advisable to protect the limbs from sunburning by applying
whitewash or to provide shade for the tree until a new flush of
leaves has matured. It has not been found necessary to provide
shade for smaller trees planted at the recommended season in
accordance with the method outlined above.

FERTILIZATION GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
It is known generally that mango trees respond to fertilization
with nitrogen by exhibiting increased vegetative growth. It has
not been possible, however, to force trees of some of the com-
monly planted varieties into regular fruit bearing by fertiliza-
tion.
An understanding of the relationship of shoot development to
flowering and fruiting will aid the grower in planning his fer-
tilizer schedule to encourage shoot development favorable to
fruiting. Studies in India and in Florida have thrown light on
growth habits and bud differentiation and their effect on the
amount of bloom.
Mango fruits are borne on flower panicles from the terminals
of shoots that have matured during the preceding season.
Usually there are several irregular flushes during the year and
the timing of these flushes has considerable to do with determin-







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


ing the amount of bloom. Singh and Khan (60) and Sen (57)
agree that growth and fruiting in the Punjab are at the expense
of each other during the growing season. The highest yield ob-
tained on the Langra variety was from flushes initiated early
(April-May) which stopped growth early in the previous season.
Poor flowering in "off" fruit years resulted from poor growth in
"on" years and heavy flowering in "on" years resulted from heavy
and early shoot development in "off" years. Annual flowering was
considered possible if the tree could be induced to flush annually
in spring or early summer on the Langra variety in India. Sen
states that it was shown experimentally that summer growth can
be obtained, even in the "on" year, by additional nitrogen ferti-
lization.
Cobin (7) studied shoot development and its relation to flower-
ing on the Haden variety at Homestead, Florida, from 1949 to
1951. In 1949, half the summer shoots produced bloom. In these
trees, which received complete fertilizers in both summer and
fall, more than a third of July shoots produced one or two addi-
tional flushes prior to blooming in 1950. Shoots appearing in
August of both years produced the highest percentage of bloom
panicles.
The somewhat different behavior of the Langra in India and
the Haden in Florida may be due to variety, soil, or cultural prac-
tices, especially differences in methods of fertilization.
It seems obvious that in order to obtain bloom, shoots of the
previous season must mature early enough to allow time for
flower bud differentiation. In varieties under study by Sen and
Mallik (58), in Sabour, India, October and November were re-
ported as the critical months for flower-bud differentiation.
Mustard and Lynch (37) reported that flower-bud differentiation
in Haden and three other varieties took place in September and
October in 1943 and 1944 at Homestead, Florida. There is evi-
dence that in some seasons differentiation may occur as late as
January.
There is agreement among writers on mango culture that a
check in growth after summer shoot development favors flower-
ing, presumably by promoting flower bud differentiation. With-
holding nitrogen fertilizers in the fall will tend to supply such a
check to vegetative growth. A frost or a severe drought in late
fall or early winter will do the same. The fact that a check in
growth may come from factors other than withholding nitrogen
may account for cases where a heavy bloom sometimes occurs al-
though the trees have received considerable nitrogen in the fall.






Mango Growing in Florida


Nitrogen-Phosphoric Acid-Potash Ratios.-Considerable work
on nutrition of the mango has been reported in recent years from
India. Mallik and De (30) and Roy (51) report that nitrogen
determines growth and influences the intake of phosphoric acid
and potash. The best ratio of nitrogen-phosphoric acid-potash
was found to be 1.1-0.27-1.0 in a soil that showed deficiency in
nitrogen and organic matter, when the dose of nitrogen was 1.6
pounds per tree of about 12 years of age. Nitrogen in the form
of ammonium sulfate was most effective in increasing flowering
and the best time for its application was the month of June on
the Langra variety. For the "on" fruit years doubling the dose
of ammonium sulfate (up to 10 pounds per tree in split appli-
cations) in June to force July-August vegetative shoots is recom-
mended. It is recommended also that the annual doses of nitro-
gen-phosphoric acid-potash fertilizers be divided into two parts:
one containing ammonium sulfate and half the potash for June,
and the other consisting of farmyard manure and phosphorus
with the remaining half of the potash in October.
Comparatively little is known concerning nitrogen-phosphoric
acid-potash ratios required by bearing mango trees in Florida.
Early tests with the Haden variety conducted on limestone soils
yielded little conclusive data as to nitrogen-phosphoric acid-
potash requirements. In these tests little consideration was
given to time of shoot development and bud differentiation in
timing of fertilizer applications. Fertilizer tests are now in
progress on both limestone and sand soils with several varieties
of mango. These are designed to supply information on fertilizer
requirements and timing of applications.
Fertilizer practice in commercial groves has tended to follow
that employed on other tree crops, especially citrus and avocado.
This procedure is, in general, successful and safe on young non-
bearing trees, but observations and experience suggest that the
nitrogen requirements of bearing mango trees are somewhat
lower than requirements of bearing citrus and avocado trees of
the same age. Instances have been observed where heavy nitro-
gen fertilization was harmful. Wolfe (74) reported that Haden
trees given very heavy nitrogen applications in field tests in a
commercial grove became steadily less healthy, with the produc-
tion of small leaves and dying back of branches.
On Pine Island the result of over-fertilization was observed in
a large block of recently top-worked trees. The overstimulated
growth of the grafts developed long S-shaped branches with very
large leaves followed by flushes of progressively smaller leaves






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


and finally by die-back. The condition was corrected by with-
holding fertilizer and by applying to the foliage a spray con-
taining copper, zinc, manganese and boron.
It is not uncommon for well-fed Haden trees with dark green,
dense foliage to produce less fruit than trees of approximately
the same age of this variety receiving less nitrogen and having
less luxuriant foliage. Fruits from the well-fed trees usually
are larger in size but tend to be less highly colored than those
from trees receiving less nitrogen. This tends to confirm the
observation by a number of Indian writers that the addition of
nitrogenous fertilizers in excess encourages extensive vegetative
growth at the expense of fruiting. It is probable that varietal
differences exist with respect to nitrogen requirements, because
some varieties grow much less luxuriantly than others under
the same fertilizer program.
Secondary Elements.-There is evidence that the mango tree
benefits from application of certain of the secondary elements
when grown in Florida soils deficient in these elements. It is
possible that further research will show that requirements for
these elements in the mango will not differ widely from require-
ments in citrus.
Zinc and copper deficiencies may be serious on young mango
trees, and in advanced cases may be mistaken for pathological
troubles. They are discussed under diseases.
Smith and Scudder (64) described symptoms of magnesium
deficiency on young mango trees grown in sand cultures as re-
duced tree growth and premature defoliation, accompanied by a
distinctive yellowish brown chlorosis intruding into the leaf blade
from the margins. Symptoms of manganese deficiency were
observed also by Smith and Scudder on young trees in sand cul-
tures. Tree size was reduced and leaves about one month old
showed yellow-green blades with green veins. The leaf symp-
toms tended to disappear within a few weeks.
Occasionally chlorosis of young mango trees has occurred in
the limestone area, and some improvement has followed the use
of an iron chelate soil drench. Boron deficiency has not been
recognized to date on the mango.
On the alkaline soils of Dade County, copper, zinc and man-
ganese are best supplied through foliage sprays. Usually one
application or at most two, per year will meet requirements for
maintenance of healthy growth under most conditions. A
formula containing 3 pounds of copper sulfate, 3 pounds of zinc
sulfate, 3 pounds of manganese sulfate and 3 pounds of hydrated






Mango Growing in Florida


lime per 100 gallons of water is sufficient for maintenance. If
foliage diseases caused by fungi are evident the copper content
of the spray should be doubled, with the lime content increased
to 4.5 pounds for neutralization. Neutral copper, zinc, and man-
ganese compounds may be substituted in the spray at comparable
amounts based on mineral content. No lime is required if neutral
compounds are used. On bearing trees, where copper is used in
the disease control program, zinc and manganese may be added
to one of the fungicidal sprays. Magnesium is supplied in water-
soluble form with the fertilizer.
In acid sandy soils it is suggested that the pH be maintained
between 5.5 and 6.0 by the addition of liming materials as recom-
mended for citrus (49). The amount to be applied will vary with
the acidity to be modified. If dolomitic limestone is used for
liming, part of the requirements for magnesium will be supplied
from this source and less water-soluble magnesium need be sup-
plied with the fertilizer.

FERTILIZER RECOMMENDATIONS
Fertilizer recommendations are offered as tentative pending
the establishment of definite trends regarding fertilizer needs for
mangos on the soil types where field tests are now in progress.
They are based on observations in commercial groves and in
Station plantings, on fertilizer tests reported on to date in Florida
and in India, and on exploratory tests on individual trees or small
groups of trees.
Non-bearing Trees.-For the first two or three years after
planting, fertilizer practice should provide nutrients for fairly
rapid but healthy growth. This involves frequent applications
of nitrogen, phosphorus, potash, and water-soluble magnesium
in fertilizers and supplying copper, zinc, and manganese, either
with the fertilizer or by means of foliage sprays.
On recently scarified limestone soils, good results have followed
the use of 4-9-3-1.5*, 5-7-5-2, and 5-10-5-2 mixtures with about 30
percent of the nitrogen derived from natural organic sources.
Young trees planted directly from containers without disturbing
the root system may be given one-fourth to one-half pound of
fertilizer immediately after planting. It is advisable to wait
three to four weeks before applying fertilizer when larger trees
are planted with only a small portion of the original root system.
Trees should be fertilized every six to eight weeks during the

4(nitrogen)-9(phosphoric acid)-3(potash)-1.5(magnesium oxide).






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


first year, except from November 1 through January, the period
when frosts are most likely to occur. The amount of fertilizer
should be increased gradually to about one pound by the end of
the first year. During the second and third years the interval
between applications may be lengthened to 60 days and the
amounts per application gradually increased to two and finally
to three pounds by the end of the third year. Blossoms should
be removed during this period.
During the fourth and fifth years it is suggested that the
formula be changed to 5-5-5-3 or 6-6-6-3 and the number of
applications reduced to three or four per year. The rate per
tree should be adjusted in accordance with the appearance of the
tree and the amount of growth, but probably should not exceed
one pound per each year of age of the tree per application of a
formula containing 5 percent nitrogen.
On peaty soils the nitrogen may be greatly reduced. On alka-
line soils, particularly those containing marl, the mixture should
include 1 to 2 percent MnO, supplied from manganese sulfate.
On previously farmed soils, where phosphates have been applied
for years to other crops, the phosphate content of the mixtures
can be reduced as much as 50 percent with safety.
The mixtures for limestone soils may be used on acid sandy
soils but many successful growers use 5-7-5-3 or 6-6-6-3 mixtures
containing 30-40 percent insoluble organic nitrogen from the be-
ginning. The timing and rate of the applications should be
approximately the same as used on limestone soils.
The tendency to use higher analysis mixtures is evident in
both sand and limestone soils as a matter of economy but there
is less difficulty in avoiding root damage due to high concentration
of soluble salts in localized areas with lower analysis mixtures.
For young trees fertilizers should be spread carefully and uni-
formly to the soil over the root area. The latter extends from
near the trunk to two or three feet beyond the canopy of branches
in trees more than one year in the field. Mulching the ground
around the trees with grass, leaves or other vegetable litter is
of benefit to the trees.
Bearing Trees-Five Years and Older.-Mango trees grow on
many different soil types and produce fruit under a wide range of
nutritional levels. It is impossible to suggest any one program
of fertilization that will prove best for all conditions. In general,
the best practice is believed to be to fertilize heavily in the "on"
fruit years and lightly in the "off" years. The appearance of
the tree and its behavior with regard to timing and quantity of







Mango Growing in Florida


shoots also serve as guides for determining the amount of fer-
tilizer to use.
Bloom Application.-If the trees received no nitrogen in the
fall and the foliage shows the need for nitrogen by exhibiting a
light green color, it is suggested that the trees be fertilized
when the bloom panicles begin to elongate and a bloom is assured.
Apply quickly available nitrogen and potash-bearing materials
such as nitrate of soda-potash (15-0-14) or high analysis chemical
mixtures such as 10-0-10 in amounts to supply about 1/20 pound
of nitrogen for each year of age until trees planted 30 x 30 feet
reach about 15 years of age. After 15 years the fertilizer is
best applied from trunk to trunk and the amount calculated on an
acre basis to approximately equal the nitrogen applied per acre to
15-year-old trees, or about 36 pounds of nitrogen per acre. A
15-year-old tree fertilized at this rate would receive 7.5 pounds
of a 10-0-10 mixture and a 5-year-old tree 2.5 pounds of this
mixture. If trees are planted farther apart than 30 x 30, individ-
ual tree applications may be continued until the amount of
nitrogen per acre totals approximately 36 pounds. On trees
planted closer than 30 feet the length of time for continuing
individual tree applications should be shortened accordingly.
Soluble fertilizer should be applied carefully and uniformly over
the root area to avoid root damage due to high concentration
of soluble salts in localized areas.
Spring Application.-If a good set of fruit is obtained, an
application of a complete mixture five to eight weeks after the
bloom application is recommended. Mixtures such as 8-4-8-4,
6-3-6-3, or 6-2-6-3 will satisfy the actual requirements. The
amount per tree should be approximately at the rate of one pound
per tree for each year of age of the tree for mixtures containing
5 percent nitrogen until the dosage rate approximates 36 pounds
of nitrogen per acre. The amount of nitrogen derived from
organic sources need not exceed 15-20 percent. Unless rains oc-
cur soon after the distribution it may be advisable to supply
supplemental irrigation sufficient to make the fertilizer available
to the tree.
If a good set of fruit was not obtained, the spring application
may be eliminated.
Summer Application.-Trees maturing a heavy crop of fruit
and failing to produce sufficient new shoots during the spring
should be fertilized at the beginning of the rainy season from
the latter part of May to July 1, or as soon as the crop is har-







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


vested. The mixture and rate per tree or per acre may be the
same as recommended for the spring application, but if the trees
show hunger signs as a result of the heavy crop, increasing the
amount per tree 25 to 50 percent more than for the spring appli-
cation would not be excessive.
The objects of this fertilizer application is to replenish quickly
the nitrogen, potash and magnesium removed by the crop or lost
by leaching and to stimulate vegetative growth so that strong
shoots are produced early enough for next year's bloom. There
does not appear to be a valid reason for using expensive fertilizer
mixtures containing large amounts of organic nitrogen on bearing
mango trees. It is desirable that the summer shoots cease
growth and mature early. This is best accomplished by the
use of quick-acting fertilizer, and the use of mixtures containing
more than 25 percent of the nitrogen from organic sources is of
doubtful advantage.
Copper, zinc, and manganese requirements can be readily sup-
plied in the spray program. If zineb is used for in-the-bloom
application sufficient zinc will be supplied for maintenance. If
captain or copper fungicides are used as in-the-bloom sprays, zinc
and manganese can be added to one of the sprays for nutritional
purposes.
Severe infestations of scales or of red-banded thrips, if allowed
to go unchecked, may nullify the benefits expected from fertilizer
applications. Such infestations should be controlled as soon as
possible after harvest, so that the summer fertilizer will accom-
plish its purpose.

CULTIVATION AND COVER CROPS
On sandy soils clean cultivation is usually given during the
dry season and a cover crop is allowed to grow during the summer
rainy season. The cover crop usually is volunteer growth of
grass and weeds or it may be a planted leguminous crop. Hairy
indigo, alyce clover, the beggarweeds and the crotalarias are some
of the legumes used for this purpose. The cover crop usually is
mowed at least once during the summer and is disked into the
top soil during the fall.
On the shallow limestone soils of Dade County, shallow cultiva-
tion of the middles by dragging during the winter is practiced
by some growers for fire protection and to lessen the severity of
cold during low temperature periods for the first two or three
years after planting. Others establish a permanent ground cover
as soon as possible. After the first few years the usual practice






Mango Growing in Florida


is to permit a volunteer growth of weeds, grasses, and legumes
to flourish throughout the rainy season, mowing it at intervals
to facilitate grove operation, and keeping this growth mowed
very close during the drier winter and spring.
No satisfactory permanent leguminous cover crop has been
found for Dade County. White sweet clover and Sarawak bean
(Dolichos hosei Craib), if established in good stands, are better
able to compete with volunteer plants than hairy indigo or the
crotalarias. Weeds are controlled around young trees either by
maintaining a mulch heavy enough to smother weeds or by hand
hoeing.
PRUNING
In commercial groves little pruning is practiced, nor does
annual pruning appear to be necessary or desirable.
Young mango trees of most varieties ordinarily require little
pruning for training, since they normally assume a desirable
symmetrical form. Training of young trees is desirable with
certain varieties such as Keitt and Palmer, which tend to form
long branches spreading irregularly. The elimination of low
side shoots and the heading back of long shoots will tend to pro-
mote a more desirable, stronger framework. A system of thin-
ning out and heading back is also desirable to form a strong
framework from grafts recently established on the stumps of
old trees. Such pruning may be done at any time from spring
to late summer.
On bearing trees until they begin to seriously crowd each other
as a result of planting too close, the only pruning usually given
is to remove dead wood and branches weakened by disease or cold
injury, or broken by hurricane winds. Large cuts should be
painted with some protective material soon after the cuts are
made. Carbolineum and several commercial pruning paints hav-
ing an asphalt base have been found satisfactory for this work.
In many older groves where the trees were planted too close
together overcrowding has become a problem. When this occurs
the grower is faced with making a decision whether to remove
a portion of the trees or to attempt to tailor the trees by pruning
to fit the available space. No rules can be laid down at present
as to how to prune the trees to relieve the situation and still
maintain production because no systematic work has been done
to develop a satisfactory system of pruning for this purpose.
For the present it appears to be more practical to remove enough
of the trees to relieve overcrowding.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


WINDBREAKS
Windbreaks are not recommended for mango groves. A good
windbreak undoubtedly reduces air movement and evaporation
loss, and while this is of advantage for non-bearing trees, it tends
to favor anthracnose and mildew on bearing trees. The mango
tree is quite tough and withstands wind damage better than the
avocado. Hurricane winds in excess of 100 miles per hour cause
serious breakage and uprooting on the shallow soils, but no
species of tree that grows tall enough in Southern Florida to
be an effective windbreak will withstand such hurricane winds.

COLD PROTECTION
All of the areas in Florida where mangos are grown commer-
cially are subject to occasional frosts. Young trees are easily
injured by low temperatures and should be protected during the
winter for several years after planting. Orchard heaters may
be used successfully to protect the tops from freezing, but the
trees may still be lost because the cambium may freeze at or
near the ground level, the injury not being apparent until the
sap begins to flow in the spring. Damage from this type of
cold injury can be almost entirely prevented by wrapping the
trunks of young trees with a suitable insulating material. In
unheated groves, even where the top may be killed, the insulated
trunk is often saved for the development of a new top the follow-
ing year.
Where available in quantity, dried grass has proved a very
satisfactory insulating material. Fiber glass, rock wool, and
similar insulating materials held in place with kraft paper, may
be used (67). The insulation material must be applied before
cold weather appears, preferably early in November. If dried
grass is used the cost of protection varies from 8 to 15 cents
per tree (18). It may be 20 cents or more per tree with other
insulating materials.
The method of insulating the tree trunks with dried grass
consists of tying the grass in a fairly tight layer two or three
inches thick around the trunk from the ground to the lower
framework branches (Fig. 29). There is little or no danger of
scalding of the bark if these "grass skirts" are left on all winter,
nor is there much likelihood of the grass not being thoroughly
dry before the arrival of cold weather. A rain often occurs
shortly before a frost but the mass of cold dry air following the
rain removes the moisture from the grass before the occurrence







Mango Growing in Florida


of damaging temperatures. As soon as danger of frost is over
the grass should be removed and it can be used as mulching
material.
Since there is always danger of fire with dry grass, it is advis-
able to maintain a fire guard around the grove, or to clean culti-


~m..


Fig. 29.-Young grafted mango tree with trunk wrapped with grass for
frost protection.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


vate the middles. Clean cultivation is an aid in preventing cold
damage in the grove, since bare ground absorbs more heat during
the day than ground shaded by weeds or trash.
Orchard heaters have been demonstrated to be effective for
protection of the tops of both old and young trees. Freezes
requiring such protection are not of frequent occurrence, how-
ever, and the practicality of investing in heating equipment is
questionable.

PRODUCTION AND MARKETING
YIELDS
Seedling mangos as a rule come into bearing in four to seven
years, while grafted trees may bear a few fruit the second year
in the field. It is advisable to remove the fruit the first and
second year, but by the third year the grafted trees should be
able to set and mature a small crop and by the fourth and fifth
years they should be able to bear a good crop safely.
One of the greatest hazards in growing mangos commercially
has been the tendency for the plants to bear erratically. Fruit
production varies from year to year, from grove to grove, and
even from tree to tree in a given grove. Erratic bearing is
characteristic of mangos not only in Florida but in India and
other countries as well. Production depends on many factors,
such as variety, size of previous crop, number of vegetative
flushes and time of year when they were produced, weather con-
ditions during the flowering period, control of insect infestations
and diseases, fertilizing program, and pollination.
Records are not available to give accurate yields on an acre
basis for the leading commercial varieties. At the Subtropical
Experiment Station yields for individual trees have shown con-
siderable variation from year to year. The average number of
fruit per tree for 4 Kents, 2 Hadens and 3 Zills from 1949 through
1955 are given below.
Average Number of Fruit per Tree, 1949-55.
Year Kent Haden Zill
1949................... 12.5 0.5 13
1950.-.................. 31 108.5 91
1951--.................. 40 65 148
1952................... 0 3 6.5
1953-.............. --72 110 120
1954.................... 103 62 483
1955.................... 168 117 200
Some outstanding yields from individual trees are the follow-
ing: A 13-year-old Haden in 1950 produced 957 fruit; 12-year-







Mango Growing in Florida


old Zill in 1954 produced 811 fruit; 7-year-old Kent produced 110
fruit. Sometimes a shy bearer will set a heavy crop: an Edward
tree 12 years in the field in 1954 produced 270 fruit.

HARVESTING
The varieties now grown in Florida supply fruit from June to
October, with most of the crop usually maturing from mid-June
to mid-August. The peak of the crop may vary as much as
three weeks from one season to another, depending on time of
flowering and climatic factors during the growing season. In
some years the earliest varieties may mature some fruit in May.
The fruit of individual trees does not all mature at one time from
a single bloom but may do so over a period of three weeks or
more. The correct date for harvesting fruits of the various
mango varieties in a mature condition must be determined each
year.
Maturity standards have not been established and regulations
against shipment of immature fruit are not in force at present.
The result is that much fruit is harvested too early and reaches
the markets in an inedible or at least undesirable condition,
with the inevitable result that many prospective buyers turn
against the Florida mango. Cobin (6) observed that Haden trees
near Homestead in 1949 were stripped of all fruit about five
weeks before any Haden fruits showed signs of tree ripening
in the area. Brooks mangos are offered for sale on Miami mar-
kets as early as June in some years, although tree-ripened fruits
of this variety usually are not observed until mid-August. The
situation is similar with other varieties.
The usual practice by conscientious growers has been to har-
vest Haden mangos after a change in ground color from green
to yellow can be detected. This appears usually as a small area
near the stylar eAd of the fruit. Harvesting in accordance with
this criterion means picking fruit two or three times per week
to total 12 to 18 harvests per tree of fruit from one bloom. This
is a costly and laborious method of harvest. Fruit so harvested
generally is ready to eat in four or five days, so care is necessary
to avoid shipping over-ripe fruit.
It would be very desirable to harvest the fruit a few days
before the change in ground color occurs, but no quick test has
been devised for determining when this degree of maturity has
been reached. Harkness (16) found that neither the acid nor
the sugar content offers reliable test for maturity. The most







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


promising laboratory test for Haden mango was found to be
the measurement of the specific gravity of the whole fruit.
Haden fruits with gravities less than 1.01 to 1.015 generally
were immature and those with gravities of 1.02 were generally
good. Slightly higher values were necessary early in the season;
late in the season some fruits having gravities less than 1.01
were good. Specific gravity studies with other varieties indicate,
however, that this measure is not as reliable an indicator of
maturity in certain varieties as in Haden.
Harkness and Cobin (17), from further observations and
tests with the Haden variety, offer practical suggestions for
harvesting fruit in a mature condition. They found that fruit
matured from 105 to 115 days after blossoming. After the
shorter time interval fruit should be watched for change in
ground color. When this occurs, fruit should be sampled, specific
gravity determined, and the fruit ripened so that a fairly exact
date can be determined. Only fruit showing the change in ground
color should be harvested during this testing period. After this
the fruit can be harvested as desired, since practically all from
one bloom period will ripen with satisfactory quality. Similar
studies are needed for other varieties, but in general the same
method can be used with the exception of measuring specific
gravity. Some varieties exhibit a general change in ground
color over much of the surface, instead of in a small spot. Ex-
perience with such varieties will serve as a guide as to when the
first fruits are ready for harvest.
When the fruit can be reached by hand the usual method of
harvesting is to take the fruit in the palm of the hand and tip
it sharply sidewise or upward to snap off the fruit stem. The
stem is then trimmed with clippers to avoid stem punctures to
other fruit. Also the fruit may be grasped in one hand and the
stem cut to the desired length with the other by the use of
orange clippers.
The mango is very susceptible to decay when the skin has
been broken, and careful handling at all times will prevent loss.
For picking fruit out of reach by hand, long picking poles are
used. To the end of the pole is attached a cutting blade and below
this is fastened a small canvas bag to catch the detached
fruit. The picker carries a bucket to receive the fruit on transfer
from the picking pole receptacle, or to pick fruit into directly by
hand. These buckets have their contents in turn placed in field
crates. The fruit is delivered to the packinghouse in these field
crates. Picking platforms raised and lowered by means of an






Mango Growing in Florida 61

hydraulic lift operated by a small tractor are sometimes used
to facilitate picking the fruit from tall trees.

PACKING
Mango fruits as a rule are packed and shipped the same day
they are picked. In some cases lots may be held overnight,
preferably in packinghouses equipped with refrigeration. Oc-
casionally lots may be held over week ends at 50 F.
U. S. and State grades have not been established for mangos.
Packinghouses do not have a uniform grade standard, and as a
consequence there is more or less lack of uniformity in pack and
grade.
One of the larger packinghouses first separates the fruit upon
its arrival into three maturity grades as follows: (1) green fruit
with no perceptible change in ground color; (2) turning, with
perceptible change in ground color; and (3) ripe. The fruit is
then graded into Fancy or No. 1, which includes fruits free or
practically free of anthracnose, mango scab, insect scars, cuts
or other physical blemishes; No. 2 grade, which includes notice-
able blemishes on the surface, a moderate amount of small pin-
point anthracnose spots or mechanical injury; and culls, which
include badly misshapen and seedless fruits, pronounced mechan-
ical injuries and advanced anthracnose.
Nearly all fruits grading Fancy are shipped to Northern mar-
kets and the No. 2 grade is placed in nearby or local markets.
Ripe fruit is also disposed of locally.
Preparation of the fruit for packing varies from wiping off
the surface of each fruit with a damp cloth to washing in soapy
water and drying on roller brushes. A few shippers dip the
fruit in a solution or suspension of a copper fungicide. Con-
sistently good results have not been obtained in experimental
tests with this practice, and it probably is unnecessary for well-
sprayed fruits that retain a residue of copper fungicide on their
surface at harvest.
The fruit is sized either by hand or by mechanical sizers. It
is then packed for the most part in ventilated lugs with a layer
of excelsior used to line the top and bottom and to pack the
spaces between fruits to prevent them from rolling about and
bruising. Lugs are either of wood or of fiberboard (Fig. 30)
and may vary somewhat in size. The trend at present is to
use the avocado lug with inside dimensions of 131/2 by 161/
inches, which is either:






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


(a) 31/4 or 33/ inches deep if made of fiberboard, or
(b) 33/ or 4V/2 inches deep if made of wood. The number of
fruit per lug varies with the size of the fruit.


Fig. 30.-Some containers and packs used for Florida Haden mangos.
Upper left, size 10 pack in wooden lug holding 11 pounds of fruit; upper
right, wooden lug ready for lidding; lower, size 12 and size 18 packs in
fiberboard lugs holding 14 pounds of fruit.







Mango Growing in Florida


Some mangos are packed into ventilated crates holding approxi-
mately 45 pounds of fruit. They are packed in layers and the
layers are separated by sheets of corrugated fiberboard.

MARKETING

The uncertainty of the crop, lack of uniformity of grade and
pack, small total production, and lack of acquaintance with dif-
ferent varieties on the part of retailers are some of the factors
working against the development of a satisfactory system of
marketing mangos. The producer is confronted with surpluses
during seasons of bumper crops, and during poor crop years
there is not enough fruit to supply the demand in established
markets. Advertising to develop new markets is almost cer-
tainly doomed to failure in the face of the lack of a constant
annual supply of mangos. There has been some improvement
in marketing following the appearance on the market of new and
more consistently bearing varieties. As the trade becomes better
acquainted with such varieties further improvement in market-
ing may be expected.
At present the mango crop is marketed directly by the grower
or through packinghouses. Most of the packinghouses will pay
the grower cash for the fruit or will handle it on consignment,
charging commission for grading, packing, shipping and selling.
A number of growers pack and ship their own fruit, selling either
directly to the consumer on order or sending to dealers or brokers
in the Northern states. Some sell their fruit to fruit stands or
at the Miami Farmers' Market, or they may sell to dealers who
in turn re-sell the fruit at these places. Some of the dealers
pick as well as buy the fruit from small growers.
Prices fluctuate considerably throughout the season in ac-
cordance with supply and demand, quality and condition of the
fruit, and with variety. Hadens may bring as high as $15.00
per bushel when they first begin to appear on the market but
the price drops to $4.00 to $5.00 a bushel when they become
plentiful. Lower grades and ripes usually bring considerably
lower prices. Other varieties bring from $4.00 to $10.00 a bushel
for top quality fruit. Turpentine and other common seedlings
may bring $1.00 to $2.00 a bushel. Very late fruit often brings
prices as high as the earliest Hadens. The 9-12 size fruits are
marketed to the fancy fruit trade at premium prices. The 12-16
size fruit is the best grade size for the general market. The
18-24 sizes usually bring below-average market prices.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


About 70 percent of the commercial shipments of mangos from
the packinghouses is transported to market by refrigerated
trucks. During transit the fruit is held at 50 to 60 F. About
20 percent of the fruit is sent to market by Railway Express or
by parcel post. Up to 10 percent of the fruit may be shipped
via air freight. These shipments consist mainly of tree-ripened
fruit.
STORAGE
Little information is available on the effect of cold storage
temperatures on Florida mangos. In preliminary tests with
Haden, Harkness and Cobin (17) reported injury on mature-
green fruit stored for a week at 42-450 F. Fruit with a pro-
nounced change in ground color was not harmed after a week at
these temperatures. Experience by some of the packers and
shippers indicates that it is unsafe to cold store green mangos
at temperatures below 50 F., but that ripe fruit can be held
safely for a time at 450 F.
The work of Wardlaw and Leonard (72) in Trinidad showed
that full grown green fruit exhibits chill effect at 400 and 450 F.
after 5 to 20 days. Chilling effects noted were the development
of skin blemishes, failure to develop normal color or flavor, and
an abnormally early appearance of anthracnose spots. A storage
temperature of 480 F. was tentatively recommended for the
varieties under study.
Writers in India report that certain varieties keep well at
temperatures as low as 40-450 F. Until further information is
obtained for Florida varieties, it is advisable to hold to 500 F.
as the minimum for storage of mature-green fruit, with 450 F.
as the minimum for storage of ripe fruit.

DISEASES
The mango in Florida is subject to relatively few serious dis-
eases, but anthracnose is an extremely important factor in lower-
ing grade and quality of mango fruit, and in certain varieties
it contributes to lack of fruitfulness in some seasons. This
disease makes a program of spraying necessary if the fruit
is to be shipped successfully to distant markets. Two other
fungus diseases, scab and powdery mildew, apparently are in-
creasing in importance in some sections of the State and may
have to be considered in the spray program.







Mango Growing in Florida 65

ANTHRACNOSE

This common and most widespread disease of the mango is
caused by the fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz. The
fungus is one of the most widely distributed in Florida. In addi-
tion to attacking the mango, it causes a ripe rot of avocado,


-1' '


Fig. 31.-Upper, anthracnose on mature mango leaves--lower (left) and
upper (right) surfaces; lower, anthracnose on young mango leaf.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


papaya, and other subtropical fruits and a disease known as
withertip of citrus. Morphologically similar strains of the fungus
have been reported in tropical and subtropical regions throughout
the world. Burger (3) considered the species to be polymorphic
and that each strain was affected by its environment.
The various manifestations of the disease on the mango in-
clude blossom blight, leaf spot, fruit russeting or staining, and
fruit rot. Injury from the disease is closely dependent upon
humidity. The prevalence of rains or heavy dews during the
critical period for infection greatly increases its incidence.


Fig. 32.-Anthracnose on young mango fruits.
Most of the infection in bearing trees takes place from the
beginning of the blossoming period in gradually decreasing
severity until the fruit is about half grown. Reduction of
anthracnose can be accomplished by maintaining a protective
coating of an effective fungicide on susceptible parts during this
critical period. Much of the decay which develops on mature
fruits has its inception as latent infections occurring when the
fruits are quite small. This was first reported for mangos by
Baker (1) in Trinidad and it has been confirmed for Florida


"^;g~.
4


9







Mango Growing in Florida


mangos by the senior author. These latent infections become
active and serve as centers of decay when the fruit approaches
maturity. As the fruit ripens, the spots develop rapidly and
cause considerable loss in transit or storage. Even in relatively
dry seasons considerable latent infection may occur.


























Fig. 33.-Anthracnose decay of ripe fruit.

The fungus grows saprophytically and sporulates abundantly
on dead twigs and leaves of many plants, including the mango.
The possibilities for infection are great at all times and all that
is needed to produce the disease in abundance is the presence
of susceptible tissue and a favorable period of moisture.
Infections on the flower panicle appear at first as minute
brown or black spots which gradually enlarge and often coalesce
to cause the death of flowers either directly or indirectly by
invasion of the flower stalks. Blossom blight may vary in
severity from slight to complete involvement of the panicle, ac-
cording to prevailing weather conditions.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Infections on young leaves start as small, dark, angular to
irregular spots which often coalesce to form large necrotic areas
which may crack and break away (Fig. 31). Infections on older
leaves usually remain subcircular to somewhat angular and less
than 1/4 inch in diameter, with fruiting bodies appearing as brown
to black dots on either surface (Fig. 31). On old mature leaves
the anthracnose spots frequently are invaded by other fungi.
Very young fruits are readily infected. Young seedless fruits
are rapidly invaded by the fungus, once they become infected.
Spots on seeded fruits may remain as pinpoint latent infections
but in wet weather they may enlarge and sporulation may be
abundant (Fig. 32).
On nearly mature to ripe fruits, black spots of varied form,
which may be slightly sunken and show surface cracks, appear
and may coalesce to cover large areas. These infections usually
penetrate deeply and cause rotting of the fruit either on the
tree or after it has been harvested (Fig. 33). Surface staining
or russeting may result from spores being washed down upon the
fruit from an infected twig or flower stalk (Fig. 34).
Control of Anthracnose.-The widespread occurrence of the
causal fungus on living as well as dead tissues on mangos and
other plants makes it impractical in commercial groves to at-
tempt control of the disease by pruning. Spraying with effective
fungicides during the critical period for infection is the only
practical means of control.
Stevens in 1936 (65) outlined a tentative spray schedule which
included five applications of 8-8-100 bordeaux mixture timed as
follows: 1, dormant spray; 2, open bloom spray, when two-thirds
or more of the flowers are open; 3, three weeks after Number 2,
when most of the fruits have set; 4, one month after Number 3;
and 5, one month after Number 4. Blossom infection and an-
thracnose of the fruit was controlled fairly well by this schedule
in average seasons, provided the fruit set normally. Even in dry
seasons, when little anthracnose was present, the percentage of
first grade fruit was increased and sprayed fruit carried better
in transit and storage than unsprayed fruit.
In 1940 Ruehle (52) showed that the dormant spray was un-
necessary and that good control could be obtained with some of
the neutral copper fungicides or with weaker bordeaux mixtures
than 8-18-100. Furthermore, increase of scale insects and mealy-
bugs was less following the use of the neutral coppers and weak
bordeaux. Five or six applications of fungicide were necessary







Mango Growing in Florida


for good control in any single bloom period. The program in-
cluded two or three sprays in the open bloom.









































Fig. 34.-Surface staining from anthracnose spores washed down from
infected flower stalk and mummified fruits.

Spray tests comparing bordeaux mixture or one of the neutral
copper fungicides with some of the newer organic fungicides







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


were conducted at the Subtropical Station during recent years
whenever conditions were favorable for such tests. Results of
these were summarized by Ruehle (56) in 1953. Of the eight
organic tested, zineb or maneb used at 1.5 pounds to 100 gallons
of water and captain used at 2 pounds to 100 gallons of water
proved effective as in-the-bloom sprays, when applications were
made at intervals of seven days. None of the organic were as
effective as copper fungicides for post-bloom sprays when in-
tervals of three to four weeks were left between applications.







,.,
AAe











Fig. 35.-Proper stage of development of blossom panicles to receive first
anthracnose spray.
The organic fungicides are not as stable as the copper fungi-
cides. Zineb and maneb lose their effectiveness in six to eight
days on the plant. Captan probably is somewhat more stable
but for the present should be used like the carbamates until
more definite information is available. The organic fungicides
have certain advantages over the copper fungicides when used as
in-the-bloom sprays. They are less conducive to increase of
scale insects and mealybugs and there is less tendency for them
to injure open blossoms and to interfere with the activity of
pollinating insects than is the case with copper fungicides. They
are now recommended for in-the-bloom sprays on the mango with
applications spaced seven days apart to be followed by two or
three post-bloom applications of copper fungicides.
A wetting agent or spreader-adhesive added to the sprays
aids in obtaining good coverage. Caution should be observed







Mango Growing in Florida


in the use of liquid spreaders. Too much added to the spray
increases run-off of the fungicide. Usually half the quantity
recommended by the manufacturer is sufficient for good results
for the in-the-bloom sprays. Captan has caused injury when
used in combination with one of the standard liquid spreaders.
The waxy outer coat of the peel makes it increasingly diffi-
cult to obtain an even coating of fungicide on fruits an inch or
more in diameter. Somewhat better results will be obtained
if both a wetting agent and a dry spreader are added to the
fruit sprays.
The number of bloom applications necessary for good control
depends upon prevailing weather conditions and the uniformity
with which the flower clusters open. They do not all open simul-
taneously in the main general bloom and in some seasons lack
of uniformity is more evident than in others. Sometimes blos-
som panicles open first on the south side of the trees and may
set considerable fruit there before the panicles open on the
north side. Usually a general bloom is produced only once dur-
ing the year, but sometimes two distinct blooming periods occur,
or occasionally blooming may occur intermittently from late
December until April. It may be necessary in some seasons
to apply only two in-the-bloom sprays, while in others four or
more may be desirable or spot spraying of irregularly blooming
trees must be resorted to if all the blooms are to be protected.
Usually it is impractical to attempt to protect all bloom panicles
in these occasionally erratic seasons.
The following spray schedule is recommended for the present
until more information can be secured from further experiments:

GENERAL SPRAY SCHEDULE FOR CONTROL OF
ANTHRACNOSE

Time of Application Fungicide per 100 gallons of water
1. When first panicles have ap- Zineb 1z/ lbs. + liquid spreader or
peared but before individual Maneb 11/ lbs. + liquid spreader or
flowers have opened (See Fig. Captan 2 lbs. + dry spreader.
3C)

2. One week after No. 1 Same materials as above

3. One week after No. 2 and re- Same materials as above
peat at 7-day intervals as long
as necessary or practical to
protect open bloom







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


4. When crop has set and not
longer than 7 days after the
last organic fungicide appli-
cation.



5. Three to four weeks after No.
4.


6. About May 15 or at the time
of the beginning of the rainy
season. To control late lenti-
cel infections, and infections
starting at insect stings, hail
marks, limb rubs, etc. On
late varieties (Kent, Keitt,
Palmer, Brooks, etc.) especial-
ly on old trees it may be ad-
visable to spray again in June.


Yellow cuprous oxide 1 lb. + liquid
spreader or Bordeaux (6 lbs. blue-
stone-6 Ibs. hydrated lime) + liquid
spreader or
Other standard neutral coppers used
at the same copper content as bor-
deaux mixture.

Repeat with copper fungicide used
in No. 4 but add both liquid and dry
spreader.




Repeat with copper fungicide and
spreaders used in No. 5.


This schedule applies to the main general bloom which usually
produces the bulk of the crop. Changes in time of making some
applications may be necessitated by variations in seasonal condi-
tions. Occasionally the first bloom to appear is slight and sets
little or no fruit, in which case a second bloom may be heavy and
produce the main crop. When this occurs the spray schedule
should be shifted to protect the later bloom. The first applica-
tion in the schedule should be made thoroughly to all parts of
the tree top. Only the bloom panicles and fruits need to be
covered in later applications.
Proper spacing of the trees at planting to allow sufficient room
for aeration about the trees, or pruning to provide aeration in
closer planted trees, and control of insects and other diseases
will make the control of anthracnose by spraying easier. In-
secticides may be added to the fungicides in the spray schedule if
the need for insect control is evident at the time.

MANGO SCAB
Mango scab is caused by the fungus Elsinoe mangiferae Bit.
and Jenkins. It was first recognized as a distinct disease in
Florida in 1942 (53), but leaf specimens regarded as the same
diseases are reported to have been collected at Orlando, Florida,
in 1937. The disease has been reported also from Cuba, Puerto
Rico, Brazil and the Canal Zone. (2). It is probable that mango
scab had been present in Florida for many years prior to its dis-






Mango Growing in Florida


cover and that some of its manifestations had been confused
with anthracnose.


(


Fig. 36.-Mango scab on twig and leaves of mango.
The fungus attacks young expanding tissues, causing infec-
tions on leaves, blossom panicles, twigs, and fruits. On young
mango leaves the spots are nearly circular to somewhat angular,
usually 1/25 inch or less but sometimes up to 1/16 inch in
diameter, and dark brown to black with the centers often covered
with a delicate velvety down during moist weather. Severe at-
tacks cause crinkling and distortion of the leaf, followed by pre-
mature shedding (Fig. 36). On older leaves the somewhat larger
spots are grayish, surrounded by narrow dark borders and fre-
quently the centers weather away, leaving irregular shot holes.
Grayish irregular blotches are formed on the bark of stems
(Fig. 36). On young fruits the infections are grayish to grayish
brown with dark irregular margins (Fig. 37). As the fruit en-
larges the spots enlarge also and the centers may become covered


I







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


with cracked and fissured corky tissue (Fig. 38). Spores of the
fungus may be produced on the fruit until it reaches maturity.
During moist periods the surface of fruit scabs on unsprayed
fruits are covered more or less with a velvety grayish brown
covering of spores and sporophores, in contrast to the pinkish
spore masses of anthracnose produced under similar conditions.
Control of Mango Scab.-Thus far in Florida mango scab has
been of minor importance in commercial groves, but is often
a serious disease in mango nurseries. The spray schedule recom-
mended for control of anthracnose usually will also control scab
in bearing groves. The disease increased somewhat in severity
in some groves near the coast from Merritt Island southward to
Fort Lauderdale during 1954, probably because weather condi-
tions were more favorable to the fungus during the spring
months.


"f


?'


Fig. 37.-Mango scab on young fruits.

Frequent spraying with copper fungicides is necessary to con-
trol scab in nurseries. Keeping the new flushes of growth pro-
tected by weekly applications of wettable cuprous oxide at 1
pound per 100 gallons of water or of some other neutral copper


r
,.~s~b ~h i







Mango Growing in Florida


fungicide used at a comparable rate generally will prevent dam-
age from the disease.










o' l *
IBK'^ *:, UBB J t^P-'*... "A*' l


Fig. 38.-Mango scab on nearly mature Haden fruit.


POWDERY MILDEW
Powdery mildew caused by a species of Oidium has been ob-
served on the mango in Florida for more than a decade but has
been a very minor trouble until 1954, when the bloom was
seriously attacked in many groves from Miami to Stuart. It
again caused serious damage to blossom panicles in one grove on
Merritt Island in 1955 and caused some damage to blossoms and
foliage in other sections. The disease is reported serious with
the mango in India (39), where the causal fungus is named
Oidium mangiferae Berthet.
Loss from the disease is mainly the result of blossom infec-
tion. In severe attacks the entire blossom panicle may be in-
volved and fruit fail to set. Infected flowers, flower stalks, and
young fruits become coated with the whitish powdery growth of
the fungus and the flowers and young fruits turn brown and are
shed. The under sides of infected leaves and the skin of in-
fected fruits are similarly coated with the white surface growth







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


of the fungus. There may be some distortion of young leaves
(Fig. 39). In older leaves and on the skin of nearly mature fruits
infected tissue has a purplish brown cast after the white growth
weathers away. Infections on mature fruits may appear as
superficial irregular blotches (Fig. 40).
There has been little opportunity to develop control measures
for powdery mildew in Florida. Dusting the blossom panicles
with finely ground sulfur just before the opening of the flowers
and again in about two weeks is said to give effective control in
India. Sulfur has not been tested under Florida conditions. A
proprietary dinitrophenyl crotonate (Karathane WD) was used
on mango bloom at the rate of 1/2 pound per 100 gallons of a
formulation containing 25 percent active ingredient at Boynton
in 1954 and again in 1955. No checks were left but the grower
is of the opinion that the treatment was effective. A 0.6 pound
per 100 gallons rate was used once on severely infected bloom in
a grove on Merritt Island in 1955. Little fruit was set on the
sprayed blooms of Zill trees which appeared to be more severely

Fig. 39.-Powdery mildew on flower panicle and leaves of mango.









4...







Mango Growing in Florida


attacked than trees of other varieties, but the trees put forth
a second bloom from which considerable fruit set, so presumably
the treatment was effective. Dinitrophenyl crotonate is com-
patible with and may be added to the carbamate fungicides in
the anthracnose program.


Fig. 40.-Powdery mildew on fruit of Borsha mango.
RED RUST
Red Rust caused by the alga Cephaleuros virescens Kunze is a
minor disease of the mango. In orchards regularly sprayed
with copper fungicides the disease usually is not found or at
least is of no importance. On unsprayed trees stem infections
may become numerous and cause some damage. The alga lives
on the leaves as an epiphyte. The roughly circular spots are
greenish-gray, changing to rusty red when the fructifications of
the alga appear. On branches below year old flushes of growth,
the alga causes bark lesions one inch or more in diameter. The
attacked bark becomes cracked and thickened and the branches
may become noticeably thickened at the infection sites. The
presence of the alga is readily recognized from the rusty-red
fructifications on the surface of infected areas.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


STEM-END ROT
A stem-end rot of mango fruits often causes spoilage during
transit or storage. The fruits become thoroughly invaded and
soured and the skin turns light brown to almost black. The
fungus most commonly associated with this type of decay in
Florida is Diplodia natalensis Pole-Evans, but Diaporthe citri
Wolf also has been isolated from fruits showing stem-end rot.
Contributing factors to the development of stem-end rot of
mango include the harvesting of fruit in an immature condi-
tion, storage in poorly ventilated and warm rooms or cars, and
failure to adopt an adequate spraying program for control of
anthracnose. Direct methods of control of the rot have not
been developed. Some shippers report that washing the fruit in
a copper fungicidal suspension in water prior to packing for
shipment apparently prevented development of the decay in
transit. Providing adequate ventilation in cool storage rooms
or in transit should prove beneficial.

NON-PARASITIC DISEASES
Tipburn is the term given to the dying back of the leaf tip
and adjacent edges toward the center, forming an irregular area
of dead, brown dry tissue which may sometimes involve as much
as one-half the leaf area. Anthracnose and other fungi fre-
quently invade the dead tissue.
Salt spray and salt in the water used for overhead irrigation
cause one form of tipburn. The cause of tipburn has not been
definitely established in some observed cases, but the condition
appears always to be associated with moisture deficiency, which
may result from severe drouth, high salts concentration in the
soil, or drying winds.
Lightning occasionally strikes mango trees and may cause in-
juries that may be mistaken for the effects of a parasitic dis-
ease. The amount of injury from lightning may be confined to
one tree or it may extend to a group of trees. Trees may be
killed completely or the injury may be confined to individual
branches or patches of the bark of branches. The most common
pattern from lightning is for a single tree to be struck and
either killed outright or severely injured, with twigs and branches
of adjacent trees showing more or less injury.
Hail occasionally causes injury to the fruits by breaking the
skin. Half-grown fruits are sometimes so severely injured
that they drop from the trees. In other cases decay develops






Mango Growing in Florida


at the breaks and the fruit is unfit for shipment. If the fruit is
struck while quite small, the injuries may heal over, leaving a
scar at the site of injury which may lower the grade at harvest.
Zinc deficiency on mango trees is characterized by the presence
of small, recurved, thickened and stiff leaves which may exhibit
more or less pronounced chlorosis (Fig. 41). When long standing
and severe, dying back of small twigs may occur and abnormali-
ties of the bloom panicle may be evident. Such trees remain
unthrifty and unproductive until the condition is corrected. The
condition has been observed mostly on mangos growing on the
calcareous soils of Dade County (29).
Correction is accomplished by applying zinc sulfate to the
foliage as a spray, with sufficient lime added for neutraliza-
tion. The formula recommended is zinc sulfate 5 pounds, hy-
drated lime 2.5 pounds, and water 100 gallons. Neutral zinc may
be substituted for zinc sulfate, using a formula to supply the
same amount of metallic zinc in the spray. No lime is required
if neutral zinc is used. Correction of zinc deficiency generally is
manifested in the flush of growth following the application of a
single zinc spray. If correction is not complete, a second spray-
ing with zinc may be necessary.

Fig. 41.-Zinc deficiency symptoms on mango branch terminals.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Copper deficiency symptoms frequently develop in young trees
forced into growth by heavy nitrogen fertilization, or on the
growth developing from newly top-worked large trees. The ap-
pearance of weak terminal shoots followed by defoliation and
dieback on the ends of long drooping or S-shaped branches of
the preceding cycle of growth is evidence that copper is needed.
The remedy is to spray the foliage with a copper fungicide.
Copper deficiency symptoms may sometimes accompany zinc de-
ficiency symptoms. Prevention by applications of copper and
zinc once or twice a year is easier than correction. Copper
deficiency symptoms have not been observed on bearing trees
receiving copper sprays for control of anthracnose.
Abnormalities of ripening and of fruit development occur in
Florida mangos. A soft tip condition has been rather common
in fruits of some varieties in Palm Beach County in some sea-
sons. In this condition, the flesh may become quite soft at the
apex and around the stone, while the flesh at the base of the
fruit is still green and hard. Fermentation or fungal spoilage
occurs in the ripened tip before the basal end of the fruit ripens.
Fruits with well developed seed are less apt to have this condi-
tion than fruits with poorly developed or no seed. Hollow cavi-
ties of variable size and shape occasionally develop in the flesh
of the basal end of the fruit. The tissue lining these cavities
varies in color from almost white to slate colored. The cavi-
ties apparently have no connection with the skin of the fruit,
but their location is sometimes evident on the surface as a
depression in the peel. The cause is unknown for both of these
conditions.
INSECTS AND OTHER PESTS
The mango serves as host for a number of insect pests and
mites. Some of these cause injury severe enough to warrant the
application of pesticides. All have natural enemies which tend
to keep populations controlled, and the appearance of most mango
pests in damaging numbers is sporadic. Trees should be
examined frequently for infestations. When pests increase to
proportions where extensive damage to tree or crop is likely to
occur, the appropriate pesticide should be applied. Usually the
best control program is to apply pesticides only when they are
needed.
SCALE INSECTS
More than a score of species of scales have been reported on
the mango in Florida (31). Of these, the mango shield scale,







Mango Growing in Florida


Coccus mangiferae (Green), the lesser snow scale, Pinnaspis
strachani Cooley, and the Florida red scale, Chrysomphalus
aonidum (Linn.), often are troublesome. Occasionally the tes-
selated scale, mango scale, Florida wax scale, or some other
species may build up to damaging numbers.
All scale insects feed by sucking sap from the tree, thus re-
ducing tree vitality. They generally increase following the use of
copper and other pesticidal sprays leaving residues on the plant.
The mango shield scale infests the lower surface of the leaves
(Fig. 42) and usually locates along the midrib or lateral veins.
The adult of this soft scale is somewhat triangular in shape,
yellowish green in color and about one-eighth inch in length.
This species produces an abundance of honeydew which falls to
the upper surface of leaves or fruit below the infested leaves.
The sooty mold fungus develops on this honeydew. Following a
severe infestation the tree usually becomes blackened from the
accumulation of fungus growth. Its presence is a sure sign that
scale insects are present and causing damage.
















Fig. 42.-Mango shield scale (light colored) and Florida red scale
(dark circular) on mango leaves.

The lesser snow scale frequently masses in cracks in the bark
of the trunk and branches but also infests twigs and occasionally
leaves and fruits. The fluted white males are about 1/16 inch
long and the most conspicuous, sometimes nearly concealing the
opaque white, irregularly pear-shaped slightly larger females.
Parasites sometimes kill most of the scales on unsprayed trees






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


and this species becomes a serious pest only in trees sprayed
during the season with copper fungicides.
The Florida red scale, a widely disseminated armored scale,
often infests mango leaves and occasionally attacks the fruit.
The adult females are light reddish brown, almost circular in
outline and about 1/16 inch in diameter. The males are similar
but smaller than the females.
Control of Scale Insects.-Oil emulsion sprays are effective
scalecides if applied with good coverage at pressures of 400
p. s. i. or more. Wolfenbarger (77) recommends emulsions con-
taining 1.3 to 1.5 percent oil as adequate for most infestations,
although it may be necessary to repeat in three to four weeks to
control extremely heavy infestations. Oil emulsions should not
be applied to nearly mature fruit because uneven ripening of the
harvested fruit has followed this practice on some varieties. Oil
emulsions are best applied just after fruit harvest, but if severe
infestations are discovered at other seasons they should be con-
trolled. Spot spraying to eradicate infestations just as they
become noticeable is frequently good economy in combating scale
insects as well as other pests.
Parathion at 1.7 pounds of 15 percent wettable powder per
100 gallons of water is effective for control of shield, red, and
snow scales and can be applied at any season of the year. Para-
thion should never be used without proper precautions. The
combination of 0.7 percent oil with 1 pound of 15 percent wettable
parathion per 100 gallons of water is excellent for a cleanup
of scales. The combination requires the use of the same pre-
cautions as parathion.
THRIPS
The red-banded thrips, Selenothrips rubocinctus (Giard.), has
become a very troublesome pest in mango nurseries and groves
in recent years, causing severe defoliation when infestations are
heavy.
The young are conspicuously colored. They are yellowish with
a bright red band near the middle of the body. The adults are
dark brown with dusty wings and are about 1/24 inch long.
Adults, young, and eggs may be found together on the lower sur-
face of the leaves. This thrips excretes over the surface small
drops of a clear reddish fluid, which hardens and turns rusty
brown to black. Infested leaves become darkly stained and may
curl, shrivel, and fall as a result of feeding. Fruits also may
be attacked. The skin becomes discolored and may crack and







Mango Growing in Florida


shrivel. Trees severely attacked a short time before the normal
blooming period may fail to bloom and set fruit.
Control can be obtained with thorough applications of any one
of a number of insecticides. Wolfenbarger (76) reported good
control with parathion, oil emulsion with DDT or benzene hexa-
chloride added, and with DDT alone at 4 pounds of 50 percent
wettable powder per 100 gallons of water. Dieldrin showed par-
ticular promise for control of this thrips (78) when used at 1
pound of 20 percent wettable powder or its equivalent per 100
gallons of water. However, dieldrin has not yet been released
for use on the mango. Fairly effective control can be obtained
with a spray of 40 percent nicotine sulfate at 1 pint per 100
gallons of water. DDT sprays or dusts, although effective, are
not recommended, because scale insects tend to increase following
their use. Lindane and benzene hexachloride should not be
used after fruit is about one-third grown, as they may affect
flavor. Dusts of lindane 'or benzene hexachloride to be effective
should contain 1 percent of the active ingredient. Wettable
benzene hexachloride is recommended at 2 pounds 10 percent
gamma isomer or its equivalent and lindane at 1 pound 25 per-
cent or its equivalent per 100 gallons of water.
The greenhouse thrips, Heliothrips haemorrhoidalis (Bouche),
has caused considerable damage to avocados in Florida in re-
cent years but has not yet been observed causing damage to
mango trees. The mango is listed as a host of this thrips by
Ebeling and Pence (10), so the species is a potential threat.
The adult thrips is black with white markings, but is similar to
the red-banded thrips in feeding habits and type of injury pro-
duced. If it becomes a pest of the mango in Florida, control
measures recommended for red-banded thrips can be used.
Flower thrips are almost always present and sometimes are
very abundant on mango flowers. These soft-bodied, yellowish
insects about 1/25 inch long, have been suspected of causing
damage to the flowers, but there is no conclusive evidence that
they cause injury severe enough to warrant the use of insecti-
cides.
MITES
The avocado red mite, Paratetranychus yothersi (McG.), often
attacks the mango severely during the comparatively dry win-
ter months. The mite is very small but its bright rusty red
color makes it readily visible to the naked eye when it moves.
It confines its feeding to the upper surface of the leaves. Con-
tinued feeding causes the entire leaf to turn brown as if scorched






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


and often such leaves drop prematurely. Occasionally the mites
attack very young fruits and cause russeting of the skin. The
greatest damage from this pest occurs from late November to
March.
At the first indication of red mite damage the grower should
start to apply control measures. The mite is readily controlled
by adding 6 to 10 pounds of wettable sulfur to each 100 gallons
of one of the fungicidal sprays in the anthracnose schedule and
covering the leaves thoroughly. If red spiders appear on non-
bearing trees or on bearing trees before the time for spraying
with fungicides they may be controlled by the use of sulfur
dust.
The broad mite, Hemitarsonemus latus (Banks), occasionally
attacks the terminals of young mango trees in nurseries or in
lath-houses. Symptoms described by Wolfenbarger (77) in-
clude crinkling and stunting of terminal leaves, rolling of leaf
margins, glazing of leaf surfaces, and defoliation. The mites
are nearly colorless, are short and broad in form, and move
about rapidly. They are so small that they can be detected
readily only with the aid of a hand lens. The broad mite can
be controlled by use of sulfur dust, by spraying with wettable
sulfur 10 pounds to 100 gallons, or by the use of weak lime-
sulfur solutions. Repeated and thorough applications are neces-
sary for control of severe infestations.

OTHER INSECTS
Moznette (32) states that mango bloom panicles are some-
times seriously damaged by attacks of the blossom anomala,
Anomala undulata Mels, a small dark-colored beetle which feeds
at night. This insect has rarely been observed on mangos dur-
ing the past 20 years and has not been a serious pest when
present. Moznette recommended arsenate of lead spray for con-
trol.
A small brownish ambrosia beetle, Hypocryphalus mangiferae
(Stebbing), has been observed attacking mango trees in three
different areas. The insect, about 1/16 inch in length, makes
galleries in the branches and trunk and carries stain and decay
fungi into these galleries. Some control was obtained in pre-
liminary tests by the use of DDT sprays.
On several occasions, larvae of the papaya fruit fly, Toxotry-
pana curvicauda (Gerst), have been observed infesting the pulp
of mango fruits (Fig. 43). In one instance most of the fruits






Mango Growing in Florida


of one tree were destroyed by the attack of this pest. No satis-
factory control has been developed.
Several other pests have been observed attacking mango in
Florida but thus far have not been of sufficient importance to
warrant the use of special measures for their control.


4ig
46


Fig. 43.-Larvae of papaya fruit fly in flesh of mango fruit.

MANGO DERMATITIS
The sap of the mango tree contains a compound, as yet un-
identified, that produces a rash on the skin of susceptible indi-
viduals. According to Simmons and Bolin (59), the lesions are
produced by a non-protein skin irritant that is nonvolatile, soluble
in xylol, ether, alcohol, and chloroform, and is present only in the
sap of young branches and the peel of the fruit. The rash is
called mango dermatitis (19) and is an irritation of the skin,
especially of the hands, neck, and face, and results from con-
tact with the resin in the sap. It is of rare occurrence and a mild
case usually lasts only a few days. Mango dermatitis has been
reported in many races, not being confined to the white race,
and children seem more susceptible than adults. Sensitive in-
dividuals should avoid all contact with the plant sap, especially
in handling picked fruit on which the sap has run. Some sus-







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


ceptible persons can eat the mango without ill effects if someone
else peels and washes the fruit.
Little information is available on mango dermatitis and its
treatment. However, since mango and poison ivy belong to the
same plant family and the respective rashes have certain char-
acteristics in common, it seems reasonable to assume that treat-
ment used for ivy poisoning should also be useful in treating
mango dermatitis.

LITERATURE CITED
1. BAKER, R. E. D. Studies in the pathogenicity of tropical fungi. II. The
occurrence of latent infections in developing fruits. Ann. of Bot.,
New Series. 2(8): 919-932. 1938.
2. BITANCOURT, A. A., and ANNA E. JENKINS. A verrugose da mangueria.
Arquivos do Instituto Biologico, S. Paulo 17: 205-228. 1946.
3. BURGER, O. F. Variations in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Jour. Agr.
Res. 20 (9) :723-736. 1921.
4. BURNS, W., and S. H. PRAYAG. The book of the mango. Dept. of
Agr., Bombay, Bul. 103. 1921.
5. CELLON, G. B. Commercial varieties of mango and avocado trees.
Miami, Fla. Tropical Groves Nursery Dept. 1912.
6. COBIN, M. A practical approach to prevent the marketing of immature
mangos. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 62: 204-206. 1949.
7. Mango selection, propagation and culture. Fla. Agr. Exp.
Sta. Ann. Repts. 1950: 243-46; 1951: 257-59.
8. COOPER, W. C., and J. R. FURR. The chinchona veneer-graft method of
propagating subtropical fruit trees. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 58:
176-180. 1945.
9. DIJKMAN, M. J. Rooting of Haden mango from leaf-bud cuttings.
Science 111(2894) : 663-664. 1950.
10. EBERLING, WALTER, and RoY J. PENCE. Avocado pests. Cal. Agr. Exp.
Sta. Ext. Circ. 428: 1-36. 1953.
11. FRENCH, R. B., and 0. D. ABBOTT. Levels of carotene and ascorbic
acid in Florida-grown foods. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 444. 1948.
12. FRENCH, R. B., O. D. ABBOTT and R. O. TOWNSEND. Levels of thia-
mine, riboflavin and niacin in Florida-produced foods. Fla. Agr. Exp.
Sta. Bul. 482. 1951.
13. GARDNER, F. E., and R. B. PIPER. Ease of propagation of some sub-
tropical fruits by cuttings from young seedlings. Proc. Fla. State
Hort. Soc. 56: 124-126. 1943.








Mango Growing in Florida 87

14. GROVE, W. R. Wrapping air-layers with rubber plastic. Proc. Fla.
State Hort. Soc. 60: 184-187. 1947.

15. HADEN, MRS. F. R. Tropical fruits. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 23:
137-140. 1910.

16. HARKNESS, R. W. Laboratory tests of mango maturity. Proc. Fla.
Mango Forum for 1949: 21-25.
17. HARKNESS, R. W., and M. COBIN. Haden mango maturity observation
during 1950. Proc. Fla. Mango Forum for 1950: 27-32.

18. HOLDEN, B. HEATH. Experience in protecting young mango wood two
feet above the ground. Proc. Fla. Mango Forum for 1951: 17-18.

19. KIRBY-SMITH, J. L. Mango dermatitis. Amer. Jour. Trop. Med. 18(4):
373-384. 1938.

20. KRIENKE, W. A. Mango ice cream. Proc. Fla. Mango Forum for 1954:
25-28.

21. Tropical fruits in ice cream. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
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22. LEDIN, R. B. Florida mango census. Proc. Fla. Mango Forum for
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23. Mango varieties. Proc. Fla. State Hort. Soc. 67: 284-
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24. LYNCH, S. J. Nursery propagation and topworking of mangos. Fla.
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25. LYNCH, S. J., and MRS. W. J. KROME. Mango varieties originating in
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27. LYNCH, S. J., and R. NELSON. Mango budding. Proc. Fla. State Hort.
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28. and Additional notes on mango budding.
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29. LYNCH, S. J., and GEO. D. RUEILE. Little-leaf of mangos: a zinc de-
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30. MALLIK, P. C., and B. N. DE. Manures and manuring of the mango
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88 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

33. MUKHERJEE, S. K. A monograph on the genus Mangifera L. Lloydia
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38. and Effect of various factors upon the as-
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49. REITZ, H. J., et al. Recommended fertilizers and nutritional sprays for
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50. ROLFS, P. H. Mangos in Florida. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 127. 1915.







Mango Growing in Florida 89

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52. RUEHLE, GEO. D. Spraying experiments for control of mango anthrac-
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53. A study of diseases of the avocado and mango and
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54. The Kent and Zill mangos. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Press
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56. Organic fungicides for control of anthracnose of mango.
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58. SEN, P. K., and P. C. MALLIK. The time of differentiation of the flower
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59. SIMMONS, J. S., and Z. E. BOLIN. Dermatitis venenata produced by an
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60. SINGH, L., and A. A. KAHN. Forcing mango trees to bear regularly.
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61. SINGH, L. B. Vegetative propagation of mango by air-layering. Sci.
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62. SINGH, R. N. Studies in floral biology and subsequent development
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63. SINGH, S. N., and S. A. TEOTIA. Effect of some hormones on the root-
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64. SMITH, P. F., and G. K. SCUDDER, JR. Some studies on mineral deficiency
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65. STEVENS, H. E. Control of mango blossom-blight and anthracnose.
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Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


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