• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Sources of information
 Introduction
 The cow's contribution to family...
 What is a profitable cow?
 Breeds of dairy cattle
 Dual purpose cattle
 The dairy herd, sire and dam
 Raising replacements
 Mineral supplements for cattle
 Factors affecting milk yield
 Effect of abortion disease on dairy...
 Factors affecting butterfat content...
 Economic phases of dairying
 Acknowledgments
 Farmer visitors are welcome at...






Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station - no. 274
Title: Management of dairy cattle in Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027524/00001
 Material Information
Title: Management of dairy cattle in Florida
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 51 p. : ill., charts ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Arnold, P. T. Dix, 1902-
Becker, R. B ( Raymond Brown ), 1892-1989
McKinley, Bruce
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1935
 Subjects
Subject: Dairy cattle -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Dairy farming -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
Statement of Responsibility: P.T. Dix Arnold and R.B. Becker and Bruce McKinley.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027524
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000924338
oclc - 18207214
notis - AEN4956

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
    Sources of information
        Page 4
    Introduction
        Page 5
    The cow's contribution to family living in Florida
        Page 5
        Page 6
    What is a profitable cow?
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Breeds of dairy cattle
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Aryshire
            Page 11
        Brown swiss
            Page 12
        Dutch belted
            Page 13
        Jersey
            Page 13
        Guernsey
            Page 14
        Holstein-friesian
            Page 15
    Dual purpose cattle
        Page 16
        Milking shorthorn
            Page 17
        Red polled
            Page 18
        Devon
            Page 18
    The dairy herd, sire and dam
        Page 19
        Page 20
        What gives value to a cow?
            Page 19
        Selection of a herd sire
            Page 21
        Care and management of the bull
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
        Keeping dairy records
            Page 25
            Page 26
    Raising replacements
        Page 27
        Feeding dairy calves
            Page 28
        Supplementary dry feeds
            Page 29
        Sanitation in raising calves
            Page 30
        Feed from weaning to breeding age
            Page 31
        Age to breed heifers
            Page 31
        Feed from breeding to calving time
            Page 32
    Mineral supplements for cattle
        Page 33
    Factors affecting milk yield
        Page 34
        Season of calving affects yearly milk yield
            Page 34
        Age influences milk production
            Page 35
        Length of dry period affects milk yield
            Page 36
        Mineral supplement as realated to milk yield
            Page 37
    Effect of abortion disease on dairy cattle
        Page 38
        Page 39
    Factors affecting butterfat content of milk
        Page 40
        Variations in butterfat
            Page 40
            Page 41
        Richness of morning and evening milk
            Page 42
            Page 43
    Economic phases of dairying
        Page 44
        Season of calving in relation to milk sales
            Page 44
        Relation of production per cow to labor and relative cost of milk
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
        Causes of losses in dairy herds
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
        Rate of depreciation, other than deaths
            Page 50
        Rate of replacement
            Page 50
    Acknowledgments
        Page 51
    Farmer visitors are welcome at state experiment stations
        Page 52
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







January, 1935


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
WILMON NEWELL, Director




MANAGEMENT OF DAIRY CATTLE

IN FLORIDA


P. T. Dix ARNOLD and R. B. BECKER
Animal Husbandry Department,
and
BRUCE MCKINLEY,
Department of Agricultural Economics


Fig. 1.-Dairy cows appreciate improved pastures and shade. These Jerseys were used
in studies of dairy management in Florida.


Bulletins will be sent free to Florida residents upon application to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION,
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


Bulletin 274









-nr. EXECUTIVE STAFF
/ John J. Tigert, M.A., LL.D., President of the
University
Wilmon Newell, D.Sc., Director
H. Harold Hume, M.S., Asst. Dir., Research
Harold Mowry, M.S.A., Asst. Dir., Adm.
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor
R. M. Fulghum, B.S.A., Assistant Editor
Jefferson Thomas, Assistant Editor
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian
Ruby Newhall, Administrative Manager
K. H. Graham, Business Manager
Rachel McQuarrie, Accountant

MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE

AGRONOMY
W. E. Stokes, M.S., Agronomist**
W. A. Leukel, Ph.D., Agronomist
G. E. Ritchey, M.S.A.. Associate*
Fred H. Hull, M.S., Associate
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate
John P. Camp, M.S., Assistant

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
A. L. Shealy, D.V.M., Animal Husbandman**
R. B. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husbandman
W. M. Neal, Ph.D., Associate in Animal
Nutrition
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian
M. W. Emmel, D.V.M., Asst. Veterinarian
W. W. Henley, B.S.A., Asst. Animal Hus-
bandman
P. T. Dix Arnold, B.S.A., Assistant Dairy
Husbandman
CHEMISTRY AND SOILS
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Chemist"*
R. M. Barnette, Ph.D., Chemist
C. E. Bell, Ph.D., Associate
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant
H. W. Jones, M.S., Assistant

ECONOMICS, AGRICULTURAL
C. V. Noble, Ph.D., Agricultural Economist**
Bruce McKinley, A.B., B.S.A., Associate
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurloek, M.S.A., Assistant

ECONOMICS, HOME
Ouida Davis Abbott, Ph.D., Specialist**
L. W. Gaddum, Ph.D., Biochemist
C. F. Ahmann, Ph.D., Physiologist
J. T. Hall, Jr., B.S.Ch.E., Asst. Physiologist
ENTOMOLOGY
J. R. Watson, A.M., Entomologist*
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Associate
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant
J. W. Kea, B.S.A., Assistant
HORTICULTURE
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Horticulturist**
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist
A. L. Stahl, Ph.D., Associate
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Truck Horticulturist
R. J. Wilmot, M.S.A., Specialist, Fumigation
Research
R. D. Dickey, B.S.A., Assistant Horticulturist
PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist**
George F. Weber, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. K. Voorhees, M.S., Assistant
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S.. Assistant Botanist

In cooperation with U.S.D.A.
** Head of Department.


BOARD OF CONTROL

Geo. H. Baldwin, Chairman, Jacksonville
A. H. Blending, Bartow
A. H. Wagg, West Palm Beach
Oliver J. Semmes, Pensacola
Harry C. Duncan, Tavares
J. T. Diamond, Secretary, Tallahassee

BRANCH STATIONS

NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY
L. O. Gratz, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist in
Charge
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist
J. D. Warner, M.S., Agronomist
R. M. Crown, B.S.A., Asst. Agronomist
Jesse Reeves, Farm Superintendent
CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED
John H. Jefferies, Superintendent
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Associate Plant
Pathologist
W. A. Kuntz, A.M., Assoc. Plant Pathologist
B. R. Fudge, Ph.D., Associate Chemist
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Asst. Entomologist

EVERGLADES STATION, BELLE GLADE
A. Daane, Ph.D., Agronomist in Charge
R. N. Lobdell, M.S., Entomologist
F. D. Stevens, B.S., Sugarcane Agronomist
G. R. Townsend, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Patholo-
gist
B. A. Bourne, Ph.D., Sugarcane Physiologist
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Biochemist
R. W. Kidder, B.S., Asat. Animal Husband.
man
Ross E. Robertson, B.S., Assistant Chemist
SUB-TROPICAL STATION, HOMESTEAD
H. S. Wolfe, Ph.D., Horticulturist in Charge
W. M. Fifield, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist
Stay O. Hawkins, M.A., Assistant Plant
Pathologist
WEST CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION,
BROOKSVILLE
E. W. Sheets, D.Agri., Animal Husbandman
in Charge*
W. F. Ward, M.S.A., Asst. An. Husbandman*

FIELD STATIONS

Leesburg
M. N. Walker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist Is
Charge
W. B. Shippy, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Pathologist
K. W. Loucks. M.S., Asst. Plant Pathologist
J. W. Wilson, Ph.D., Associate Entomologist
C. C. Goff, M.S., Assistant Entomologist
Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
R. E. Nolen, M.S.A., Asst. Plant Pathologast
Cocoa
A. S. Rhoads, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Hastings
A. H. Eddins. Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Monticello
G. B. Fairchild, M.S., Assistant Entomologist
Bradenton
David G. Kelbert, Asst. Plant PatholoWt
Sanford
E. R. Purvis, Ph.D., Assistant Chemist,
Celery Investigations











CONTENTS


Sources of information..............
Introduction ..............................
The cow's contribution to family
What is a profitable cow?-...
Breeds of dairy cattle .................
Ayrshire .......................
Brown Swiss ...............--.-.-.-
Dutch Belted.... ..-......--..-.-
Jersey....- ....... .... ..........
Guernsey....... ...... ..... ...
Holstein-Friesian .................
Dual purpose cattle ............ ..
Milking Shorthorn .............-
Red Polled...................-.
Devon ............ .. ........ ......-.. ..
The dairy herd, sire and dam .....
What gives value to a cow?...
Selection of a herd sire..........
Care and management of the
Keeping dairy records..............
Raising replacements..................
Feeding dairy calves .............


Page

........ .. .....-- .....---- ...... -- ..... ............... 4
.. . .. . . .................. .. .. -... . 5

living in Florida .............................. 5
--.--. .--- --- -- --.-. -.- --- ------ ------ -.........

- -- -............ ......... .... .............. ........ ......
... 11


.. ......................................................... i s
............ -... -..-.-....-- .- ................................... 1 8
12



........................................................................ 1
13
13


...........-...- -................... .. -.-.-.-...- ..- ... ............ 1 6
-. --...- ... ........-... .................-........ ... 14
....... ... ... ...- --- ... ... .............................. 1 5
..................... .................... ........ ....... 18



-----------. ........ -.. -. --.-.. -. -....... ...... ... ... ................. 1 8
... .... 17




................................ ............................... 19
...... ........... .......... ...... .. .... .. .. 18



bull ......................................... 22
18
19
19


bull................ ... ...... .. ..... 22

......... .......... ............... ............ 27
........... 28


Supplementary dry feeds........ .......----.. .............. 29
Sanitation in raising calves........-............. .........-- --- 30
Feed from weaning to breeding age ...... .........-....---....... 31
Age to breed heifers....................--.-....- ---- .. 31
Feed from breeding to calving time............ .-- .........-....32
Mineral supplements for cattle........ --.. ..--- ............... ....-- 33
Factors affecting milk yield..................... ..-----------.. 34
Season of calving affects yearly milk yield........... ........-.....--.------- 34
Age influences milk production.........-.........- ---- ...... 36
Length of dry period affects milk yield..-.........---... ......- .. 36
Mineral supplement as related to milk yield................................ 37
Effect of abortion disease on dairy cattle ...................... ...... 38
Factors affecting butterfat content of mik .......... ......-----. ... 40
Variations in butterfat content.......................-.- .......... 40
Richness of morning and evening milk......... ... ........--.... 42
Age influences average butterfat test... -.......................... 42
Economic phases of dairying........... ..........--------... ... 44
Season of calving in relation to milk sales...........--.. .....---. --.... 44
Relation of production per cow to labor and relative cost of milk........ 44
Causes of losses in dairy herds ..... .....---. ----.......... 47
Rate of depreciation, other than deaths .............. ---- ...... 50
Rate of replacement................ ...--- ----. ---.. 50
Acknowledgments ...................... --. .------.- -- 51


d/ -
















SOURCES OF INFORMATION


The information assembled herein has been accumulated from
a number of sources, including experiments and observations
of other state experiment stations and the Bureau of Dairy In-
dustry, U. S. Department of Agriculture. Records of the asso-
ciations fostering the pure breeds of dairy cattle have been
drawn upon. "An Economic Study of 249 Dairy Farms in
Florida" has furnished many facts obtained from, and directly
applicable to, the dairy herds of this state. Records accumulated
during the past 20 years from the dairy herd at the Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station have furnished the proof upon
which many of the general statements and recommendations are
based. A part of these studies has appeared in other publica-
tions from this station.
Since the station dairy herd has been an important source
of facts, a word as to its composition and management is in
order. The cows are mainly registered Jerseys, milked twice
daily, and fed along lines similar to those described in Florida
Extension Bulletin 53, "Feeding the Dairy Cow." Necessary
mineral matter is being supplied, as discussed in Florida Station
Bulletin 231, "Salt Sick: Its Cause and Prevention, and Mineral
Supplements for Cattle." Some of the technical journals also
have contained some of the original publications from the sta-
tion. All of these have been drawn upon briefly for points
pertinent to the management of dairy cattle in Florida.









MANAGEMENT OF DAIRY CATTLE IN FLORIDA
P. T. DIx ARNOLD, R. B. BECKER,
and
BRUCE MCKINLEY

INTRODUCTION
During earlier times Florida ranked low as a dairy state. Milk
prices were so high that almost any cow was profitable that
could be milked. During the boom period of 1924-1926, milk
and more cows were shipped in from other states. The close
of the boom found more cows in the state than were necessary
to meet the local demands for market milk. Competition was
keen; prices of milk dropped to a lower level, and more attention
had to be given to conservative and economical dairy farming.
At this time, the numbers of inquiries regarding management
of dairy herds increased.
Dairying in Florida is divided into three distinct classes,
namely: the strictly commercial dairy, dairying as a part of
general farming, and the family-cow dairy. Many problems of
management apply to all classes of dairy farming, but each class
has special managerial problems of its own.
There is marked need for a supply of milk for home use on
every farm, particularly where there are children. When milk
is available, less cash is required to buy groceries for the family
living; people live better and are healthier; a higher standard
of living for the entire family is maintained, since money saved
on groceries is available for other needs of farm life. Even a
low-producing cow may render valuable service as a family cow.
THE COW'S CONTRIBUTION TO FAMILY LIVING IN
FLORIDA
The contribution of dairying to the living of farm families in
Florida has been studied in several areas. A detailed survey
of 220 specialized dairy farms adjacent to five population centers
of Florida showed that the families of farm operators consumed
milk and milk products equivalent to 3,948 pounds (459.1 gal-
lons) of whole milk during 1927. Laborers on these farms used
an additional 896 pounds (104.2 gallons) per dairy farm during
that year.
Twenty-nine farms in a general farming area were surveyed
on which dairy cows were kept as a source of cash income from









MANAGEMENT OF DAIRY CATTLE IN FLORIDA
P. T. DIx ARNOLD, R. B. BECKER,
and
BRUCE MCKINLEY

INTRODUCTION
During earlier times Florida ranked low as a dairy state. Milk
prices were so high that almost any cow was profitable that
could be milked. During the boom period of 1924-1926, milk
and more cows were shipped in from other states. The close
of the boom found more cows in the state than were necessary
to meet the local demands for market milk. Competition was
keen; prices of milk dropped to a lower level, and more attention
had to be given to conservative and economical dairy farming.
At this time, the numbers of inquiries regarding management
of dairy herds increased.
Dairying in Florida is divided into three distinct classes,
namely: the strictly commercial dairy, dairying as a part of
general farming, and the family-cow dairy. Many problems of
management apply to all classes of dairy farming, but each class
has special managerial problems of its own.
There is marked need for a supply of milk for home use on
every farm, particularly where there are children. When milk
is available, less cash is required to buy groceries for the family
living; people live better and are healthier; a higher standard
of living for the entire family is maintained, since money saved
on groceries is available for other needs of farm life. Even a
low-producing cow may render valuable service as a family cow.
THE COW'S CONTRIBUTION TO FAMILY LIVING IN
FLORIDA
The contribution of dairying to the living of farm families in
Florida has been studied in several areas. A detailed survey
of 220 specialized dairy farms adjacent to five population centers
of Florida showed that the families of farm operators consumed
milk and milk products equivalent to 3,948 pounds (459.1 gal-
lons) of whole milk during 1927. Laborers on these farms used
an additional 896 pounds (104.2 gallons) per dairy farm during
that year.
Twenty-nine farms in a general farming area were surveyed
on which dairy cows were kept as a source of cash income from







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


sale of dairy products. One of these was a strictly dairy farm;
the others were general farms. The families of farm operators
on these general farms used 3,628 pounds of milk for home
consumption, and allowed an additional 318 pounds to laborers
employed at various times during the year.
The contributions of the family cow dairies have been studied
by the late Dr. J. E. Turlington and associates' on 817 farms in
11 areas where fruit, truck and other crops predominate as the
sources of cash incomes.. In these various areas, from 22 to 61
percent of the farms had one or more cows which provided from
101 to 445 gallons of whole milk per farm, the average being
3,543 pounds (412 gallons) per family per year on those farms
having family cows. About one-fifth of these farms had only
one cow, so that milk was unavailable when the cows were dry.


Fig. 2.-The family cow contributes much to the welfare of rural people. Dr. J. E.
Turlington found (mainly on truck and fruit farms) that these cows yielded 3,543 pounds
(412 gallons) of milk per year per family. McKinley observed on 29 general farms that
the farm families used dairy products equivalent to 3,628 pounds of whole milk, and on
220 strictly dairy farms, 3,948 pounds of milk. This amount of whole milk and other dairy
products is an appreciable contribution to better living on these Florida farms.

Miss T. Roesel, home demonstration agent, found in a study
of 105 Marion County farms that milk cows were owned on 85
of them. Twelve were considered dairy farms, while the ma-
jority kept one or more cows mainly for family use. Only 37

SFlorida Agricultural Extension Economist 1 (Nov., 1931) and 2 (May,
1932).
'Florida Agricultural Extension Economist 3 (April, 1933).






Management of Dairy Cattle in Florida


of these 85 farms had an adequate supply of milk throughout
the year, an adequate supply being considered as one quart of
whole milk per child and one pint per adult each day. The feed
for the cows on many of these farms was largely home-grown,
only 11 farms having spent as much as $25.00 to purchase dairy
feeds during 1931, when this study was made. The consumption
of milk and dairy products on these farms during a year was
equivalent to over 400 gallons of whole milk per family, showing
the importance of milk in the food supply.

WHAT IS A PROFITABLE COW?
How much milk shall a cow produce in order to pay her way?
The answer to the above question must be based upon the
method of utilizing the dairy products. As a family cow, deriv-
ing a large part of her living from grass, and the labor used in
her care being entirely family labor which would not receive
wages at the same time otherwise, many medium to low pro-
ducing cows make a saving in the family food budget and render
a real service by providing health-giving food at a minimum
cash outlay. Little capital is invested in shelter, or in equip-
ment. to care for the cow and her products.
Cows on general farms obtain part of their feed by gleaning
fields from which crops have been harvested. They convert
coarse parts of many crops into milk for the farm family, and
for sale locally as dairy products. More equipment is necessary
to care for dairy products on a general farm. Labor used in the
care of general farm cows is employed partly at other farm work,
so that the hours spent in caring for the livestock may mean
more efficient use of this labor. A large proportion of this labor
is performed by the operator and his family. To return a net
profit from the sale of dairy products alone, cows on such a farm
must be medium producers at least.
Only medium to high producing cows will meet operating ex-
penses on a commercial dairy farm, and leave any margin for
wages to the operator, who must earn a living from his cows.
Whether or not a particular cow will pay her way in a commer-
cial dairy depends entirely upon the feeding practices, level of
prices for feed, labor and other products, amount of labor and
efficiency in its use, and the distribution of management and
overhead operating costs of the particular dairy in question.
Many of these cost items have varied as much as 100 .percent
between neighboring dairies.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


High quality milk is produced by healthy well-fed cows,
handled by healthy persons in a sanitary manner, and kept cold
until it is consumed. Production of quality milk requires more
and better equipment on commercial dairy farms. The com-
mercial dairy requires much more capital for equipment and for
buildings so arranged as to meet the exacting standard require-
ments of city milk ordinances for the production and care of
high quality market milk. Based on 1927 price levels, the average
valuation of dairy barns on the 163 owner-operated farms was
$1,240.87 and the average valuation of milk houses found on
162 of these farms was $336.66. On the 27 general owner-
operated farms, 17 dairy barns were found with an average
valuation of $849.00. The average valuation of milk houses
was $259.00, only 8 such farms having milk houses at that time.
In the general farm area studied, the milk was sold mainly in
bulk to a manufacturing plant. The strictly dairy farms had a
larger additional investment in equipment for refrigeration,
sterilization and washing of milk utensils than was needed on
the general farms. These are an essential part of the costs of
producing high quality market milk. The investment in build-
ings and equipment to care for a family cow is a small item in
Florida.
Management of dairy cows is affected greatly by the character
of the market for dairy products. A commercial dairy may
furnish a steady supply of milk to an industrial community. On
the other hand, it may need peak production during the period
of tourist trade. The season of freshening for cows on the gen-
eral farms may be such as to bring the larger part of the dairy
products at the time of highest market prices, or it may be de-
sirable to make milk mainly from cheap crops such as pastures,
or fields that are ready to be gleaned after the harvesting of
some crops. With two family cows, one may be dry while the
other is in milk, so as to provide a constant supply each month
of the year. Some principles of dairy herd management apply
to every cow, while others meet specific situations.
The dairy herd on the general farm has a number of economic
problems which affect management of the dairy cows. These
factors include the convenient distribution of labor between crop
production and care of the cows; amount of pasture and culti-
vated fields to be grazed by the cows, and the season at which
these are available; seasonal demand for whole milk or cream,
and the relative market prices of these products from season to
season,






Management of Dairy Cattle in Florida


The owners of family cows are interested in a steady supply
of milk from pasture grasses and from unmarketable parts of
crops. Only a limited amount of feed is purchased for the cow,
as in most instances an extra supply of milk is not desired beyond
the amount used by the family as whole milk, butter, cottage
cheese, ice cream and for cooking purposes. Some surplus milk
may be fed to a calf, chickens, or pigs.

BREEDS OF DAIRY CATTLE
The choice of a breed of cattle to be used in commercial dairies
is affected largely by preference of the individual owner, and
education of the consumers for milk of a particular quality.
Every breed has a large proportion of desirable cows, along with
some less desirable ones.
Jerseys were introduced into the Southern States shortly after
1850, and have multiplied to the point where they predominate
among the dairy cattle of the region. Of 249 Florida dairy herds
surveyed for the year 1927, only eight herds contained any ap-
preciable number of registered purebred Jerseys. The cows in
57 percent of these dairy herds were limited entirely to grade
Jerseys, and in an additional 37 percent of the herds grade
Jerseys were with grades of the other dairy breeds. The other
dairy breeds represented in these dairies in point of numbers
were Holstein, Guernsey, Ayrshire and Dutch Belted. The pre-
dominance of Jersey blood is shown by the fact that in these
herds, the average estimated weights of cows was 736 pounds,
ranging from 697 at Ocala to 768 pounds in the St. Petersburg
dairies. Only 27 percent of these herds had purebred dairy
bulls in service in 1927. No bulls of the Brown Swiss breed, nor
of the so-called dual purpose breeds, were then in use on the
farms covered by this study. Eight grade herds had only native
bulls. Tick eradication at that time was mainly limited to indi-
vidual effort to control this parasite by periodic dipping of the
dairy cows.
Several causes have retarded introduction and more extensive
use of valuable purebred dairy cattle. Rapid progress in eradi-
cation of the cattle fever tick is eliminating the hazard from-the
disease transmitted by this pest. Increasing volume of milk
production, and more frequent occurrence of surplus milk on
local markets, have made it more economical to use a part of
this in raising heifers for replacement purposes. During the
year 1927, from 12.1 to 19.0 percent of the calves born in these
















TABLE 1.-NUMBER OF REGISTERED PUREBRED DAIRY AND DUAL PURPOSE CATTLE IN THE UNITED STATES, AND IN FLORIDA.
(AGRICULTURAL CENSUS, 1930.)


Breed


Ayrshire..............

Brown Swiss ........

Dutch Belted........

Guernsey .............

Holstein-Friesian..

Jersey....................

Red Polled.-............

Devon ............. ....

Milking Shorthorn.


In the United States


Male

... 5,918

.--... .. ...-.... 6,623

.... ... .. 74

.-...-........ 47,608

. ....... ........ 103,810

-.- ...... ... 56,568

.......... ..... 3,543

.. -.. ... 147

......... .... ... 4,508


Female

42,318

19,111

501

153,113

545,929

298,371

10,662

752

14,571


Total

48,236

25,734

575

200,721

649,739

354,939

14,205

899

19,079


Percent

3.67

1.96

.04

15.28

49.44

27.01

1.08

.07

1.45


Male

5

3

2

66

47

340

8



1


In Florida
I Female I Total


15

370

271

1,677

I-. .


50

3

17

436

318

2,017

8



1


SPer







1
1:

7I


-cent

1.75

.11

.60

5.30

1.16

0.77

.28



.03 I'


o






Management of Dairy Cattle in Florida


commercial dairies were heifers that were raised as replace-
ments. This is in contrast with 30.6 percent of calves raised
in dairies in the general farming area. The tendency is increas-
ing for more heifer calves to be raised from desirable cows. This
practise increases the desirability of having good purebred dairy
bulls at the head of these dairy herds.
A brief discussion of the several dairy breeds of cattle will be
given. More detailed descriptions may be obtained in Farmers'
Bulletin 1443, "Dairy Cattle Breeds," published by the U. S.
Department of Agriculture.
The proportions of the different pure breeds of dairy and dual
purpose cattle in the United States and in Florida have been
determined in the 1930 Agricultural Census, as presented in
Table 1. Registered Jerseys represented over 70 percent of the
purebred dairy cattle in Florida. Guernseys and Holsteins made
up an additional 26 percent of the purebred animals, leaving as
few as 4 percent of registered purebreds among the remaining
six breeds of dairy and dual purpose cattle. The 1930 agricul-
tural census reported 27,640 cows kept on 938 dairy farms in
Florida. On 21,675 other farms in the state, 46,326 cows were
reported as kept for milking purposes. An average production
of 509 gallons (4,377 pounds) of milk per cow was reported for
the class of cows kept on the dairy farms, and 263 gallons (2,262
pounds) annually per cow on the other farms.
AYRSHIRE
Southwestern Scotland has been noted as a dairy district for
over 150 years. The region is hilly, with a considerable area
devoted to pasture land. The climate is cool and moist in sum-
mer, and more rigorous in winter. Such is the ancestral home
of the Ayrshire, noted as a breed the milk of which long has
been used in the manufacture of fine cheese.
Ayrshires were imported into the United States in 1822. Some
Ayrshire blood was introduced into herds of range cattle in
Alachua County over 60 years ago3, traces of which are still
apparent in the horns and color markings of some of the descen-
dants in these herds.
Ayrshires usually are inclined to be of stocky build. The colors
are a mixture of white and red, sometimes shading to a rich
mahogany. The horns usually are wide spreading, and tend to
curve upward and outward. The udders tend to be quite sym-
3 Florida Agr. Exp. Station Bul. 248, page 10.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


metrical, and are attached closely to the body. In some individ-
uals, the teats tend to be short, though American breeders have
tried by selection of breeding stock to eliminate this fault.
An average herd of Ayrshires under good farm conditions
should produce from 6,500 to 9,000 pounds of milk per cow yearly
with an average butterfat test of about 4.00 percent. Well-
grown mature bulls should weigh from 1,500 to 2,000 pounds,
and mature cows close to 1,050 pounds. Their calves weigh
from 60 to 80 pounds at birth, males weighing about five pounds
more than females. These cattle are rugged animals, and are
considered to be good grazers.
BROWN SWISS
The picturesque Swiss Alps are the native home of two famous
breeds of dairy cattle-the Simmenthallers and the Brown Swiss.
The latter breed was imported into the United States in 1869.
In their native home, the cattle are housed in the valley farm-
steads in the winter, and are moved onto the higher mountain
pastures during the summer months. Their milk is used for
manufacture of the famous Swiss cheese. Because of outbreaks
of foot and mouth disease on the continent, quarantine regula-
tions have restricted shipments of livestock from Europe. Few
Brown Swiss cattle have been imported.
The cows are strong and rugged, some with a tendency toward
coarseness, as compared with other more refined dairy breeds.
Mature cows weigh around 1,100 to 1,500 pounds, and bulls from
1,600 to 2,000 pounds. Colors range from gray to light or dark
brown, seldom with any white markings. Horns are of medium
size, curve outward and forward, and often appear plain. Calves
are large, many weighing 70 to 90 pounds or above at birth.
Surplus calves of this breed make desirable veal because of their
large initial size and inclination toward stockiness.
Brown Swiss cows are considered good producers of milk with
an average richness of about 4.00 percent butterfat. Over 800
grade and purebred Brown Swiss cows in the Dairy Herd Im-
provement Associations of Illinois yielded an average of 8,378
pounds of milk, 3.99 percent fat, and 334.5 pounds of butterfat
in 1932.
Few Brown Swiss have ever come into the Southern States,
although they have been introduced from the New England,
Middle Atlantic and North Central states in fair numbers into
parts of Mexico and Central America.






Management of Dairy Cattle in Florida


DUTCH BELTED
The Dutch Belted breed of dairy cattle is said to have some
ancestry in common with the Friesian, Oldenburg and other
breeds of cattle native to the Netherlands and the adjoining
provinces of northwestern Europe. They were owned and de-
veloped largely on estates of the ruling families of Holland, who
tried to select for perfection in color markings without losing
sight of dairy qualities. Their native country is a rich lowland
with verdant pasturage.
D. H. Haight imported a few Dutch Belted cattle into New
York state in 1838, and P. T. Barnum imported several of these
cattle in 1840 for show purposes. Other importations were lim-
ited. The breed has not become known widely in this country,
although some herds are found from New England to California.
The largest Dutch Belted herd in America is located near Miami,
Florida, and includes some of the good producers of the breed.
Dutch Belted cattle are black with wide white belts, which
sometimes extend sufficiently that white shows on the fore
udders and sometimes on the hind feet. In common with other
black breeds of cattle, first-cross grades sometimes show an out-
crop of recessive red coloration'. The white belt is a dominant
color marking among grades descended from this breed. Cows
are of good size, weighing from 1,000 to 1,500 pounds, and ma-
ture bulls from 1,500 to 2,000 pounds or more. Calves are of
good size, the majority ranging between 70 and 90 pounds at
birth.
Cows of this breed are said to be slightly lower producers of
milk, but with an average butterfat test above that of the Hol-
stein breed. The average richness of milk of the Dutch Belted
cows that have completed Advanced Registry tests is about 3.8
percent butterfat. With good care, cows of this breed should
produce above 8,500 pounds of milk yearly.
JERSEY
Jersey cattle originated on the Island of Jersey, one of the
group of Channel Islands in the English Channel. These islands
long have been famous because of the quality of the milk pro-
duced by the native cows. The fame of these cattle, and local
pride of the breeders in safeguarding purity of the breed, caused
the islanders to promulgate laws preventing introduction of any
cattle for other than immediate slaughter as early as 1789.
*Journal of Heredity 24: 283-286. 1933.






Management of Dairy Cattle in Florida


DUTCH BELTED
The Dutch Belted breed of dairy cattle is said to have some
ancestry in common with the Friesian, Oldenburg and other
breeds of cattle native to the Netherlands and the adjoining
provinces of northwestern Europe. They were owned and de-
veloped largely on estates of the ruling families of Holland, who
tried to select for perfection in color markings without losing
sight of dairy qualities. Their native country is a rich lowland
with verdant pasturage.
D. H. Haight imported a few Dutch Belted cattle into New
York state in 1838, and P. T. Barnum imported several of these
cattle in 1840 for show purposes. Other importations were lim-
ited. The breed has not become known widely in this country,
although some herds are found from New England to California.
The largest Dutch Belted herd in America is located near Miami,
Florida, and includes some of the good producers of the breed.
Dutch Belted cattle are black with wide white belts, which
sometimes extend sufficiently that white shows on the fore
udders and sometimes on the hind feet. In common with other
black breeds of cattle, first-cross grades sometimes show an out-
crop of recessive red coloration'. The white belt is a dominant
color marking among grades descended from this breed. Cows
are of good size, weighing from 1,000 to 1,500 pounds, and ma-
ture bulls from 1,500 to 2,000 pounds or more. Calves are of
good size, the majority ranging between 70 and 90 pounds at
birth.
Cows of this breed are said to be slightly lower producers of
milk, but with an average butterfat test above that of the Hol-
stein breed. The average richness of milk of the Dutch Belted
cows that have completed Advanced Registry tests is about 3.8
percent butterfat. With good care, cows of this breed should
produce above 8,500 pounds of milk yearly.
JERSEY
Jersey cattle originated on the Island of Jersey, one of the
group of Channel Islands in the English Channel. These islands
long have been famous because of the quality of the milk pro-
duced by the native cows. The fame of these cattle, and local
pride of the breeders in safeguarding purity of the breed, caused
the islanders to promulgate laws preventing introduction of any
cattle for other than immediate slaughter as early as 1789.
*Journal of Heredity 24: 283-286. 1933.






Florida Agrirultural Experiment Station


The first importation of Jerseys into the United States, from
which purebred cattle trace today, was made in 1850. Shortly
afterwards importations were made direct to New Orleans, and
from there became widely distributed. Because of the early in-
troduction in considerable numbers, Jerseys predominate in the
Southeastern States.
Although a large proportion of Jerseys are solid fawn in color,
varying from light cream to dark brown, admixtures of white
with the fawn commonly occur. The pigmentation of the nose
and tongue is more frequently dark or black, and the switch is
often black. Horns are small, short and frequently incurving.
The head is short and broad, and the face dished attractively.
Mature cows weigh from 750 to 1,050 pounds, and bulls from
1,200 to 1,800 pounds. There is a tendency toward selection of
the larger sizes of Jerseys, since careful studies have shown
the larger cows to be heavier producers, on the average. Jersey
calves weigh from 40 to 60 pounds at birth. Because of the
small initial weight, they seldom are used profitably for veal.
Jersey cattle have a good reputation as grazers, ranking with
the Ayrshire breed in this characteristic.
Jersey whole milk has a yellow color, and is rich in butterfat,
the breed average being 5.35 percent butterfat in the milk. They
yield less milk per cow, in part due to smaller size of animals,
but in part also because of the high content of food solids in
the milk. Under good management a herd of Jerseys should
produce an average of from 4,500 to 6,000 pounds of milk per
year, including cows of all ages. The milk finds favor with con-
sumers because of its richness and high content of milk solids.
GUERNSEY
Guernsey cattle originated on the Channel Islands off the
northwest coast of France in the English Channel. These islands
are intensively cultivated, and highly developed agriculturally.
Dairying is the third largest enterprise on these islands. The
Islands of Guernsey, Aldernay, Jethro, Sark and Herm are the
ones upon which the Guernsey breed of cattle is native. This
breed sprang from ancestry similar to that of the Jersey breed
on the adjacent Island of Jersey, and resembles the latter breed
in many respects. Milk and butter have been the chief forms
in which dairy products are marketed on the islands.
Guernsey cattle were introduced into America in the latter part
of the eighteenth century, along with Jerseys, under the common
name of Aldernays. The earliest importations to be kept pure






Management of Dairy Cattle in Florida


came in 1830. In recent years, many Guernseys have come into
the South.
Guernsey cattle usually are fawn and white, though sometimes
solid fawn animals are seen. Noses and tongues are usually a
flesh color, dark pigmented noses occurring less frequently
among animals of this breed. Secretions of the skin have a
yellowish color noted especially in the wax of the ears, in the
switch and on other parts of the body. Horns are medium to
small, and of amber color. Mature cows should weigh from 900
to 1,400 pounds, and bulls from 1,400 to 1,900 pounds. Calves
usually weigh from 55 to 70 pounds, males exceeding females by
about five pounds.
Guernsey cows of desirable quality and well managed should
produce from 5,500 to 7,000 pounds of milk yearly, with an
average test of just under 5.00 percent butterfat. The yellow
color of Guernsey milk has been widely advertised, and it finds
favor with consumers of bottled milk.
HOLSTEIN-FRIESIAN
The Holstein-Friesian breed has existed for centuries on the
lowlands of northwestern Europe, which were famous for the
size of the cattle and for the production and exportation of
cheeses. On the highly productive pastures Holstein cows were
bred and developed. Cattle from Holland were brought into
New York by early Dutch settlers so that the early cattle of
this region were commonly black and white.
The name Holstein-Friesian originated with the union of the
Holstein Breeders' Association with the Dutch-Friesian Asso-
ciation in this country in 1885. The term, Holstein, has come
to be the abbreviated name for this breed in America.
The first importation to which registered cattle trace came
into Massachusetts in 1861. Many were imported in the next
24 years, and few since that time. Quarantine against foot and
mouth disease prevented importations for many years.
All registered Holsteins are black and white in color. Like
other breeds of black cattle, a few animals still carry the factor
for recessive red coloration", which crops out in proportion of
1 : 3 cases upon crossing of animals that carry the factor for
recessive red coloration. Horns are medium in size, dark to
black in color, and usually curve forward and upward. Mature
cows should weigh between 1,100 and 1,600 pounds, and bulls
SWis. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 313: 1-35. 1920.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


from 1,600 to 2,300 pounds. The calves are large at birth,
usually between 75 and 105 pounds in weight, the males being
about 10 pounds heavier than females. Because of large initial
weight, many are vealed.
Holsteins are less noted as grazers on sparse pastures, thriving
best where feed is plentiful. Good herds average from 8,000 to
11,000 pounds of milk annually, with an average test of 3.35
percent butterfat. The milk has a pale color, due to refraction
of light from some of its colloidal constituents, independent of
the fat content. Holsteins are popular in cheese and condensary
districts because of the proportion of casein to butterfat in their
milk.
DUAL PURPOSE CATTLE
Eckles has defined dual purpose cattle as follows": "A dual
purpose cow is one that produces a medium quantity of milk for
a dairy cow, and that will sell at a fair price for a beef animal
when fattened. A dual purpose breed is one in which these char-
acteristics are so fixed that they are transmitted with reasonable
certainty. The man who intends to make dairying his
chief business, with everything else of secondary order, should
make use of the special dairy cow, and the man who produces
beef animals and does not milk the cows, should make use of
the special beef breeds. This leaves the general farmer for
whom the dual purpose cow is adapted, if for anybody. The
dual purpose cow that produces milk for a few months is
as well adapted as the highly developed dairy cow for the farmer
who will not provide the proper conditions."
Sheets and Black' have stated that "dual-purpose cattle are
popular with the small farmer who keeps but a few cattle and
must depend upon them to produce all the milk and butter needed
for the family and at the same time raise calves or steers which
will sell readily for slaughter purposes."
On farms where a large amount of roughage would be un-
marketed, except when converted into animal products, and
where there is but a limited market for milk products beyond
needs of the farm family, a small herd of dual purpose cattle may
be adapted. Neither maximum milk production nor the best
market class of beef carcass is expected of average dual purpose
cattle. Thick fleshing is an inherited characteristic which an
6 C. H. Eckles. Dairy Cattle and Milk Production, rev. ed., 1923. Pages
111, 113.
'U. S. Dept. Agr. Farmers' Bulletin 612, page 19. 1930.






Management of Dairy Cattle in Florida


animal must possess at birth. Studies made to date indicate
that carcasses of dual purpose cattle grade one class lower in
beef quality than do carcasses from strictly beef-type cattle. It
has long since been demonstrated that thick fleshed cows gen-
erally are less economical producers of milk and butterfat8, be-
cause of the fact that a larger proportion of the feed nutrients
is required daily to maintain the extra amount of natural flesh
on the fleshy animal. In commercial dairies, it is questionable
whether the extra beef from a cow, and her calf at birth, is
sufficiently valuable to offset the extra cost of maintaining the
thicker fleshed animal during the years when she will be useful
as a milk producer.
The biggest handicap in the selection and breeding of dual
purpose cattle is in finding individual animals that combine
reasonable milk production with a fair amount of natural flesh-
ing, and that will transmit these qualities uniformly to their
progeny. Of the registered purebred cattle in the United States
today, well over 50 percent belong to the major dairy breeds,
over 40 percent are beef cattle, and close to 2 percent are of the
dual purpose breeds of cattle. A number of breeds have indi-
vidual animals in fair numbers that claim the dual purpose
classification. Among these breeds are the Milking Shorthorn,
North Devon and the Red Polled cattle. The Devon and Red
Polled breeds also have strains that incline more toward beef
production, and which have been found useful for the latter
purpose on some of the ranges of Florida.
MILKING SHORTHORN
The better strains of Milking Shorthorn cattle trace to the
herds of Thomas Bates and his followers in England, who stressed
the development of a reasonable combination of beef and milking
qualities in the animals within their herds. Cattle in these herds
were the ancestors of the large numbers of non-pedigreed Short-
horns that supplied milk for the city of London. They differ
markedly from the so-called Scotch-bred Shorthorns, which have
been bred and selected along more strictly beef lines. The Milk-
ing Shorthorns usually milk heavily for a few months, but lack
persistency as compared with strictly dairy breeds of cattle.
The milk is similar in quality to Ayrshire milk except that the
average test is lower, being nearer to 3.8 percent butterfat, and
the fat yield consequently slightly lower in proportion. The
total milk yield of cows in a herd varies widely, the average
Minn. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 67, page 465.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


seldom being in excess of that expected of Jersey cows under
similar management.
Shorthorn cows should weigh from 1,050 to 1,400 pounds, and
mature bulls from 1,500 to 2,100 pounds. Calves at birth usually
weigh from 60 to 80 pounds. Good representative animals carry
a fair degree of natural fleshing, and fatten well. A large pro-
portion of the beef Shorthorns are red, roan or white, whereas
an appreciable number of dairy Shorthorns are red, or red and
white. So many crosses have been made between the dairy and
beef strains in many American herds, depending upon the ascend-
ancy of popularity, that few herds of pure dairy-bred Shorthorns
are found in this country.
RED POLLED
The Red Polled breed of cattle was developed along the east
coast of middle England over a century ago by crosses between
two local strains of cattle. However, they were first recognized
as a breed in the competitions of the Royal Agricultural Society
Show in 1862, and the name Red Polled has been applied more
recently. In England this breed inclines more toward milk pro-
duction than does the Devon.
Nine head of Red Polled cattle were imported into the United
States between 1847 and 1880, the major introduction of this
breed being in the period from 1882 to 1890. A considerable
portion of these found their way into the north central states
where the largest numbers of this breed are found today.
Some variation in type occurs within the Red Polled breed,
the beef type dominating in some herds, while others incline
more toward milk production. They rank with Milking Short-
horns in average milk production in many herds, and the dairy
strains carry less flesh. Their uniform red color and polled
character give a herd a pleasing appearance. The majority of
the steers are inclined to be rangy. Carcasses from the more
beefy animals are reasonably smooth. Milk from this breed is
white in color, with an average test of 4.0 percent butterfat.
Under good conditions, a herd of dual purpose Red Polled cows
may be expected to yield an average of 5,000 to 6,000 pounds of
milk annually. Mature bulls weigh from 1,600 to 2,000 pounds,
and cows from 1,100 to 1,600 pounds. Calves usually weigh
between 65 and 85 pounds at birth.
DEVON
The Devon breed of cattle originated in southwestern England.
The region is a rough hilly section, where pastures are generally






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


seldom being in excess of that expected of Jersey cows under
similar management.
Shorthorn cows should weigh from 1,050 to 1,400 pounds, and
mature bulls from 1,500 to 2,100 pounds. Calves at birth usually
weigh from 60 to 80 pounds. Good representative animals carry
a fair degree of natural fleshing, and fatten well. A large pro-
portion of the beef Shorthorns are red, roan or white, whereas
an appreciable number of dairy Shorthorns are red, or red and
white. So many crosses have been made between the dairy and
beef strains in many American herds, depending upon the ascend-
ancy of popularity, that few herds of pure dairy-bred Shorthorns
are found in this country.
RED POLLED
The Red Polled breed of cattle was developed along the east
coast of middle England over a century ago by crosses between
two local strains of cattle. However, they were first recognized
as a breed in the competitions of the Royal Agricultural Society
Show in 1862, and the name Red Polled has been applied more
recently. In England this breed inclines more toward milk pro-
duction than does the Devon.
Nine head of Red Polled cattle were imported into the United
States between 1847 and 1880, the major introduction of this
breed being in the period from 1882 to 1890. A considerable
portion of these found their way into the north central states
where the largest numbers of this breed are found today.
Some variation in type occurs within the Red Polled breed,
the beef type dominating in some herds, while others incline
more toward milk production. They rank with Milking Short-
horns in average milk production in many herds, and the dairy
strains carry less flesh. Their uniform red color and polled
character give a herd a pleasing appearance. The majority of
the steers are inclined to be rangy. Carcasses from the more
beefy animals are reasonably smooth. Milk from this breed is
white in color, with an average test of 4.0 percent butterfat.
Under good conditions, a herd of dual purpose Red Polled cows
may be expected to yield an average of 5,000 to 6,000 pounds of
milk annually. Mature bulls weigh from 1,600 to 2,000 pounds,
and cows from 1,100 to 1,600 pounds. Calves usually weigh
between 65 and 85 pounds at birth.
DEVON
The Devon breed of cattle originated in southwestern England.
The region is a rough hilly section, where pastures are generally






Management of Dairy Cattle in Florida


sparser -than on some of the richer English meadows. These
cattle are noted for grazing ability, as fair beef producers, and
as work oxen. Since 1924, attention has been given in England
to their ability as milk producers, by establishing an Advanced
Registry section in the herd books. The requirements are lower
than are those of any of the dairy breeds.
Devon cattle were introduced into the New England states by
some of the early settlers. As early as 1861, a Devon bull was
brought into northern Florida, followed by a few other indi-
viduals'. Progeny of these animals were in demand, so that the
influence of the Devon breed is seen in the red color and wide
upturned horns of animals on many Florida ranges. The breed-
ers of Devon cattle reorganized as the American Devon Cattle
Club as recently as 1916. An Advanced Registry based on yearly
milk and butterfat production was established by this organiza-
tion in 1921. The requirements for qualification are 40 to 60
pounds less butterfat than are those for the dairy breeds of
cattle. They are fair milkers, the typical butterfat test being
around 4.3 percent.
Of the dual purpose breeds, Devons incline more toward beef
type than toward the wedge-shapes of dairy cattle. Mature
cows weigh from 1,100 to 1,400 pounds, and bulls from 1,500
to 2,000 pounds. Calves usually weigh between 55 and 75 pounds
at birth. They are usually cherry red or dark red in color, with
dark tipped horns.

THE DAIRY HERD: SIRE AND DAM
WHAT GIVES VALUE TO A COW?
Selection of a dairy cow as the foundation of a dairy herd
should be made with as full a knowledge as available of a number
of facts, namely:
1. Ability of the cow to produce milk and butterfat.
2. Health-freedom from tuberculosis, infectious abortion
(Bang's disease), mastitis, other communicable diseases, and
injurious parasites.
3. Condition of the cow as affected by previous feeding and
management. This includes mineral storage, or state of nu-
trition.
4. She should have a satisfactory breeding history. This
includes number of calves, date of last calving, subsequent service
Florida Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 248, page 10.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


record, quality of the sire by which she is with calf, and a meas-
ure of her ability to transmit dairy qualities to her offspring.
5. The age of the cow affects the length of time that she may
be a producer.
6. It is desirable that proper registration and transfer certifi-
cates from the breed association be obtainable from the last
owner, if a cow is a registered purebred.
7. Dairy conformation includes a good mammary system, large
feed capacity, spareness of natural fleshing, and a rugged con-
stitution. An attractive appearance of head, body and lines is
desirable, though beauty is less essential than is producing
ability of the cow.


Fig. 3.-This cow-Majesty's Lassie Sue 602497-possesses the qualities desired in a
good purebred animal, namely: good breeding, nice type, good production, and transmission
of these characteristics to her progeny. She was sired by Florida's Majesty 153431, and
is from the cow Creole's Lassie Sue 306835, who was a good producer and transmitted this
quality to her progeny. Majesty's Lassie Sue twice qualified for the Register of Merit with
good records of production. Her first six complete lactations average 7,193 pounds of milk,
370 pounds of butterfat. One daughter has two Register of Merit records, and two sons
have transmitted production to their progeny.

The average productive life of a dairy cow has been calculated
to be from 4.5 to 6.0 years after calving the first time. This
span of usefulness allows for cows eliminated by disease, acci-
dental deaths, sterility, culling and senility. Physical condition
and thrift of a cow must be considered, along with age, in making
selections.
Total valuation of a cow is the result of the entire combination
of facts listed above. Serious faults in a single point may be
sufficient to eliminate a cow from consideration. For example,






Management of Dairy Cattle in Florida


sparser -than on some of the richer English meadows. These
cattle are noted for grazing ability, as fair beef producers, and
as work oxen. Since 1924, attention has been given in England
to their ability as milk producers, by establishing an Advanced
Registry section in the herd books. The requirements are lower
than are those of any of the dairy breeds.
Devon cattle were introduced into the New England states by
some of the early settlers. As early as 1861, a Devon bull was
brought into northern Florida, followed by a few other indi-
viduals'. Progeny of these animals were in demand, so that the
influence of the Devon breed is seen in the red color and wide
upturned horns of animals on many Florida ranges. The breed-
ers of Devon cattle reorganized as the American Devon Cattle
Club as recently as 1916. An Advanced Registry based on yearly
milk and butterfat production was established by this organiza-
tion in 1921. The requirements for qualification are 40 to 60
pounds less butterfat than are those for the dairy breeds of
cattle. They are fair milkers, the typical butterfat test being
around 4.3 percent.
Of the dual purpose breeds, Devons incline more toward beef
type than toward the wedge-shapes of dairy cattle. Mature
cows weigh from 1,100 to 1,400 pounds, and bulls from 1,500
to 2,000 pounds. Calves usually weigh between 55 and 75 pounds
at birth. They are usually cherry red or dark red in color, with
dark tipped horns.

THE DAIRY HERD: SIRE AND DAM
WHAT GIVES VALUE TO A COW?
Selection of a dairy cow as the foundation of a dairy herd
should be made with as full a knowledge as available of a number
of facts, namely:
1. Ability of the cow to produce milk and butterfat.
2. Health-freedom from tuberculosis, infectious abortion
(Bang's disease), mastitis, other communicable diseases, and
injurious parasites.
3. Condition of the cow as affected by previous feeding and
management. This includes mineral storage, or state of nu-
trition.
4. She should have a satisfactory breeding history. This
includes number of calves, date of last calving, subsequent service
Florida Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 248, page 10.







Management of Dairy Cattle in Florida


a cow too far advanced in age may be valueless as a potential
breeding animal.
SELECTION OF A HERD SIRE
There is no sure way whereby one may select a young dairy
bull with any assurance that he will transmit high production
to the major portionof his progeny. Because of this fact, it is
more desirable to purchase and use proved bulls whenever they
are available. Selection of young untried sires is always with
the knowledge that the offspring may not prove satisfactory.
The more information that is available for consideration regard-
ing the ancestry of young bulls the greater are the chances that
the selection may prove satisfactory. Information which may be
considered in the selection of a young bull is enumerated.
1. Has the sire transmitted producing ability to a large pro-
portion of his heifers? Are they equal to, or better than, their
dams in milk and butterfat production?
2. Is the dam a satisfactory producer year after year? Does
she have sisters equal to herself, or is she a high producing
freak in a low producing family?


4 S t -*'.. -


Fig. 4.-The herd sire transmits one-half of the characters inherited by his daughters,
consequently the quality of his immediate ancestors, individuality of the bull himself and
the characteristics of all known progeny should be considered prior to his purchase. This
bull-Florida's Majesty 153431-was well bred. He possessed good breed character, consti-
tution, capacity and general conformation. The entire 73 lactations of 20 daughters once
in the Station herd, averaged 5,516 pounds of milk, 5.11 percent fat and 282 pounds of
butterfat per lactation, regardless of age. Eight of his better daughters completed 11
Register of Merit records that averaged 8,259 pounds of milk and 423 pounds of butterfat.
Ten other heifers and 11 bulls were sold to Florida dairymen, and two bulls to the Isle of
Pines. The majority of his daughters, and many granddaughters, have been profitable cows.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


3. Does she have the constitution, capacity, and development
of udder, teats and mammary veins such as you desire of cows
in your herd? Has she transmitted producing ability and de-
sirable conformation to her other progeny?
4. Does the young bull under consideration appear well de-
veloped, masculine, vigorous, and of good size for his age? Is
he a registered purebred?
Studies of large numbers of records made by the Bureau of
Dairy Industry, United States Department of Agriculture, have
shown that purebred dairy cows usually exceed grade cows in
producing ability. The desirable qualities of the grade cows
have come in a large part from their purebred ancestors.
Desirable conformation in the bull includes a masculine ap-
pearance of head, good depth and circumference of chest, length
of body, depth of ribs, length of rump, desirable placement of
rudimentary teats, good size for age, spareness inside the thighs,
and a general appearance of dairy temperament. These charac-
teristics denote constitution, capacity for feed, dairy tempera-
ment, and mammary development.
Health of the animal, and of the herd from which he comes,
is essential. One does not care to introduce a diseased animal
into a healthy herd. It is desirable to avoid introduction of
internal parasites such as lung worms, coccidia, stomach worms,
hookworms and others. The cattle fever tick has been eradi-
cated from almost the entire South, therefore it will not be a
factor in livestock production in the near future.
CARE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE BULL
As the herd sire, the bull is the most important animal, since
he contributes one-half of the inheritance of the future dairy
herd. Progress in improvement of a dairy herd depends to a
very large extent upon the transmitting ability of the herd sire,
hence it is important that his ability be proved while he is yet
living. If his progeny are better than their dams, then he is a
valuable animal worthy of use as long as he is serviceable.
A bull is a treacherous and dangerous animal, and care should
be exercised to see that he is maintained safely, and as a satis-
factory breeder. While still young, a bull should have a light
copper ring inserted high in the septum of the nose. This light
ring should be replaced with a heavy bronze cannon-metal ring
when the animal is two or three years old. He should be trained
to lead, and to be tied, while he is yet young and tractable. Bulls







Management of Dairy Cattle in Florida


should always be handled firmly; never petted, or teased. The
gentle bull is often the most dangerous.
It is a matter of personal opinion as to whether or not bulls
should be dehorned. They may be dehorned with caustic potash
while very young. Some persons prefer to let the horns grow
for several months, and then perform the operation during cool
weather. It is thought
that when this method is
followed the bull is more
cautious in the aggres-
sive use of his head. If 3rsuna
the horns are allowed to abt*
remain, it is sometimes
desirable to round them
off at the tips, so that he Bulls
is less likely to injure pad&
other animals.
A separate paddock,
pasture, or exercise lot, GIat
adjacent to a shelter and
to a safety breeding chute
(see Fig. 5) have proved
Fig. 5.-A safety breeding
satisfactory for handling chute can be arranged in the
I corner of any paddock. The
and housing bulls in gate swings inward to admit
and remove the cow, without
Florida. Where two or the attendant having to enter
I the bull's pen.
more bulls are kept, each
may occupy a small shel-
ter pen, in which these
animals are provided
with feed and water, and
with access to the larger
paddock. Sometimes two
congenial bulls may oc-
cupy the same paddock,
although there may be
risk of injury. Without
exercise, bulls get sluggish, and have been found less effective
in service.
The feeds supplied to a bull should be of such quality and
amount as to keep him in a vigorous condition, but not fat. The
quantity of roughage needs to be limited to prevent the bull from
becoming paunchy or heavy in the middle. Good grazing and






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


exercise may be provided in a strongly-fenced pasture separate
from the dairy herd. A good legume forage, with an allowance
of green pasture or soiling crops, is desirable. There is a popu-
lar belief that the allowance of silage should be limited in amount.
Shade and water should be available in any pasture or paddock.
Sprouted oats are recommended by the Bureau of Dairy Industry
as a desirable feed for bulls, whose rations otherwise are lacking
in fresh green feeds.
Except in the periods of heavy use bulls require only a limited
amount of concentrates. The concentrates need not contain
over 16 percent total crude protein, and may be made up of such
feeds as wheat bran, corn feed meal, oats, cottonseed and linseed
oil meals. It is desirable to give bulls access to common salt
and such mineral matter as is needed on the local soil areas,
discussed more fully in Florida Station Bulletins 231, 262 and
264.
Studies made at the South Carolina station showed that dairy
bulls were more effective in service when not used over 12 times
per month. With bulls under two years old, or over eight years
of age, somewhat lighter service is desirable. Breeding effi-
ciency is lower in herds where abortion disease is prevalent, or
with cows showing any abnormal vaginal discharge. Barring
accidents and with good care, a bull may be expected to remain
serviceable up to nine years of age. Although many bulls are
disposed of younger, a small number are known to have been
active and useful even until 17 to 19 years of age.
Failure of cows to conceive at first service often has been an
erroneous reason for discarding a good bull. A large number of
records were assembled from published literature and from the
Florida station herd relative to breeding efficiency in cattle. Of
4,819 pregnancies tabulated, 62.46 percent conceived at the first
service, 19.5 percent at the second service, and 8.7 percent at the
third service. Few extreme instances of conception beyond the
tenth service were noted. Large numbers of records showed
that two services per conception are not unusual. In the eight
experiment station herds studied, an average of 1.78 services
were required per conception.
At the Florida station, 58 percent of the conceptions studied
were from a single service; 25 percent after the second service,
and 10 percent from the third service. Three extreme instances
out of 258 conceptions were at the 9th, 10th and 14th services.
Heifers at the Ohio station conceived slightly more readily than
did older cows among a group of 340 Jersey and 379 Holstein






Management of Dairy Cattle in Florida 25

pregnancies. The Nebraska station analyzed their records for
a period of longer than 30 years, and found under their condi-
tions that 24 percent more services were required for heifers
under two years of age, than for cows. It has been observed
at the Florida station, and in certain other areas, that the state
of mineral nutrition is a factor affecting the regularity of
oestrum in cows and heifers. State of health of the reproductive
organs also affects the readiness of conception.
Regular management of a dairy herd requires that breeding
records be kept. The service dates may be listed consecutively
in a notebook, and recorded from there into a small herdbook
on the separate record of each individual cow.
KEEPING DAIRY RECORDS
Good management of dairy herds centers around a simple
system of herd records so that a dairyman can know, without
question, all that it is possible to know about each cow. Any
good system of herd records should be sufficiently complete that
upon absence of the owner or manager, another person can take
the records and answer the following questions from them re-
garding any individual in the herd:
1. Identification of each animal (tattoo, ear mark, neck strap
number or color markings).
2. Age of the animal.
3. Breeding record up to date, with identity of progeny in the
herd.
4. Production record up to date, either on the current monthly
milk sheet, or in the herdbook.
Breeding records should be kept consecutively in a diary or
notebook, in addition to being on each cow's individual record.
By such a system, one may obtain quickly a list of the cows
expected to calve in any one month, and know when they should
be turned dry to allow a six-weeks rest. Knowing when the calf
may be expected, arrangement may be made to segregate the
cow, and give her closer attention about calving time. These
records often call attention to need for veterinary care.
Many kinds of herdbooks and record systems are available,
the majority of which are satisfactory when the records in them
are complete. A compact loose-leaf record book, devised at the
Oklahoma station, contains much of the information desired in
a record system. It includes name and date of birth of the ani-
mal, provision for identification by color marks, tattoo, or herd
number, a brief pedigree, and the complete reproduction record






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


on the face of the loose-leaf form. The back side of this form
has room for four lactation records, as long as 14 months dura-
tion. See Fig. 6. Retail dairymen may wish only milk records,
while others may wish to use the butterfat tests on each cow
at monthly or bi-monthly intervals, so that butterfat production
may be computed. These total milk yields for each month are
taken from the monthly milk sheet kept at the dairy barn, either
by daily weights, once weekly, three times a month, or with a
single day's weight at the middle of each month. Daily weights
require slightly more work to obtain, but allow a dairyman to
watch any irregularity in the condition of the cows more closely,
as seen by variations in milk production from day to day.

O O
Name. 'J4 ntne M C N. 839 712 o,,ra a. 25,.(92

Sadli c. or RECORD Tqne We x
[U j'U.e Mil T mt a ble, 2620 0 Fntaine WonJer
i76.Z ... Heart 3 8qW2-

.......... .......... .......... ........... 5 3 103

] f-To CAlT. 5w
"ij4 Ar i-j-- _- 3L5 f "',5 U F

/2. >-.-3q 53 F 532 U F
Tatt, ......3...8.2.....U..F ....... 8A8/~aif
eilBs


0 I F382
S .M.ik Milk o
to/ 4 n^ (


li qinf6.6 ,. foO


1` ar0# 87 e' M4rcL 977'. !
Ail 7.- ". sa .l-li ,ss Z 5.qq.

g-7 8 "I, .'la 8a-7,4 5Tz-
fun- 2 r 6 ,2 S,
JAJIyJ 'f5 15- IfAYo 7. 7 0
A1,n I<)28 r3A. IA.,n 71-6 S.8iWI5


SOc

SNov22 cQ 6


365'Se i2
360 Oct 60?6 566,
21-. Nov ff I .;
Sec 2 78' j23.


IMilk % ofI Fat | Month Milk Ft


NIA 13o7S 71 -VI





SOct 67I V2
Nov0


i-_l_ I I I


Fig. 6.-The loose-leaf herdbook form, devised at the Oklahoma Experiment Station,
allows for identification, pedigree and reproduction record on one side, and four yearly
production records on the reverse side of the sheet. Dates of calving, first and last weighed
milkings are shown for each lactation.


Ui~g


,* M131" L' I-
awL T o 017-W






Management of Dairy Cattle in Florida


RAISING REPLACEMENTS
Where whole milk is marketed, dairymen tend to depend upon
purchasing cows and heifers to maintain numbers in their dairy
herds, rather than upon raising heifer calves. It is almost im-
possible in practise to make any improvement in average pro-
duction of a dairy herd when replacements are made by pur-
chase of cows on the market. The most practical means of
developing a high producing herd is by raising heifers from the
better class of cows, sired by a bull of proved transmitting ability.
This practise also reduces the risk of introducing disease into
the herd.


*MR


Fig. 7.-Animals of this type make desirable replacements in dairy herds. This boy
:raised these purebred Jersey heifers as a part of his 4-H club work in Florida.

Approximately 20 to 25 percent of a dairy herd is replaced
annually, the proportion increasing in areas where cows are sold
for dairy purposes. Formerly a large proportion of cows were
purchased to maintain numbers in the dairy herds of Florida.
As recently as 1927, it was observed in five of the areas surveyed






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


that three-fifths of the replacements were purchased. In the
general farming area, only 14 percent of the replacements were
purchased, whereas surplus cows and heifers were being sold
for dairy purposes. Changing economic conditions in prices of
feeds, cattle, and dairy products, and in the use of more home-
grown roughages, have been accompanied by a change in the
proportion of replacements raised. An increasing number of
dairymen in the market milk sheds of the state are raising heifer
calves from their better cows.
FEEDING DAIRY CALVES
Newborn calves need about one pound of whole milk for each
10 pounds of live weight daily. A 50 pound Jersey heifer calf
can be fed 21/2 pounds of whole milk at each feed, morning and
evening. The amount of milk may be increased in proportion
to the gain in body weight, at the rate mentioned above. During
seasons of surplus milk, when price levels allow, it is desirable
for calves to receive whole milk up until six weeks of age, in ad-
dition to hay and dry grain. Skimmilk may replace the whole
milk when the calf is six weeks of age, and its use continued until
the calf is six months old. Some roughage is eaten by calves
as early as two weeks after birth, the amount increasing as the
calf's digestive system develops. The offering of roughage may
be as much as the calf will eat without waste, but the amount
of grain may be limited according to the condition of the calf,
never exceeding four pounds daily with older animals.
Grain mixtures to accompany the milk and roughage described
above, in feeding calves under six months old, may consist of
the following:
Shelled corn ................100 pounds Shelled corn .................100 pounds
Whole oats .................100 pounds Wheat bran ................... 50 pounds
Linseed oil meal ....... 25 pounds
High grade sweet mule feed which consists of cracked corn,
crimped oats, alfalfa and molasses, and linseed oil meal, is a
good concentrate for young calves. Mixed dairy feeds may be
reduced to 12 percent total crude protein by addition of beet pulp
and shelled corn or corn feed meal. After calves reach six months
of age, their grain should be ground and have a concentrate
added to make a 16 percent protein feed.
When whole milk is scarce or high in price the change to skim-
milk may be made at four weeks of age, though slower growth
will be noted following such an early change. Re-constituted
skimmilk may be made by using one pound of powdered skim-






Management of Dairy Cattle in Florida


milk, or powdered sweet buttermilk, with nine pounds of warm
water, this to be fed at about body temperature. This re-consti-
tuted skimmilk may be fed at the same rate as fresh skimmilk.
Calves should always be fed under sanitary conditions and in
clean buckets.
SUPPLEMENTARY DRY FEEDS
Another method of raising calves on a limited allowance of
milk involves starting the calf off well on whole milk during the
first month. As early as possible the calf is allowed to eat high
quality roughage and a supplementary dry feed which consists
of grains and milling by-products, with one of the dry milk
powders or soluble blood flour. The high quality roughage may
be leafy alfalfa, peavine cowpeaa), or an early-cut grass hay.
Mineral matter often is provided to replace that which would
have been supplied to the calf in its mother's milk. Several
supplementary grain mixtures, tested at other experiment sta-
tions, are listed in Table 2. These stations recommend in general
that whole milk be fed for at least three to five weeks, and that
either diluted whole milk or skimmilk be fed in part until the
calf is well started on the supplementary grain. This stage
usually is attainable at 6 to 8 weeks of age. Then milk is with-
drawn gradually, and the calf fed wholly on supplementary grain
and high quality roughage.
TABLE 2.-SUPPLEMENTARY DRY GRAINS FOR USE IN FEEDING CALVES THAT
HAVE RECEIVED A GOOD START (6 TO 8 WEEKS) ON MILK AND HIGH
QUALITY ROUGHAGE.
I Oregon U. S. D. A. New Jersey Maryland
Source iBulletin 2901 Leaflet 20 Ext. Bul. 73 Bulletin 319
(feeds in pounds)

Yellow cornmeal ........... 80 50 100 100
Ground oats ...................... 120 15 150 100
W heat bran ...................... 50 ...... 50 100
Linseed oilmeal ................ 50 15 50 50
Skimmilk powder ............ 100 10 ...... 100
Soluble blood flour .......... ...... 10 50.....
Steamed bonemeal ............ 5 ..... 4 ......
Finely ground limestone.. ............ 4 ......
Common salt ...................... 0.5 4 4.5

Calves vary in the age at which they start to eat hay and dry
grain. Some will begin when less than two weeks of age; others
later. They may be offered up to one-half pound of the supple-
mentary dry grains before six weeks of age. The offering to
older calves should be limited according to age and development,
not exceeding 3 to 4 pounds daily at any age.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


SANITATION IN RAISING CALVES
Some of the important ailments of calves can be prevented in
a large measure through sanitation. This is especially true in
infestations of stomach and hook worms. These parasites are
spread by eggs that are passed out in the droppings of infected
calves. Another important ailment that may be controlled
largely through sanitation is coccidiosis. The micro-organisms
causing this disease also pass out in the droppings, and in this
way contaminate the soil and premises.
Calves are more susceptible to stomach worms than are older
animals. Symptoms of stomach worm infection are: weakness,
unthriftiness, loss of flesh, enlargement of abdomen (pot-bellied),
pale mucus membranes of eye and mouth, diarrhea, and in ad-
vanced cases swelling occurs under the lower jaw.
The symptoms of coccidiosis are: unthriftiness and general
weakness with diarrhea in evidence. The discharge from the
intestines is often streaked with blood. The animal has a rough
coat and loses flesh. This condition may persist for days, grad-
ually getting worse and finally death occurs. Sometimes after
lingering for days the calf will gradually recover, yet such a case
may serve as a "carrier" for the micro-organisms causing coc-
cidiosis.
In attempting to control or prevent these ailments of calves
it should be kept in mind that such control measures must de-
pend almost entirely on sanitation rather than through the use
of drugs. In carrying out the sanitary measures, it is important
to keep the calf stalls clean at all times. One 13-ounce can of
lye to 15 gallons of boiling water is one of the best cleansing
agents.
In stalls where infected animals are kept the hot lye solution
should be applied twice a week. The floors and walls to which
the lye solution is applied should be thoroughly rinsed following
its application. However, it is well to wait for one-half to one
hour before rinsing. In addition to cleaning with lye solution
all floors should be washed thoroughly twice daily.
The soil around the barn and within the calf lots becomes
contaminated with parasite eggs and coccidia and such soil
serves as a source of infection. In attempting to eliminate such
sources of infection, many dairymen use a series of lots in which
annual crops are grown, and the calves are rotated from one
lot to another.






Management of Dairy Cattle in Florida


When the land is turned in preparing the soil for planting
and in cultivating the crops, parasite eggs are eliminated in a
large degree. Such crops as oats and rye might well be used
for winter and spring grazing; cat-tail millet, cowpeas, and
Napier grass for late spring, summer, and fall grazing.
Calves infected with stomach worms may be treated with 1
percent solution of copper sulfate. This solution is prepared
by adding one and one-fourth ounces of copper sulfate (blue-
stone) to one gallon of water. The calf should be starved for
18 to 24 hours and given the copper sulfate solution as a drench
in the following doses:
Calves-3 to 6 months old .-..........-.................... 3 ounces
Calves-6 to 12 months old .....-....-.......... .. ............. 4 ounces
Yearlings ....-........... .... .... ..... ...... ........ 6 ounces
Unless sanitation is practiced the results from medical treat-
ment are very ineffective, since re-infestations occur. It is far
better to prevent infestations of parasites through sanitation
than to attempt to control through medication.
FEED FROM WEANING TO BREEDING AGE
Calves usually are considered old enough to wean from milk
products at six months of age, though if surplus milk is at hand,
which would not be used otherwise, its use may be continued.
Good pasturage and a good grade of dry roughage and silage
may make up the major portion of the feed for growing heifers.
Mineral supplements are essential, particularly where the pas-
tures and roughages are grown on certain light sandy soils, or
soils that respond to heavy phosphate fertilization, as will be
discussed later. Some mixed grain may be offered, but in limited
amounts, and the more expensive constituents omitted. A mixed
feed containing 12 to 16 percent total crude protein is adapted
for heifers at this stage of growth. Such a feed may be com-
posed of cornmeal, wheat bran, cottonseed meal, and other simi-
lar feeds which are reasonable in price. The amount of grain
should vary inversely with the amount and quality of roughage
accessible to the heifers. Heifers should be in vigorous growing
condition but not excessively fat when at breeding age.
AGE TO BREED HEIFERS
Large vigorous heifers may be bred from two to six months
younger than animals that are under-developed, or are in poor
condition. The average ages recommended for first service vary






Management of Dairy Cattle in Florida


When the land is turned in preparing the soil for planting
and in cultivating the crops, parasite eggs are eliminated in a
large degree. Such crops as oats and rye might well be used
for winter and spring grazing; cat-tail millet, cowpeas, and
Napier grass for late spring, summer, and fall grazing.
Calves infected with stomach worms may be treated with 1
percent solution of copper sulfate. This solution is prepared
by adding one and one-fourth ounces of copper sulfate (blue-
stone) to one gallon of water. The calf should be starved for
18 to 24 hours and given the copper sulfate solution as a drench
in the following doses:
Calves-3 to 6 months old .-..........-.................... 3 ounces
Calves-6 to 12 months old .....-....-.......... .. ............. 4 ounces
Yearlings ....-........... .... .... ..... ...... ........ 6 ounces
Unless sanitation is practiced the results from medical treat-
ment are very ineffective, since re-infestations occur. It is far
better to prevent infestations of parasites through sanitation
than to attempt to control through medication.
FEED FROM WEANING TO BREEDING AGE
Calves usually are considered old enough to wean from milk
products at six months of age, though if surplus milk is at hand,
which would not be used otherwise, its use may be continued.
Good pasturage and a good grade of dry roughage and silage
may make up the major portion of the feed for growing heifers.
Mineral supplements are essential, particularly where the pas-
tures and roughages are grown on certain light sandy soils, or
soils that respond to heavy phosphate fertilization, as will be
discussed later. Some mixed grain may be offered, but in limited
amounts, and the more expensive constituents omitted. A mixed
feed containing 12 to 16 percent total crude protein is adapted
for heifers at this stage of growth. Such a feed may be com-
posed of cornmeal, wheat bran, cottonseed meal, and other simi-
lar feeds which are reasonable in price. The amount of grain
should vary inversely with the amount and quality of roughage
accessible to the heifers. Heifers should be in vigorous growing
condition but not excessively fat when at breeding age.
AGE TO BREED HEIFERS
Large vigorous heifers may be bred from two to six months
younger than animals that are under-developed, or are in poor
condition. The average ages recommended for first service vary






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


with the size and rate of maturity of the different breeds, and
are as follows:
Jersey ........................ ........... ..... 15 to 18 months
Guernsey ............................ ..... .....16 to 20 months
Ayrshire ..........................................17 to 21 months
Holstein .................... ...............- ...... 17 to 21 months
Brown Swiss ...................... ........... ... .......18 to 22 months
Breeding practise followed with heifers during 1927, in the
249 Florida dairy herds, was such that 11.9 percent calved when
under 24 months of age; 41.4 percent between 24 and 30 months,
and 46.7 percent when 30 months of age, or over. The average
estimated weight of all cows was only 736 pounds. Fifty-seven
percent of the herds had purebred or grade Jersey cows, and an-
other 37 percent had part Jerseys, with some additional Hol-
steins, Guernseys, Ayrshires or Dutch Belted cows. These com-
bined facts suggest that perhaps slight under size may have
been one cause for the breeding practise.
It is often advisable to provide sufficient improved pasture,
home-grown roughage such as silages and soiling crops, and
adequate mineral matter to fit with any limited allowance of
concentrates in order to grow heifers of good size. Extensive
studies have shown that within each separate breed the larger
cows usually are the heavier milk producers.
FEED FROM BREEDING TO CALVING TIME
The daily routine after a heifer is safely with calf should be
similar to that followed before breeding age. Roughage may
constitute the main part of the feed, this to be supplemented
with mineral matter as outlined below, and with such limited
grain as the abundance of roughage may suggest. Two months
before the heifer is due to freshen is not too early for her to
come into the stanchions at milking time for an extra allowance
of grain. The object of feeding extra grain at this time is two-
fold, namely: (1) to get the animal in condition for the maximum
milk production after calving, and (2) to accustom her to the
stanchion before having to learn to be milked. This period of
barn-training makes a heifer more docile and tractable, and also
gives a dairyman opportunity to anticipate more closely the
expected time of calving. Access to mineral supplements needs
to be given especial attention in the period just prior to calving,
particularly on light sandy soils and muck soils on which there
is a tendency for any class of cattle to become anemic, or "salt
sick."







Management of Dairy Cattle in Florida


MINERAL SUPPLEMENTS FOR CATTLE
Calves, rapidly-growing heifers, pregnant animals, and cows
in milk have a high requirement for mineral matter. Mineral
elements are needed by these animals to build the red portion
of blood, muscles and organs, as well as the straw-colored part
of the blood, the skeleton, and to provide for all the minerals in
milk.
Feeds may be selected with a knowledge of the nutrients which
these provide for growing animals and milking cows. Legumes
usually contain from 3 to 5 times more lime (calcium) than do
grasses or silage crops (corn, sorghum, or sugarcane) grown on
the same land. Wheat bran and the oil meals are high in phos-
phorus content. Seeds and grains usually contain less iron and
copper than do the leaves and stems of plants, the amounts being
related to the richness of the soils in these elements.
Cattle never should be allowed to suffer from mineral short-
ages. It is advisable under most
Florida conditions, to give cattle is ,
free access to additional mineral
matter in a sheltered box, as
shown in Figure 8. Finely ,
ground feeding bonemeal may
be placed in one compartment.
On clay soils common salt may
be supplied in the other compart-
ment. On other than clay soils,
either of the following mineral
mixtures may be used in place .
of common salt: o'
No. 1 -
Common salt ................................. 100
Red oxide of iron ..................... 25b i
Pulverized copper sulfate ............. 1
No. 2
Common salt ................................... 50
Bonemeal ................................ 50
Red oxide of iron .............................. 25
Pulverized copper sulfate .............. 1
Mineral supplement No. 1 is Fig. 8.--A good type of box in which
to place mineral supplenients, that cattle
for general use as a safe source may have free access, and the supplements
be protected from wind and rain.
of iron and copper for animals
on light sandy and muck soils. The reduction in amount of salt,
and substitution with bonemeal, suit supplement No. 2 for use






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


with animals on areas near salt water, or where the drinking
water is brackish. It is particularly desirable that the iron-
copper supplement be used with calves, growing heifers, and
pregnant cows at all times, on areas that are marginal in these
mineral elements, or are definitely "salt sick."
Bonemeal (finely ground feeding bonemeal) supplies both cal-
cium and phosphorus in a safe, palatable, and readily available
form at relatively low cost. Its use is general with dairy cows,
and also on ranges where cattle chew bones, leather, oyster shells
and similar objects. The presence of broken ribs and hips in
any dairy herd is a safe indication that bonemeal should be added
to the ration. More detailed studies of the use of mineral sup-
plements with cattle, made at the Florida Experiment Station,
are available in several publications".

FACTORS AFFECTING MILK YIELD
SEASON OF CALVING AFFECTS YEARLY MILK YIELD
The influence of season of freshening on milk yield was meas-
ured by an analysis of 319 complete normal lactations of Jersey
cows milked twice daily in the Florida station herd. These
records were obtained over 16 years, from 1917 to 1932, inclusive,
and showed the general trend of seasonal production with cows
freshening at the different seasons, regardless of small variations
that may occur with the climatic changes of any single year.
Cows fresh during the winter months (December to February)
gave slightly more milk and were the most persistent producers.
Those calving in the autumn (October and November) followed
the first group very closely. Cows fresh in the summer (June
to September) ranked below these in milk yields, while the spring
calving group (March to May) produced the least. Only very
small differences were noted in the milk yields of the cows fresh
in autumn, winter and summer. However, the group of cows
freshening in the spring produced less than did the groups
which calved during other times of the year.
The summer rainy season-a period of flush pastures-exert-
ed a noticeable influence in maintaining daily milk production.
(See Figure 9.) The decline in daily milk yields was more rapid
just after the close of the rainy season, when pasture turns dry
1 Bulletin 231. Salt Sick: Its cause and prevention. Mineral supple-
ments for cattle.
Bulletin 262. Effect of calcium-deficient roughages upon milk pro-
duction and welfare of dairy cows.
Bulletin 264. Stiffs or sweeny (phosphorus deficiency) in cattle.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


with animals on areas near salt water, or where the drinking
water is brackish. It is particularly desirable that the iron-
copper supplement be used with calves, growing heifers, and
pregnant cows at all times, on areas that are marginal in these
mineral elements, or are definitely "salt sick."
Bonemeal (finely ground feeding bonemeal) supplies both cal-
cium and phosphorus in a safe, palatable, and readily available
form at relatively low cost. Its use is general with dairy cows,
and also on ranges where cattle chew bones, leather, oyster shells
and similar objects. The presence of broken ribs and hips in
any dairy herd is a safe indication that bonemeal should be added
to the ration. More detailed studies of the use of mineral sup-
plements with cattle, made at the Florida Experiment Station,
are available in several publications".

FACTORS AFFECTING MILK YIELD
SEASON OF CALVING AFFECTS YEARLY MILK YIELD
The influence of season of freshening on milk yield was meas-
ured by an analysis of 319 complete normal lactations of Jersey
cows milked twice daily in the Florida station herd. These
records were obtained over 16 years, from 1917 to 1932, inclusive,
and showed the general trend of seasonal production with cows
freshening at the different seasons, regardless of small variations
that may occur with the climatic changes of any single year.
Cows fresh during the winter months (December to February)
gave slightly more milk and were the most persistent producers.
Those calving in the autumn (October and November) followed
the first group very closely. Cows fresh in the summer (June
to September) ranked below these in milk yields, while the spring
calving group (March to May) produced the least. Only very
small differences were noted in the milk yields of the cows fresh
in autumn, winter and summer. However, the group of cows
freshening in the spring produced less than did the groups
which calved during other times of the year.
The summer rainy season-a period of flush pastures-exert-
ed a noticeable influence in maintaining daily milk production.
(See Figure 9.) The decline in daily milk yields was more rapid
just after the close of the rainy season, when pasture turns dry
1 Bulletin 231. Salt Sick: Its cause and prevention. Mineral supple-
ments for cattle.
Bulletin 262. Effect of calcium-deficient roughages upon milk pro-
duction and welfare of dairy cows.
Bulletin 264. Stiffs or sweeny (phosphorus deficiency) in cattle.







Management of Dairy Cattle in Florida


Variations in daily nUll yied du to,
ont in lactation ----
20
Calendar mnontbs - -




15
a -



S10






Month in lactation
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 5 9 10 11 12
Jan Ieb March April ray 3 Tnm July Ag Sept Oct Do 1 6

Fig. 9.-Young and succulent pasture grasses during the spring and early summer tend
to stimulate milk production, while advancing stage of lactation depresses it. The latter
influence is of greater magnitude than the former, as it affects ultimate milk yields of
individual cows in a herd.

and vegetation becomes scanty. The time of the rainy season
in relation to the stage of lactation appears to be a prominent
factor in these differences in milk yield from season to season.
However, these differences are of smaller magnitude than are
those observed in other regions farther north where there are
greater seasonal differences in environment. A summary of the
average milk yields by cows fresh at different seasons is given
in Table 3.

TABLE 3.-AVERAGE YEARLY MILK PRODUCTION OF JERSEY COWS IN THE
FLORIDA STATION HERD, CALVING AT DIFFERENT SEASONS, 1917-1932.
Total Milk Yield
Season of freshening Number of lactations pounds
Spring ......................-...........-............. 74 4,864
Summer --.................... ........ ----.......104 5,339
Autumn---.................-----.. ...-........ 70 5,436
W inter .. ---.........................--------- 71 5,445

AGE INFLUENCES MILK PRODUCTION

Studies of milk records in other parts of the United States
have shown that Jersey and Guernsey cows attain their peak
of milk production when 7 to 8 years of age, and the larger later-






36 Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Maturing breeds at about one year later. The average percent
butterfat of the milk of cows declines to a lesser degree with
advancing age than does milk production. This decline in fat
percentage amounts to as much as 0.5 percent in Jerseys and
Guernseys up to nine years of age, and slightly less in the breeds
producing milk of a lower butterfat content.
LENGTH OF DRY PERIOD AFFECTS MILK YIELD
How long should cows be dry?
The answer depends upon the influence of the dry period upon
the cow's future production and welfare, and upon the local
demand for dairy products. In times of local surplus of milk,
it may be desirable either to turn some cows dry sooner, or to
cull out the less profitable animals. The average practise in
Florida dairies in 1927 was for cows to be dry an average of 6.5
weeks in the Orlando area, up to 8.5 weeks at Tampa-the aver-
age of all areas being 7.8 weeks.
TABLE 4.-INFLUENCE OF LENGTH OF DRY PERIOD, IN RELATION TO MILK
YIELDS OF JERSEY COWS ON LOW-CALCIUM RATIONS, AND ON RATIONS
ADEQUATE IN CALCIUM CONTENT.
SAverage Yields per Lactation Percent-
Number I age of
Dry period of iow-cn a dOnate base
low-calcium adequate I
lactations rations rations Average yield*
1 [ pounds [ pounds pounds percent

53 4,632.0 .......... .. .........
Initial lactations 15 .......... 7,581.6
68 ............ ........... 5,306.0 91.87
S 10 4,806.2 ... .......
30 days or less 9 ........ ... 5,926.5 .......... ...........
19 .......... .. ........ 5,335.6 92.38
54 5,188.1 .......
31-60 days 22 ........... 7,185.1 ... ......
76 ........... .... .... 5,775.5* 100.00
45 4,937.7 .. ..... .........
61-90 days 14 ........... 7,373.0 .. ... ....
59 ........... ............ 5,468.0 94.68
56 4,690.9 .................
91 days or more 13 ............ 6,878.0 .........
69 ............ ............ 5,126.9 88.77
218 4,856.0 ......... .......... ............
W eighted average 73 ............ 7,092.7 ........... ............
S 291 ............ ............ 5,420.9 ............
Since a dry period of 1 to 2 months has been recommended popularly, the milk yields
for this group were used as a base with which to compare those of other groups.

The influence of length of dry period upon subsequent lacta-
tion was measured by an analysis of 291 lactations of cows in






Management of Dairy Cattle in Florida


the Florida station herd, calving fairly regularly throughout
different seasons of the year. Since these cows had received
rations low in calcium prior to 1929, and adequate in calcium
thereafter, it was desirable to summarize milk yields of these
groups separately. All records were divided into five classes,
namely: initial lactations, and those preceded by dry periods of
30 days or less, 31 to 60 days, 61 to 90 days, and over 90 days in
length.
The class of 76 lactations following dry periods of 31 to 60
days showed the greatest average milk yield per lactation. Since
this length of dry period is the one generally used by successful
dairymen, this average milk yield (5,776.5 pounds) was used as
a base with which to compare the production of other classes.
Cows dry less than 30 days produced 7.62 percent less milk;
those dry 61 to 90 days, 5.32 percent less, and those dry longer
than 90 days, 11.23 percent less milk. First calf heifers produced
8.13 percent less than did the group dry 31 to 60 days. It ap-
pears from this that the general practise of allowing a dry
period of 31 to 60 days favors optimum milk production in
commercial dairies.
The average production for each class of lactations is presented
in Table 4.
MINERAL SUPPLEMENT AS RELATED TO MILK YIELD
Rations adequate in the mineral elements required in nutrition
of dairy cows are not benefited by the additions of more mineral
matter. In the majority of instances where dairy rations contain
a good proportion of high quality legume hay, corn silage and a
grain mixture which contains some wheat bran and an oil meal,
no additional mineral matter is required by cows in commercial
dairies. Even with the best of rations, however, high producing
cows do require attention to the mineral content of their feeds.
Common salt is most frequently deficient. On acid soils, or where
the roughages are entirely grasses rather than legumes, calcium
(lime) may be needed. Certain types of soils are low in avail-
able phosphorus. Others may lack iron and copper, or there
may be instances where two or more of these elements may be
deficient on the same land. Under these circumstances cows
respond to mineral supplements in the rations. The degree to
which these elements are lacking will affect the response that
may be anticipated when they are supplied.
The pasture and crop lands at the Florida station are on acid
sandy soil, low in available lime. The forages used with the






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


dairy herd were mainly silage crops and pasture grasses grown
on these lands. Under these conditions the rations were low in
calcium content. Beginning in 1929 the calcium content of the
rations was increased by addition of 2 percent of finely ground
feeding bonemeal to the concentrates. The higher producing
cows received a limited offering of alfalfa hay. These changes
provided sufficient calcium to meet the requirement of Jersey
cows in commercial dairies.
As mentioned in the study of dry periods, the lactations were
divided into two groups, (1) those while the cows received ra-
tions low in calcium, and (2) those on rations adequate in calcium
content. The latter also were grouped according to length of
preceding dry periods, although the numbers in each class are
so few that these averages can be considered only indicative.
The average of 218 lactations while the cows received low
calcium rations was 4,856 pounds of milk. The 73 lactations on
rations adequate in calcium average 7,092 pounds of milk, or an
increase of 46 percent in milk production. While many of the
animals appeared only in one group, yet this difference compares
closely with a separate study which involved lifetime production
of 12 cows that had complete normal lactations under each set
of conditions. See Table 4.
Mixed dairy feeds marketed in the Southeast in recent years
contain supplementary bonemeal and finely ground limestone,
so that in large part this deficiency of calcium is being cared
for in commercial dairies. Where rations are home-mixed it is
desirable to consider this part of the ingredients carefully and
to supplement the ration with such elements as may be needed
locally. (The use of mineral supplements for cattle is discussed
in greater detail in Florida Station Bulletin 231.)

EFFECT OF ABORTION DISEASE ON DAIRY COWS
Milk records of 12 cows in the Florida station herd were avail-
able to study the effect of abortion on lactation. Several of these
cows were isolated, blood tested, and slaughtered before com-
pleting the lactation following the abortion. A sufficient pro-
portion of them completed 140 days in milk from which to make
a fair comparison of the effect upon milk yield. Because of
varying ages it was necessary to compute milk yields to a uni-
form age basis. From these the average production was com-
puted by 10-day periods, as shown in Figure 10. It will be noted
from this figure that after aborting the maximum yield was nine
pounds less per day than at the corresponding time in normal







Management of Dairy Cattle in Florida


lactations by the same cows. The peak of production was at-
tained at about the same length of time after the abortion as
following normal calving. These 12 animals averaged 196 days
in gestation at the time of abortion. Milk yielded in the first
140 days of lactation was 44 percent less than after previous
normal calvings by the same animals.
Of 18 cases of abortion, 10 cows lost their calves during the
sixth and seventh months of gestation, 4 in the fifth month, 3
in the eighth and ninth months, and 1 at 98 days. Instances of
early abortions may pass unnoticed, as there is little evidence of
an abortion when it occurs during the earlier stages of gestation.
Many studies have been made by other stations of the economic
losses caused by the abortion disease in herds of dairy cattle.
The largest loss is in reduced milk yield following abortion, these
losses amounting to 16.6 to 36.2 percent. Hooper" observed a
greater decrease in milk production following the abortion of a
young foetus than when the foetus was near to full-term.


Twelv nofel lactations
Twele lactations following abortion - -



-20



i ,- -






5

Days in milk
20 1 60 80 100 120 1P

Fig. 10.-Abortion disease depresses milk production, as shown by the average lactation
curves of 12 Jersey cows before, and following, abortions.

From 17 to 82 more services were required per 100 conceptions
among cows positive to the abortion agglutination test than
among healthy cows. Even more services were required for the

"Ky. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 248: 70-78. 1923.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


conception immediately following the abortion. One after-effect
is sterility, which took place eight times more frequently fol-
lowing abortion than among non-aborting cows.
Although calves have rather small value at birth, except among
high quality registered purebreds, the loss of heifer calves is
considerable, since it deprives a herd of the chance of raising
replacements from known ancestry.
Cows that have aborted depreciate in value more rapidly be-
cause their milking ability is impaired, more veterinary care is
required, bull services per conception are increased, and repro-
duction is delayed. A larger proportion of these cows become
sterile, and their productive lifetime is shortened. The financial
losses caused by abortion disease among purebred dairy cattle
were calculated over a period of years to have been about $60.48
per abortion. The Colorado station estimated these losses to
amount to a 58 percent depreciation in purebred dairy cows dis-
posed of as reactors. Monetary losses may be less with grade
dairy cows, yet as Morgan and Davis1" have concluded, elimina-
tion of abortion from many grade herds may mean the difference
between loss and profit.
Many details upon which these general statements are based
were worked out by the Colorado, Connecticut, Illinois, Kentucky,
Maryland, Minnesota, Nebraska and Vermont experiment sta-
tions, and by the Bureau of Dairy Industry, United States De-
partment of Agriculture.

FACTORS AFFECTING THE BUTTERFAT CONTENT
OF MILK
VARIATIONS IN BUTTERFAT CONTENT
Butterfat content of the milk of any one cow is affected by a
number of independent factors, most important of which is
inheritance. The butterfat test of Jersey milk differs from that
of an average Holstein cow. Within a breed, the butterfat con-
tent is likewise governed by heredity, there being high, medium
and low testing individuals in every dairy breed. The milk of
32,144 Holstein cows on yearly test contained an average of 3.41
percent butterfat, whereas that of 50,117 Jersey cows contained
5.35 percent butterfat. The average for 40,982 Guernsey records
is 4.97 percent butterfat; for 25,802 Ayrshire records, 4.02 per-
cent; and for the Brown Swiss breed, 4.01 percent butterfat.
These are averages, about which the various individuals of these
"Nebr. Agr. Exp. Sta. Res. Bul. 46: 3-54. 1930.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


conception immediately following the abortion. One after-effect
is sterility, which took place eight times more frequently fol-
lowing abortion than among non-aborting cows.
Although calves have rather small value at birth, except among
high quality registered purebreds, the loss of heifer calves is
considerable, since it deprives a herd of the chance of raising
replacements from known ancestry.
Cows that have aborted depreciate in value more rapidly be-
cause their milking ability is impaired, more veterinary care is
required, bull services per conception are increased, and repro-
duction is delayed. A larger proportion of these cows become
sterile, and their productive lifetime is shortened. The financial
losses caused by abortion disease among purebred dairy cattle
were calculated over a period of years to have been about $60.48
per abortion. The Colorado station estimated these losses to
amount to a 58 percent depreciation in purebred dairy cows dis-
posed of as reactors. Monetary losses may be less with grade
dairy cows, yet as Morgan and Davis1" have concluded, elimina-
tion of abortion from many grade herds may mean the difference
between loss and profit.
Many details upon which these general statements are based
were worked out by the Colorado, Connecticut, Illinois, Kentucky,
Maryland, Minnesota, Nebraska and Vermont experiment sta-
tions, and by the Bureau of Dairy Industry, United States De-
partment of Agriculture.

FACTORS AFFECTING THE BUTTERFAT CONTENT
OF MILK
VARIATIONS IN BUTTERFAT CONTENT
Butterfat content of the milk of any one cow is affected by a
number of independent factors, most important of which is
inheritance. The butterfat test of Jersey milk differs from that
of an average Holstein cow. Within a breed, the butterfat con-
tent is likewise governed by heredity, there being high, medium
and low testing individuals in every dairy breed. The milk of
32,144 Holstein cows on yearly test contained an average of 3.41
percent butterfat, whereas that of 50,117 Jersey cows contained
5.35 percent butterfat. The average for 40,982 Guernsey records
is 4.97 percent butterfat; for 25,802 Ayrshire records, 4.02 per-
cent; and for the Brown Swiss breed, 4.01 percent butterfat.
These are averages, about which the various individuals of these
"Nebr. Agr. Exp. Sta. Res. Bul. 46: 3-54. 1930.






Management of Dairy Cattle in Florida


different breeds may vary. It is possible to select strains within
each of the breeds that transmit a higher, or a lower, average
butterfat content in milk than that typical of the breed. In
fact, by such definite selection the typical butterfat test of Red
Danish cattle has been increased more than 0.4 percent within
the past 25 years, under the stimulus of government subsidy to
bulls and the knowledge that with cows of equal size and milk
yield, those with the highest butterfat test produce butterfat
most economically.
Two factors next in importance to heredity are the stage of
lactation and the season of the year (environment). All of the
records of purebred Jersey cows in the Florida station dairy
herd were analyzed to determine the influence of these two
factors. The result of these analyses is shown in Figure 11.
The milk of purebred Jersey cows tends to test low in the first
two months after calving, and to increase gradually in richness
as the lactation advances. This analysis was made in such a way
as to distribute evenly any seasonal influence.



5.5


5.0


1 -.5
Variations In fat percentage due tog
SUMonths in lactation
.0 Cor months -------


0.5
Months in lactation
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
JQ a lb Uorh Apral UMa JTnm July Ang t Oct RT Doc

Fig. 11.-The butterfat content of Jersey milk tends to increase in cooler weather, and
also with advancing stage of lactation.

On the other hand, regardless of stage of lactation Jersey milk
is richer in butterfat in the winter months and lower during the
summer months. These ranges in butterfat content tend to
follow those noted in more northerly latitudes. When the cooler






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


weather is incident with the later stages of lactation, both fac-
tors operate together for a higher fat percentage in the milk.
RICHNESS OF MORNING AND EVENING MILK
A group of 1,785 butterfat tests were obtained from 595 series
of three consecutive milkings from Jersey cows in the station
herd. It was observed from these that the average morning
milk tested 5.10 percent fat, and the evening milk 5.72 percent
fat in this herd, the difference being 0.62 percent fat. Occasion-
ally the morning milking tested higher than the evening milking
in single instances. A 14-hour interval preceded the morning
milkings, and a 10-hour interval the evening milkings. Thus
the lower butterfat tests were after the longer interval between
milkings. These observations are in accord with the results of
similar studies made in other regions.
When the first butterfat test was above the average for the
Jersey breed, generally the next test tended to be lower. Fol-
lowing an extremely low test, the general trend was toward a
test in the succeeding milking near to, or above, the average.
Two consecutive milkings from a single cow have varied from
2.4 to 8.1 percent fat, although variations of more than 2.0 per-
cent occur infrequently.
When milk samples are being taken to determine the percent-
age of butterfat therein, either for the herd record of a single
cow or for a given milk supply in city milk inspection, it is well
to remember that the tests of morning and evening milk differ.
Truly representative butterfat tests for such uses can be ob-
tained only by using both morning and evening milk from the
same source, upon which to make butterfat determinations.
AGE INFLUENCES AVERAGE BUTTERFAT TEST
Cows advancing in age usually yield milk of slightly lower
butterfat content than when younger. Records of the older cows
in the Florida station herd have been grouped to show this trend,
as well as the variations between successive lactations. See
Table 5.
Eckles" observed that when a cow carried a good proportion
of body fat, her milk tended to test higher throughout the entire
lactation than when she was in thin condition.
Grade Jersey cows formerly owned in the Florida station herd
had an average butterfat test 0.2 percent lower than the average
for purebred Jerseys in the same herd. In general, milk of grade
cows varied in fat content similarly with that of purebred Jerseys.

Mo. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 100: 183-202. 1912.








TABLE 5.-AVERAGE PERCENTAGES OF BUTTERFAT IN SUCCESSIVE LACTATIONS OF PUREBRED JERSEY COWS OWNED IN THE
FLORIDA STATION DAIRY HERD.
Average Fat Tests of Jersey Milk in Successive Lactations

Cow 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

N o. 53 .......... 4.40 4.42 4.60 4.55 4.37 4.55 4.16 4.38 ... ........... .. ...... ... ..... ....
No. 59 -......- 5.52 4.89 4.81 4.80 4.96 4.54 4.43 4.76 4.19 4.45 4.98 -
No. 81 ....... 4.57 4.16 4.66 4.45 4.13 4.33 4.32 4.34 4.29 4.18 4.53 4.43 4.39
No. 85 .......... 4.90 5.04 4.13 5.17 4.28 4.50 4.50 4.57 4.65.
No. 98 .......... 5.16 4.88 4.38 4.41 4.77 4.72 4.89 4.07 5.17 .. ......

4.94 -------------- -------------- --------------: :
No. 120 ..................... 4.73 4.80 4.68 4.87 5.40 5.24 4.67 4.69
No. 151 ... .. ....... 4.71 4.50 4.65 4.77 5.09 5.60 4.82 -........... .... .... i --- ... .
No. 171 ...... 4.94 4.98 5.43 4.57 4.53 4.93 4.97 4.46 .. .... ... .. ...

Average ...... 4.92 4.73 4.66 4.66 4.59 4.76 4.76 4.51 4.60 4.32 4.76 4.43 4.39
____________ ____ ____ _____ _____________ ______ ___ ___ __ ____ i~ ~






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


ECONOMIC PHASES OF DAIRYING
SEASON OF CALVING IN RELATION TO MILK SALES
Dairymen generally try to have cows freshen at regular inter-
vals during the year, in order to meet the demand of their market
for milk. In towns having an important volume of tourist trade
the demand is seasonal and requires a larger proportion of cows
in heaviest milk flow during that period.
The survey of commercial dairies in Florida showed that the
peak of whole milk sales was in December in the St. Petersburg
area, and in January in the Miami and Orlando areas. In the
Jacksonville area peak milk sales occurred during May and July,
and in the general farm area, during March and May. The
period of low milk sales was mainly in August and September.
The management of the breeding program in respect to the
market requirements for milk is reflected to a considerable ex-
tent in the actual percentage distribution of calvings, as is shown
in Table 6.
RELATION OF PRODUCTION PER COW TO LABOR AND RELATIVE
COST OF MILK
Some pertinent records were assembled from the survey of
dairies of the state in 1927. Although price levels are of that
time, the relative position of costs and particularly the hours of
labor in relation to milk production are of sufficient current
value to repeat them as such.
A significant point is that with equally careful management
a herd of low producing cows has almost the same overhead
costs as high producers. Thus the overhead costs per 100 pounds
of milk increase as production per cow decreases. Likewise,
labor per 100 pounds of milk increases as production per cow
decreases, when other cost factors remain constant. Whether
or not it pays to use a large amount of purchased feed depends
entirely upon prices of feeds and of dairy products. Sometimes
milk and feed price levels are such that it is desirable to depend
almost entirely upon marketing homegrown roughages, balanced
with a minimum of concentrates, through the cow with the
realization that the labor cost per 100 pounds of milk will be
somewhat higher. More frequently in the past price levels have
been such that it was profitable to feed more concentrates in the
ration for a higher level of milk production per cow, and a
lower overhead and labor cost per 100 pounds of milk marketed.
With the above principles in mind it should be considered that






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


ECONOMIC PHASES OF DAIRYING
SEASON OF CALVING IN RELATION TO MILK SALES
Dairymen generally try to have cows freshen at regular inter-
vals during the year, in order to meet the demand of their market
for milk. In towns having an important volume of tourist trade
the demand is seasonal and requires a larger proportion of cows
in heaviest milk flow during that period.
The survey of commercial dairies in Florida showed that the
peak of whole milk sales was in December in the St. Petersburg
area, and in January in the Miami and Orlando areas. In the
Jacksonville area peak milk sales occurred during May and July,
and in the general farm area, during March and May. The
period of low milk sales was mainly in August and September.
The management of the breeding program in respect to the
market requirements for milk is reflected to a considerable ex-
tent in the actual percentage distribution of calvings, as is shown
in Table 6.
RELATION OF PRODUCTION PER COW TO LABOR AND RELATIVE
COST OF MILK
Some pertinent records were assembled from the survey of
dairies of the state in 1927. Although price levels are of that
time, the relative position of costs and particularly the hours of
labor in relation to milk production are of sufficient current
value to repeat them as such.
A significant point is that with equally careful management
a herd of low producing cows has almost the same overhead
costs as high producers. Thus the overhead costs per 100 pounds
of milk increase as production per cow decreases. Likewise,
labor per 100 pounds of milk increases as production per cow
decreases, when other cost factors remain constant. Whether
or not it pays to use a large amount of purchased feed depends
entirely upon prices of feeds and of dairy products. Sometimes
milk and feed price levels are such that it is desirable to depend
almost entirely upon marketing homegrown roughages, balanced
with a minimum of concentrates, through the cow with the
realization that the labor cost per 100 pounds of milk will be
somewhat higher. More frequently in the past price levels have
been such that it was profitable to feed more concentrates in the
ration for a higher level of milk production per cow, and a
lower overhead and labor cost per 100 pounds of milk marketed.
With the above principles in mind it should be considered that






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


ECONOMIC PHASES OF DAIRYING
SEASON OF CALVING IN RELATION TO MILK SALES
Dairymen generally try to have cows freshen at regular inter-
vals during the year, in order to meet the demand of their market
for milk. In towns having an important volume of tourist trade
the demand is seasonal and requires a larger proportion of cows
in heaviest milk flow during that period.
The survey of commercial dairies in Florida showed that the
peak of whole milk sales was in December in the St. Petersburg
area, and in January in the Miami and Orlando areas. In the
Jacksonville area peak milk sales occurred during May and July,
and in the general farm area, during March and May. The
period of low milk sales was mainly in August and September.
The management of the breeding program in respect to the
market requirements for milk is reflected to a considerable ex-
tent in the actual percentage distribution of calvings, as is shown
in Table 6.
RELATION OF PRODUCTION PER COW TO LABOR AND RELATIVE
COST OF MILK
Some pertinent records were assembled from the survey of
dairies of the state in 1927. Although price levels are of that
time, the relative position of costs and particularly the hours of
labor in relation to milk production are of sufficient current
value to repeat them as such.
A significant point is that with equally careful management
a herd of low producing cows has almost the same overhead
costs as high producers. Thus the overhead costs per 100 pounds
of milk increase as production per cow decreases. Likewise,
labor per 100 pounds of milk increases as production per cow
decreases, when other cost factors remain constant. Whether
or not it pays to use a large amount of purchased feed depends
entirely upon prices of feeds and of dairy products. Sometimes
milk and feed price levels are such that it is desirable to depend
almost entirely upon marketing homegrown roughages, balanced
with a minimum of concentrates, through the cow with the
realization that the labor cost per 100 pounds of milk will be
somewhat higher. More frequently in the past price levels have
been such that it was profitable to feed more concentrates in the
ration for a higher level of milk production per cow, and a
lower overhead and labor cost per 100 pounds of milk marketed.
With the above principles in mind it should be considered that













TABLE 6.-PERCENTAGE OF COWS CALVING BY MONTHS ON 249 FLORIDA DAIRY FARMS IN 1927.


District


Jacksonville ................ .. ..-- -- --..

M iam i....... ... .... ------....... .. .......

Tampa ............ -..-...-......------.....

St. Petersburg ................ .... .....--....

Orlando....................-.. -----...-..

O cala.................. -- --. ... ......... ...


All farm s.. .... .......-.. ...............--


Feb. March April


8.4 8.2

9.5 7.4

8.9 7.4

11.3 12.0


8.9 8.2


7.4


7.4

5.5

7.3

4.5

6.2

8.6


6.5


May


6.7

4.7

6.7

4.2

5.9

5.2


5.8


June


6.5

4.7

6.7

4.2

5.2

3.7


5.6


July


7.0

4.9

6.8

6.1

6.0

4.5


6.1


Aug. Sept. Oct.


7.5 9.5 9.9

5.4 9.9 13.8

7.8 10.9 10.2

7.4 11.4 14.1

7.5 9.0 11.9

7.1 8.1 8.9


7.0 10.1 11.6


Nov.


11.0

13.7

9.6

13.9

13.2

8.4


11.7


|


I






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


the relative costs in the following tables are based on the price
levels for the year 1927, when these records were obtained.
The records were grouped according to the hours of labor
required in direct care of the cows, per 100 pounds of milk
produced. In commercial dairy herds it was observed generally
that the labor increased as the milk yield per cow decreased.
Only a limited number of herd records were available for the
general farming area, hence wide variations in the conditions
of some one or two farms may tend to influence the average
unduly. The hours of human labor required per 100 pounds of
milk produced are given in Table 7.
TABLE 7.-HoURS OF HUMAN LABOR PER 100 POUNDS OF MILK, USED IN
DIRECT CARE OF COWS IN RELATION TO AVERAGE MILK PRODUCTION PER
Cow.

Direct Human Labor on Cows Number of Average milk
Range average farms per cow
COMMERCIAL DAIRY FARMS
hours hours pounds
1 to 2.99 2.39 80 4,991
3 to 3.99 3.45 68 4,598
4 and over 4.89 72 4,047
DAIRY HERDS ON GENERAL FARMS

1 to 2.99 2.72 7 5,433
3 to 3.99 3.44 10 5,682
4 and over 5.68 12 3,656

TABLE 8.-RELATION OF MILK PRODUCTION PER COW TO RELATIVE COST OF
MILK ON 249 FLORIDA DAIRY FARMS IN 1927.
| 1 i Relative cost
Range of milk yield Number Cows I Average milk I per 100 lbs.
per herd of per per cow milk
farms Ifarm (pounds) (percent)
COMMERCIAL DAIRY FARMS

5,000 lbs. and under 151 61 3,943 100.0
Over 5,000 lbs .....-. 69 39 6,149 81.3
DAIRY HERDS ON GENERAL FARMS

5,000 lbs. and under 16 18 3,625 71.8
Over 5,000 lbs ....... 13 10 6,209 50.4

The relation of the average milk production by dairy herds
to total costs per 100 pounds of milk was computed from all of
the herd records obtained in 1927. It is seen again that dairy
cows on general farms can produce milk at lower costs per 100
pounds, because of differences in economic conditions on those
farms in the way of fields to be gleaned after harvest of cash






Management of Dairy Cattle in Florida


crops, in employed labor, and in the lower necessary overhead
costs for buildings and equipment because of differences de-
manded by the type of market served. A larger proportion of
the feed on the general farms was home-grown. These differ-
ences between specialized dairy farms and dairy herds on general
farms must be borne in mind when comparing the records in
Table 8.
CAUSES OF LOSSES IN DAIRY HERDS
Prof. W. J. Fraser of Illinois has said, "It takes all the profit
a good cow can make in her first two years to pay off this debt
(of cost at first calving), and whether or not she will prove
a profitable cow will depend upon how many years she continues
after this to return a good profit over the cost of her keep. The
length of her producing life has a great deal to do with the total
profit she earns for the dairyman."
The average productive life of dairy cows has been calculated
in a number of areas, it varying from 4.5 to 6.0 years after time
of first calving. Although many cows are eliminated as culls
while yet young, very few animals continue to produce at a
profitable level until past 10 years of age. Of over 100,000 cows
in Dairy Herd Improvement Associations whose ages were tabu-
lated recently by McDowell", only 4.1 percent were 11 years old
or over. Cows 9 and 10 years old constituted another 8.7 per-
cent of the total number. This small proportion of older cows
that are good producers frequently have to pay the losses entailed
by larger numbers of younger animals that have proven un-
profitable.
During 1927, 148 cows were reported dead in the 249 Florida
dairies surveyed. An attempt was made to obtain owners' state-
ments concerning causes of these deaths in so far as known.
These were reported as follows:
Cause unknown n ...... ................ ... ....... ....... ....... ... 52
Tick fever (prior to tick eradication) ............. .............. 31
Old age ................. .. .................. .... ............... 13
At calving time .......... .............. .......................... 13
Milk fever, paralysis and garget .............. ...... ................. 8
Diseases of the digestive system ................. ................... 8
Hemmorhagic septicemia, snake bite .................... ............. 6
Accidental deaths ...............- ... .. .....- .. ...... ........ 6
Rheumatism, parasites, etc. ...... ........ ................... 4
Pneumonia ....... .......- ........-.......- ................... 3
Improper feeding ............................... ............... 2
Tumors ................. ......... ........................... 2
SHolstein-Friesian World. Vol. 30 : 1020. Dec. 30, 1933.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


The percentage of deaths and sales rates of cows from herds
in the strictly dairy areas amounted to 20.3 percent during the
year, in contrast to 16.4 percent for the general farm area, as
shown in Table 9. During the same period 1.1 percent of the
cows in these 249 herds were reported as non-breeders, and the
udders of 2.7 percent had one or more unsound quarters.
TABLE 9.-SALES RATE AND DEATHS OF DAIRY COWS ON 249 FLORIDA DAIRY
FARMS, BASED ON INITIAL INVENTORY, 1927.

Sale rate
District Death For For IPurpose Total
_rate beef milkers I unknown sales
percent percent | percent I percent I percent
Strictly dairy farms:
A ............................... 3.8 9.2 .8 ...... 10.0
B ................................ 4.0 13.1 6.1 .5 19.7
C ................................ 5.2 11.9 3.7 ...... 15.6
D ........................... .... 4.8 12.5 5.4 ...... 17.9
E ............. ................ 7.0* 10.9 4.6 ...... 15.5
Average....--........... .......... 4.6 11.6 4.0 .1 15.7
General farms ............ 3.4 6.3 6.7 ...... 13.0

Tick fever in a single herd was responsible for a part of this high percentage.

Over 30,000 cows were culled in Dairy Herd Improvement
Associations in 1932, as tabulated by the Bureau of Dairy In-
dustry. Of these, 70.7 percent was eliminated for low produc-
tion. Abortion, sterility and udder troubles accounted for 17
percent of them. Tuberculosis eradication had progressed so
effectively that this disease was a negligible cause of removal
in these commercial dairies.
A study of removal of cows from a single dairy herd, even
though over a period of years, lacks significant numbers. Even
so, data were assembled from the station herd. Cause of re-
moval of some cows was not recorded, hence these were excluded
from the following tabulation.







Management of Dairy Cattle in Florida


COWS ELIMINATED FROM THE FLORIDA STATION
1919 TO 1934


Manner of Removal


Number of Cows


Sold as dairy cows ........------...........- --------------. 44
Butchered as culls .----...............-- ---. --------------. 39
Eliminated in abortion eradication --..--..............-----.. 23
Barren ........................ -.... -- -----.-------. 14
Slaughtered because of:
Old age ...................... ---..----- ------- 3
Difficulty at calving .......................-- ------------- 1
Disease of the digestive organs ................-------- 1
Disease of the reproductive organs .................... 1
Tuberculosis .............. ........... .. ....-------------- 1


Deaths:
Cause unknown .............--.... ...----. -------
Retained afterbirth .--....--...-------.---..--------
Old age -....................-----. ------------
Difficult calving .................. -----.------
Digestive diseases ..............---.---.-------------
Tick fever .----------.... -...----.-..-. -------
Pneumonia ................ .. ....... ... ----- --
Poisonous plant .-..--------.....-....---..---------
Accidental ....-- ------ ---......--.---------- ------ -
Broken pelvis .................--.---...- -- ....--


Total....


1
1


. ........ .... --.. -. --..--.... .--- 148


DAIRY HERD,

Average Age
year-month-day
5 8 25
5 9 29
6 1 11
6 10 9


16 6 28
5 2 17
3 -
12 0 20
3 11 9


5- 2- 4
4 5 28
14 6 15
7 0 14
5 0 17
4 2 23
4 2 12
8 7 25
5 4 19
16 2 23

6 4- 3


The average age at disposal from all causes, of the 148 cows,
was 6 years, 4 months, 3 days. As would be expected the cows
eliminated as low producers and those sold as dairy cows went
out at a younger age. Twenty-one cows died at an average age
of 7 years, 22 days. The average age at barrenness of 14 cows
was 6 years, 10 months, 9 days. These ages agree quite closely
with similar cow-ages in other regions.
McDowell" has computed the average productive life of dairy
cows after time of first calving to be between 4 and 5 years. As
tuberculosis in dairy cattle is being eliminated and as the inroads
of abortion disease are reduced the average life span of dairy
cows has increased. Correcting nutritional deficiencies of dairy
cows in the Southeastern region also is a factor in milk produc-
tion and in health of animals that is increasing their average
useful life.

U. S. D. A. Farmers' Bul. 1446: 1-21. 1925.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


RATE OF DEPRECIATION, OTHER THAN DEATHS
No set rate of depreciation can be assigned to dairy cows that
would be applicable under all conditions. Factors to be consid-
ered in calculating depreciation rate are: (1) initial cost of cows
at a given age (first calving, or at time of purchase); (2) sales
value of cull cows per pound, and weights of cows, and (3) aver-
age useful life of cows in years. Calculation of rate of deprecia-
tion, using these factors, is as follows:
Initial cost Salvage value for beef
---------- X 100 = .....% depreciation per year.
Life expectancy in years X Initial cost
An illustration of the method of calculating average rate of
depreciation for a herd might be as follows:
Initial value per cow ................... .......... ..............$60.00
Average weight of cow..................--.. .... ...... ..750 lbs.
Net return for cull cows @.-.............................2.5c per lb.
Average life expectancy, about........................... 4.5 years
$60.00 (750 @ 2.5c) $60.00 18.75
----- X 100 = X 100 =
4.5 X 60 270
15.3 percent yearly depreciation*
As the salvage value of cull dairy cows decreases, the rate of
annual depreciation increases. Cows eliminated by death are a
total loss to the herd-a factor difficult to distribute equitably
over any period of years.

RATE OF REPLACEMENT
Rate of replacement among dairy cows is greater than the
rate of culling, since it must cover removal of cows from the
herd from all causes-death, sale and slaughter. The only de-
pendable record as to the average composition of Florida dairy
herds is that obtained in 1927. This gave the average number
of animals in 249 herds as follows:
Five market milk One general
areas farming area
Number of herds represented ...............................- 220 29
Average per herd:
Cows of milking age ..... .......... ............. ...... 53.8 14.6
Heifers, 1 year or over ....................................... 6.0 3.4
Heifers under 1 year ............ .................... ..... 4.7 3.4
Bulls ................. .................................. ..... 1.6 .8
A large number of dairy cows and heifers were shipped into
Florida for replacement of dairy herds during that time. Only

Losses by death must be added to this percentage.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


RATE OF DEPRECIATION, OTHER THAN DEATHS
No set rate of depreciation can be assigned to dairy cows that
would be applicable under all conditions. Factors to be consid-
ered in calculating depreciation rate are: (1) initial cost of cows
at a given age (first calving, or at time of purchase); (2) sales
value of cull cows per pound, and weights of cows, and (3) aver-
age useful life of cows in years. Calculation of rate of deprecia-
tion, using these factors, is as follows:
Initial cost Salvage value for beef
---------- X 100 = .....% depreciation per year.
Life expectancy in years X Initial cost
An illustration of the method of calculating average rate of
depreciation for a herd might be as follows:
Initial value per cow ................... .......... ..............$60.00
Average weight of cow..................--.. .... ...... ..750 lbs.
Net return for cull cows @.-.............................2.5c per lb.
Average life expectancy, about........................... 4.5 years
$60.00 (750 @ 2.5c) $60.00 18.75
----- X 100 = X 100 =
4.5 X 60 270
15.3 percent yearly depreciation*
As the salvage value of cull dairy cows decreases, the rate of
annual depreciation increases. Cows eliminated by death are a
total loss to the herd-a factor difficult to distribute equitably
over any period of years.

RATE OF REPLACEMENT
Rate of replacement among dairy cows is greater than the
rate of culling, since it must cover removal of cows from the
herd from all causes-death, sale and slaughter. The only de-
pendable record as to the average composition of Florida dairy
herds is that obtained in 1927. This gave the average number
of animals in 249 herds as follows:
Five market milk One general
areas farming area
Number of herds represented ...............................- 220 29
Average per herd:
Cows of milking age ..... .......... ............. ...... 53.8 14.6
Heifers, 1 year or over ....................................... 6.0 3.4
Heifers under 1 year ............ .................... ..... 4.7 3.4
Bulls ................. .................................. ..... 1.6 .8
A large number of dairy cows and heifers were shipped into
Florida for replacement of dairy herds during that time. Only

Losses by death must be added to this percentage.






Management of Dairy Cattle in Florida


12.1 to 19.0 percent of the calves born in these herds during that
year were heifers that were to be raised, except in the general
farming section, where 30.6 percent of the calves were heifers
to be raised. The actual proportions of home-raised and pur-
chased replacements entering these milking herds during that
year are shown in Table 10.
TABLE 10.-SALES RATE, DEATH RATE AND METHOD OF REPLENISHMENT OF
DAIRY COWS ON 249 FLORIDA DAIRY FARMS, 1927.
Replenishment
District Sales Death Cows Heifers
rate rate purchased freshened
I percent I percent I percent I percent
Strictly dairy herds:
A ...................................... ... 10.0 3.8 55 45
B ..................... ........ 19.7 4.0 54 46
C ................. ....... ..... ...... 15.6 5.2 67 33
D ....................... ................. 17.9 4.8 63 37
E ............................................ 15.5 7.0 63 37
General farming area ............ 13.0 3.4 14 86
Average .................................. 15.7 4.6 58 42

The more recent tendency, with lower prices for milk and feed,
has been to increase the proportion of replacements raised locally
in a large part of these herds. Such a cross-section taken today
would show a larger proportion of heifers and heifer calves
being raised in these herds, and also more attention to the
quality of herd sires in service.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The dairy herd records prior to June 1, 1928, were accumu-
lated under the supervision of Professor John M. Scott, formerly
Animal Ihdustrialist and Vice-Director of the Florida Agricul-
tural Experiment Station. Many persons who have worked with
the dairy cows through this period of years are responsible for
the completeness and accuracy of the records upon which these
studies are based. Dr. A. L. Shealy drafted the recommenda-
tions relative to parasite control in the section on "Sanitation
with Growing Calves." The photograph on the cover page was
taken by W. A. Stenhouse.














FARMER VISITORS ARE WELCOME
AT STATE EXPERIMENT STATIONS

Information gained from observation and inquiry on the scene of re-
search in agriculture frequently proves of value in the practical operations
of farm, grove, livestock ranch or truck field. Visitors always are welcome
at the Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, whether they come singly
or in groups.
On the acreage and in the laboratories of the Main Station at Gaines-
ville-offices, University of Florida campus-the investigations at all times
under way cover a wide range of problems foremost in the farming practice
of the state. Branch stations located elsewhere specialize in their studies
as follows:
Grapefruit, Oranges, Tangerines, Etc.-Citrus Station, Lake Alfred, Polk
County. (J. H. Jefferies, superintendent.)
Muck and Reclaimed Lands Agriculture- Everglades Station, Belle
Glade, Palm Beach County. (A. Daane, in charge.)
Pasture Grasses, Fruits, Livestock and Poultry Production-West Central
Florida Station, Brooksville, Hernando County. (E. W. Sheets, in charge.)
Staple Crops, General Farming, Livestock, Fruits, Tobacco and Nuts-
North Florida Station, Quincy, Gadsden County. (L. O. Gratz, in charge.)
Tropical and Semi-Tropical Fruits and Vegetables-Sub-Tropical Station,
Homestead, Dade County. (H. S. Wolfe, in charge.)

Correspondence should be addressed:
FLORIDA AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
Wilmon Newell, Director Gainesville, Florida


(Operated in the College of Agriculture, University of Florida, other
activities of which include the State Agricultural Extension Service and
the Division of Resident Teaching.)




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