• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Introduction
 Chlorosis of crape myrtle
 Miscellaneous ornamentals
 Methods of treatment
 Discussion
 Summary
 Advertising






Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station - no. 319
Title: Manganese sulfate as a corrective for a chlorosis of certain ornamental plants
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027528/00001
 Material Information
Title: Manganese sulfate as a corrective for a chlorosis of certain ornamental plants
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 18 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Dickey, R. D ( Ralph Davis ), 1904-
Reuther, Walter, 1911-
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1938
 Subjects
Subject: Chlorosis (Plants)   ( lcsh )
Manganous sulphate   ( lcsh )
Plants, Ornamental -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: by R.D. Dickey and Walter Reuther.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027528
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000924545
oclc - 18213296
notis - AEN5172

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
    Chlorosis of crape myrtle
        Page 4
        Symptoms
            Page 4
        Experimental studies
            Page 5
            Foliage treatments
                Page 5
                Page 6
            Soil treatments
                Page 7
                Page 8
    Miscellaneous ornamentals
        Page 9
        Buginvillaea (Bougainvillea)
            Page 9
        Allamanda
            Page 10
        Cattley guava
            Page 10
        Thunbergia
            Page 11
            Page 12
        Fiame vine
            Page 13
        Agyneja impubes
            Page 13
    Methods of treatment
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Discussion
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Summary
        Page 18
    Advertising
        Page 29
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida









UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
WILMON NEWELL, Director


MANGANESE SULFATE AS A

CORRECTIVE FOR A CHLOROSIS OF

CERTAIN ORNAMENTAL PLANTS

By
R. D. DICKEY and WALTER REUTHER


Fig. 1.-Treated and chlorotic crape myrtle leaves from same plant. Leaf on left
treated with manganese sulfate solution in June 1937. Leaf on right a typical untreated
chlorotie leaf. Photo taken four weeks after treatment. The condition of the left leaf
was similar to that of the right leaf at the time of treatment.

Bulletins will be sent free to Florida residents upon request to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


Bulletin 319


April, 1938








EXECUTIVE STAFF
John J. Tigert, M.A., LL.D, President of
the University
Wilmon Newell, D.Sc., Director
H. Harold Hume, D.Sc., Asst. Dir., Research
Harold Mowry, M.S.A., Asst. Dir., Adm.
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor
Clyde Beale, A.BJ., Assistant Editor
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
Ruby Newhall, Administrative Manager
K. H. Graham, Business Manager
Rachel MeQuarrie, Accountant


MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE
AGRONOMY
W. E. Stokes, M.S., Agronomist**
W. A. Leukel, Ph.D., Agronomist
G. E. Ritchey, M.S.. Associate*
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Associate
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate
John P. Camp, M.S., Assistant
Roy E. Blaser, M.S., Assistant
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
A. L. Shealy, D.V.M., Animal Husbandman**
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman
L. M. Thurston, Ph.D., Dairy Technologist
W. M. Neal. Ph.D., Asso. in An. Nutrition
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarian
N. B, Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husbandman
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D, Asst. An. Husbandman
R. M. Crown, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husbandman
P. T. bix Arnold, M.S.A., Assistant Dairy
Husbandman
L. L. Rusoff, M.S., Asst. in An. Nutrition
CHEMISTRY AND SOILS
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Chemist**
R. M. Barnette, Ph.D., Chemist
C. E. Bell, Ph.D., Associate
R. B. French, Ph.D., Associate
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant
J. Russell Henderson, M.S.A., Assistant
ECONOMICS, AGRICULTURAL
0. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist**
Brac McKinley, A.B., BS.A., Associate
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. Spurlock, M.S.A., Assistant
ECONOMICS, HOME
Oulda Davis Abbott Ph.D., Specialist**
Ruth Overstreet, IN., Assistant
ENTOMOLOGY
J. R. Watson, A.M., Entomologist**
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Associate
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant
HORTICULTUR
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A, Horticulturist and
Acting Head of 'Department
A. L. Stahl, Ph.D., Associate
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Truck Horticulturist
R. J. Wilmot, M.SA, Specialist, Fumigation
Research
R. D. Dickey, B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist
J. Carlton Cain, B.S.A., Asst. Horticulturist
PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist**
George F. Weber, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. K. Vorhees, M.S., Assistant
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Assistant Botanist
SPECTROGRAPHIC LABORATORY
L. W. Gaddum, Ph.D. Biochemist
L. H. Rogers. M.A., Spectroscople Analyst
Richard A. Carrigan, B.S., Asst. Chemist


BOARD OF CONTROL
R. P. Terry, Acting Chairman, Miami
Thomas W. Bryant, Lakeland
W. M. Palmer, Ocala
H. P. Adair, Jacksonville
Chas. P. Helfenstein, Live Oak
J. T. Diamond,* Secretary, Tallahassee

BRANCH STATIONS
NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY
L. 0. Gratz, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in
Charge
B. B. Kincaid, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist
J. D. Warner, M.S., Agronomist
Jesse Reeves, Farm Superintendent
CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED
A. F. Camp, PhD., Horticulturist in Charge
John H. Jefferies, Superintenient
W. A. Kunt A.M. Asso. Plant Pathologist
Michael Peedh, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
B. R. Fudge, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Asst. Entomologist
John A. Granger, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
EVERGLADES STATION, BELLE GLADE
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Biochemist in Charge
B. N. Lobdell, M.S., Entomologist
F. D. Stevens, B.S., Sugarcane Agronomist
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Sugarcane
Physiologist
G. R. Townsend, Ph.D., Assistant Plant
Pathologist
R. W. Kidder, B.S., Asst. Animal Husbandman
W. T. Foresee, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
B. S. Clayton, B.S.C.E., Drainage Engineer*
SUB-TROPICAL STATION, HOMESTEAD
H. S. Wolfe, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Charge
W. M. Field, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist
W. CENTRAL FLA. STA., BROOKSVILLE
W. F. Ward, M.S., Asst. An. Husbandman
in Charge*

FIELD STATIONS
Leesburg
M. N. Walker, Ph.D, Plant Pathologist in
Charge
K. W. Loucks, M.S., Ast. Plant Pathologist
C. C. Got!, M.S, Assistant Mntomologast
Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
J. W Wilson, Sc.D., Associate Entomologist
Cocoa
A. S. Rhoads, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Monticello
Sam O. Hill, B.S.; Asst. Entomologist*
Bradenton
David G. Kelbert, Asst. Plant Pathologist
Sanford
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Chemist in Charge
Celery Investigations
W. B. Shippy, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist
Lakeland
E. S. Ellison, Meteorologist*
B. H. Moore, A.B., Asst. Meteorologist*
*In cooperation with U.S.D.A.
**Head of Department









MANGANESE SULFATE AS A CORRECTIVE FOR A
CHLOROSIS OF CERTAIN ORNAMENTAL PLANTS
By R. D. DICKEY and WALTER REUTHER

CONTENTS
Page Page
Chlorosis of Crape Myrtle .............. 4 Allamanda -......... ........... ..... ------ 10
Symptoms -......... ..............-.......... 4 Cattley Guava .................................... 10
Experimental Studies ...............-- 5 Thne a ................................11
Flame Vine ...........-...-- ........------ .................. 13
Foliage Treatments --.................. 5 ye mubes -- 1
Agyneja impubes ..................................... 18
Soil Treatments .... ................ 7 Methods of Treatment .................................. 14
Miscellaneous Ornamentals ........................ 9 Discussion .......... ................................. 16
Buginvillaea ...... .- -.. ...........-- -- 9 Summary ....- -................. ......................- 18

Chlorosis is a common term which is applied to a condition
where there is an inadequate development of chlorophyll in the
leaves of plants. It varies in degree of intensity and pattern
of yellowing of the foliage and is an external evidence of a
physiological disorder within the plant. It may be due to any
one of several causes but is generally associated with an in-
sufficient or unbalanced nutrient supply. Plants so affected
display a lack of vigor and an unthrifty appearance which
materially reduces their attractiveness and ornamental value.
The trouble is not confined to any specific area, having been
noted as widely distributed throughout the state. Even to the
casual observer it is readily apparent that a wide variety of
both economic and ornamental plants are affected since many
showing characteristic chlorosis are commonly encountered.
Some chlorotic disorders of ornamental plants may be caused
by lack of adequate amounts of certain minor elements in an
available form in the soil to satisfy the requirements of normal
plant growth. Research with several crops in Florida has
demonstrated that soils deficient in such elements as manganese,
magnesium, copper and zinc are fairly common. A specific type
of chlorosis affecting woody ornamentals has been found quite
widely prevalent on both over-limed soils and acid sandy soils
of the central and southern peninsular areas and on the cal-
careous soils of the coastal region. The investigations reported
herein deal with this condition and its control by manganese.
Manganese deficiency of plants in Florida has been pointed
out in the works of Schreiner and Dawson; Allison, Bryan
and Hunter; Skinner and Rujrecht; Skinner, Bahrt and Hughes;




F. ,


4 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Townsend and Wedgeworth; and Reuther and Dickey'. That
certain plants used as ornamentals likewise evidence physiolog-
ical disorders as a result of a deficiency of available manganese
is to be expected, but has not heretofore been reported from
Florida.
A chlorosis of crape myrtle, buginvillaea, allamanda, Cattley
guava, Thunbergia grandiflora, flame vine and Agyneja impubes,
which responded to treatment with manganese sulfate, is dis-
cussed.
CHLOROSIS OF CRAPE. MYRTLE
Chlorosis of crape myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica L.) has been
observed on a roadside planting near Gainesville, and in orna-
mental plantings in Jacksonville in Duval County; Ocala in
Marion; Groveland, Leesburg and Fruitland Park in Lake;
Lake Alfred, Winter Haven and Lakeland in Polk; Alachua
and Waldo, in addition to Gainesville, in Alachua County;
Palatka in Putnam; and near Lake City in Columbia County.
Although found more commonly on roadside plantings, this
physiological disorder was often observed where this plant was
used as an ornamental in planting the home grounds.
SYMPTOMS
Visual symptoms are confined entirely to the foliage and are
of two principal types, namely: A partial chlorosis, and a red
to purple coloration of the leaves due to the excessive develop-
ment of anthocyanin pigments.
In contrast to normal leaves, which are a dark glossy green,
affected leaves show chlorotic areas between the midrib and
primary veins. These areas are a yellowish-green to a pale
yellow in color. Lighter green areas first appear on the margin
and from there extend inward between the main veins. At
first these areas are irregular in extent and outline and are
divided into patches, as some of the cross veins appear as thin
green lines (Fig. 2, Leaf 3). In later stages, only the area
immediately surrounding the midrib and primary veins remains
green, the remainder of the leaf becoming a yellowish-green
to pale yellow in color (Fig. 1-2). At this stage anthocyanin
is developed in the chlorotic areas in which it appears as deep
reddish blotches indefinite in extent and outline. In the final

'A complete 'list of references on this subject is given in Fla. Agr.
Exp. Sta. Bul. 318, with the exception of the work by Allison, et. al., which
was published in Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 190. 1927.




F. ,


4 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Townsend and Wedgeworth; and Reuther and Dickey'. That
certain plants used as ornamentals likewise evidence physiolog-
ical disorders as a result of a deficiency of available manganese
is to be expected, but has not heretofore been reported from
Florida.
A chlorosis of crape myrtle, buginvillaea, allamanda, Cattley
guava, Thunbergia grandiflora, flame vine and Agyneja impubes,
which responded to treatment with manganese sulfate, is dis-
cussed.
CHLOROSIS OF CRAPE. MYRTLE
Chlorosis of crape myrtle (Lagerstroemia indica L.) has been
observed on a roadside planting near Gainesville, and in orna-
mental plantings in Jacksonville in Duval County; Ocala in
Marion; Groveland, Leesburg and Fruitland Park in Lake;
Lake Alfred, Winter Haven and Lakeland in Polk; Alachua
and Waldo, in addition to Gainesville, in Alachua County;
Palatka in Putnam; and near Lake City in Columbia County.
Although found more commonly on roadside plantings, this
physiological disorder was often observed where this plant was
used as an ornamental in planting the home grounds.
SYMPTOMS
Visual symptoms are confined entirely to the foliage and are
of two principal types, namely: A partial chlorosis, and a red
to purple coloration of the leaves due to the excessive develop-
ment of anthocyanin pigments.
In contrast to normal leaves, which are a dark glossy green,
affected leaves show chlorotic areas between the midrib and
primary veins. These areas are a yellowish-green to a pale
yellow in color. Lighter green areas first appear on the margin
and from there extend inward between the main veins. At
first these areas are irregular in extent and outline and are
divided into patches, as some of the cross veins appear as thin
green lines (Fig. 2, Leaf 3). In later stages, only the area
immediately surrounding the midrib and primary veins remains
green, the remainder of the leaf becoming a yellowish-green
to pale yellow in color (Fig. 1-2). At this stage anthocyanin
is developed in the chlorotic areas in which it appears as deep
reddish blotches indefinite in extent and outline. In the final

'A complete 'list of references on this subject is given in Fla. Agr.
Exp. Sta. Bul. 318, with the exception of the work by Allison, et. al., which
was published in Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 190. 1927.







Manganese Sulfate for Ornamental Plants


stages the leaves become a light yellow color on which as a
background is suffused the red to purple anthocyanin pigments.
There is apparently no definite pattern assumed in the forma-
tion of these pigments as they are formed on either the upper
or lower surface and may cover the leaf in whole or in part.














Fig. 2.-Progressive stages in the development of chlorosis of crape myrtle leaves.
From left to right the leaves show (1) first traces of chlorosis on the margin of an im-
mature leaf, (2) mild chlorosis on yoang leaf, (3) moderately chlorotie mature leaf, and
(4, 5) severely affected mature leaves.

EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES
Foliage Treatments.-Initial response to manganese treatment
was obtained on five severely affected trees in a roadside plant-
ing near Gainesville. These treatments were suggested by the
fact that nearby tung trees showing characteristic symptoms
of a physiological disorder called "frenching" had previously
responded to manganese treatments. On August 13, 1936,
shoots showing severe chlorosis were selected, tagged and
dipped in a 1 percent solution of a CP manganese sulfate
(MnS04.2 H20) to which was added 1 percent hydrated lime
and approximately 1/2 percent of calcium caseinate spreader.
A like number of control shoots were selected and tagged. By
September 11, 1936, of the treated shoots three had completely
greenedd up", two showed 75 percent response and two 50
percent response, while the untreated shoots showed no ma-
terial change (Table 1).
At the same time, one shoot on each of the five trees was
dipped in solutions of the following compounds to most of which
hydrated lime had been added; 1 percent solutions of magnesium
sulfate, zinc sulfate and copper sulfate, a 2 percent solution
of iron sulfate, and a 1 percent solution of borax-no lime.
Approximately 1/ percent of calcium caseinate spreader was







Manganese Sulfate for Ornamental Plants


stages the leaves become a light yellow color on which as a
background is suffused the red to purple anthocyanin pigments.
There is apparently no definite pattern assumed in the forma-
tion of these pigments as they are formed on either the upper
or lower surface and may cover the leaf in whole or in part.














Fig. 2.-Progressive stages in the development of chlorosis of crape myrtle leaves.
From left to right the leaves show (1) first traces of chlorosis on the margin of an im-
mature leaf, (2) mild chlorosis on yoang leaf, (3) moderately chlorotie mature leaf, and
(4, 5) severely affected mature leaves.

EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES
Foliage Treatments.-Initial response to manganese treatment
was obtained on five severely affected trees in a roadside plant-
ing near Gainesville. These treatments were suggested by the
fact that nearby tung trees showing characteristic symptoms
of a physiological disorder called "frenching" had previously
responded to manganese treatments. On August 13, 1936,
shoots showing severe chlorosis were selected, tagged and
dipped in a 1 percent solution of a CP manganese sulfate
(MnS04.2 H20) to which was added 1 percent hydrated lime
and approximately 1/2 percent of calcium caseinate spreader.
A like number of control shoots were selected and tagged. By
September 11, 1936, of the treated shoots three had completely
greenedd up", two showed 75 percent response and two 50
percent response, while the untreated shoots showed no ma-
terial change (Table 1).
At the same time, one shoot on each of the five trees was
dipped in solutions of the following compounds to most of which
hydrated lime had been added; 1 percent solutions of magnesium
sulfate, zinc sulfate and copper sulfate, a 2 percent solution
of iron sulfate, and a 1 percent solution of borax-no lime.
Approximately 1/ percent of calcium caseinate spreader was







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


added to all the mixtures. Similar control shoots in like num-
ber were also selected and tagged. When examined on Sep-
tember 11, 1936, it was found that neither the treated nor the
control shoots showed any noticeable change.

TABLE 1.-RESULTS OF TREATING CHLOROTIC SHOOTS OF CRAPE MYRTLE
WITH CP MANGANESE SULFATE.
Number of
Number Treated Date of Date of Final Inspection-Results*
of Trees Shoots Treatment _
5 7 8-13-36 9-11-36- 3. showed complete response.
2 showed 7.5% response.
2 showed 50% response.

S2 3 5- 1-37 5-21-37-All showed complete response.

5 12 5-21-37 6-10-37-All showed complete response.

11 45 6-25-37 7-28-37-19 showed complete response.
12 showed complete response
-some red pigment still
present.
3 showed 90% response-
some red pigment still
present.
7 showed 80% response.
2 showed from 60% to 70%
response.
2 showed 50% response.

*Results are expressed in terms of percent response and refer to the
degree of "greening up" of chlorotic leaves on treated shoots as compared
to similar untreated shoots tagged at the time of treatment. Complete
response indicates that treated leaves have resumed their normal green
color, while 80% to 90% response indicates that some of the treated leaves
remained slightly chlorotic, but showed a decided improvement as com-
pared to the untreated shoots.

In the spring and summer of 1937 more extensive experi-
ments were carried out. Treatments were made by dipping
affected shoots into a 0.5 percent solution of a CP grade of
manganese sulfate to which had been added approximately an
equal amount of calcium caseinate spreader. Distilled water
only was used in 1936, while both distilled water and that
taken from the local city water supply was used in 1937. This
solution was prepared in a 12-quart galvanized iron bucket,
using approximately two ounces of manganese sulfate and two
ounces of calcium caseinate to 21/2 gallons of water. The re-
sults of these experiments are given in Table 1.







Manganese Sulfate for Ornamental Plants


In some instances the chlorotic leaves showed visible response
two weeks after treatment and by the end of three weeks had
completely greened up. However, in the majority of cases four
to five weeks were re-
quired for complete re-
sponse in the spring and
early summer. Figure 3
shows typical response
of a severely affected
shoot three weeks after
treatment with the man-
ganese solution.
In general, younger
leaves on rapidly grow-
ing shoots, rather than
more mature hardened
leaves, tend to develop
severe chlorosis and to
respond more rapidly to
manganese treatment.
However, chlorosis is not
necessarily confined to
young rapidly growing
shoots, as it has been
observed on unthrifty
plants which have made
little or no growth. When
treatments were made
later in summer the time
required f or complete
response was usually e Fig. S.-Typical treated and chlorotic crape myr-
tie shoots. (A) Affected shoot three weeks after
longer. At the same treatment with manganese sulfate solution. (B) Un-
treated chlorotic shoot on same plant.
time the formation of
anthocyanin pigments becomes more pronounced at this time
of the year so that leaves on some of the treated shoots, though
regaining their normal green color, did not completely lose their
accumulation of anthocyanin pigments following treatment
(Table 1).
Soil Treatments.-Field trials with manganese sulfate as a
soil application for the correction of a chlorosis of crape myrtle
are, as yet, somewhat limited in extent. Results of one series
of soil treatments are summarized in Table 2.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


TABLE 2.-RESULTS OF SOIL APPLICATIONS OF MANGANESE SULFATE TO
CRAPE MYRTLE.
Pounds* of
Number Manganese Date of
of Trees Sulfate Treatment Date of Final Inspection-Results**
(per tree)

6 1 8-6-37 9-9-37--4 showed complete response.
1 showed 80% response.
1 showed 30% to 40% response.
Tree unthrifty.

7 2 8-6-37 9-9-37-3 showed complete response.
3 showed 80% to 90% response.
1 showed 60% response.
Unthrifty tree.

4 3 8-6-37 9-9-37-All showed complete response.

&5 4 8-6-37 9-9-37-2 showed complete response.
2 showed 80% to 90% response.

*Commercial 80% manganese sulfate was used.
**The method of tabulating results is explained in the footnote of Table 1,
with the exception that control trees, instead of shoots, were selected and
tagged.

TABLE 3.-THE PH AND AVAmABLE MANGANESE CONTENT OF SOILS IN
WHICH THE CRAPE MYRTLE AND CATTLEY GUAVA PLANTS WERE GROWING.


CRAPE MYRTLE


1 Norfolk 0-7 6.6 0.8
2 fine sand 7-18 6.4 0.3

*Glass electrode measurements.
**Extracted with 1 N. ammonium acetate of pH 7.0, determined by the
method of Willard and Greathouse', and the color intensities measured by
means of a photoelectric colorimeter. Pounds per acre calculated on the
basis of two million pounds per acre, six inches.

'Willard, H. H., and Greathouse, L. H. The colorimetric determination
of manganese by oxidation with periodate. Jour. Amer. Chem. 39:2366.
1917.






Manganese Sulfate for Ornamental Plants


The results indicate that one pound of manganese sulfate
per tree was as effective as larger amounts in the control of
this trouble. No harmful effects were observed from applica-
tions as high as four pounds per tree. In many instances only
30 days were required for complete response. Trees in an un-
thrifty condition made unsatisfactory response as compared to
more vigorous trees. Some of the leaves showing a pronounced
accumulation of anthocyanin pigments failed to lose entirely
these pigments, though the chlorotic portions regained their
normal green color.
The soil upon which these trees are growing is the same as
that of the trees used in the dipping treatments, and is neutral
to alkaline in reaction because of calcareous materials incor-
porated in it. Available manganese content of this soil is
extremely low (Table 3). This is an example of manganese
deficiency probably induced by a condition analogous to over-
liming.
MISCELLANEOUS ORNAMENTALS 1

Below is reported the results of preliminary exploratory ex-
periments with several other ornamental plants affected with
chlorosis which showed response to manganese foliage treat-
ments.
Buginvillaea (Bougainvillea)
A chlorosis of buginvillaea is common, particularly on over-
limed soils, the acid light sandy soils of central and southern
Florida, and the calcareous soils of the coastal areas. There
is considerable difference, however, in the amount and severity
of this disorder as it affects the different varieties. The widely
planted purple flowered variety, Buginvillaea glabra Sanderiana,
or Sander Buginvillaea, is particularly susceptible, and, as a
rule, is much more severely affected than the other common
varieties. It often shows severe chlorosis when growing, in
close proximity to other varieties which may show little or
no chlorosis.
A yellow mottling of the foliage is typical. The area sur-
rounding the midrib, primary veins and some of their lateral
veins remains green, with areas of variable extent and outline
between these veins becoming yellow (Fig. 4). In more ad-
vanced stages the chlorotic areas become a bright yellow in
color.






Manganese Sulfate for Ornamental Plants


The results indicate that one pound of manganese sulfate
per tree was as effective as larger amounts in the control of
this trouble. No harmful effects were observed from applica-
tions as high as four pounds per tree. In many instances only
30 days were required for complete response. Trees in an un-
thrifty condition made unsatisfactory response as compared to
more vigorous trees. Some of the leaves showing a pronounced
accumulation of anthocyanin pigments failed to lose entirely
these pigments, though the chlorotic portions regained their
normal green color.
The soil upon which these trees are growing is the same as
that of the trees used in the dipping treatments, and is neutral
to alkaline in reaction because of calcareous materials incor-
porated in it. Available manganese content of this soil is
extremely low (Table 3). This is an example of manganese
deficiency probably induced by a condition analogous to over-
liming.
MISCELLANEOUS ORNAMENTALS 1

Below is reported the results of preliminary exploratory ex-
periments with several other ornamental plants affected with
chlorosis which showed response to manganese foliage treat-
ments.
Buginvillaea (Bougainvillea)
A chlorosis of buginvillaea is common, particularly on over-
limed soils, the acid light sandy soils of central and southern
Florida, and the calcareous soils of the coastal areas. There
is considerable difference, however, in the amount and severity
of this disorder as it affects the different varieties. The widely
planted purple flowered variety, Buginvillaea glabra Sanderiana,
or Sander Buginvillaea, is particularly susceptible, and, as a
rule, is much more severely affected than the other common
varieties. It often shows severe chlorosis when growing, in
close proximity to other varieties which may show little or
no chlorosis.
A yellow mottling of the foliage is typical. The area sur-
rounding the midrib, primary veins and some of their lateral
veins remains green, with areas of variable extent and outline
between these veins becoming yellow (Fig. 4). In more ad-
vanced stages the chlorotic areas become a bright yellow in
color.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


In June 1937 severely affected shoots of B. glabra Sanderiana
were dipped in a 0.5 percent solution of manganese sulfate.
Control shoots in
comparable number
were selected and
tagged. When ex-
amined five weeks
later the treated
shoots had complete-
ly greened up, while
the check shoots
showed no material
change (Fig. 4).

Allamanda
A chlorosis affect-
ing the varieties
Hendersonii and Wil-
liamsii of Allamanda
cathartica Linn., has
been found by the
Fig. 4.-Typical treated and chlorotic leaves of Sander writers to be quite
Buginvillaea. Left, an affected leaf five weeks after treat-
ment with manganese sulfate solution. Right, an untreated prevalent in many
chlorotic leaf on same plant, localities in Florida,
especially on the sandy soils of Lake, Polk and Orange counties.
Leaves of affected plants show chlorotic areas extending
from the margin in toward the midrib between the primary
veins. These areas are indefinite in extent and outline, and,
in advanced stages, a bright golden yellow in color (Fig. 5).
On June 25, 1937, shoots of A. cathartica Williamsii showing
severe chlorosis were selected, tagged and dipped in a 0.5 per-
cent solution of manganese sulfate. A like number of control
shoots were selected and tagged. When examined on August
3, 1937, it was found that all of the treated shoots had com-
pletely greened up, while the check shoots showed no apparent
change (Fig. 5).
Cattley Guava

Cattley guava (Psidium cattleianum Sabine) plants evidenc-
ing chlorosis have been observed at Winter Haven in Polk
County and Seffner in Hillsborough County. The leaf symp-
toms appear as pale green to light yellow areas, variable in







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


In June 1937 severely affected shoots of B. glabra Sanderiana
were dipped in a 0.5 percent solution of manganese sulfate.
Control shoots in
comparable number
were selected and
tagged. When ex-
amined five weeks
later the treated
shoots had complete-
ly greened up, while
the check shoots
showed no material
change (Fig. 4).

Allamanda
A chlorosis affect-
ing the varieties
Hendersonii and Wil-
liamsii of Allamanda
cathartica Linn., has
been found by the
Fig. 4.-Typical treated and chlorotic leaves of Sander writers to be quite
Buginvillaea. Left, an affected leaf five weeks after treat-
ment with manganese sulfate solution. Right, an untreated prevalent in many
chlorotic leaf on same plant, localities in Florida,
especially on the sandy soils of Lake, Polk and Orange counties.
Leaves of affected plants show chlorotic areas extending
from the margin in toward the midrib between the primary
veins. These areas are indefinite in extent and outline, and,
in advanced stages, a bright golden yellow in color (Fig. 5).
On June 25, 1937, shoots of A. cathartica Williamsii showing
severe chlorosis were selected, tagged and dipped in a 0.5 per-
cent solution of manganese sulfate. A like number of control
shoots were selected and tagged. When examined on August
3, 1937, it was found that all of the treated shoots had com-
pletely greened up, while the check shoots showed no apparent
change (Fig. 5).
Cattley Guava

Cattley guava (Psidium cattleianum Sabine) plants evidenc-
ing chlorosis have been observed at Winter Haven in Polk
County and Seffner in Hillsborough County. The leaf symp-
toms appear as pale green to light yellow areas, variable in







Manganese Sulfate for Ornamental Plants


extent and outline, extending inward from the margin between
the primary veins.
In June 1937 affected shoots were dipped in a 0.5 percent
solution of manganese sulfate. A similar number of control
shoots were
tagged. Within
eight weeks all of
the treated shoots
were found to
have completely
greened up, while
the check shoots
showed no no-
ticeable change
(Fig. 6).
The affected
trees at Seffner,
upon which some
of the treatments
were made, have
had wood ashes
placed around
them at intervals
over a period of
several years.
The pH of this
soil indicates
that, as a result,
the trees are
growing in a n Fi. 5.-Typal treated and chlorotic leaves of Allamanda
growing. i WiUamii) from same plant. Left, an untreated
overlimed s oil. I.orcleaf. Right, 'an affected leaf five weeks after treat-
ment with manganese sulfate solution.
Likewise, the
available manganese content of this soil is extremely low
(Table 3). This is another example of manganese deficiency
probably induced by overliming.
Thunbergia
A severe chlorosis of Thunbergia grandiflora Roxby, the sky
flower or Bengal clock vine, has been observed. The first-symp-
tom is a slight loss of green color of the foliage which soon
becomes more accentuated. At this stage the leaves show a
mottled pattern as the veins remain green longer than the
islets of tissue between the veins. In more advanced stages







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Fig. 6.-Typical treated and chlorotic leaves of Cattley
guava. Left, an affected leaf eight weeks after treatment
with manganese sulfate solution. Right, an untreated
chlorotic leaf on same plant.


Fig. 7.-Typical treated and chlorotic Thunbergia grain
flora foliage from same plant. (a) Affected leaf five we
after treatment with manganese sulfate solution. (b) Mo
ately affected untreated leaf showing characteristic mott
pattern. (c) Severely affected untreated leaf showing sev
chlorosis, dwarfing and necrotic (dead) areas.


some of the leaves
become light yellow
to almost white with
the main veins only
showing a slight
trace of green. At
this time small
necrotic spots may
form on some of
these leaves. These
spots may increase
in size and appear as
dead areas of tissue
irregular in outline.
When severe chloro-
sis develops on young
growing leaves,
Their growth is
IV often noticeably
retarded so that
Affected leaves do
not attain normal
size. All stages
o f development
are shown in
Fig. 7.
On June 27,
1936, leaves evi-
Sdencing all stages
of the symptoms
b were dipped in a
r 1 percent solu-
tion of mangan-
e ese sulfate to
which was added
S1 percent h y -
drated lime and
Approximately 1/2
percent calcium
edi- caseinate spread-
eks
der- er. A like num-
tled
ere her of control







Manganese Sulfate for Ornamental Plants


leaves were selected and tagged. When examined on August 4,
1936, certain of the treated leaves were found to have com-
pletely greened up, while others showed no response (Fig. 7).
Leaves in the final stages (those showing necrotic spots and
severe chlorosis as indicated by the light yellow to almost white,
undersized leaves-center leaves, Fig. 7c) showed little if any re-
sponse, while leaves affected with less advanced stages (Fig. 7b)
responded rapidly and completely to the manganese treatments.

Flame Vine
Plants of Bignonia venusta Ker., flame vine, frequently have
been observed with chlorotic symptoms. Leaves so affected
present a mottled
pattern as the
veins remain
green while the
islets of tissue
between the veins
become pale
green to yellow-
ish-green in color
(Fig. 8).
In July 1937
leaves evidencing
characteristic
symptoms were
dipped in a solu- *
tion of mangan-
ese sulfate, and
untreated leaves Fig. 8.-Typical treated and chlorotic leaflets of flame vine.
in like number Left, an affected leaflet five weeks after treatment with man-
ganese sulfate solution. Right, an untreated chlorotic leaflet
were selected and on same plant.
tagged. Upon examination five weeks later, the treated leaves
were found to have greened up completely, while the untreated
leaves remained unchanged (Fig. 8).

Agyneja impubes
Specimens of Agyneja impubes L. growing on the grounds
of the Florida Experiment Station have shown chlorotic symp-
toms. In contrast to normal leaves, which are a dark green,
affected leaves show chlorotic areas extending from the margin
in toward the midrib between the primary veins. These areas







Manganese Sulfate for Ornamental Plants


leaves were selected and tagged. When examined on August 4,
1936, certain of the treated leaves were found to have com-
pletely greened up, while others showed no response (Fig. 7).
Leaves in the final stages (those showing necrotic spots and
severe chlorosis as indicated by the light yellow to almost white,
undersized leaves-center leaves, Fig. 7c) showed little if any re-
sponse, while leaves affected with less advanced stages (Fig. 7b)
responded rapidly and completely to the manganese treatments.

Flame Vine
Plants of Bignonia venusta Ker., flame vine, frequently have
been observed with chlorotic symptoms. Leaves so affected
present a mottled
pattern as the
veins remain
green while the
islets of tissue
between the veins
become pale
green to yellow-
ish-green in color
(Fig. 8).
In July 1937
leaves evidencing
characteristic
symptoms were
dipped in a solu- *
tion of mangan-
ese sulfate, and
untreated leaves Fig. 8.-Typical treated and chlorotic leaflets of flame vine.
in like number Left, an affected leaflet five weeks after treatment with man-
ganese sulfate solution. Right, an untreated chlorotic leaflet
were selected and on same plant.
tagged. Upon examination five weeks later, the treated leaves
were found to have greened up completely, while the untreated
leaves remained unchanged (Fig. 8).

Agyneja impubes
Specimens of Agyneja impubes L. growing on the grounds
of the Florida Experiment Station have shown chlorotic symp-
toms. In contrast to normal leaves, which are a dark green,
affected leaves show chlorotic areas extending from the margin
in toward the midrib between the primary veins. These areas







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


are indefinite in extent and outline and are a pale yellow to a
bright yellow in color. In advanced stages the leaves may
become entirely devoid of chlorophyll, except for thin areas
immediately sur-
rounding the
midrib and pri-
mary veins which
s ,remain green
(Fig. 9).
On September
1, 1937, severely
affected branches
of Agyneja impu-
bes were dipped
in a 0.5 percent
solution of man-
ganese sulfate.
Untreated
branches w e r e
selected and
tagged as checks.
Fig. 9.-Typical treated and chlorotic branches of Agyneja When examined
impubes from same plant. Branch on left an untreated chlorotic on October 30,
branch. Branch on right an affected branch eight weeks after
treatment with manganese sulfate solution. 1 9 3 7, of the
treated branches two had completely greened up, two showed
90 percent response, five showed 75 percent response, and one
50 percent response, while the untreated branches showed no
material change (Fig. 9).
It has been noted that with crape myrtle response may be
less rapid and complete when treatments are made later in
the summer. This suggests the possibility that the partial re-
sponse obtained in some cases with Agyneja impubes is due to
the fact that treatments were made in the fall.

METHODS OF TREATMENT

Spray treatments and soil treatments are the two general
methods of controlling partial yellowing or chlorosis of plants
induced by a deficiency of available manganese in the soil. The
former method is the only one recommended for general use
on ornamentals at present. As a general rule these spray
applications are most effective when made during or just pre-






Manganese Sulfate for Ornamental Plants


ceding a cycle of rapid growth, hence from spring to early
summer is usually the best time to spray.
A suitable spray mixture for ornamentals may be prepared
by dissolving 2 ounces of manganese sulfate in 21/2 gallons of
water, and then adding one ounce of hydrated lime. The man-
ganese sulfate is conveniently dissolved (provided it is free
of hard lumps) by sprinkling the material directly into the
container of water while stirring vigorously with a paddle.. The
lime should be made into a smooth paste by the addition of
a small quantity of water and thoroughly mixing, then added
slowly while the manganese solution is stirred rapidly. The
prepared mixture should be sprayed immediately on the plant
to be treated with almost any type of spraying equipment
which will produce a good mist.
A special effort should be made to insure thorough coverage
of the foliage, as only those leaves which receive a coating of
the spray material will be benefited. The foliage of some
plants, such as Cattley guava and allamanda, is difficult to wet
because of its smooth, waxy surface, and in instances of this
kind it is well to add a spreading material such as calcium
caseinate or bentonite clay to the mixture. This manganese
sulfate-lime mixture may be combined with such insecticidal
sprays as lead arsenate or wettable sulfur. The manganese
sulfate-lime mixture has been sprayed on the following plants
without injury to their foliage: Crape myrtle, buginvillaea,
flame vine, Thunbergia grandiflora, Cattley guava, allamanda,
hydrangea, hibiscus, Clerodendrum Thomsonae, crape jasmine
(Ervatamia coronaria), Agyneja impubes, azaleas and roses.
Although this mixture has little tendency to burn foliage as a
rule, there is the possibility that it will be injurious to the
foliage of certain plants, and, when experimenting with plants
other than those mentioned above, caution should be observed.
A small branch should first be treated and observed, after two
or three days, to see if burning of the foliage is produced,
before a general application to the entire plant is made.
In some instances very unthrifty plants, on which decline
accompanying chlorosis has advanced too far, do not respond
satisfactorily. At times it may be necessary to make several
spray treatments annually to maintain thrifty growth. The
spray treatment can profitably be repeated as soon as chlorotic
foliage begins to reappear. As a general rule, response or
greening up of chlorotic foliage will be observed from two






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


to eight weeks after the treatment is made, depending upon
the type of plant, season and other factors. It should be em-
phasized that this spray treatment cannot be expected to take
the place of regular fertilization; in fact, little response may
be hoped for in undernourished plants.
Manganese sulfate is sold in two forms, one containing ap-
proximately 80 percent and the other 65 percent manganese
sulfate. The spray formula recommended' above is based on
the 80 percent material. If the 65 percent material is used
21/2 ounces of manganese sulfate should be used in 21/2 gallons
of water.
It should be pointed out that no doubt there are other orna-
mental plants than those listed here which evidence a chlorosis
due to a deficiency of manganese. However, all partial yellow-
ing or mottling of foliage of ornamental plants as described
in preceding sections is not necessarily due to this cause. Lack
of adequate fertilization with the major plant foods will fre-
quently cause certain types of leaf yellowing. Deficiencies of
minor elements other than manganese may cause certain other
types of chlorosis. For example, frenching of citrus, a chlorotic
disorder, cannot be corrected by the application of manganese
sprays, but does respond to zinc spray treatments.
No extensive trial of soil treatments with ornamentals has
yet been made. It is possible that this method of treatment
will eventually prove the most permanent and practical. How-
ever, until such time as adequate field trials can be made, soil
treatments cannot be recommended, and for the time being the
spray method of treatment will be found effective in controlling
chlorotic disorders responding to manganese.

DISCUSSION
In recent years much literature has been published indicating
that physiological troubles which respond to manganese treat-
ment are frequently associated with slightly acid to alkaline
soils such as overlimed or calcareous soils. Considerable work
has been done along these lines in Florida by Skniner and
Ruprecht, Skinner, Bahrt and Hughes, and Townsend and
Wedgeworth. Since this literature has been adequately re-
viewed in Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin
318, it is not repeated here. Barnette and Mowry8 describe

"Barnette, R. M., and Mowry, Harold. Soil Reaction and Azalea Growth.
Soil Sci. 41: 71-78. 1936.







Manganese Sulfate for Ornamental Plants


a chlorotic condition of azalea (Azalea indica) foliage frequently
associated with soil having a reaction of pH 6.5 or above. How-
ever, no attempt was made to determine whether this type of
chlorosis would respond to manganese treatment.
More overlimed soil is to be found in the average home plant-
ing of ornamentals than is generally realized. In the process
of building certain types of houses, sufficient mortar may be-
come incorporated with the strip of soil bordering the outside
walls to produce, eventually, an overlimed condition, hence some
of the foundation planting may be growing in alkaline soil.
The practice of repeatedly dumping wood ashes or coal cinders
in excessive amounts in a relatively limited area often causes
an unfavorable soil reaction. The soil immediately bordering
a limerock road or path will frequently contain sufficient cal-
careous material to render it neutral to alkaline in reaction.
There are numerous other operations around dwellings involv-
ing the use of large quantities of calcareous materials which,
in the course of time, might leave behind sufficient material
to cause a small patch of overlimed soil. Certain soils, par-
ticularly in coastal regions, are by nature excessively calcareous.
Some plants (but not all) when planted in soil of this type
will become chlorotic and otherwise unthrifty, despite copious
fertilization. In certain instances plants of this type may be
greatly benefited by the application of a manganese foliage
spray. ..
Manganese deficiency of plants is not necessarily confined
to soils in the neutral to alkaline range of reaction. Bryan4
has suggested that a deficiency may be induced by excessive
leaching of manganese in strongly acid soils. According to
Willis5 manganese may be a limiting factor in plant growth,
even though the soil is slightly acid in reaction, if the soil
contains a scant amount of this element. Skinner, et. al.,6 noted
that beneficial results were obtained on citrus by the use of
manganese sulfate on acid, light sandy soils in certain in-
stances. Reuther and Dickey6 noted that frenching of tung,
a disorder responding to manganese treatment, was found to
occur on acid soils in many instances.

'Bryan, A. B. Some soil problems. Better Crops 19:6: 17-19; 39-40.
1934.
'Willis, L. G. The effect of liming soils on the availability of manganese
and iron. Jour. Amer. Soc. Agron. 24:716-726. 1932.
"See Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 318. 1937.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


SUMMARY
Observations indicate that chlorotic disorders of ornamental
plants are quite common in various sections of Florida. A
chlorosis affecting crape myrtle, buginvillaea, allamanda, Catt-
ley guava, Thunbergia grandiflora, flame vine, and Agyneja
impubes is described.
Data are presented which indicate that control can be effected
by spray and soil treatments of manganese sulfate to crape
myrtle, and by spray treatments to the other plants named
above.
Tentative recommendations for spray method of treatment
are outlined. Certain tested plants are listed which are not
injured by the spray mixture recommended and caution is
recommended when treating untested plants because of the
possibility of foliage burning. Until such time as adequate
information can be acquired from field trials, definite recom-
mendations for soil treatments cannot be made.






i.

1938


Golden Jubilee


Year


Founded at Lake City in 1888, transferred
to Gainesville in 1906, the Florida Agricul-
tural Experiment Station has served Florida
agriculture for 50 years-bringing new crops,
better methods of culture, more efficient dis-
ease and insect control, and similar aids to
advancement by the State's oldest industry
and one of its most important.
Scientists who work for farmers through
the Station are now busily engaged in pur-
suing research on some 180 projects; when
completed, these will furnish information
still further assisting Florida growers.

For bulletins or other information, write
UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
WILMON NEWELL, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
Supported by both State and Federal Funds
1888-1938




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