• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Introduction
 Review of the literature
 Symptoms of manganese deficien...
 Experimental studies
 Discussion
 Conculsions
 Literature cited






Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station - no. 300
Title: A manganese deficiency affecting beans
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027527/00001
 Material Information
Title: A manganese deficiency affecting beans
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 23 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Townsend, G. R ( George Richard ), 1905-
Wedgworth, H. H ( Herman Hamilton ), 1901-
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1936
 Subjects
Subject: Beans -- Diseases and pests -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Deficiency diseases in plants   ( lcsh )
Soils -- Manganese content -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Plants -- Effect of manganese on   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 23.
Statement of Responsibility: G.R. Townsend and H.H. Wedgworth.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027527
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000924378
oclc - 18212500
notis - AEN4997

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Review of the literature
        Page 5
        Page 6
    Symptoms of manganese deficiency
        Page 7
    Experimental studies
        Page 8
        Relation of soil reaction to deficiency of manganese
            Page 8
        Effect of manganese and sulfur applications
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
        Residual effects of manganese and sulfur in soil
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
    Discussion
        Page 20
        Page 21
    Conculsions
        Page 22
    Literature cited
        Page 23
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







August, 1936


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
WILMON NEWELL, Director




A MANGANESE DEFICIENCY

AFFECTING BEANS

G. R. TOWNSEND and H. H. WEDGWORTH


'4


Fig. 1.-Leaf symptoms of manganese deficiency on beans, showing
different stages of the disease from normal leaflet on left to severe chlorosis
and necrosis of young leaf on upper right.



Bulletins will be sent free to Florida residents upon application to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


Bulletin 300









EXECUTIVE STAFF
John J. Tigert, M.A., LL.D., President of
the University
Wilmon Newell, D.Sc., Director
H. Harold Hume, M.S., Asst. Dir., Research
Harold Mowry, M.S.A., Asst. Dir., Adm.
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Assistant Editor
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
Ruby Newhall, Administrative Manager
K. H. Graham, Business Manager
Rachel McQuarrie, Accountant

MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE
AGRONOMY
W. E. Stokes, M.S., Agronomist**
W. A. Leukel, Ph.D., Agronomist
G. E. Ritchey, M.S.A., Associate*
Fred H. Hull, Ph.D., Associate -
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate
John P. Camp, M.S., Assistant
ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
A. L. Shealy, D.V.M., Animal Husbandman**
R. B. Beeker. Ph.D.. Dairy Husbandman
L. M. Thurston, Ph.D., Dairy Technician
W. M. Neal, Ph.D., Asso. in An. Nutrition
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Veterinarian
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr;, Poultry Husbandman
W. W. Henley, B.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.'
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Asst. An. Husbandman
R. M. Crown, M.S.A., Asst. An. Husbandman
P. T. Dix Arnold, B.S.A., Assistant Dairy
Husbandman
L. L. Rusoff, M.S., Laboratory Assistant
Jeanette Shaw, M.S., Laboratory Technician
CHEMISTRY AND SOILS
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Chemist"*
R. M. Barnette, Ph.D., Chemist
C. E. Bell, Ph.D., Associate
R. B. French, Ph.D., Associate
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistantj
ECONOMICS, AGRICULTURAL
C. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist"
Bruce McKinley, A.B., B.S.A., Associate
Zaeh Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Assistant 4
ECONOMICS, HOME
Ouida Davis Abbott, Ph.D., Specialist**
C. F. Ahmann, Ph.D., Physiologist
ENTOMOLOGY
J. R. Watson, A.M., Entomologist*
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Associate
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant
HORTICULTURE
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist and
Acting Head of Department-
A. L. Stahl, Ph.D., Associate
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Truck Horticulturis -
R. J. Wilmot, M.S.A., Specialist, Fumigatn .
Research
R. D. Dickey, B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturtia
PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist"
George F. Weber, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. K. Voorhees, M.S., Assistant
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Assistant Botanist
Stacy O. Hawkins, M.A., Assistant Plant
Pathologist
SPECTROGRAPHIC LABORATORY
L. W. Gaddum, Ph.D., Biochemist
L. H. Rogers, M.A., Spectroscopic Analyst


BOARD OF CONTROL
Geo. H. Baldwin, Chairman, Jacksonville
Oliver J. Semmes, Pensacola
Harry C. Duncan, Tavares
Thomas W. Bryant, Lakeland
R. P. Terry, Miami
J. T. Diamond, Secretary, Tallahassee

BRANCH STATIONS
NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY
L. O. Gratz, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in
Charge
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist
J. D. Warner, M.S., Agronomist
Jesse Reeves, Farm Superintendent
CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Charge
John H. Jefferies, Superintendent
W. A. Knntz. A.M.. Assoc. Plant Pathologist
Michael Peech, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
B. R. Fudge, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Asst. Entomologist
Walter Reuther, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
EVERGLADES STATION, BELLE GLADE
A. Daane, Ph.D., Agronomist in Charge
R. N. Lobdell, M.S., Entomologist
F. D. Stevens, B.S., Sugarcane Acronomist
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Sugarcane Physiologist
G. R. Townsend, Ph.D., Assistant Plant-
Pathologist
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Biochemist
R. W. Kidder, BS., Assistant Animal
Husbandman
Ross E. Robertson, B.S., Assistant Chemist
B. S. Clayton, B.S.C.E., Drainage Engineer*
SUB-TROPICAL STATION, HOMESTEAD
H. S. Wolfe, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Charge
W. M. Field, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D.. Associate Plant
Pathologist
W. CENTRAL FLA. STA., BROOKSVILLE
W. F. Ward, M.S.A., Asst. An. Husbandman
in Charge*

FIELD STATIONS
Leesburg
M. N. Walker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in
Charge
W. B. Shippy, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist
K. W. Loucks, M.S., Asst. Plant Pathologist
J. W. Wilson, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist
Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Cocoa
A. S. Rhoads, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Monticello
Asst. Entomologist
Bradenton
David G. Kelbert, Aset. Plant Pathologist
C. C. Goff, M.S., Assistant Entomologist
Sanford
E. R. Purvis, Ph.D., Assistant Chemist,
Celery Investigations
Lakeland
E. S. Ellison, Ph.D., Meteorologist*
B. H. Moore, A.B., Asst. Meteorologist*

*In cooperation with U.S.D.A.
** Head of Department.









A MANGANESE DEFICIENCY

AFFECTING BEANS

G. R. TOWNSEND and H. H. WEDGWORTH'

CONTENTS
Page
Introduction .................................... .
Review of the literature ........................................... ........ ................
Symptoms of manganese deficiency .............. ..................................
Experimental studies ....................... ........... ........................... --.-+-
Relation of soil reaction to the deficiency of manganese ............................... -- ..- .
Effect of manganese and sulfur applications ......... .. .................................. ........ 9
Residual effects of manganese and sulfur in soil ................... .....- ...........-. 17
Discussion ......................................................... 20
Conclusions .......................................... .................... 22
Literature cited ................ ......................................... .. 23

INTRODUCTION

The development of large areas of peat soil in the Florida
Everglades for agricultural purposes has been attended by the
occurrence of problems involving the use of the less common
elements. Allison, Bryan and Hunter (2)2 reported on the
stimulation of plant response on raw saw-grass soils through
the use of copper sulfate and other chemicals in 1927. This
study of a manganese deficiency disease of beans is an out-
growth of their experiments.
For a number of years prior to 1927 it had been observed
that beans growing in certain areas failed to produce good crops.
Most of the area involved at that time was made up of the
more mineralized custard apple soil near the shores of Lake
Okeechobee. The trouble has been found to extend into the
saw-grass soil as more of it has been cleared for agricultural
use.
It is now known that the failure of beans on these areas is
due to a deficiency of available manganese. The soils exhibit-
ing this deficiency are calcareous as the result of burning or
through admixtures of marl. Because of the slightly acid to
alkaline reactions prevailing in these soils the solubility of man-
ganese is reduced to such an extent that the supply is inadequate
for the nutritional requirements of several different kinds of
vegetables.

1Mr. Wedgworth formerly was Assistant Plant Pathologist at the Ever-
glades Experiment Station. The authors wish to acknowledge the assistance
given in the conduct of this work by Dr. R. V. Allison, under whose guidance
the project was initiated by Dr. J. L. Seal in 1927, and by Mr. R. E.
Robertson who has contributed some chemical data.
2Italic figures in parentheses refer to "Literature Cited" in the back of
this bulletin.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


The disease is not limited to beans, but has been observed
on peas, cowpeas, cabbage, potatoes, celery, radishes, beets, car-
rots, cauliflower, forage crops and sugarcane. On all of these
crops the symptoms of yellowing and death of the plant are
somewhat similar. In the study of the problem beans were
chosen for most of the work because of the economic importance
of this crop. What is to be said about manganese deficiency
in beans may be applied to almost all crops growing under similar
conditions.
In 1927 J. L. Seal, Associate Plant Pathologist, undertook an
investigation of the pathological aspects of the problem. R. V.
Allison cooperated in this work in his capacity as Soil Tech-
nologist.
An examination of the fields clearly showed the relation of
crop failure to areas of burned soil, since areas where yellowed
plants grew followed very closely the irregularities of the burn-
ing of the surface soil. A few areas were found in which the
trouble was associated with soils having a high content of shell
or marl, or where calcareous waters had flowed over the fields
from roadsides or canal banks.
Allison and Seal conducted a series of row tests of several
materials for the correction of yellowing in beans during the
1927-28 season on several farms in the vicinity of Lake Okee-
chobee from Canal Point to Moore Haven. The work was in-
terrupted in 1928 by the hurricane and by the subsequent resig-
nation of Dr. Seal. It was resumed by Dr. Allison in 1929. Field
and greenhouse pot experiments were used that year to de-
termine the effects of applications of copper, manganese, sul-
fur and superphosphate to burned peat soils upon growth of
beans and cowpeas.
All of these early experiments showed that yellowing and
death of beans and cowpeas could be prevented by the use of
manganese sulfate or sulfur or both. The use of superphosphate
caused slightly improved growth'of beans in some of the experi-
ments. This effect may have been due to impurities in the super-
phosphate. These trials seemed to be conclusive in showing that
copper could not be substituted for manganese, nor manganese
for copper.
Dr. Seal isolated fungi and bacteria from roots and stems
of bean plants affected with yellowing. Among these organisms
were species of Rhizoctonia, Fusarium, Rhizopus, Penicillium
and Aspergillus. All fungi found are common soil inhabitants







A Manganese Deficiency Affecting Beans


and might be expected to occur in the superficial lesions on
bean roots and stems.
Wedgworth followed up this work and found that beans
growing in steam sterilized burned soil remained normal. When
bits of non-sterile soil were added to the sterile soil, the beans
wilted from fungous attack. A species of Fusarium was isolated
from the wilted plants. Yellowing of the beans occurred in the
non-sterilized burned soil. Reaction studies showed that the
soil had increased in acidity when sterilized with steam. It
is thought that sterilization of the soil made enough manganese
available that the beans did not become chlorotic in the sterile
soil. The experiment was repeated with similar results.
The experiments described in the following sections of this
paper were conducted by the junior author from 1930 to 1932,
and subsequently by the senior author. The earlier experiments
conducted by Allison (1) and Seal (11) have been of con-
siderable benefit in the solution of the problems.

REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

Since the early studies of Richard (10), reported in 1898, on
the distribution of manganese in soils, plants, and many animal
products, the literature on the relation of this element has be-
come exceedingly voluminous. Thus as early as 1902 Voelcher
(13) was demonstrating beneficial effects with the use of certain
soluble manganese salts on the development of wheat and barley
in pot cultures at Woburn, while Nagaoka (9) was using the
element to advantage for stimulation of the rice plant under
certain conditions in Japan. Much confusion is to be found
in results obtained with this element until the dominating role
of soil reaction was clearly established.
The recent paper by Hopkins (4) is a valuable source of in-
formation pertaining to the role of manganese in plant nutrition.
His review of the literature and well executed experiments leave
little doubt that manganese must be considered an essential
element for plant growth. Whereas, formerly, much of the
evidence pointed to the toxic effects of manganese on plant
growth, there is now a considerable body of evidence to show
that low concentrations of this element are essential for plant
growth. Ijeficiencies of available manganese occur in several
states in this country and in Australia. ,The condition usually
is associated with calcareous soils in which manganese is mostly






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


insoluble/ That the deficiency may arise in strongly acid soils
through the leaching of soluble manganese has recently been
suggested by Bryan/().
The need for manganese in plant growth has been demon-
strated by the experiments of McHargue (7) with Volusia silt
loam and Dunkirk clay loam soils, and with nutrient solution
and sand cultures. Additions of small amounts of manganese
to the soil increased growth of radishes and cowpeas in neu-
tralized soils but not in acid soils. Cowpeas grown in sand
cultures deficient in manganese became chlorotic after a few
weeks, and brown specks developed on the chlorotic leaves.
Willis (14) worked with an unproductive soil from the lower
coastal plain in North Carolina. Soybeans planted on such soil
became chlorotic and this symptom was intensified by liming.
When manganese sulfate was applied the chlorosis resulting
from applications of lime or calcium phosphate was corrected.
Skinner and Ruprecht (12) found in South Florida that the
application of manganese sulfate to marl soils having reactions
of pH 7.5 to pH 8.8, prevented severe yellowing of tomatoes,
potatoes, beans, cabbage, cauliflower, carrots, beets and corn
and induced normal growth.
Mann (6) has shown that in Dunkirk gravelly sandy loam
and Dunbar fine sandy loam/the solubility of manganese de-
creases as the hydrogen ion concentration decreases, The addi-
tion of a ton of lime to the acre reduced the solubility of man-
ganese by four to 12 times in these soils. Manganese was only
slightly soluble in these soils at pH 6.5 and above. Soybeans
grown in Dunbar fine sandy loam were chlorotic in proportion
to the amount of lime added. Absorption of manganese by these
plants was highest in acid soil and decreased constantly with
each addition of lime. Chlorosis of leaves disappeared soon after
they were dipped in a 1:1,000 solution of manganese sulfate.
McLean (8) appears to have been the first to make applica-
tions of manganese to the foliage of diseased plants. He pumped
manganese solutions into leaves of chlorotic spinach plants
through their stomata. It was observed that leaves of the
treated plants became greener and the plants weighed more
than non-treated plants.
Lee and McHargue (5) found that Pahala blight of sugarcane
is a manganese deficiency disease. By dusting the foliage
with sulfur and manganese they found that affected leaves be-
came greener and made better growth than non-treated plants.
The, earliest indication that manganese might be needed for







A Manganese Deficiency Affecting Beans


normal growth of crops in Florida Everglades peat soils was
obtained by Allison, Bryan and Hunter (2). Their studies
showed that response from manganese sulfate was sometimes
as great as that obtained from an application of copper sulfate.
Photographic records of their experiments show remarkable
growth responses where these salts were applied to raw saw-
grass peat.
Bryan3 in 1929 reported stimulatory effects of copper and
manganese solutions applied to chlorotic foliage of beans and
cowpeas growing in Everglades peat soils. He found that solu-
tions containing 50 p.p.m. of manganese sulfate restored the
chlorophyll in chlorotic leaves in a few days after the solutions
were applied to the foliage.

SYMPTOMS OF MANGANESE DEFICIENCY
As a rule bean plants grow normally for several days after
germination before they begin to show symptoms of manganese
deficiency. The
first symptom to
appear is a slight
loss of the green
color in the tri-
foliate leaves.
The yellowing
does not spread
to the cotyledon-
ary leaves until
late in the devel-
opment of the dis-
ease. At first the
trifoliate leaves
show a faint mot-
tled pattern, the
tissue near the
veins remaining
green longer than Fig. 2.-Advanced stage of manganese deficiency
the islets of tis- on bean leaf, showing necrotic spots along mid-rib
and veins of chlorotic leaf.
sue between the
veins. Growth of the plants is retarded when these symptoms
appear and the chlorotic leaves never attain normal size.
SBryan, 0. C. The effects of external applications of copper and man-
ganese on certain chlorotic plants of the Florida Everglades soils. Jour.
Amer. Soc. Agron. 21: 923-933. 1929.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Usually it is only a few days from the appearance of this first
mottling until the entire leaf blade has turned a golden yellow.
Before the leaf is fully yellow small necrotic brown spots can
be seen closely parallel to each side of the midrib and principal
veins between their lateral branches. All of these stages are
shown in Fig. 1. By the time the leaf has become yellow these
spots appear as rows of stipples extending to the tips and mar-
gins of the leaves (Fig. 2). Subsequently, the undersurface
of affected leaves appears to be cupped between the veins, while
the upper surface of the same areas appears water-soaked,
and soon breaks down.
New growth from the apical bud becomes slower as the dis-
ease progresses, and the buds eventually die. Each successive
leaf which forms is smaller and more chlorotic than the preced-
ing one. By the time the bud dies all leaves have become brown
and withered. Frequently there is secondary growth from lateral
buds. Defoliation is the final symptom to appear before the
death of the stems.
The root systems of affected plants appear to be normal
except that they are somewhat less extensive. Lesions occur
no more frequently on the primary roots of diseased than on
healthy plants. Wet soil may contribute to manganese inavail-
ability and under such conditions the presence of root pathogens
is to be expected.

EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES
RELATION OF SOIL REACTION TO DEFICIENCY OF MANGANESE
SThis relationship has been studied experimentally by the
alteration of the reaction of the soil towards both alkalinity
and acidity. Burned soil was acidified with sulfur, and non-
burned soil was made alkaline by additions of lime. In each
instance the soil used for the experiment was screened and mixed.
Sixteen kilograms of each soil were placed in each of 21 eight-
gallon glazed crocks. The soil to be made acid was treated
,with sulfur at rates of one-quarter ton to eight tons per acre./
The non-burned soil was treated/with hydrated lime at rates of
five-eighths ton to 20 tons per acre./ Three pots of soil were
used for each treatment. On December 4, 1930, these pots were
planted with beans of the Bountiful variety. Soil samples were
taken for pH tests several times during the growth of the crop.
The data shown in Table 1 indicate that the soil solution was
buffered against both hydrogen and hydroxyl ions as only the







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


Usually it is only a few days from the appearance of this first
mottling until the entire leaf blade has turned a golden yellow.
Before the leaf is fully yellow small necrotic brown spots can
be seen closely parallel to each side of the midrib and principal
veins between their lateral branches. All of these stages are
shown in Fig. 1. By the time the leaf has become yellow these
spots appear as rows of stipples extending to the tips and mar-
gins of the leaves (Fig. 2). Subsequently, the undersurface
of affected leaves appears to be cupped between the veins, while
the upper surface of the same areas appears water-soaked,
and soon breaks down.
New growth from the apical bud becomes slower as the dis-
ease progresses, and the buds eventually die. Each successive
leaf which forms is smaller and more chlorotic than the preced-
ing one. By the time the bud dies all leaves have become brown
and withered. Frequently there is secondary growth from lateral
buds. Defoliation is the final symptom to appear before the
death of the stems.
The root systems of affected plants appear to be normal
except that they are somewhat less extensive. Lesions occur
no more frequently on the primary roots of diseased than on
healthy plants. Wet soil may contribute to manganese inavail-
ability and under such conditions the presence of root pathogens
is to be expected.

EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES
RELATION OF SOIL REACTION TO DEFICIENCY OF MANGANESE
SThis relationship has been studied experimentally by the
alteration of the reaction of the soil towards both alkalinity
and acidity. Burned soil was acidified with sulfur, and non-
burned soil was made alkaline by additions of lime. In each
instance the soil used for the experiment was screened and mixed.
Sixteen kilograms of each soil were placed in each of 21 eight-
gallon glazed crocks. The soil to be made acid was treated
,with sulfur at rates of one-quarter ton to eight tons per acre./
The non-burned soil was treated/with hydrated lime at rates of
five-eighths ton to 20 tons per acre./ Three pots of soil were
used for each treatment. On December 4, 1930, these pots were
planted with beans of the Bountiful variety. Soil samples were
taken for pH tests several times during the growth of the crop.
The data shown in Table 1 indicate that the soil solution was
buffered against both hydrogen and hydroxyl ions as only the







A Manganese Deficiency Affecting Beans


applications of large amounts of lime and sulfur caused much
change in the soil reaction.
TABLE 1.-EFFECT OF SULFUR AND LIME ON THE REACTION OF PEAT SOIL
AND ON THE GROWTH OF BEAN PLANTS.

Reaction of Soil on Dates Green weight
Pots I Treatment Indicated after Treatment of plants
S12/9 | 1/3 I 1/17 | 1/31 | in 3 pots
Treated 12/3 Burned Soil
1-3 I None 7.5 7.5 7.6 7.4 98 g.
4-6 4 g. sulfur per pot 7.3 7.2 7.3 7.2 368 g.
7-9 8 g. sulfur per pot 7.3 7.3 7.3 7.2 254 g.
10-12 16 g. sulfur per pot 7.2 7.2 7.3 7.1 228 g.
13-15 32 g. sulfur per pot 7.1 7.2 7.2 7.1 249 g.
16-18 64 g. sulfur per pot 7.1 7.1 7.0 6.8 82 g.
19-21 128 g. sulfur per pot 7.1 7.0 6.4 6.0 51 g.
Treated 11/1 Non-burned Soil
1-3 None 6.1 6.0 6.1 6.3 560 g.
4-6 10 g. Lime per pot 6.2 6.2 6.1 6.2 273 g.
7-9 20 g. Lime per pot 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.2 163 g.
10-12 40 g. Lime per ot 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.5 133 g.
13-15 80 g. Lime per pot 7.0 7.1 7.3 6.8 122 g.
16-18! 160 g. Lime per pot 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.2 291 g.
19-21 320 g. Lime per pot 7.5 7.6 7.6 7.5 218 g.

Plants on the non-treated burned soil became yellow and
developed necrotic spots by the 18th day. The lightest applica-
tion of sulfur prevented the development of necrotic spots and
improved the color of the foliage. Heavier applications also
prevented the symptoms of extreme manganese deficiency but
the plants so treated were injured by the high concentration
of sulfur, as indicated by the difference in green weights (Table
1). In the series of lime treatments on non-burned soil the
check plants were normal. Applications of 10, 20, 40 and 80
grams of hydrated lime per pot caused yellowing and the de-
velopment of necrotic spots, increasing in severity with the
quantities added. However, no necrotic spots occurred on plants
with the two heaviest lime treatments; these were not so yellow
and grew better than those with less lime.
EFFECT OF MANGANESE AND SULFUR APPLICATIONS
The work of Seal (11) and Allison (1) suggested the practi-
cability of controlling bean yellowing by the application of man-
ganese to the soil in which the deficiency occurred. A prelim-
inary experiment in 1930 showed that the application of man-
ganiferous solutions to burned soil at the time beans were
planted prevented yellowing. When the treatment was delayed







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


until the first trifoliate leaves were yellow, partial recovery
occurred within 48 hours in the leaves already formed and the
new growth remained normal.
Application to the Soil.-With the knowledge that bean yel-
lowing could be controlled by supplying soluble manganese or
by acidifying the burned soil with sulfur, an experiment was
designed to test the value of manganese and sulfur as fertilizer
supplements. A series of field plots in four replications was
laid out on an area of bur .peat Each plot was 121/
feet by 20 feet, or 1/174th acre ii size. Ash was present in
the soil and the reaction was approximately pH 6.5. All plots
received a uniform application of potash, superphosphate, and
copper sulfate. Manganese sulfate and sulfur were applied in
varying amounts according to a schedule. These materials were
applied in the row and worked into the soil.
Following the treatments in the spring of 1932 Bountiful
beans were grown on the plots. This crop showed that com-
plete control of bean yellowing could be obtained through the
use of sulfur and manganese, .particularly in combination. Dur-
ing the summer the plots were planted to cowpeas which gave
evidence of some residual effects of the heaviest treatments.
In the fall the plots were retreated and planted to another crop
of Bountiful beans. In this crop the treated plots produced an
entirely normal growth of beans, whereas the non-treated plots
produced no crop (Fig. 3). Cabbage plants were transplanted
to the plots after the beans had been harvested. Without further
treatment cabbage growth was normal on the plots which had
previously received heavy applications of sulfur and manganese.
On the check plots the cabbage became very chlorotic and failed
to grow.
The data presented in Table 2 were obtained from the two
crops of beans grown on these plots. The figures represent the
average number of hampers of beans per acre picked from the
four replications of each treatment. Only the data for the first
picking in each crop are presented, because a flood destroyed
the second crop one day after the first picking had been made.
If all pickings had been obtained the yields would have been
much higher, but relative values would be the same. This was
observed in the first crop where four pickings were made.
The data in Table 2 show that failure of beans on burned
peat soil can be prevented by supplementing the usual fertilizer
with sulfur or manganese. Yields on all plots treated with man-








A Manganese Deficiency Affecting Beans


ganese or sulfur, or both, were greatly in excess of those from
non-treated plots. In fact, beans from check plots were of such
poor quality that it may be said there was a crop failure. Beans
from treated plots were of good quality.

'TABLE 2.-YIELDS OF BEANS ON BURNED PEAT SOIL WITH SUPPLEMENTARY
TREATMENTS.

Treatment* Hampers of Beans per Acre Average
1st Crop I 2nd Crop
None 8.9 0.2 4.6
Mn 71.5 63.8 67.6
Mn-S 83.3 101.9 92.6
Mn-2S 85.2 109.7 97.4
Mn-4S 91.0 128.6 109.8
Mn-8S 92.0 134.5 113.2
2 Mn-2S 87.2 111.0 99.1
2 Mn-4S 96.5 112.8 104.6
5 Mn 119.5 98.5 189.0
5 Mn-S 110.6 119.8 115.2
5 Mn-2S 113.2 125.7 119.4
5 Mn-4S 118.5 118.5 118.5
5 Mn-8S 114.7 117.4 116.0
10 Mn 138.4 106.7 122.5
10 Mn-2S 127.9' 136.8 132.3
20 Mn 115.6 119.9 117.7
S 19.1 75.7 47.4
2S 21.1 95.1 58.1
4S 32.3 115.8 74.0
8S 24.4 104.7 64.5

*Mn = 5 pounds manganese sulfate per acre.
S = 25 pounds sulfur per acre.

It is to be noted in the data (Table 2) that//the increment
in yields due to the application of more than 25 pounds of
manganese sulfate is small,, Fifty pounds of this material to
the acre was the most that gave a response measurable in yields.
Sulfur applied with manganese gave somewhat higher yields
than could be obtained with manganese alone. The effect of
25 pounds of sulfur alone was not so great as that due to 25
pounds of manganese sulfate alone. Two hundred pounds of
sulfur per acre in the row depressed yields slightly,
Samples of leaves were collected from representative plants
on several of these plots. The leaves were carefully washed in
distilled water, dried in the oven at 1000C., ashed and analyzed
for manganese. ,The analyses showed that little manganese
had been absorbed by plants growing without manganese in
the fertilizer. The use of only five pounds of manganese sulfate
per acre did not increase the absorption of manganese in meas-







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


urable amounts/' When the same amount of manganese was
used with 50 pounds of sulfur the absorption was greatly in-
creased. Higher quantities of manganese alone and with sul-
fur also increased the absorption of manganese. ATwo hundred
pounds of sulfur used alone doubled the absorption of man-
ganese.,


k t..


Fig. 3.-Control of bean yellowing by the use of manganese and sulfur
in the fertilizer. From top to bottom the treatments are: None; 50 pounds
sulfur per acre; 25 pounds manganese sulfate and 50 pounds sulfur per acre;
and 100 pounds manganese sulfate per acre.







A Manganese Deficiency Affecting Beans


TABLE 3.-AMOUNTS OF MANGANESE FOUND IN BEAN LEAVES FROM PLOTS
TREATED WITH MANGANESE AND SULFUR.*
Manganese
Treatment Pounds per Acre P. P. M.
N one ............................... ..... .. ........................... ......... 9.9
5 lbs. manganese sulfate ......................... ..............- ------- 9.5
5 lbs. manganese sulfate plus 50 lbs. sulfur ................... 35.5
50 lbs. manganese sulfate ............................................... ... 24.4
50 lbs. manganese sulfate plus 50 lbs. sulfur ................... 113.3
100 lbs. manganese sulfate ..................................................... 84.1
200 lbs. sulfur ...................................................... ................18.0

*Analyses by R. E. Robertson.

Application to th6 Plants.-A preliminary experiment in the
fall of 1931 showed that yellowed beans quickly recovered when
sprayed with a 1 percent manganese sulfate solution. This was
a row test in a field which had become severely yellowed at
the time of the application. Two applications appeared to be
better than one.
Beans growing in pots of burned soil in the greenhouse were
used to check the effect of manganese solutions sprayed on the
foliage. The soil was uniformly mixed and had a reaction of
pH 7.9. Beans exhibited typical manganese deficiency symptoms
when grown in this soil without treatment.

TABLE 4.-DATA RELATIVE TO YELLOWED BEANS SPRAYED WITH
MANGANESE SULFATE.
Applications [Total green
1. Beans 11 days old Iweights per
Treatment 2. Beans 23 days old Appearance 3 pots in
3. Beans 33 days old grams

None .........................I Severe yellowing 195
100 lbs. per acre ap-
plied in soil on
previous crop ....--~ Severe yellowing 183
A of 1 percent sol. 1, 2, 3, Moderate yellowing 346
%a of 1 percent sol. 1, 2, 3, Green 560
Y of 1 percent sol. 1, 2, -, Green 513
%4 of 1 percent sol. 1, -, -, Slight yellowing 368
%a of 1 percent sol. 1, -, 3, Slight yellowing 438
Va of 1 percent sol. -, 2, -, Moderate yellowing 342
Ya of 1 percent sol. -, -, 3, Moderate yellowing 324
1 percent sol. 1, 2, 3, Green 546
5 percent sol. I 1, 2, 3, Green 491


After the first symptoms of manganese deficiency were evident
three applications of solutions of manganese sulfate (C. P.)
were atomized on the leaves. Care was exercised to keep the
spray from reaching the soil. One soil treatment at the rate







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


of 100 pounds of manganese sulfate per acre for a previous
crop was used for comparison. There was some foliage injury
from the 5 percent manganese solution. Two applications of
one-fourth of 1 percent solution were enough to cause yellowed
plants to recover permanently. The effects were noticeable
within 30 hours. The beans grew for 55 days before the final
notes and weights were taken.
To be certain that results obtained with manganese sulfate
sprays were not due to impurities, a series of treatments was
set up similar to those of the previous experiment, except that
only one concentration of manganese sulfate was used and
several other chemicals were included. All of the chemicals
were of the C. P. grade. The evidence obtained here indicates
quite clearly that the results obtained in previous experiments
have been due to manganese. Iron in three forms and zinc
sulfate failed to have any effect upon the chlorotic condition
of bean leaves associated with weakly acid to alkaline soils. It
/was interesting to note also that manganese carbonate, which
is relatively insoluble in cold water, had no corrective effects.
Manganese chloride caused some burning but was effective in
restoring the green color to the foliage.' Responses obtained
with several of these treatments are shown in Fig. 4.











Fig. 4.-Bean 'plants which had been sprayed with several chemicals
for the prevention of the chlorosis caused by a deficiency of available
manganese. From left to right the applications were: One-half percent
zinc sulfate solution; % percent ferric chloride solution; % percent ferric
sulfate solution; % percent ferrous sulfate solution; % percent manganese
carbonate solution; % percent manganese chloride solution; and % percent
manganous sulfate solution.

Field plots were laid out for testing applications of manganese
and sulfur to the foliage of yellowed beans for the correction of
yellowing. The soil contained ash and had a reaction of about
pH 6.9. Four replications of each treatment were made. Ex-







A Manganese Deficiency Affecting Beans


cept for a few minor alterations these plots were used for two
crops of beans. 'A crop of cowpeas grown on the plots after
the first crop of beans was not sprayed and gave no evidence
of any residual effects of the applications to the foliage.' The
cowpeas died on all plots except on those treated with man-
ganese in the fertilizer.
The treatments were started two weeks after the seed were
planted, and when the young beans had been up for nine days.
At this time the earliest symptoms of yellowing were visible
in the first trifoliate leaves. Subsequent applications were made
at intervals of 10 or 12 days.
The sprays were applied with a barrel pump equipped with
a hose and spray rod with three nozzles. One row was sprayed
at a time. Such an outfit gave good coverage and used about
100 gallons of the spray solutions to the acre. The dusts were
applied with a hand duster at the rate of 35 pounds per acre.
In both crops of beans the results were a striking confirmation
of the data obtained in the greenhouse. Yellowed leaves began
to turn green within 36 hours after the applications. The yield
on the non-sprayed plots was negligible. Where two or more
applications of manganese sprays had been made the yields were
about normal and in some cases equal to that obtained where
manganese was added as a fertilizer supplement (Fig. 5). In




Il


Fig. 5.-Control of bean yellowing by spraying the plants with man-
ganese sulfate solution. Top: No treatment; bottom: Four applications
of a 1 percent manganese sulfate solution to plants.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


the second crop some burning of the leaves occurred with 1
percent manganese sulfate sprays, but it was observed that
this did not occur where 1 percent of hydrated lime had been
added to the manganese solution. Mixtures of dusting sulfur
and manganese were of some value. 4The same was true of
a sulfur spray (30% sulfur in form of sodium polysulfides) con-
taining 1 percent manganese sulfate./ The above sulfur spray
used without manganese in the first experiment had a slight
effect of itself. The yields from the four replications of each
treatment have been averaged and are presented as relative
values in Table 5. Plot 4, which was given three applications
of a 1 percent manganese solution, has been used as the basis
for all comparisons.

TABLE 5.-RELATIVE YIELDS OF BEANS FROM PLOTS SPRAYED AND DUSTED
WITH MANGANESE AND SULFUR.


Treatment

None ......................................
50 lbs. manganese ..........................
1 percent manganese, spray .........
1 percent manganese, spray ..........
1 percent manganese, spray ..........
1 percent manganese, spray ..........
1 percent manganese plus
1 percent lime ........................
Sulfur (polysulfides) ......................
Sulfur (polysulfides) plus
1 percent manganese ..............
Sulfur-manganese (90-10) dust
Sulfur-manganese (80-20) dust


Applications


In fertilizer
1, 2, 3, 4, (*)
1, 2, 3, -,
1, 2, -, -,
1, -, 3, -,
1, 2, 3, 4,
1, 2, 3, 4,
1, 2, 3, 4,
1, 2, 3, 4,
1, 2, 3, 4,


Relative yield
1st crop I 2nd crop

5.0 5.1
108.1 125.0
116.7 117.5
100.0 100.0
.... 101.9
72.2 96.5
87.6 104.2
18.7 ........
106.7 85.5
69.9 111.6
77.0 110.6


(*) In the second crop none of the plots received the fourth application.

Analyses of leaf samples collected from plots of this series
five days after the last application in the second crop show
that there were large quantities of manganese in and on the
sprayed leaves. Although the leaves were carefully washed
with distilled water before the analysis, it is not certain that
all manganese adhering to the leaf surface had been washed
off. In fact the wide range of values obtained indicate that
particularly with the sulfur-manganese dust applications there
was manganese adhering to the leaf surface. The analyses
given in Table 6 show that where good growth occurred there
was more than 20 parts per million of manganese in the dried
material.







A Manganese Deficiency Affecting Beans


TABLE 6.-AMOUNT OF MANGANESE FOUND IN BEAN LEAVES SPRAYED OR
DUSTED WITH MANGANIFEROUS MATERIALS.*
I Parts per
Treatment million
Smanganese

3 applications of sulfur-manganese (90-10 dust) .......................... 243.0
3 applications 1 percent manganese in polysulfide spray ....... 253.0
3 applications 1 percent manganese spray .................... 175.0
3 applications 1 percent manganese plus 1 percent lime spray 29.7
None .......------- ...............----------------------.. ----- -- ------------.------------- ......... 9.3

*Analyses by R. E. Robertson.
RESIDUAL EFFECTS OF MANGANESE AND SULFUR IN SOIL
Burned peat soil was screened and mixed to provide a uniform
culture medium. Sixteen kilograms of the soil were placed in
each of 21 eight-gallon glazed clay pots. The soil had a reaction
of pH 7.4. The soil in three pots was treated on August 14
with 2.04 grams of C. P. manganese sulfate per pot (equal to
250 pounds per acre). The salt was applied with rain water
and all water supplied thereafter was of this kind. Subse-
quently, the same treatment was given other pots in the series
at intervals of two weeks, until there were five dates of applica-
tion. The six pots remaining without treatment were considered
checks. Six crops of beans were grown in these pots during
a period of nine months. After the first crop all the treatments
represented residual effects of previous applications made on
five different dates.
The first crop of beans was planted on the date of the third
application of manganese. Two weeks later all beans on treated
soil were about normal, but those on soil not yet treated were
yellowing. Plants that were yellowing at the time of the fourth
application recovered after it was made. The checks became
more severely yellowed. The fifth application date coincided
with date of harvest of the first crop.
Before the second crop was grown the soil in all pots received
a uniform application of superphosphate, potash, ammonium sul-
fate and copper sulfate. Green weights and notes as to color
were recorded when the crop was 29 days old. These data are
shown in Table 7.
The third crop grew for 31 days. When it was harvested
the green weights were in the same proportion as for the pre-
vious crop, except that the checks had fallen off even more than
before. The plants from the three earliest treatments were







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


slightly yellow, while the two later treatments produced normal
plants.
TABLE 7.-COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF MANGANESE SULFATE ON BEANS AT
DIFFERENT PERIODS AFTER TREATMENT.
Number of days Green weight of Color of
after treatment plants per 3 pots plants
85 299 g. Slightly yellow
71 295 g. Slightly yellow
57 328 g. Trace of yellow
43 348 g. Green
29 410 g. Deep green
No treatment 192 g. Severe yellowing
No treatment 200 g. Severe yellowing


The fourth and succeeding crops showed almost no differences
in green weights or color between the different dates of appli-
cation, but all plants on treated soil were distinctly better than
the checks. The comparative condition of the fourth crop at
maturity is shown in Fig. 6.


r!yr w w I. .
Fig. 6.-Fourth crop of beans following the application of manganese
sulfate to burned soil. Treatments from left to right were: 2.04 grams
of manganese sulfate per pot applied 174, 160, 146, 132 and 118 days
previously, respectively; no treatment was given the last two pots on
the right.

In 1931, an area of burned soil was set aside for the study
of the cumulative and residual effects of sulfur and manganese
treatments. Wooden frames of one inch by six-inch material
were placed around plots measuring 40 inches by 78 inches. The
tops of the frames were placed slightly above the soil level to
confine the treatments to the plots and to prevent the movement
of other soil on to the plots. Four replications of each treat-


'T qL







A Manganese Deficiency Affecting Beans 19

ment were provided. The soil had been exposed to a surface fire
in the past and the ash had become incorporated with the soil
to a depth of 12 to 14 inches. The reaction of the soil in all
plots varied within a narrow range, averaging about pH 7.7.
All plots received a uniform application of superphosphate, pot-
ash and copper sulfate at the start and in subsequent treat-
ments. The applications of sulfur and manganese were varied
according to a schedule of comparisons. In 1932 the treat-
ments used the previous year were duplicated, but in 1933 some
omissions were made to study residual effects.
The weights of Bountiful beans and Little Marvel peas har-
vested in three crops are presented to show the residual effects
of sulfur and manganese. These crops exhibited similar symp-
toms of manganese deficiency and on the check plots of this
series the vines had suffered severely, resulting yields being
small and of poor quality. Yields were recorded as grams per
plot but have been converted to a value relative to treatment
number 10 in all cases. The first crop of beans was harvested
in 1931 following the original treatments. In 1932 peas were
grown and no yield records were taken. The second set of data
with beans was obtained in 1933 after the third treatment
with certain omissions. The pea data were secured from a
second crop in 1933 without retreatment of the plots, and these
together with those for two crops of beans are shown in Table 8.
TABLE 8.-RESIDUAL EFFECT OF SULFUR AND MANGANESE ON THE YIELD
OF BEANS AND PEAS ON BURNED PEAT SOIL.
Number
Plot of years pH reactions Relative yields Aver-
No. Treatment applications of soils Beans Beans I Peas age
were made Initial Final 1931 1933 1933 1933
1 S* 3 7.7 7.0 8.4 67.4 18.0 42.7
2 S 2 7.7 7.4 18.2 24.1 12.6 18.3
3 2 S 3 7.7 6.5 27.3 86.6 31.8 59.2
4 2 S 2 7.6 7.3 35.0 25.7 12.2 18.9
5 4 S 3 7.6 6.6 57.8 84.2 83.7 83.9
6 4 S 2 7.6 7.1 62.9 72.1 14.2 43.1
7 8 S 3 7.7 6.1 66.1 57.4 139.4 98.4
8 8 S 2 7.6 6.8 80.4 102.0 82.0 92.0
9 16 S 2 7.6 6.0 76.5 99.3 123.2 111.2
10 2 S Mn* 3 7.6 6.9 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
11 2 S Mn S-3: Mn-2 7.6 6.9 101.9 104.5 71.4 87.9
12 Mn 3 7.7 7.5 44.6 91.7 50.1 70.9
13 None None 7.7 7.5 0.0 37.9 13.0 25.4

*S = Sulfur @ 250 pounds per acre.
Mn = 83 percent manganese sulfate @ 80 lbs. per acre.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


It will be seen from Table 8 that the yield from these crops
was improved most by treatments which caused increases in
soil acidity, or which supplied manganese directly. A combina-
tion of manganese and sulfur was more effective than either
material used separatelyJ
Those plots which were not retreated for beans in 1933 showed
considerably lower yields than plots treated with small quantities
of sulfur. Where sulfur was applied at the rate of two tons
per acre the yields were depressed in crops following the treat-
ments. This injurious effect disappeared after a few months,
for when peas were grown following the beans the highest yields
were obtained where three heavy applications of sulfur had been
made at the rate of one ton per acre per year.
Residual effects of the treatment are best shown by the data
for the crop of peas in 1933. These data represent the effects
of two and three applications of sulfur and manganese to
previous crops during the period 1931-1933. Difference in yields
from plots which had received two and three applications indi-1
cated that the materials rapidly became less effective. By com-
paring the yields from treatments 10 and 11 it is found that,
the omission of manganese from the third application did not
affect the first crop (beans, 1933) but that peas suffered con-
siderably following the beans. The omission of sulfur from the
manganese-sulfur mixture in the third application caused a
reduction in the yield of beans and peas.

DISCUSSION
The yellowing of beans which occurs on weakly acid to alka-
line peat soils in the Florida Everglades is a nutritional disorder
attributable to lack of available manganese in such soils. The
essential nature of manganese as a nutrient element has been
shown by the experiments of those whose papers have been
reviewed, and by others. Chlorosis and death of the plant due
to insufficient manganese have been observed by those who have
studied manganese deficiencies.
In the experiments reported here it was demonstrated that
pathogenic organisms are not constantly associated with the
disease, and that where such are found they produce lesions
or wilting as primary symptoms. These organisms do not pro-
duce the characteristic symptoms of manganese deficiency.
On the other hand, the particular symptom complex which
has been described is always associated with certain soil con-







A Manganese Deficiency Affecting Beans


editions. Beans grow normally in peat soil more acid than pH
6.2. The severity of the disease increases with the alkalinity of
the soil. This is in accordance with the findings of Mann (6)
who has shown that manganese becomes insoluble at low hydro-
gen ion concentrations. There may be some exceptions to this,
as there has been observed apparently normal growth in some
very alkaline peat, and as in the case of the experiment with
additions of lime, the growth of the beans was somewhat better
in alkaline soil than in neutral soil.
Manganese deficiency occurs naturally in soils made about
neutral or alkaline by burning, or by underlying marl deposits.
It may be experimentally produced by adding lime to the soil.
Evidence has been presented to show that the disease can be
prevented by acidifying the soil with sulfur, and that when this
is done the plants absorb more manganese. The same result
is obtained when manganese sulfate is applied with the fertilizer.
The effect of such an application is likely to be more temporary
when manganese alone is added than when the soil is acidified
by the addition of sulfur. The data indicate that small quan-
tities of manganese applied to alkaline soil soon become as
non-available as the manganese naturally occurring there. Mix-
tures of sulfur and manganese have given the best and most
lasting results.,
The effects of both manganese and sulfur pass away so rapidly
that economical benefits from a single treatment should not
be expected for more than two crops. On the other hand, it is
not well to make heavy applications of sulfur continuously. It
was found in the pot experiments that sulfur had a decidedly
depressing effect upon the growth of beans when used in large
quantities. This-effect was not in proportion to the effect of
the sulfur-upon-the soil acidity.
It is suggested that the use of 25 pounds of manganese sul-
fate .and .200 pounds of sulfur per acre per year will maintain
normal production on badly burned soil. In general practice
an entire field may not need to be treated but only those areas
which have been made neutral or alkaline by burning.
The results obtained from spraying the plants with man-
ganese sulfate provided further evidence that manganese is
essential to the proper functioning of the plant. In these tests
it was apparent that effects were obtained by absorption through
the leaf, since in the pot experiments only small quantities of
the manganese solutions were atomized on the leaves. None






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


was allowed to reach the soil so that it could not have acted
as a catalyzing agent in the soil, nor have been absorbed by the
roots. In the field experiments the quantity of manganese
sprayed on the foliage with beneficial results was less than a
quarter of the amount needed to secure an equal effect in a
soil treatment. Had it not been absorbed by the foliage the
effect would have been negligible.
The fact that manganese carbonate failed to correct the
chlorosis of bean plants indicates that because of its low solu-
bility it could not diffuse to absorbing surfaces, nor be absorbed
by them. Results with sulfur-manganese dusts must be ex-
plained, it seems, by the solution of manganese in dew and its
subsequent diffusion to the substomatal surfaces.
Manganese appears to be essential in controlling the balance
between the synthesis and destruction of chlorophyll. When
this element is present chlorophyll is formed in sufficient amount
to maintain the plant. Iron and zinc do not function in the
same manner when applied to beans growing on manganese
deficient soils.
CONCLUSIONS
The chlorosis and death of beans growing on slightly acid
or alkaline peat soil is due to a deficiency of available manganese.
The availability of manganese in such soils can be increased
by acidifying them with sulfur.
x/Treatments with manganese sulfate prevent the chlorosis and
increase the yield of beans.
Manganese sulfate sprays and dusts will also prevent the
chlorosis of beans, and greatly increase the yield.
Iron and zinc are not substitutes for manganese in correct-
ing the condition described.
The effects of both manganese and sulfur applied to the soil
decrease rapidly.
For a soil treatment 25 pounds of manganese sulfate and 200
pounds of sulfur per acre should be used each year for the pre-
vention of yellowing on badly burned peat soil.
Spraying with a manganese sulfate solution is considered
more economical than soil treatment. (Two applications of a
solution containing four pounds of manganese sulfate in 50 gal-
lons of water will usually be sufficient)








A Manganese Deficiency Affecting Beans


LITERATURE CITED

1. ALLISON, R. V. Field fertilizer experiments. Ann. Rept. Fla. Agr.
Exp. Sta. p. 93, 1929.

2. ALLISON, R. V., O. C. BRYAN and J. H. HUNTER. The stimulation of
plant response on the raw peat soils of the Florida Everglades
through the use of copper sulphate and other chemicals. Florida
Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 190: 35-80. 1927.

3. BRYAN, A. B. Some soil problems. Better Crops 19: 6: 17-19; 39-40.
1934.

4. HOPKINS, E. F. Manganese an essential element for green plants.
Cornell University Agr. Exp. Sta. Memoir 151: 1-40. 1934.

5. LEE, H. A., and J. S. MCHARGUE. The effect of a manganese deficiency
on the sugar cane plant and its relationship to Pahala blight of
sugar cane. Phytopath. 18: 775-786. 1928.

6. MANN, H. B. Availability of manganese and iron as affected by appli-
cations of calcium and magnesium carbonates to the soil. Soil Sci.
30: 117-141.

7. MCHARGUE, J. S. Effect of different concentrations of manganese sul-
phate on the growth of plants in acid and neutral soils and the
necessity of manganese as a plant nutrient. Jour. Agr. Res. 24:
781-794. 1923.

8. McLEAN, F. T. Feeding plants manganese through the stomata. Sci-
ence 66: 487-489. 1927.

9. NAGAOKA, M. The stimulating action of manganese upon rice. Bul.
Col. Agr. Imp. Univ. Tokyo 5: 467-472. 1903.

10. RICHARD, P. Contribution a le recherche due manganese dans les
mineraux, les vegetaux et les animaux. Compt. Rend. Acad. Sci.
Paris 126: 1882-1885. 1898.

11. SEAL, J. L. Report of the plant pathologist of the Everglades Exp.
Sta. Ann. Rept. Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. 119-120 R. 1928.

12. SKINNER, J. J., and R. W. RUPRECHT. Fertilizer experiments with truck
crops. Florida Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 218: 1-65. 1930.

13. VOELCKER, J. A. The Woburn pot culture experiments in 1902. Jour.
Roy. Agr. Soc. England 64: 348-364. 1904.

14. WILLIS, L. G. Response of oats and soy beans on some coastal plain
soils. North Carolina Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 257: 1-13. 1928.




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