• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Introductory remarks
 Horticultural status of the Mandarin...
 Origin, history and introduction...
 Scientific and common names
 Description of the tree
 Varieties of mandarin oranges
 Estimation of varieties
 Analyses






Group Title: Bulletin / University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station ;, no. 66
Title: The mandarin orange group
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027526/00001
 Material Information
Title: The mandarin orange group
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: p. 567-594, 2 leaves of plates : ill. ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Hume, H. Harold ( Hardrada Harold ), 1875-1965
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Lake City Fla
Publication Date: 1903
 Subjects
Subject: Tangerine -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: by H. Harold Hume.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027526
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000921023
oclc - 18156444
notis - AEN1463

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Page 568
        Page 569
    Table of Contents
        Page 570
    Introductory remarks
        Page 571
    Horticultural status of the Mandarin group
        Page 571
        Page 572
    Origin, history and introduction into America
        Page 573
        Page 574
    Scientific and common names
        Page 575
        Page 576
    Description of the tree
        Page 577
    Varieties of mandarin oranges
        Page 577
        Page 578
        Page 579
        Page 580
        Page 581
        Page 582
        Page 582a
        Page 583
        Page 584
        Page 585
        Page 586
        Page 586a
    Estimation of varieties
        Page 587
    Analyses
        Page 588
        Page 589
        Page 590
        Page 591
        Page 592
        Page 593
        Page 594
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida










FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT

THE
MANDARIN ORANGE


STATION.



GROUP.


7 5-P
La ir i


By H. HAROLD HUME.
The bulletins of this Station will be sent free to any address in Florida upon ap-
plication to the Director of the Experiment Station, Lalke City, Fla.

DELAND, FLA :
E. O. PAINTER & CO.,
1903.


BULLETIN NO. 66.


FEBRUARY, 1903.













BOARD OF TRUSTEES.


GEO. W. WILSON, President................. Jacksonville.
F. E. HARRIS, Vice-President..................... Ocala.
J. D. CALLAWAY, Secretary................... Lake City.
C. A. CARSON, Chairman Executive Committee, Kissimmee.
J. R. PARROTT ............................ .Jacksonville.
E. D. BEGGS ........................ ....... Pensacola.
L. HARRISON........ .......... ............Lake City.


STATION STAFF.

T. H. TALIAFERRO, C. E., Ph. D...... ........ Director.
H. K. MILLER, M. S............ Vice-Director and Chemist.
H. A. GOSSARD, M. S .................... Entomologist.
H. H. HUME, B. Agr., M. S..... Botanist and Horticulturist.
CHAS. F. DAWSON, M. D., D. V. S........... Veterinarian.
*C. M, CONNER, B. S.................... Agriculturist.
A. W. BLAIR, M. A................... Assistant Chemist.
LUCIA MCCULLOCH, B. S., Asst. Biologist and Asst. Librarian.
W. P. JERNIGAN ................Auditor and Bookkeeper.
C. S. BROCK ................ Stenographer and Librarian.
JOHN H. JEFFERIES.. Gardener in Horticultural Department.
Louis DEGOTTRAU, Supt. Citrus Experiments at Boca Raton.

*Supt. Farmers' Institutes.












CONTENTS AND SUMMARY.

Introductory Remarks.. ................. .... 571
Varieties of Citrus are hard to distinguish and should be
classified in group of varieties resembling each other.

Horticultural Status of the Mandarin Group ..... ... 571
The growing of Mandarins is at the present time on a safe
basis. Ruling prices from $3 to $5.50 per strap. The group
contains the hardiest known large fruited, edible variety of
citrus.

Origin, History and Introduction into America. ...... 573
The Mandarin oranges had their origin in Cochin China.
Described as a district species in I79o. Introduced into
England in 18o5 and into continental Europe about 1828.
China Mandarin brought to Louisiana between 1840 and 1850.
Introduced into Florida sometime after that date. A red
fruited variety may have been growing in Florida before that
time.

Scientific and Common Names. ................ 575
The whole group referred to Citrus nobilis Lour. The group
name Mandarin believed to be the best.

Description of the Tree. ................... 577

Varieties of Mandarin Oranges .............. .... 577
Beauty, China, Cleopatra, Dancy, King, Kino Kuni, Mi4do,
Oneco, and Satsuma described. Notes on their origin and
merits.

Estimation of Varieties ... ............ ......... 587
Ripening periods given. Satsuma, China, Dancy and King
recommended for planting.

Analyses................ ............ 588
Table No. I, showing the average weight, average dimensions,
average number of seeds, percentage of pulp, rind and seed.
Table No. 2, showing percentage of acid and sugar. Tables
Nos. 3 and 4, giving fertilizer materials removed by the fruit.
















The Mandarin Orange Group.



Introductory Remarks.
Usually the different varieties of citrus are hard to differentiate; they
are distinguished in the fruit by no well marked characteristics and even
the trees show but slight differences in leafage and habit of growth.
Moreover, the varieties differ with changes in soil, in moisture, in age,
in fertilization and the many other things which affect the development of
the tree. It is possible for the pomologist, after long acquaintance with
varieties, to distinguish a considerable number with a fair degree of ac-
curacy when grown under conditions which are constant. Let those con-
ditions be changed and the task becomes a decidedly difficult one. But
even when proficient in differentiating varieties, it is quite another matter
to write descriptions for another's guidance. The distinctions are fre-
quently so slight, so evanescent as to make the task perplexing indeed.
If the cultivated varieties of citrus fruits are ever to be classified with
any degree of accuracy, they must be divided into groups of those varie-
ties which most closely resemble one another, in which group some one
variety, possessing the greatest number of characteristics common to
the group, will constitute the type. No hard and fast lines can be drawn
for the different groups, but in all cases the central figure, the type
should, as already stated, possess a large number of characteristics of the
group and should, as far as possible, at all times and under all conditions
be easily recognized as distinct from all others.
The oranges under consideration, grown in Florida, are not difficult
to distinguish either from each other or from! the members of other
groups. The China mandarin is taken as the type because it possesses a
large number of characteristics common to the group and besides it has
probably been longer in cultivation in America than any other member
of the group.

Hor.icultural Status of the Mandarin Group.

At the present time three classes of citrus fruits are exten-
sively cultivated in Florida, viz.: sweet oranges, pomelos and
mandarin oranges. These occupy the first place in citrus cul-
ture in the State. Lemons, limes and kumquats are also grown.
It is probable that lemon culture will become of considerable
















The Mandarin Orange Group.



Introductory Remarks.
Usually the different varieties of citrus are hard to differentiate; they
are distinguished in the fruit by no well marked characteristics and even
the trees show but slight differences in leafage and habit of growth.
Moreover, the varieties differ with changes in soil, in moisture, in age,
in fertilization and the many other things which affect the development of
the tree. It is possible for the pomologist, after long acquaintance with
varieties, to distinguish a considerable number with a fair degree of ac-
curacy when grown under conditions which are constant. Let those con-
ditions be changed and the task becomes a decidedly difficult one. But
even when proficient in differentiating varieties, it is quite another matter
to write descriptions for another's guidance. The distinctions are fre-
quently so slight, so evanescent as to make the task perplexing indeed.
If the cultivated varieties of citrus fruits are ever to be classified with
any degree of accuracy, they must be divided into groups of those varie-
ties which most closely resemble one another, in which group some one
variety, possessing the greatest number of characteristics common to
the group, will constitute the type. No hard and fast lines can be drawn
for the different groups, but in all cases the central figure, the type
should, as already stated, possess a large number of characteristics of the
group and should, as far as possible, at all times and under all conditions
be easily recognized as distinct from all others.
The oranges under consideration, grown in Florida, are not difficult
to distinguish either from each other or from! the members of other
groups. The China mandarin is taken as the type because it possesses a
large number of characteristics common to the group and besides it has
probably been longer in cultivation in America than any other member
of the group.

Hor.icultural Status of the Mandarin Group.

At the present time three classes of citrus fruits are exten-
sively cultivated in Florida, viz.: sweet oranges, pomelos and
mandarin oranges. These occupy the first place in citrus cul-
ture in the State. Lemons, limes and kumquats are also grown.
It is probable that lemon culture will become of considerable









BULLETIN NO. 66.


more importance than it now is, but at present, and probably
for some time to come, the statement, as made above, may be
allowed to stand.
Of the three important classes, the sweet oranges occupy
the first place and are destined to do so throughout the whole
future of citrus culture in Florida. The sweet orange is a sta-
ple fruit, just as the apple is a staple fruit. It is always in de-
mand, and it is the dessert fruit of America, par excellence.
The maridarin orange is essentially a fancy fruit and as
such, commands a fancy price in its season, but it would be
useless to attempt to place it on the same plane with the sweet
orange as a staple fruit. The fruit, generally speaking, is
smaller than the sweet orange. The bearing capacity of the
tree seldom reaches and rarely exceeds twelve straps,* and all
the members of the group require careful cultivation and fertil-
ization to secure the best quality. Of course, this may be said
of sweet oranges or any other citrus fruit, but it is peculiarly
true of oranges of the mandarin group.
Mandarin orange culture is on a staple basis at the present
time, and the number of trees may be conservatively increased.
Plantings should not be made out of all proportion to the plant-
ings of other citrus trees, and the object of every grower should
be, not so much to increase the output, as to produce a fruit of
high quality, else there is no room for the fruit on the market.
A good mandarin orange is an excellent fruit, a poor one is
worthless. It should be in all respects a fancy fruit. The rul-
ing price during the past season has been from $3.00 to $5.50
per strap.*
There is another matter which must not be overlooked in
considering the horticultural status of this group. At present

A strap is equal to two half boxes, see Bulletin No. 63. Fla. Exp.










THE MANDARIN GROUP. on


it contains the hardiest known, large fruited, edible variety of
citrus, the Satsuma. This variety extends the culture of citrus
fruits on a safe basis far into the more exposed sections of the
country. In northern Florida it withstands frost well and a
considerable amount of this fruit (four or five hundred straps)
was shipped from the extreme northern portion of Florida last
winter, the price realized being from $4.00 to $5.00 per strap.
The tree is hardy, the fruit matures early and is very desirable
for shipment during the months of October and November.

Origin, History and Introduction into America.

The investigations of De Candolle and others show that we are safe
in concluding that the mandarin oranges had their origin in Cochin
China. From that center they have been carried into many portions of
the world.
Several gaps occur in the history of these oranges, and yet it has
been possible to trace it with a fair degree of accuracy. The first mention
of an orange which is believed to belong to this group is in
Sterbeeck's Citriculfura where it is mentioned as the "Muscat apple."*
It is well within the limits of probability that some member or members
of the group were known to Rumphius and indeed Lourerio, in his
original description of Citrus nobilis in 1790, refers to this possibility.
Referring to the same dates and cuts, Bonavia comes to the conclusion
that the Aurantium sinense of Rumphius must be grouped with the
suntara oranges of India. Having carefully read the description written
by Rumphius, both in the original and as translated by Bonavia, and af-
ter comparing it with specimens of the Rangpur lime, grown by Reason-
er Bros., by Bonavia said to be a suntara orange, I must say that any at-
tempt to decide this question places one on exceedingly debatable
ground.
In 1805 two varieties of mandarin oranges were introduced into
England from Canton by Sir Abraham Hume and fruit produced from
these trees was illustrated in 1817 (2) and 1824 (3). According to du
Breuil (4), the mandarin orange was introduced into Europe (conti-
nental) about 1828. In the vicinity of Parma it was cultivated on a large

Steerbeck, F: Van. Citricultura. 27. 1682.
(1). It is probable that the suntara oranges as well as those of the
mandarin group can well be referred to C. nobilis Lour.
(2). Bot. Reg. 3: 211. 1817.
(3). Bot. Reposit. 9: 608. 1824.
(4). Hist. Cult. Orang. Risso & Poiteau. 49. 1872.











BULLETIN NO. 66.


scale as early as 1842 and its culture in the county of Niza and the region
surrounding Genoa dates back to 1848 or 1850. The conclusions reached
by du Breuil are further substantiated by the fact that Gallesio appears
not to have known this tree and Risso and Poiteau make no mention
of it in the first edition of their work. Du Breuil states that in commerce
a distinction was made between the mandarins of Parma and those of
Spain, Algeria, Niza and the coast of Italy.
Bonavia says that the mandarin orange was probably introduced into
India from Egypt with a collection of orange trees in 1847 (I) and that a
second introduction was made by himself in 1863 (2). It is not improb-
able that the mandarin oranges found their way into Egypt from some
one of the countries of southern Europe.
The China mandarin according to the best information which can
be secured was brought to Louisiana by the Italian consul at New Or-
leans some time between 1840 and 1850. The first trees were planted on
the grounds of the consulate at Algiers across the river from New Or-
leans (3). It has been impossible to obtain the name of the consul or the
exact date (4). Shortly after, or about 1850, some one of the mandarin
oranges was known to northern nurserymen, for Buist (5) in 1854 refers
to one of them as a recent introduction, valuable for pot culture.
The introduction of the China mandarin from Louisiana into Florida
is credited to Maj. Atway by the committee of the Florida Fruit
Growers' Association and at the time their report was made the original
tree was growing in the grove of Dr. Moragne at Palatka. The acci-
dental substitution of one word for another in Stubbs and Morgan's
bulletin "The Orange and Other Citrus Fruits" has twisted the phrase-
ology as quoted by Moore, Reasoner and others to read "Tree of origin-
al 'variety introduced by Maj. Atway, of Bayou Sara, La." Since their


(I), (2). The Cultivated Orange of India and Ceylon. 56 and 231. 1888.
(3). This information was supplied by Mr. W. L. Reddick of Tri-
umph,, La. in a letter to the author dated April 30, 1902.
(4). The consular officers to New Orleans about this time were A.
Garibaldi, Acting Consul General from Sardinia recognized March 22,
1832.
G. A. Barelli, Vice Consul from the two Sicilies recognized Oct. 26,
1836.
Thos. Barrett, Consul from the Pontificial States recognized Oct 7,
1841.
Carlo Giovanni Mansoni, Consul from Tuscany, recognized Feb. 18,
1846.
Chas. Joseph Daron, Consul from the Pontificial States, recognized
Dec. 18, 1846.
Joseph Lanata, Consul from Sardinia, recognized Oct. 14, 1852.
This information was given the writer by Dr. E. W. Allen, Office Ex-
periment Stations, U. S. D. A. in a letter dated May 14, 1902.
(5). Buist, R. American Flower-Garden Directory. 224. 1824.









THE MANDARIN GROUP.


bulletin was written in Louisiana, this reading conveys an erroneous
idea.
It has not been possible to fix the date of introduction of the man-
darin oranges into Florida but if the report of the Fruit Growers' Asso-
ciation is correct, it was of course subsequent to the Louisiana introduc-
tion and presumably some time after it. The origin and introduction
of each of the mandarin oranges is given in the section on varieties.

Scientific and Common Names.

Many writers on citrus fruits have placed the mandarin
oranges under the species, Citrus Aurantium Linn. Others
have considered it a variety of that species while some, believ-
ing it possessed distinctive, specific characteristics have fol-
lowed Lourerio and have referred it to his species Citrus nobi-
lis. In this latter view the writer concurs, and after a careful
study of the matter has placed the whole group under that
species, the citation of which is as follows:
Citrus nobilis Lour. Fl. Coch. 466. 1790.
The group as represented in Florida is distinct in habit
of growth and in fruit from C. Aurantium. It may shade off
into the first named species but where such is the case any vari-
ety in question should be relegated to the group of which it
possesses the greatest number of marked characteristics. In
illustration of this,-in the writer's opinion Tangerona, classed
with the mandarin group in the catalogue of the Florida State
Horticulfural Society and in Bul. 8, U.S. D. A., Div. Pomol-
ogy, should be cut out of that group and placed with the sweet
oranges where it doubtless belongs. It probably contains some
traces of the mandarin strain but if the specimens which have
been examined were true to name, and there is every reason
to believe that they were, its affinities are decidedly with the
sweet oranges.
The reasons for adopting the group-name Mandarin are,
that it has been longer in use and is probably more widely









BULLETIN NO. 66.


known than any other. Many have referred to the Tangierines
as a group or sub-group distinct and separate from the Manda-
rins. There may be reasons of greater or less weight for this
division, but in this publication the name Tangierine has been
discarded in favor of the older name. No distinction can be
made between the Mandarin and the Tangierine oranges so-
called, more than can be made between any two distinct varie-
ties of fruits in recognized pomological groups. Moreover,
the fact must not be overlooked that in some of the world's cit-
rus growing districts the two names are used interchangably.*
Two explanations have been given for the name mandarin
as applied to this group of oranges. It was given either be-
cause the fruit was regarded as the best of the citrus family,
just as the Mandarin or grandee stood in social rank above his
fellowmen, or because this orange was the fruit of the rich and
therefore only within the reach of the nobility. The fact that
the fruit is extensively cultivated in China and Japan and that
it is there held in such high esteem leads to the belief that the
first explanation is the more correct one.
One'other name, "Kid-glove oranges," has been applied to
the group. In explanation of the origin of this name the re-
marks of the late E. H. Hart* are self explanatory, "The
term "kid-glove" orange as applied to Citrus nobilis, originally
a joke of our facetious countryman, Colonel Dancy, of Orange
Mills, was gravely accepted as a synonym by our first nomen-
clature committee, and like many another whimsical what- do-
you-call-him, it struck where one more dignified would have
glanced off."

*Hart, J. H., Annual Report, Roy. Bot. Gar. Trindad. 1891. ig. 1891.
*Hart, E. H., in Proc. 22nd Ses. Am. Pom. Soc. 75-76, 1889.









THE MANDARIN GROUP.


Description of the Tree.
Tree small, fifteen feet or somewhat more in height, more
or less thorny; bark brownish or streaked; branches upright or
drooping; branchlets green or dark, round or angled, generally
small and slender; leaves small, lanceolate or oval, slightly cre-
nate, pet miles small, wingless or with very slight flanges; flow-
ers white, sweet scented; petals five; stamen, slightly connected,
eighteen to twenty in number; fruit oblate, compressed, vary-
ing in color from orange yellow to tomato red; rind loosely
attached to the pulp; sections nine to fifteen, loosely connected;
seeds usually top-shaped of medium size; cotyledons pistachi
greenI; leaves and twigs peculiarly and characteristically
scented. Native of Cochin China. Usually regarded as being
somewhat hardier than the sweet orange.2

Varieties of Mandarin Oranges.
The mandarin oranges at present cultivated in Florida num-
ber nine varieties. Of these, but six, viz.-China, Cleopatra,
Dancy, King, Oneco, and Satsuma, are listed by nurserymen,
and consequently it is difficult to secure trees of the other varie-
ties. However, it may be plainly stated that the list just given
contains, with one possible exception, all of any commercial
importance, and this one, namely Beauty, might replace Cleo-
patra to good advantage. Two other varieties, Sprack and
Traveler, at one time listed in the catalogue of the State Horti-
cultural Society have to all practical intents and purposes dis-
appeared from cultivation, and at present writing fruit of them
cannot be secured. Many of the varieties listed by Reasoner*


(1). The seeds of King have the Cotyledous white.
(2). Du Breuil notes this fact, 1. c.
*Reasoner, P. W., in report on Condition of Tropical and Semi-
Tropical Fruits in the United States. Bul. U. S. D. A., Div. Pom. I: 72-
74, 1887. Reprint 18gi.









THE MANDARIN GROUP.


Description of the Tree.
Tree small, fifteen feet or somewhat more in height, more
or less thorny; bark brownish or streaked; branches upright or
drooping; branchlets green or dark, round or angled, generally
small and slender; leaves small, lanceolate or oval, slightly cre-
nate, pet miles small, wingless or with very slight flanges; flow-
ers white, sweet scented; petals five; stamen, slightly connected,
eighteen to twenty in number; fruit oblate, compressed, vary-
ing in color from orange yellow to tomato red; rind loosely
attached to the pulp; sections nine to fifteen, loosely connected;
seeds usually top-shaped of medium size; cotyledons pistachi
greenI; leaves and twigs peculiarly and characteristically
scented. Native of Cochin China. Usually regarded as being
somewhat hardier than the sweet orange.2

Varieties of Mandarin Oranges.
The mandarin oranges at present cultivated in Florida num-
ber nine varieties. Of these, but six, viz.-China, Cleopatra,
Dancy, King, Oneco, and Satsuma, are listed by nurserymen,
and consequently it is difficult to secure trees of the other varie-
ties. However, it may be plainly stated that the list just given
contains, with one possible exception, all of any commercial
importance, and this one, namely Beauty, might replace Cleo-
patra to good advantage. Two other varieties, Sprack and
Traveler, at one time listed in the catalogue of the State Horti-
cultural Society have to all practical intents and purposes dis-
appeared from cultivation, and at present writing fruit of them
cannot be secured. Many of the varieties listed by Reasoner*


(1). The seeds of King have the Cotyledous white.
(2). Du Breuil notes this fact, 1. c.
*Reasoner, P. W., in report on Condition of Tropical and Semi-
Tropical Fruits in the United States. Bul. U. S. D. A., Div. Pom. I: 72-
74, 1887. Reprint 18gi.








BULLETIN NO. 66.


are not now obtainable. In California two varieties besides
those grown in Florida are cultivated to some extent which
might be useful in this State if found to be superior to those
we have already. These are Kinneola and Stevens.
The varieties are arranged alphabetically. The measure-
ments of the fruit are given in inches, the diameter from base
to apex being given first, followed by the transverse diameter.
BEAUTY. Beauty of Glen Retreat.-Form oblate, decidedly
flattened, sections showing through the rind; size medium, 2
I-8.inches x 2 15-16 inches, 2 3-16 inches x 2 13-16 inches;
stem small and slender; apex flat or with a very slight depres-
sion; base slightly depressed and ridged about the calyx; color
deep reddish orange, not so highly colored as Dancy, glossy;
rind smooth, very thin,I-I6 of an inch or slightly more in thick-
ness; oil cells flush with the surface, large, conspicuous, eliptical
oval, or much flattened, frequently set in the pithy lining of the
rind from which they may be detached easily; sections ten or
more, clearly defined,regular; rag almost entirely lacking; flesh
orange colored; juice sacks broad, blunt; pulp melting; juice
plentiful, orange colored; flavor distinct, rich, vinous; acidity
and sweetness well blended; seeds present, small, few, top-
shaped; core small, open, 1-2 inch or less in diameter; season
December and January.
Tree thornless, branches and branchlets slender and wil-
lowy; leaves small, resembling those of Dancy; petioles charac-
teristically small and slender, 3-4 of an inch long.
The fruit of this variety is very heavy, and though it floats
in water it sinks almost below the surface. The color while not
possessing quite so much of the reddish tinge as Dancy is de-
cidedly darker than China. In flavor it resembles Dancy








THE MANDARIN GROUP. oa

though it is distinct. Beauty is a variety well worthy of propa-
gation and trial.
Specimens of fruit received from C. W. Butler, St. Peters-
burg, Fla., December 13, 1901. Mr. Butler received his buds
of the variety from the Agricultural Department and Col.
Brackett informed the author that it was introduced from Aus-
tralia by the U. S. Dept. of Agr. in 1893. In a letter to the
writer dated at Sydney,N.S.Wales, Aust., April 18, 1902, W.J.
Allen, Government fruit expert for that colony, says: "This
mandarin was raised by Mr. W. H. Parker within a few miles
of Brisbane, (Queensland) Aust., and is, I believe, a seedling
from either the Emperor or Scarlet mandarin. The original
tree was raised some time in 1888 or 1889. The fruit is of
good size, solid, with a beautiful, thin, tough rind, and carries
well. It is usually a good cropper and proves a profitable vari-
ety to grow."
CHINA. China Celestial, China Mandarin, Kid-glove, Tan-
gierine, Willow Leaved -Form oblate, compressed; size medi-
um, I 7-8 inches x 2 1-2 inches,2 15-16 inches x 3 inches, usual-
ly about 2 inches x 2 9-16 inches; color dark orange,shiny; apex
slightly scarred, depressed, depression very shallow and rather
broad; base nearly smooth, somewhat necked or creased, the
number of creases frequently corresponding with the number
of sections; stem small; calyx small, set in a slight depression;
rind smooth, generally marked with depressions, correspond-
ing to the number of sections, 1-8 inch or less in thickness, very
loosely attached; oil cells conspicuous, slightly depressed or
flush with the surface; sections ten to thirteen, rather irregular
in size, well defined; flesh coarse grained in appearance, orange
in color; juice sacks short, broadand blunt; pulp melting; juice
plentiful, colored; acidity and sweetness well combined; flavor
vinous,peculiar and distinct (musky?) ; seeds fifteen to twenty-








BULLETIN NO. 66.


five, brownish white, top-shaped, roundish, beaked, plump; core
open, spongy, 3-4 inches in diameter; season November to De-
cember.
Tree very willowy in growth, almost thornless; leaves
small, narrow, deep green; fruit usually borne singly at the
tips of slender branches.
China is not so extensively cultivated in Florida as the vari-
ety Dancy. In Louisiana it predominated before the freeze,
and New Orleans is one of the best markets. The fruit is fre-
quently in good shape for the Thanksgiving trade.
Specimens received from Reasoner Bros., Oneco, Fla., F.
D. Waite, Palmetto, Fla., W. E. Baker, Melrose, Fla., J. J.
Haden, Cocoanut Grove, Fla., A. J. Pettigrew, Manatee, Fla.,
C. C. Shooter, Earleton, Fla., J. M. McClung, Dunnedin, Fla.
Introduced into Louisiana from Italy between 1840 and 185o.
From thence it is said to have been brought to Florida by Maj.
Atway, date unknown to the author.
CLEOPATRA. Spice Tangierine.-Form oblate, flattened and
irregular in circumference outline; size small, I 3-16 inches x I
3-4 inches, I 1-4 inches x 2 1-8 inches; color dark orange red,
not so bright as Dancy; stem slender,base. flat, slightly depress-
ed or sometimes slightly elevated, roughened about the calyx
apex depressed, generally navel marked; rind rough or in-
clined to roughness, 1-8 inch or less in thickness, loosely at-
tached, in very ripe specimens separating entirely from
the pulp ball; oil cells small, numerous; sections fifteen,
small; flesh orange colored, coarse grained; jtice sacks typi-
cally broad and blunt; juice abundant, colored; flavor vinous,
acidity and sweetness normal; quality good; seeds about
twenty, small, top-shaped; pith small, open; season January
and February.
Tree thornless, forming a dense top, upright but inclined








THE MANDARIN GROUP.


to be willowy; leaves small; fruits produced singly or in
bunches. As an ornamental this variety is very beautiful, but
as a commercial variety it is not worthy of cultivation.
Specimens received from Reasoner Bros., Oneco, Fla., and
A. J. Pettigrew, Manatee, Fla. In Bulletin I, U. S. D. A., Div.
Pomology, Reasoner says that the Spice tangierine was intro-
duced into Florida by Col. Codrington from Jamaica. Under
the name Cleopatra it had been known for a long time in
Florida.
DANCY. Tangierine, Dancy's Tangierine, Bijou, Moragne's
Tangierine.-Form oblate, sections showing through the rind;
size medium I 3-4 inches x 2 5-8 inches, 2 1-8 inches x 3 1-16
inches; color deep orange red, almost tomato red, shiny; stem
slender; base sometimes smooth, frequently nippled or more
or less corrugated; calyx small, segments blunt pointed; apex
terminating in a broad, shallow depression, sometimes scarred;
rind smooth 1-16 inch to 1-8 inch thick, leathery, easily re-
moved, attached by a few strings to the flesh; oil cells small,
usually flush with the surface though sometimes slightly de-
pressed; sections eleven to fourteen in number, fairly regular
in size, easily detached from one another; flesh dark orange
colored, coarse grained; juice sacks short, broad and blunt;
juice abundant, colored; rag almost entirely absent; pulp melt-
ing, acidity and sweetness well blended; flavor rich and
sprightly; quality excellent; pith open, 3-4 inches across; seeds
seven to twenty, rather small, short and blunt or top-shaped
and beaked; season December and January.
Tree compactly headed, rather upright though tending to
spread as the head is opened from year to year by the weight
of the fruit, densely foliaged, fruit exposed on the outer portion
of the tree. Dancy has been more generally planted than any
other variety of the group. Its high color combined with excel-









BULLETIN NO. 66.


lent quality make it a particularly fine variety. It is commonly
known throughout the State and in the markets as tangierine.
Specimens received from J. J. Haden, Cocoanut Grove,
Fla., C. C. Shooter, Earleton, Fla., W. E. Baker, Melrose, Fla.,
Reasoner Bros., Oneco, Fla., John Thompson, Clear Water,
Fla., F. D. Waite, Palmetto, Fla., A. J. Pettigrew, Manatee,
Fla., J. M. McClung, Dunedin, Fla., C. T. M1cCarty, Ankona,
Fla., G. L. Taber, Glen St. Mary, Fla., and C. W. Butler, St.
Petersburg, Fla. The variety Dancy is said to have originated
as a seedlingI at Buena Vista, St. John's county, Fla. The
parent tree was raised by Col. Geo. L. Dancy and was intro-
duced into cultivation in 1871 or early in 1872.* It has proved
to be a very prolific variety.
KING. King of Siam -(Bul. Div. Pomology. U. S. D. A.
I: 73, 1887). Form oblate; size large, 2 3-8 inches x 3 inches, 3
1-16 inches x 3 3-4 inches, 3 3-8 inches x 4 1-4 inches; color
deep orange; base somewhat roughened and creased; apex flat-
tened, scarred and very slightly depressed; calyx small, five
pointed; rind rough, pitted, 1-8 to 1-4 inch thick, separating
easily from the flesh; oil cells large, flush with the surface or
slightly depressed, mostly balloon-shaped; sections thirteen,
fairly regular, easily detached from one another; flesh rather
coarse grained, orange in color; juice sacks spindle-shaped, not

(I). Reasoner says that Dancy is a seedling of China. I am inclined
to doubt this for if such were the case it is not likely that it would prove
so strongly prepotent as it is. Every seedling of Dancy observed bears a.
strong resemblance to the parent. Moreover, in a letter dated at Palat-
ka, Fla., Jan. I, 1903, Miss S. W. Moragne states that a tangierine tree
was growing on her father's place when it was purchased about 1843, and
further states that China was not the fir st of the group grown in Florida.
Twigs of trees propagated from the original strongly resemble Dancy.
The author believes that Dancy originated from this variety.
*This information regarding the date was given to the writer by G.
L. Dancy, grandson of George L. Dancy, who originated the variety, in
a letter dated at Jacksonville, Fla., July 25, 1902.




Plate I.































Dancv. King.









THE MANDARIN GROUP.


so broad and blunt as in other members of the group; juice
abundant, colored; pulp melting; acidity and sweetness well
blended, flavor agreeable, sprightly; quality very good; seeds
eighteen to twenty in number, large, resembling those of the
sweet oranges, cotyledons white; season late, M1arch-April.
Tree stiff and upright in growth, generally thorny though
some specimens have fewer thorns than others, foliage dark
green, resembling that of the sweet oranges.
The King mandarin has been quite extensively planted in
Florida, but, at the present time, does not appear to be held in
quite as high estimation as it formerly was. The wood appears
to be brittle and frequently the trees bear so heavily that they
are almost stripped of their branches by the weight of fruit.
This might be obviated by thinning. The fruit is much ex-
posed to the sun and is frequently badly sunburned and ren-
dered unsalable. On the other hand it must be stated in its
favor that the variety is prolific, of good quality, and since it
matures late in the season good prices are always secured.
Specimens of fruit received from T. J. Watkins, Nocatee,
Fla., C. C. Shooter, Earleton, Fla., J. J. Haden, Cocoanut
Grove, Fla., G. L. Taber, Glen St. Mary, Fla., Reasoner Bros.,
Oneco, Fla. Introduced into Florida in 1882 from California
by Mr. John Carville Storin, of Winter Park, Fla. The vari-
ety was introduced into California from Cochin China in the
same year by Dr. R. Magee, Riverside, Cal.
KINO KUNI. Form oblate, much flattened, size small to me-
dium, I 3-8 inches x 2 inches, I 5-8 inches x 2 5-8 inches; color
deep orange or orange red; stem slender; base usually creased
or roughened with four or five ridges'; calyx small, slightly de-
pressed; apex- ending in a broad, shallow depression nearly 3-
16 inch deep; rind rather rough separating readily from the
pulp, 1-8 inches or slightly less in thickness; oil cells conspicu-








BULLETIN NO. 66.


ous, depressed; sections usually thirteen in number, irregular
in size; flesh coarse grained, reddish orange in color; juice
sacks short, broad, blunt; juice abundant, colored; pulp melting
acidity and sweetness well blended; flavor sprightly; quality
quite good; pith open; seeds thirteen to fourteen, top-shaped,
beaked; cotyledons green; season November-December.
Tree compactly headed,resembling Cleopatra; leaves small;
fruit of quite good quality but not of much commercial impor-
tance.
Specimens of fruit from John Thompson, Clear Water,
Fla. Mr. Thompson obtained the variety from Mr. J. L. Nor-
mand, of Marksville, La. It is not known when it was first
introduced into Florida, but at present a tree in the Thompson
grove is the only one known to the writer. It is a Japanese
variety.
SMIKADO. Form oblate; size medium to large, I 3-8 inches x
2 5-8 inches, 2 I-8 inches x 3 inches; color orange yellow; stem
stout, base slightly depressed about the calyx, rough or corru-
gated; calyx small, sunken; apex terminated by a broad, shal-
low depression; rind slightly rough, 1-8 inch in thickness; oil
cells large, occasionally 1-16 inch in diameter, conspicuous,
slightly elevated or sometimes depressed; sections thirteen to
fourteen, well defined, rather irregular, separating easily; flesh
orange colored, coarse grained; juice sacks elongated, or broad
and blunt; juice abundant, orange colored; pulp melting; acid-
ity and sweetness well blended; flavor rich, sprightly; quality
very good; pith open 3-4 inches across; seeds nine, top-shaped,
distinctly beaked, large, 3-4 inches x 1-4 inches x 5-16 inches;
cotyledons green; season October-November.
Tree inclined to be upright, in general resembling Satsuma,
but not so reclinate; leaves with petioles generally distinctly
flanged. As already noted this variety closely resembles Sat-









THE MANDARIN GROUP.


suma of which it is a seedling. It differs from Sat-
suma in its more upright habit, in having distinctly flanged
leaves, in the larger and more conspicuous oil cells of the rind,
in the shape and number of the seeds, and the larger, broader
depression about the apex. It cannot, however, be considered
as being in any wise superior to Satsuma.
Specimens from C. W. Butler, St. Petersburg, Fla. Orig-
inated by Rev. Lyman Phelps of Sanford, Fla.
ONECO. Reasoner's catalogue, 19oo. Form oblate, flat-
tened at the apex and tapering from about the middle to the
base; size medium to large, 2 5-16 inches x 2 7-8 inches, 2 I-2
inches x 3 I-4 inches; color deep orange yellow; base slightly
ridged or smooth; calyx very small; apex ending in a broad,
shallow depression; rind 1-8 inch thick, generally inclined to
be rough though frequently smooth, easily detached; oil cells
large and conspicuous ;sections twelve in number,fairly regular,
clearly defined; flesh coarse grained, orange yellow in color,
juice sacks broad, short; juice abundant, colored; rag absent;
pulp melting; acidity and sweetness well blended; flavor dis-
tinct, rich, vinous; quality excellent; pith open; seeds small,
twelve to fourteen, top-shaped, beaked; cotyledons green; sea-
son January-M)arch.
Tree rather upright, foliage small with a pronounced fra-
grance when bruised; thorny but with many thornless
branches. The fruit is excellent in flavor and is not surpassed
in quality by any other variety of the mandarin group known
to the writer. The flavor may be said to resemble a combina-
tion of Dancy, King and Satsuma.
Fruit received from Reasoner Bros., Oneco, Fla. This va-
riety was raised from seed received from north-west-
ern India and planted by the late P. W. Reasoner in 1888.








BULLETIN NO. 66.


The original seedling tree is still standing on the grounds of
Reasoner Bros., at Oneco, Fla.
SATSUMA. (Manville's Prac. Orange Cult. 112. 1883.)-
Form oblate; sections frequently showing through the rind;
size variable, I 7-8 inches x 2 5-8 inches and 2 5-8 inches x
3 7-16 inches representing the variation in size; color orange
yellow; base usually slightly creased; calyx small; apex scarred
with a round brownish spot situated in a broad, shallow depres-
sion; rind 1-8 inch thick, inclined to be rough; oil cells large,
conspicuous, frequently depressed though sometimes flush with
the surface; flesh coarse grained, deep orange in color; juice
sacks short, broad; juice abundant, yellowish orange in color;
"pulp melting; acidity and sweetness well balanced; flavor
sprightly, agreeable; quality excellent; pith open with the sec-
tions frequently separated at the inner edges; generally seedless
though occasionally from ofie to four seeds are found, top-
shaped, broad, plump, not distinctly beaked as in others of the
group; season October-November.
Tree thornless and of spreading dwarf habit, branches re-
clinate, branchlets angled; leaves broad, tapering abruptly.to-
ward the apex, petioles scarcely margined. The leaves gener-
ally point upward and thus either follow the direction of the
branches or are at right angles to them. The smaller fruits ripen
first while the larger ones are later in maturing. The Satsuma
is at its best just when it reaches maturity. In the extreme
southern end of the State it does not color well but remains
green or greenish for a considerable time after the juice has
acquired its best flavor. The variety is very hardy in north
Florida and is strongly recommended for planting in that por-
tion of the State. The fruit is well received in the markets, the
trees bear regularly a fair crop of fruit. Fruit and leaves




Plate II.

































Oneco. Satsuma








THE MANDARIN GROUP. oo

sometimes attacked and distorted by the attacks of scab caused
by Cladosporium elegans Penzig? See plate 3, Bul. 53.
Specimens from John Thompson, Clear Water Har-
bor, Fla., C. B. Thornton, Orlando, Fla., J. B. Ellsworth, Jes-
samine, Fla., G. L. Taber, Glen St. Mary, Fla., and C. M;. Mc-
Clung, Dunedin, Fla. Satsuma is a Japanese variety. Two
introductions were made from Japan in the 70's, one by Dr.
Geo. R. Hall in 1876, the other by Mrs. VanValkenburg in
1878.

Estimation of Varieties.
In order of ripening the varieties are arranged as follows:
Satsuma, China, Dancy, Oneco, King. The fruiting period
of these five varieties extends through a period of six or seven
months or from October to the last of April. It is impossible
to place each variety in a definite ripening period because the
locality and the treatment given the trees have much to do with
the time of maturity. But some such general arrangement as
this is a close approximation. Satsuma, October and Novem-
ber; China, November and December; Dancy, December and
January; Oneco, January to March; King, February to April.
Satsuma, China and Dancy are well worthy of cultivation,
but Satsuma is not recommended for planting in the extreme
southern end of the State, and Dancy brings more money in
most markets than China. Oneco is a variety of very fine qual-
ity, and if its bearing capacity equals its quality it will indeed
prove a valuable acquisition. King has some excellent qualities
and brings a good price in its season. It has, however, one or
two objections as already noted. Cleopatra and Kino Kuni
are worthy of cultivation only as ornamentals. Mikado is in
no wise superior to Satsuma which it closely resembles and it
is not nearly so seedless. Beauty, a variety of merit but un-









BULLETIN NO. 66.


tried, is recommended for trial. It is one of the best varieties
grown in Queensland, Australia.

Analyses.
Six varieties of Mandarin oranges have been analyzed for
the Horticultural Dept. by Messrs. Miller & Blair, the Station
Chemists. The results are given below. Some of the varieties
have never been analyzed before and the determinations are of
very considerable interest and importance giving, as they do,
reliable information concerning the acid and sugar content of
the different varieties and the amount of fertilizer constituents
removed from the soil.
In each case a composite sample was taken from ten fruits.
The Satsumas used in the analytical work were received from
G. L. Taber, Glen St. Mary, Fla., who probably has the largest
plantation of the variety in the state if not in the country. The
other varieties were received from Reasoner Bros., Oneco, Fla.

Table No. 1.





VARIETY. Z
b o d bC bP

<;3* < C < pC, VX M


13611 Satsuma 12448 4.35 2.2x2.7 .0076.2 23.8 .oo
1364 China 141.87 4.96 2.3x2.7 .19 75.0 21.4 3.6
1365 Dancy 105.78 3.70 1.9x2.6 .4 79.4 i8.6 2.0
1370 Oneco 181.27 6.34 2.4x3. [.6 73.4 24.6 2.0
1371 Clopatra 64.4 2.25 I.5x2.3 .18j58.4 37.3 4.3
1374 King 229.83 8.04 2.6x3.5 157.6 40.1 2.3








THE MANDARIN GROUP.

Table No. I gives the average weight of each variety in
grams and ounces, the average dimension in inches, the average
number of seeds, and the percentage of pulp, rind and seed.
Satsuma, as already noted, is generally seedless, and though oc-
casionally a few are found there were none in the sample. In
percentage of pulp the varieties grade as follows: Dancy, Sat-
suma, China, Oneco, Cleopatra, and King. In this particular
sample of King the rind was very thick. In percentage of rind
it will be noticed that Dancy was very much lower than any
of the others while in this respect Cleopatra and King ran very
high. The percentage of seed in China and Cleopatra greatly
exceeds that found in the other varieties, a fact amply borne out
by the large number of seeds generally found in these varieties.
The flavor of oranges depends to a very considerable extent
upon the proper blending of the acid and sugar in the juice. If
a given fruit is to be of the best quality it must be quite acid
before ripening. Then as the process of maturing progresses
the acid is toned down and the sugar increases relatively until
the highest degree of perfection is reached. Now, if a fruit is
analyzed before this time the results may show an undue pre-
ponderance of acid, and, on the other hand, if it has passed the
time when it is at its best it may not contain sufficient acid rela-
tively. I









BULLETIN NO. 66.


Table No. 2.

cd
6 VARIETY.
z r U ^ -u
,wl a ,

1361 Satsuma Juice 1.019 4.06 3.74 7.80
1364 China Juice .838 3.90 3.59 7.49
1365 Dancy Juice .884 5.59 3-92 9.51
1370 Oneco Juice .807 5.69 3.79 9.48
1371 Cleopatra Juice 1.564 3.96 3.24 7.20
1374 King Juice 1.564 5.73 3.22 8.95

The acid and sugar content of the six varieties is given in
table No. 2. Satsuma, Cleopatra and King had hardly reached
perfection, while the others were at their best. Satsuma, how-
ever, was at its best for shipping as it tones down after picking.
In acid content King and Cleopatra were identical; China, Dan-
cy and Oneco were nearly the same, while Satsuma was above
any one of the last three named. The succrose in Dancy, Oneco,
and King was almost the same. The amount in China was
3.90 per cent. and in. Cleopatra 3.96 per cent. Satsuma ex-
ceeded China by .16 per cent. The percentage of succrose
shows a much wider range of variation than does the percent-
age of invert sugar. In total sugar content the varieties may
be arranged as follows: Dancy, Oneco, King, Satsuma, China,
Cleopatra. The general conclusion to be drawn from tables
No. I and No. 2 is that of the whole six varieties analyzed Dan-
cy was the best. It will not do, however, to generalize from the
results of a single analysis. A number should be made in or-
der to eliminate in as far as possible the differences due to culti-
vation, fertilization, etc. Still, as a matter of fact, the estima-









SI THE MANDARIN GROUP oat

tion as shown in the tables of Dancy and Oneco coincides with
the value usually placed upon them by competent judges.

Table No. 3.



VARIETY AND LAB. NO.
o -

SPulp .1257 .0267 .0792
Satsuma, 1361. ..... .... Rind .0864 .o119 .0869
Seed
i Pulp .1507 .0457 .0652
China, 1364. .. ..|Rind .0826 .0178 .0404
I Seed .0243 .0123 .0348
I Pulp .1016 .0381 .o8lo
Dancy, 1365.. .. ............... .1903 .0591 -1500
SSeed .0127 .oo61 .0236
SPulp .1674 .0345 .0763
Oneco, 1370... ........ .Rind .0929 .0154 .0635
Seed .0129 .0074 .0255
Pulp .1711 .0274 .0631
Cleopatra, 1371 .. .. ...... Rind .1186 .0131 .0593
Seed .0302 .,T24 .0415


King, 1374.. .....


Pulp
Rind
Seed


.1371
.1263
.0157


.0282
.0192
.0057


.0639
.0653
.0214


Table No. 3 shows the percentage of phosphoric acid (P2
05), potash (K20) and nitrogen(N) in the pulp, rind and
seed of each of the six varieties. From this it may be noted
that the largest percentage of phosphoric acid was contained in
the pulp, that the rind contained less than the pulp and the seeds


1









BULLETIN NO. 66.


still less than either of the other two parts. A close examina-
tion of the potash column shows the same results, and the same
is true of the nitrogen except in Satsuma and King.

Table No. 4.



VARIETY AND LAB. NO. 0 5 Sd


Satsuma, 1361...... .... ..... 2121 .0386 .166i
China, 1364. .. ...... ....... 2576 .0758 .I404
Dancy, 1365. ............. .. .1903 .0591 .1500
Oneco, 1370. ......... .. .2732 .0573 .1653
Cleopatra, 1371. .. .. ....... .3199 .0529 .1639
King, 1374. .... ........ ...... .2791 .053I .15o6
Average. ................ .2570 1 .0561 1 .156o

Table No. 4 gives the total percentage of each of the three
important fertilizer constituents in the six varieties. The phos-
phoric acid varies from .0386 per cent. in Satsuma to .0758 in
China. The potash varies from .1903 per cent. in Dancy to
.3199 per cent. in Cleopatra, and the nitrogen from .1404 per
cent. in China to .1661 per cent. in Satsuma. The averages
show .1561 per cent.phosphoric acid, .2570 per cent. potash and
.1560 per cent. nitrogen. It is interesting to compare these
averages with those given for pomelos on page 405 Bul. 58,
and for kumquats on page 566 Bul. 65. Such comparison shows
only a very slight variation in the average percentage of fertili-
zer ingredients contained in the different fruits.
Assuming that five straps of mandarins will weigh 425 lbs.
or 85 lbs. per strap, we can from table No. 4 determine the
amount of fertilizer ingredients removedifrom the soil by that








THE MANDARIN GROUP. U00

amount of fruit. There would be removed .239 lbs. of phos-
phoric acid, 1.192 lbs. of potash and .662 lbs. of nitrogen. These
amounts must be supplied from the soil, as they are all taken
into the tree through the roots. It is interesting to note that the
quantity of potash removed is about one and one-fourth times
the amount of phosphoric acid and nitrogen together. Further-
more, the amount of phosphoric acid is very much less than the
quantity of nitrogen. Now, if we assume that dissolved bone
analyzes. 18 per cent. of phosphoric acid, acid phosphate 14 per
cent. phosphoric acid, high grade sulphate of potash, 50 per
cent. of potash, nitrate of soda 15 per cent. of nitrogen,sulphate
of ammonia 20 per cent. of nitrogen,there would then be requir-
ed 1.33 lbs. (i lb. 5 1-4 ozs.)of dissolved bone, or 1.66 lbs. (Ilb.
Io 1-2 ozs.) of acid phosphate to supply the amount of phospho-
ric acid removed,-2.384 lbs. ( 2 lbs. 6 1-4 ozs.) high grade sul-
phate of potash to supply the potash and 4.413 lbs. (4 lbs. 6 3-5
ozs.) nitrate of soda or 3.33 lbs. (3 lbs. 5 ozs.) sulphate of am-
monia to supply the nitrogen. If we follow this still further and
estimate the amounts of the different substances required to
make a ton in different combinations we would have (I) 379
lbs dissolved bone, 679 lbs. high grade sulphate of potash, 942
lbs. sulphate of ammonia. (2) 327 lbs. dissolved bone, 587 lbs.
high grade sulphate of potash, io86 lbs. nitrate of soda. (3)
393 lbs. acid phosphate, 564 lbs. high grade sulphate of
potash, and 1043 lbs. nitrate of soda. (4) 452 lbs. acid phos-
phate, 648 lbs. high grade sulphate of potash, 900 lbs. sulphate
of ammonia.
Now, if we examine the percentage composition of the first
of these combinations we find that it will contain about 3.4 per
cent. P205, 16 per cent. K20, and 9 per cent. N. A similar
examination of the other formulae will give somewhat similar
results. But it must be said that the use of such formulae is not









BULLETIN NO. 66.


even advised and cannot be-recommended without an actual
test. They are simply given here to show that the usual belief
that potash is required for fruit formation is not without foun-
dation, and on the other hand it appears that smaller amounts
of phosphoric acid are required than is generally supposed and
that citrus trees draw heavily on the nitrogen content of the
soil. The well informed grower knows whether his trees need
nitrogen or not and generally believes that his trees are receiv-
ing only a certain known amount, but due allowance'must be
made for the nitrogen carried to the soil in the rain, collected
by leguminous plants or obtained from other sources. On gen-
eral principles it may be said that a fertilizer composed of the
materials mentioned above and analyzing 8 per cent. phosphoric
acid, 12 per cent. potash, and 3 per cent. of nitrogen, will meet
the requirements of most soils in the citrus growing districts of
the state.
H. HAROLD HUME.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs