• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Literature review
 Growing-fattening experiments:...
 A gestation-lactation study
 Summary and conclusions
 Acknowledgments and literature...






Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station - no. 566
Title: Low-gossypol cottonseed meal as a source of protein for swine
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027517/00001
 Material Information
Title: Low-gossypol cottonseed meal as a source of protein for swine
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Alternate Title: Low gossyol cottonseed meal as a source of protein for swine
Physical Description: 26 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Wallace, H. D ( Harold Dean )
Cunha, T. J ( Tony Joseph ), 1916-
Combs, G. E ( George Ernest ), 1927-
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1955
 Subjects
Subject: Gossypol   ( lcsh )
Cottonseed meal as feed   ( lcsh )
Proteins in animal nutrition   ( lcsh )
Swine -- Feeding and feeds   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 25-26.
Statement of Responsibility: H.D. Wallace, T.J. Cunha and G.E. Combs.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027517
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000926766
oclc - 18279625
notis - AEN7466

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
    Literature review
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Growing-fattening experiments: general procedure
        Page 5
        A comparison of variously processed cottonseed meals as protein supplements for weaning pigs (summer 1950)
            Page 6
            Page 7
        Amino acid supplementation of low-gossypol cottonseed meal rations for weanling pigs (summer 1951)
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
        A comparison of cottonseed meal and soybean meal and effect of certain supplements to a corn - "degossypolyzed" solvent extracted cottonseed meal ration (summer 1951)
            Page 11
            Page 12
        Further studies on the value of various supplements to low-gossypol cottonseed meal-corn rations
            Page 13
            Page 14
        Prepressed solvent extracted low-gossypol cottonseed meal as a source of protein for the pig
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
        The addition of waste beef fat, cottonseed oil, and zine to low-gossypol cottonseed meal-corn rations (winter, 1953-54)
            Page 18
        A combination of low-gossypol cottonseed meal and soybean meal compared to all soybean meal as a source of protein
            Page 19
    A gestation-lactation study
        Page 20
        Experiment I - A comparison of soybean meal and low gossypol-cottonseed meal as sources of protein for the gestating-lactating show (Winter and Spring 1953-54)
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
    Summary and conclusions
        Page 23
        Page 24
    Acknowledgments and literature cited
        Page 25
        Page 26
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida







Bulletin 566


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
WILLARD M. FIFIELD, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA







Low-Gossypol Cottonseed Meal as a

Source of Protein for Swine


H. D. WALLACE, T. J. CUNHA and G. E. COMBS




Fig. 1.-Sows grazing at the Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
swine farm, Gainesville.


'4



-*i .i- r


June 1955













CONTENTS
Page

INTRODUCTION -.... ..-.......... .... .....-........ 3

LITERATURE REVIEW ....-...-- ---.--. ......... ..... ... 3

PART I.-GROWING-FATTENING EXPERIMENTS-GENERAL PROCEDURE ........ 5

EXPERIMENT I. A Comparison of Variously Processed Cottonseed
Meals as Protein Supplements for Weanling Pigs (Summer 1950) 6

EXPERIMENT II. Amino Acid Supplementation of Low-Gossypol
Cottonseed Meal Rations for Weanling Pigs (Summer 1951) ...... 8

EXPERIMENT III. A Comparison of Cottonseed Meal and Soybean
Meal and Effect of Certain Supplements to a Corn--"Degossy-
polyzed" Solvent Extracted Cottonseed Meal Ration (Summer
1951) ............---.. -----. ------ -----..--- ---- --------- ............ .. 11

EXPERIMENT IV. Further Studies on the Value of Various Supple-
ments to Low-Gossypol Cottonseed Meal-Corn Rations .................. 13

EXPERIMENT V. Prepressed Solvent Extracted Low-Gossypol Cot-
tonseed Meal as a Source of Protein for the Pig .............. .......... 15

EXPERIMENT VI. The Addition of Waste Beef Fat, Cottonseed Oil,
and Zinc to Low-Gossypol Cottonseed Meal-Corn Rations (Win-
ter, 1953-54) .................... .----............... 18

EXPERIMENT VII. A Combination of Low-Gossypol Cottonseed Meal
and Soybean Meal Compared to All Soybean Meal as a Source
of Protein (Summer 1954) ..................- ........-.. ....-... ...- 19

PART II.-A GESTATION-LACTATION STUDY -.............. -.......----------- 20

EXPERIMENT I. A Comparison of Soybean Meal and Low Gossypol-
Cottonseed Meal as Sources of Protein for the Gestating-Lac-
tating Sow (Winter and Spring 1953-54) .................................. 20

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS .............-------..--....--..----------........ 23

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ......... --. --- ..-....-. .....-. ..--.. ..............-- ..-- 25


LITERATURE CITED .............. .... ........ ................. .


..-..----.... .... 25








Low-Gossypol Cottonseed Meal as a
Source of Protein for Swine

H. D. WALLACE, T. J. CUNHA and G. E. COMBS

INTRODUCTION
Gossypol, a pigment found in cottonseed, for many years has
prevented the unlimited use of cottonseed meal in swine feeds.
Because swine are susceptible to high levels of this toxic sub-
stance, cottonseed meal has been fed mostly to ruminants.
Only small quantities have been utilized in hog feeds.
During the past few years numerous researchers have di-
rected their efforts toward the production of cottonseed meal
which can serve as an unrestricted supplemental protein feed
for swine and poultry. Considerable progress has been made.
The free gossypol content of certain cottonseed meals has been
greatly reduced by improved processing methods. In view of
the ever-present shortage of proteinaceous feedstuffs for swine,
the importance of this development to swine producers, par-
ticularly in the South, is apparent.
This bulletin discusses results of investigations conducted
during a four-year period (1950-54) to determine the value
of low-gossypol cottonseed meal as a protein supplement for
swine.
LITERATURE REVIEW
A complete and detailed review of the voluminous scientific
data dealing with the feeding of cottonseed meal to swine would
require many pages. Hence, the authors have selected only a
few of the key and representative reports to discuss. These
will give the reader a brief and non-burdensome history of the
problem as it has developed over the past five decades.
Early Observations on Toxicity.-In 1895 Curtiss (3) reported
that cottonseed meal would kill hogs when fed in sufficient
quantity. In the same study hogs were fed without injury for
as long as 17 weeks behind cattle which received from 4 to 7
pounds of cottonseed meal per head daily.
In 1904 Dinwiddie (4) stated that the toxicity of cottonseed
meal was a matter of dosage. He suggested that the toxic
allowance was determined by the amount fed per day rather
than by the absolute quantity consumed. He further stated
that as little as 30 pounds of cottonseed meal fed during a








Low-Gossypol Cottonseed Meal as a
Source of Protein for Swine

H. D. WALLACE, T. J. CUNHA and G. E. COMBS

INTRODUCTION
Gossypol, a pigment found in cottonseed, for many years has
prevented the unlimited use of cottonseed meal in swine feeds.
Because swine are susceptible to high levels of this toxic sub-
stance, cottonseed meal has been fed mostly to ruminants.
Only small quantities have been utilized in hog feeds.
During the past few years numerous researchers have di-
rected their efforts toward the production of cottonseed meal
which can serve as an unrestricted supplemental protein feed
for swine and poultry. Considerable progress has been made.
The free gossypol content of certain cottonseed meals has been
greatly reduced by improved processing methods. In view of
the ever-present shortage of proteinaceous feedstuffs for swine,
the importance of this development to swine producers, par-
ticularly in the South, is apparent.
This bulletin discusses results of investigations conducted
during a four-year period (1950-54) to determine the value
of low-gossypol cottonseed meal as a protein supplement for
swine.
LITERATURE REVIEW
A complete and detailed review of the voluminous scientific
data dealing with the feeding of cottonseed meal to swine would
require many pages. Hence, the authors have selected only a
few of the key and representative reports to discuss. These
will give the reader a brief and non-burdensome history of the
problem as it has developed over the past five decades.
Early Observations on Toxicity.-In 1895 Curtiss (3) reported
that cottonseed meal would kill hogs when fed in sufficient
quantity. In the same study hogs were fed without injury for
as long as 17 weeks behind cattle which received from 4 to 7
pounds of cottonseed meal per head daily.
In 1904 Dinwiddie (4) stated that the toxicity of cottonseed
meal was a matter of dosage. He suggested that the toxic
allowance was determined by the amount fed per day rather
than by the absolute quantity consumed. He further stated
that as little as 30 pounds of cottonseed meal fed during a






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


30-day period may cause fatal poisoning, while amounts up to
150 pounds fed in limited daily doses were not harmful. He
also observed that the threshold of tolerance was related to
animal size. Heavier animals were able to consume larger
daily quantities of cottonseed meal without exhibiting toxic
symptoms.
The Causative Agent of Toxicity.-An extensive study by
Wells and Ewing (13) failed to show that cottonseed meal in-
jury was due to acidosis resulting from excess mineral acid.
Gossypol was first isolated by Marchlewski (8) in 1899 and was
considered by him as a prospective dyestuff. However, it was
not until 1915 that Withers and Carruth (15) reported that
gossypol extracted from cottonseed kernels was toxic to rabbits.
Attempts to Counteract Toxicity.-Following the discovery
that gossypol was the toxic material, and even before this dis-
covery, efforts were made to reduce the toxicity of meal by the
use of antidotes and by special processing procedures. Withers
and Brewster (14) observed in 1913 that iron appeared to be
an antidote for cottonseed injury. This has been confirmed with
pigs by Robison (9). However, the iron treatment did not prove
to be a practical answer to the problem, since farmers objected
to the extreme dark color which the iron imparted to the meal.
The fact that iron sulfate combines with gossypol and renders
it non-toxic has nevertheless been useful in nutritional inves-
tigations on cottonseed meal.
Robison (10) reported in 1934 that the toxicity of cottonseed
meal was reduced markedly by autoclaving the meal for 1 hour
under 14 pounds pressure. However, autoclaving reduced di-
gestibility. In this same report a special process meal low in
gossypol was found to have very low toxicity as compared to
meals processed in the usual way.
Practical Recommendations.-An excellent series of experi-
ments by Hale (7) has served largely as the basis for practical
recommendations on the use of cottonseed meal in swine feed-
ing during the last 20 years. His work indicated that 9 per-
cent of cottonseed meal in the total ration was the maximum
amount to feed fattening hogs or breeding animals. He also
reported that free choice feeding of cottonseed meal alone in
a self-feeder was not a safe practice. On the other hand, a mix-
ture of one-half cottonseed meal and one-half tankage was safe
and produced better gains than tankage alone when self-fed to
hogs.







Cottonseed Meal as a Source of Protein for Swine


Some of the more recent studies on cottonseed meal, which are
closely related to the experimental data to be presented, will be
referred to at logical points later in this bulletin.

Part I. Growing-Fattening Experiments
GENERAL PROCEDURE
Animals.-The animals used in these experiments consisted
mainly of purebred Duroc, Hampshire and Spotted Poland
China pigs. A limited number of Duroc x Spotted Poland China
and Duroc x Hampshire also were used. In all cases animals
were carefully allotted to test groups according to breed, initial
weight, previous treatment and general thriftiness. All animals
were weaned at eight weeks of age, vaccinated for cholera and
treated for roundworms. All males used were castrated.
Shortly thereafter they were placed on experimental rations
and maintained in concrete pens which were washed daily. The
growing-fattening experiments were short-term tests lasting
from 8 to 10 weeks and covered the nutritionally critical period
of the pig's life. This was considered extremely important in
the evaluation of the cottonseed meals studied.
Rations.-The rations used in all of the growing-fattening ex-
periments, unless otherwise stated, were formulated to contain
approximately 18 to 19 percent of crude protein. Ground yel-
low corn was the only cereal grain used in the various rations.
All rations included 1 percent ground limestone, 0.5 percent
steamed bonemeal and 0.53 percent salt-trace mineral mixture.
Composition of the salt-trace mineral mixture was as follows:
iodized salt (50 pounds), MnSO4.H,O (921 grams), FeSO4.H20
(398 grams), CuSO4.5HO (125 grams) and CoCO3 (10 grams).
With the exception of Experiments 1 and 6, in which crystalline
B vitamins were added, all rations were supplemented with
Lederle Fortafeed 2-49C at the rate of 2 pounds per ton of feed.
The Fortafeed contained not less than 2 grams of riboflavin,
4 grams of pantothenic acid, 9 grams of niacin, 10 grams of
choline chloride and 60 milligrams of folic acid per pound.
Vitamins A and D were administered to each pig at weekly
intervals by the use of gelatin capsules containing 1 gram of
Oleum Percomorphum. This supplied a weekly dosage per pig
of 60,000 USP units of vitamin A and 10,000 USP Units of
vitamin D. In experiments 5, 6 and 7 only a single dose was
given at the end of the third week of the experiment.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Feed was mixed every two weeks and was offered free choice
by means of self-feeders. Fresh water was kept in front of
the animals at all times. All pigs were weighed each Saturday
morning.

EXPERIMENT I-A COMPARISON OF VARIOUSLY PRO-
CESSED COTTONSEED MEALS AS PROTEIN SUPPLE-
MENTS FOR WEANLING PIGS (SUMMER 1950)
This experiment was designed to compare the nutritive value
of cottonseed meals processed by different methods and to study
the supplemental value of certain vitamins, amino acids, APF
(animal protein factor), and several combinations thereof. All
rations contained ground yellow corn in combination with suffi-
cient cottonseed meal to provide the same level of protein. The
percentage of cottonseed meal in the test rations ranged from
33.5 to 36.5, depending on the protein content of the meals.
Dietary treatments and summary of results are given in Table 1.
Very poor results were obtained from the use of the com-
mercial solvent-extracted meal (Lot 1). However, no deaths
occurred in this lot, despite the fact that gains were only 0.26
pound per day over a nine-week period. The free gossypol con-
tent of this meal was about 21/2 times that of the Southern
Regional Research Laboratory meal, but was significantly less
than that of the other commercial meals. A severe skin disorder,
characterized by an encrustation of the skin with scab-like
formations, was prevalent in the pigs of Lot 1. This condition
appeared first on the lower part of the legs, progressed upward
covering the belly and ears and, in the severest cases, practi-
cally the entire body. The difficulty appears to be of nutritional
origin but the exact cause still remains unknown. It is not
peculiar to cottonseed meal rations alone because the difficulty
has been encountered also in peanut meal, sunflower seed meal,
and occasionally with soybean meal rations.
The Duroc pigs in Lot I showed marked fading of the hair
coat. These results are in agreement with those of Dyer et al
(6), who reported that a similar solvent-extracted detoxifiedd"
cottonseed meal produced no symptoms of gossypol poisoning,
but did cause dermatitis, depigmentation of the hair coat of
Duroc pigs, slow growth and poor feed efficiency.
The commercial hydraulic-processed meal fed in Lots 2 and
9 contained 0.098 percent of free gossypol, the most of any of
the meals. The pigs in these lots consumed approximately







TABLE 1.-EFFECT OF VARIOUSLY PROCESSED COTTONSEED MEALS AND CERTAIN SUPPLEMENTS ON GROWTH OF WEANLING PIGS.
(63 day test).


Rations-Type of
Cottonseed Meal
and Supplements


Com-
mercial
Solvent
Extracted'


Com-
mercial
Hydraulic2


Com-
mercial
Screw-
Pressed2


Lot No. 1 2 3


No. pigs
Av. initial wt. lbs.
Av. gain/pig, lbs.
Av. daily gain, lbs.
and standard error
Av. daily feed in-
take/pig, lbs.
Feed required/100 lbs.
gain, lbs.
Free gossypol in
meal, %
Free gossypol eaten/
pig per day, gins.


4
24.7
16.8
0.26
0.07

2.25

865.0

0.063

0.22


19
24.5
24.6
0.50


2.34

468.0

0.098

0.36


10
23.7
9.1
0.20


1.65

825.0

0.075

0.20


Southern I
Regional Same as
Labora- Lot 4 plus
tory B-vita-
Expeller' mins4


4 5


4
24.2
52.2
0.83
0.30

2.78

335.0

0.024

0.10


4
24.8
41.8
0.66
-- 0.19

2.44

370.0

0.024

0.09


Same as Same as
Lot 5 plus Lot 6 plus
Lysine' Methio-
nine


6 7


4 4
23.7 25.1
39.2 42.7
0.62 0.68
0.23 0.19

2.23 2.37


360.0

0.024

0.08


349.0

0.024

0.09


Same as
Same as Lot 2 plus
Lot 7 plus High
Animal Levels of
Protein Vitamin A
Factor' and Thia-
mine'


8


4
24.8
82.6
1.31
+ 0.30

4.10

313.0

0.024

0.15


9


2
25.1
22.6
0.42


1.80

428.0

0.098

0.27


SMeal supplied by the Buckeye Cotton Oil Company, Cincinnati, Ohio.
2 Meal supplied by National Cottonseed Products Association, Dallas, Texas.
3 Meal supplied by the Southern Regional Research Laboratory, New Orleans, Louisiana (Series 5, Nos. 6 and 7).
4 B-vitamins added at the following levels per 100 lbs. of feed: Thiamine (1 gm.), Riboflavin (.23 gm.), Niacin (2.33 gm.), Pantothenic Acid (1 gm.),
Pyridoxine (.37 gm.), Choline (19.4 gm.), and Folic Acid (.022 gn.).
5 D-L Lysine added at level 0.5 percent to rations of Lot 5 and 6.
SD-L Methionine added at level of 0.1 percent.
SAPF (lot No. C-24) supplied by Lederle Laboratories, Pearl River, New York. Added at level of 1 percent.
Vitamin A administered at rate of 50,000 I.U.'s per pig daily. Thiamine fed at rate of 10 gms. per 100 pounds of feed.
9 Pigs died in Lot 2 on 46th, 48th and 55th day; in Lot 3 on 39th, 42nd, and 46th day; in Lot 9 on the 44th and 55th day. Autopsies indicated gossypol
poisoning.


I I


I [






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


three times as much free gossypol per day as animals fed on
the Southern Regional Research Laboratory meal. Three of
the pigs in Lot 2 and two of the pigs in Lot 9 died during the
experiment. On autopsy typical symptoms of gossypol poison-
ing were found. These included excessive quantities of fluid
in the pleural and peritoneal cavities, flabby and enlarged hearts,
congested and edematous lungs, and general congestion of other
organs such as the liver, spleen, and lymph glands. The addi-
tion of a high level of vitamin A in combination with a high
level of thiamine (Lot 9) failed to improve gains or benefit
the pigs in any way. These two vitamins were added at high
levels to determine if they might counteract the effect of
gossypol in case it might be acting as an anti-metabolite for
these two vitamins.
Performance was also very poor in Lot 3, which received a
commercial screw-pressed meal. Three pigs died of gossypol
poisoning in this lot, showing the same general symptoms de-
scribed above.
The superiority of the Southern Regional Research Labora-
tory expeller meal, which was fed in Lots 4 through 8, is
clearly evident. This meal was quite low in free gossypol
and the pigs fed it showed no indications of gossypol injury.
However, the gains of the pigs on this meal was not optimum
(Lot 4). The addition of B vitamins (Lot 5) failed to im-
prove the ration, as did a combination of B vitamins and lysine
(Lot 6). A three-way combination of B vitamins, lysine and
methionine also was ineffective (Lot 7). However, an aureo-
mycin-B12 supplement (Lederle APF-Lot No. C-24) gave a
marked growth response (Lot 8) and prevented scouring, which
occurred periodically in all other lots.
This experiment demonstrated the superiority of cottonseed
meal specially processed to reduce the gossypol content and re-
emphasized the harmful effect of ordinary high gossypol com-
mercial meals when fed in large quantities to the pig.

EXPERIMENT II.-AMINO ACID SUPPLEMENTATION OF
LOW-GOSSYPOL COTTONSEED MEAL RATIONS FOR
WEANLING PIGS (SUMMER 1951)
This feeding study had two purposes: First, to study the
value of lysine and methionine supplementation; and second, to
observe the effects of replacing 50 percent of the cottonseed
meal with soybean meal.






Cottonseed Meal as a Source of Protein for Swine


The cottonseed meal used in this case was prepared under
the supervision of the Southern Regional Research Laboratory
at New Orleans, Louisiana. It contained 0.03 percent free
gossypol and had the laboratory designation of S13-T4.
In addition to the ingredients described in the general pro-
cedure, all rations tested in this experiment contained 5 percent
of dehydrated alfalfa leaf meal and 0.5 percent of Lederle
Aurofac (1.8 grams aureomycin and 1.8 grams of vitamin B12
per pound). Two basal rations were employed. Basal I con-
tained only cottonseed meal as a supplemental source of protein.
The protein supplement of Basal II consisted of 50 percent cot-
tonseed meal and 50 percent soybean meal. The various dietary
regimes and results of the test are given in Table 2.
Pigs fed a corn-cottonseed meal ration (Lot 1) made only
fair gains but there were no evidences of gossypol poisoning.
It can be seen in Table 2 that the addition of 0.4% DL-lysine
(Lot 2) did not improve gains. When 0.8% of DL-lysine was
included (Lot 3) gains were improved. DL-methionine at the
0.075% level fed in combination with 0.4% DL-lysine did not
prove beneficial.
Pigs which received Basal II (1/2 cottonseed meal and 1/ soy-
bean meal) gained significantly faster than those on cottonseed
meal only. Gains also were more efficient. The pigs had a
smoother hair coat, showed more bloom and generally appeared
healthier. The inclusion of lysine or a combination of lysine
and methionine at the levels used in this ration was ineffective.
The amino acids most likely to be limiting in cottonseed meal
appear to be lysine and methionine (1). Several workers have
studied this problem. Dyer et al (5) reported that 0.4% of
DL-lysine increased gains of pigs on a corn-"degossypolyzed"
cottonseed meal ration 0.32 pounds per day. The addition of
0.5% DL-methionine, along with the lysine, further improved
gains. Results of Stephenson et al (11) confirm the beneficial
effect of lysine but not that of methionine. However, it must
be pointed out that the former workers were dealing with a
solvent-extracted meal while the latter were testing a screw-
press meal made by the Southern Regional Research Labora-
tory. Differences in protein value are known to exist, depending
on the source of the seed and processing procedures.
In our experiment (Table 2) it can be seen that lysine was
ineffective at the 0.4% level when added to either the all-
cottonseed-meal ration (Lot 2) or to a ration in which soybean













TABLE 2.-AMINO ACID SUPPLEMENTATION OF RATIONS CONTAINING Low-GOSSYPOL COTTONSEED MEAL.*
(67 day test).


Ration-Amino
Acid Supplements


Lot No.


Number of pigs
Av. initial wt., lbs.
Av. gain per pig, lbs.
Av. daily gain, lbs.
and standard error
Av. daily feed
consumption/head lbs.
Feed required/100 lbs.
gain, lbs.


Bas
+1
Ly


Basal I**



1





6
34.4
58.2
.87
0.14

3.59

413.0 4


sal I Basal I
0.4% + 0.8%
*sine Lysine

2 3


6 6
34.4 34.6
53.6 68.0
.80 1.03
0.16 0.16

3.41 3.68

28.0 359.0


Basal I
+ 0.4%
Lysine
+ 0.075%
Methionine

4


6
34.4
50.8
.76
+ 0.18

3.21
423.0


Basal II
Basal IIt + 0.4%
Lysine


5 6


6 6
34.4 34.4
84.4 87.6
1.261 1.30
0.07 0.05

4.39 4.48

359.0 342.0


Cottonseed meal supplied by Southern Regional Research Laboratory, New Orleans, Louisiana. Laboratory No. S13-T4. DL-lysine supplied by
E. I. duPont de Nemours and Co., New Brunswick, New Jersey, and the DL-methionine by Dow Chemical Company, Midland, Michigan.
** Protein supplement was 100% cottonseed meal.
SProtein supplement was 50% cottonseed meal and 50% soybean meal.
$ Daily gain significant over Lots 1, 2, and 4 (P = 0.05).


Basal II
+ 0.4%
Lysine
+ 0.075%
Methionine

7


6
34.3
82.7
1.21
0.17

4.32

350.0


I:


I






Cottonseed Meal as a Source of Protein for Swine


meal replaced one-half of the cottonseed meal (Lot 6). When
0.8% lysine was added to the all-cottonseed-meal ration, gains
were markedly improved (Lot 3). Methionine at a level of
0.075% was not beneficial when fed in combination with 0.4%
of lysine (Lot 4). Replacing one-half of the cottonseed meal
with soybean meal significantly improved growth and feed
utilization. Pigs receiving this mixed protein ration (Lots 6,
7 and 8) did not exhibit faded hair coats or dermatitis, both
observed in the lots getting only cottonseed meal.
At the termination of this experiment the Duroc pigs show-
ing the faded hair coats were used in another test to study this
phenomenon. Sixteen animals were divided into four similar
groups and continued on the all corn-all-cottonseed meal ration.
Three of the four groups were supplemented with 2 percent of
DL-lysine, 20 grams of CuSO4.5HO per 100 pounds of feed,
and 3 percent of Lederle Aurofac (1.8 grams of each aureomy-
cin and vitamin B12 per pound), respectively. The fourth group
was used as a control. A 10-square-inch area was shaved on
the side of each of the 16 pigs so as to observe new hair growth.
At the end of six weeks the growth of new hair gave no indica-
tion that any of the supplements were restoring the original
color to the hair coat.

EXPERIMENT III.-A COMPARISON OF COTTONSEED
MEAL AND SOYBEAN MEAL AND EFFECT OF CER-
TAIN SUPPLEMENTS TO A CORN-"DEGOSSY-
POLYZED" SOLVENT EXTRACTED COTTONSEED
MEAL RATION (SUMMER 1951)
Animals and experimental conditions were comparable to
those in Experiment II. This experiment was initiated about
two weeks after the start of Experiment II. The cottonseed
meal was produced and supplied by the Buckeye Cottonseed
Oil Company of Cincinnati, Ohio. It analyzed 0.025 percent free
gossypol.
The objectives of this test were to compare this particular
meal with soybean meal and to study the effect of supple-
menting the cottonseed meal with iron sulfate and fish solubles.
As in Experiment II, all rations tested contained 5 percent of
dehydrated alfalfa leaf meal. The pigs in Lots 1, 2, and 3 were
supplemented with 0.5 percent of Aurofac (1.8 gms. of aureo-
mycin and 1.8 gms. of vitamin B12 per pound), while those in Lots
4 and 5 did not receive this supplement.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Results of the experiment are given in Table 3. It can be
seen that gains on the soybean meal ration were very satis-
factory (Lot 1), while those of Lot 2, which received cotton-
seed meal, were exceptionally poor. One pig in Lot 2 died on
the 62nd day of experiment. The pig had a very severe case
of dermatitis and as a result had eaten very little feed for
several days prior to death. The exact cause of death was not
determined but clear cut symptoms of gossypol injury were not
evident.

TABLE 3.-IRON SULFATE AND FISH SOLUBLES AS SUPPLEMENTS TO A CORN-
SOLVENT EXTRACTED COTTONSEED MEAL RATION
(Summer 1951-70 day test).*


Ration



Lot No.


Number of pigs
Av. initial wt., Ibs.
Av. gain per pig, lbs.
Av. daily gain, lbs.
and standard error
Av. daily feed
consumption, lbs.
Feed required/100
lbs. gain, lbs.


Soybean
Meal +
Aurofac


1


6
31.6
97.7
1.36t
0.06
5.00
358.0


Cotton-
Cotton- seed
seed Meal +
Meal + Aurofac
Aurofac + 0.25%
FeSO4.H20

2 3


5** 5t
30.2 32.2
16.4 67.0
0.23 0.97
- 0.13 0.18
1.77 2.64
757.0 273.0


I Cotton-
Cotton- I seed Meal
seed Meal + 3%
+ 3% Fish
Fish I Solubles
Solubles + 0.25%
FeSO4.HLO

4 5


6
32.1
24.4
0.35
- 0.21
2.14
614.0


6
32.0
39.8
0.57
0.21
2.50
439.0


Cottonseed meal supplied by Buckeye Cotton Oil Company, Cincinnati, Ohio. (Series
6-No. 49).
** Pig died on 62nd day of experiment (Cause of death undetermined).
tPig removed from experiment on 56th day due to severe dermatitis.
$ Daily gains significant over Lot 2 (P = 0.01).
Aureomycin and vitamin Ba supplement.

When 0.25 percent of FeSO4.H20 was added to the cotton-
seed meal ration (Lot 3), gains were significantly improved.
This would seem to indicate that considerable free gossypol
was still present or was in some way being liberated in harmful
quantities, since iron sulfate has been demonstrated to be an
antidote for gossypol poisoning. This particular meal was
"degossypolized" by a chemical treatment which binds the
gossypol and supposedly renders it non-toxic.
The addition of 3 percent condensed fish solubles to the cot-
tonseed meal ration, which was not fortified with aureomycin
and vitamin B12 (Lot 4), resulted in only 0.35 pounds per day
average gain. The further addition of FeSO4.H20 (Lot 5)







Cottonseed Meal as a Source of Protein for Swine


resulted in some improvement but gains were still much below
optimum. Stephenson et al (11) have reported that an ethanol
extract of condensed fish solubles improved a corn-screw pressed
cottonseed meal ration.
A very high incidence of dermatitis and hair coat fading was
observed in all lots that received this solvent extracted cotton-
seed meal.

EXPERIMENT IV.-FURTHER STUDIES ON THE VALUE
OF VARIOUS SUPPLEMENTS TO LOW-GOSSYPOL
COTTONSEED MEAL CORN RATIONS. (THIS EX-
PERIMENT CONSISTED OF TWO TRIALS. THE FIRST
WAS CONDUCTED DURING THE SUMMER OF 1952
AND THE SECOND DURING THE FALL OF THE SAME
YEAR)
The cottonseed meal used in these trials was a screw press
meal produced under the supervision of the Southern Regional
Research Laboratory at New Orleans. It analyzed only 0.015
percent of free gossypol.
All rations were fortified with 0.5 percent of Aurofac (1.8
gms. aureomycin and 1.8 gms. vitamin B12 per pound). The
supplemental treatments and results of the trials are presented
in Table 4.
The soybean meal ration (Lot 1) was only slightly superior to
the cottonseed meal ration (Lot 2) in the first trial. Neither
FeSO4.H20 (Lot 3) nor a combination of FeSO4.H20 and lysine
(Lot 4) proved to be beneficial supplements. The addition of a
surfactant compound (Aerosol S.E. Phosphate, C-674) to the
ration of Lot 5 and CuSO4.5H20 to the ration of Lot 6 both
resulted in depressed gains. However, these differences were
not statistically significant. A high level of aureomycin-B12
supplement added to the ration of Lot 7 produced gains that
were superior even to the corn-soybean meal ration. The pigs
in this lot were very uniform and had obviously been given a
boost by the higher level of aureomycin-B12 supplement.
In the second trial, performance of pigs in all lots was gen-
erally much poorer. The reason for this is not clear. The soy-
bean meal and cottonseed meal used in this trial were from
the same batch as used in Trial I and apparently were in good
condition. The pigs fed in this trial were purebred Hamp-
shires which had been purchased from a local breeder. They
were healthy, thrifty pigs when placed on the experiment. The







TABLE 4.-EFFECT OF VARIOUS SUPPLEMENTS TO A LOW-GOSSYPOL SCREW PRESS COTTONSEED MEAL RATION *
(70 day trials).
Cottonseed
Cottonseed Meal + .25% Cottonseed Cottonseed Cottonseed
Ration Soybean Cottonseed Meal + .25% FeSO,. HsO Meal + Meal + High Meal + High
Meal Meal FeSO,. H2O + 0.8% Aerosal** Level Level
SLysine I Copper Aurofac$
(Trial I-Summer 1952)

Lot No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7


Number of pigs 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
Av. initial wt., lbs. 46.9 47.8 47.8 47.5 47.3 47.5 47.6
Av. gain per pig, lbs. 97.6 89.8 86.3 83.4 62.9 69.4 108.4
Av. daily gain, lbs. 1.39 1.26 1.23 1.19 0.89 0.99 1.54
and standard error 0.02 0.10 0.03 0.03 + 0.14 0.11 0.02
Av. daily feed
consumption, lbs. 5.09 4.90 4.65 4.64 3.72 3.57 5.94
Feed/100 lbs. gain, lbs. 366.0 389.0 377.0 390.0 418.0 361.0 386.0
(Trial II-Fall 1952)

Lot. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7


Number of pigs 5 5 5 5 4 3 5
Av. initial wt., lbs. 49.2 48.8 49.0 49.2 50.6 51.6 48.9
Av. gain per pig, lbs. 50.2 33.3 78.4 58.2 55.8 42.4 60.1
Av. daily gain, lbs. 0.72 0.48 1.12 0.83 0.79 0.61 0.85
and standard error 0.13 + 0.06 0.12 J 0.14 0.17 0.19 0.15
Av. daily feed
consumption, lbs. 3.07 2.13 4.52 3.61 3.43 2.61 4.19
Feed/100 lbs. gain, lbs. 426.0 444.0 403.0 435.0 434.0 428.0 493.0
Cottonseed meal prepared under supervision of Southern Regional Research Laboratory, New Orleans (S-6-106).
** Surfactant compound (S.E. phosphate C-674) supplied by Lederle Laboratories, Pearl River, N. Y. Fed at level of 0.05% of ration.
t CuSO. 5HO0 added at level of 20 grams per 100 pounds of feed.
$ Aurofac (1.8 gms. aureomycin, 1.8 mgs. B1a per lb.) fed at 3% level in ration.
One pig removed from trial due to severe dermatitis.
Two pigs removed from trial due to severe dermatitis.







Cottonseed Meal as a Source of Protein for Swine


animals fed in Trial I were raised at the Experiment Station
swine farm. The weather was warmer and more humid during
the second trial, but this alone could hardly explain the wide
differences observed.
In general, the trends of response in the various lots of Trial
II were similar to those of Trial I. One exception was the per-
formance of pigs in Lot 3. Pigs in this lot which were supple-
mented with FeSO4.HO0 gained better than any of the other
lots. The poorest lot was the control cottonseed meal group
(Lot 2).
One pig was removed from Lot 5 and two from Lot 6 during
the trial because of severe dermatitis. The dermatitis syn-
drome appeared to a lesser degree in all other lots except Lot
3. It is interesting to note, and should be pointed out again,
that the dermatitis has not been peculiar to cottonseed meal
rations alone. However, in every case, it has occurred under
dry lot conditions and has not been observed under pasture
conditions.

EXPERIMENT V.-PREPRESSED SOLVENT-EXTRACTED
LOW-GOSSYPOL COTTONSEED MEAL AS A SOURCE
OF PROTEIN FOR THE PIG (TRIAL I CONDUCTED
DURING SUMMER 1953 AND TRIAL II WAS CON-
DUCTED DURING THE FALL OF 1953)
This study was designed to compare the feeding value of pre-
pressed solvent-extracted cottonseed meal to that of solvent-
extracted soybean meal. In view of recent experimental data
(2, 12) indicating that 14 percent of crude protein was ade-
quate for young pigs when fed corn-soybean meal rations con-
taining an antibiotic, it was further desired to determine if such
a level of protein would be optimum when cottonseed meal
replaced the soybean meal in the ration. In addition, the supple-
mentary value of DSC (distiller's solubles concentrate), a by-
product of the production of monosodium glutamate from wheat
gluten, was determined. The amino acid analysis indicated
possible value as a supplementary source of lysine. A final
objective was to study further the value of adding a high level
of aureomycin (60 grams/ton) to the corn-cottonseed meal
ration.
The study consisted of two trials, results of which are shown
in Table 5. The two trials were the same except that the cot-
tonseed meal was obtained from different mills. The meal used








TABLE 5.-PREPRESSED SOLVENT EXTRACTED COTTONSEED MEAL AS A SOURCE OF PROTEIN.*


Soybean
Meal
(14% Protein)


Cottonseed
Meal
(14% Protein)


I Cottonseed
Cottonseed Meal
Meal (14% Protein)
(14% Protein) + 5% DSC +
+ 5% DSC** High Level
Aureomycint


Cottonseed
Meal
(20% Protein)


Cottonseed
Meal
(20% Protein)
+ 5% DSC


Lot No.


No. of pigs
Av. initial wt., lbs.
Av. gain per pig, lbs.
Av. daily gain, lbs.
and standard error
Av. daily feed con-
sumption, lbs.
Feed/100 lbs. gain, lbs.


3
7


1


5
35.0
72.2
1.15
0.11

3.59
L1.0


(Trial I-Summer 1953-63 day trial)

2 3


5 5
35.2 35.2
65.2 51.4
1.03 0.81
0.09 0.14

3.59 3.14
347.0 384.0 3
(Trial II-Fall 1953-66 day trial)


4


5
35.0
56.7
0.90
0.10

3.35
371.0


Lot No. 1 2 3 4


No. of pigs 5 5 5 5
Av. initial wt., lbs. 46.1 46.0 44.0 46.1
Av. gain per pig, lbs. 107.1 67.6 64.6 71.3
Av. daily gain, lbs. 1.62 1.02 0.98 1.08
and standard error + 0.12 0.12 0.12 0.04
Av. daily feed con-
sumption, Ibs. 4.50 3.42 3.31 3.54
Feed/100 lbs. gain, lbs. 277.0 330.0 338.0 328.0
Trial I-Meal obtained from Sherman, Texas (Lab. No.-O-3748); Trial II-Meal obtained from Dothan,
lated soapstock).
** DSC (Distiller's Solubles Concentrate) obtained from Huron Milling Company, Chicago, Illinois.
f Sufficient Aurofac 2-A added to provide 60 grams per ton of aureomycin.


5


5
45.8
87.4
1.32
0.06

4.34
329.0


6


5
46.0
86.0
1.30
0.12

4.73
363.0


Alabama, (Contained 2.20 percent acidu-


Rations


5


5
35.0
32.1
0.50
0.12

2.21
433.0


6


5
35.1
63.5
1.00
0.16

3.43
339.0


I


,







Cottonseed Meal as a Source of Protein for Swine


in Trial I was obtained from Sherman, Texas, (Lab. No. 0-3748)
and that of the second trial came from Dothan, Alabama. The
meal from the Dothan mill contained 2.20 percent acidulated
cottonseed soapstock. The acidulated soapstock is a by-product
from the oil extraction process and heretofore has been dis-
carded. It consists mainly of free fatty acids (60-90 percent)
and in addition contains free oil, insoluble impurities, a small
amount of moisture and ash, and 0.10 percent gossypol. Both
meals analyzed 0.04 percent of free gossypol.
Aureomycin in the form of Aurofac 2-A (3.6 gms. of aureo-
mycin per pound) was fed in all rations at a level which con-
tributed approximately 20 grams of aureomycin per ton of
feed. The group which received the high level of aureomycin
(Lot 4) received three times this amount of Aurofac 2-A.
In both trials the corn-soybean meal control ration contain-
ing 14 percent protein produced better results than any of the
rations which contained cottonseed meal. Distiller's solubles
concentrate (DSC) and a high level of aureomycin were ineffec-
tive supplements. In previous experiments with other cotton-
seed meals a high level of aureomycin had proven effective. The
lack of supplemental vitamin B12 in this case may or may not
have been cause for the different result. The need for vitamin
B12 in a ration of this type has not been clearly determined. In
the first trial the higher level of protein (Lot 5) appeared to
be less satisfactory than the lower protein level (Lot 2). The
complicating effect of dermatitis may explain this result. There
were three severe and one mild cases of dermatitis in Lot 5
(Trial I). Two mild cases of dermatitis also appeared in Lot 3.
In the second trial, however, the high protein cottonseed meal
rations (Lots 5 and 6) promoted decidedly better growth than
did the low protein rations (Lots 2, 3 and 4). This trial was
not complicated by dermatitis. Thus the data would seem to
indicate that in the case of this particular meal, 20 percent was
a more efficient level of protein than 14 percent.
The addition of 2.20 percent acidulated soapstock to the meal
used in Trial II improved the physical character of the meal by
reducing dustiness. This in turn appeared to have improved
palatability of the ration. The improved performance of the
pigs in Trial II may have been related to this factor. It must
be pointed out, however, that the pigs in Trial II averaged about
10 pounds heavier initially, which also could have exerted con-
siderable influences on performance.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


EXPERIMENT VI.-THE ADDITION OF WASTE BEEF FAT,
COTTONSEED OIL, AND ZINC TO LOW-GOSSYPOL
COTTONSEED MEAL-CORN RATIONS (WINTER
1953-54)
The cottonseed meal fed in this experiment was the same as
used in Trial II, Experiment V. There was a twofold objective
in the experiment. First, to study the effect of adding fat and
zinc on the incidence and severity of the dermatitis syndrome
previously observed; and second, to observe the influence of
supplementary fat on gains and feed utilization.
The rations fed were formulated to contain approximately
14.5 percent of crude protein. The basic ingredients were ground
yellow corn, cottonseed meal and the vitamin and mineral sup-
plements described in the general procedure. Aureomycin was
added to all rations at a rate of 20 grams per ton of feed.
Experimental results are summarized in Table 6. The control
lot (Lot 1) gained an average of 1.01 pounds per day. Lot 2
received 4 percent of crude cottonseed oil, which improved the
physical properties of the ration considerably. During the early
part of the test pigs in this lot outgained all other groups.
However, by the end of the experiment their rate of gain
decreased and they ended up with the same average daily gain
as the control group. They were slightly more efficient than
the controls in converting feed to gains.
An attempt was made to stabilize and prevent rancidity of
the crude cottonseed oil with Tenox II, a product supplied by
Eastman Chemical Products, Inc., Kingsport, Tennessee. This
proved unsuccessful, as shown by tests made by company per-
sonnel. The tendency of the pigs to slow down after gaining
rapidly may have been due to a rancidity problem, although the
oil was not noticeably rancid at any time and the ration, which
was mixed fresh regularly, seemed free of rancidity. How-
ever, it did appear that the ration became less desirable to the
animals as the experiment progressed.
Raw waste beef fat was added at a 4 percent level to the
ration in Lot 3. This material was obtained from a local
grocery store, coarsely ground and mixed with the other in-
gredients of the ration while in a hard, chilled condition. The
death of one pig due to cholera and the necessity of removing
another from this lot because of an injured leg complicated the
data. However, growth data on the remaining five pigs indi-
cated an improved rate of gain as a result of the fat addition,







Cottonseed Meal as a Source of Protein for Swine


although this was not statistically significant. Pigs in this lot
were inclined to waste feed in spite of repeated attempts to pre-
vent it and, since no accurate estimate could be made of the
wastage, the feed conversion figure for this lot is not very re-
liable. It was never determined just why the pigs wasted this
ration. In other tests, waste beef fat has always been relished
by the animals.
The addition of 10 ppm of zinc (Lot 4) did not improve the
performance of the pigs in any way. There were no cases of
the dermatitis syndrome in any of the lots. Thus, no informa-
tion was gained on the effect of dietary fat or zinc on this skin
condition.

TABLE 6.-EFFECT OF ADDING FAT AND ZINC TO Low-GOSSYPOL
COTTONSEED MEAL RATIONS *
(61-day trial).


Corn-
Rations Cottonseed
Meal


Lot No. I 1

No. of pigs 7
Av. initial wt.,
lbs. 47.0
Av. gain per pig,
lbs. 61.9
Av. daily gain, Ibs. 1.01
and standard
error 0.06
Av. daily feed con-
sumption, lbs. 3.95
Feed per 100 Ibs.
gain, lbs. 389.0


Corn-
Cottonseed
Meal + 4%
Crude
Cottonseed
Oil

2

7
47.6
61.7
1.01
0.17
3.83
379.0


Corn-
Cottonseed
Meal + 4%
Raw Waste
Beef Fat


3

5**

47.6

71.4
1.17
0.18
4.52
387.0


Corn-
Cottonseed
Meal + 10
Sp.p.m. of
Zinc (ZnCOa)


4

7
47.6
56.8
0.93
0.07
3.67
394.0


All rations contained approximately 14.5 percent of crude protein. The cottonseed
meal contained .04 percent free gossypol and 2.20 percent of acidulated soapstock. It was
obtained from the Dothan Oil Meal Company, Dothan, Alabama.
** One pig died of cholera after 4 days on test. One pig removed after 19 days on test
due to injured leg.

EXPERIMENT VII.-A COMBINATION OF LOW-GOSSYPOL
COTTONSEED MEAL AND SOYBEAN MEAL COM-
PARED TO ALL SOYBEAN MEAL AS A SOURCE OF
PROTEIN (SUMMER 1954)

This experiment was conducted to determine if low-gossypol
cottonseed meal could be substituted for 50 percent of the soy-
bean meal in a typical corn-soybean meal type ration with good
results. The soybean meal used in the experiment was a 41







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


percent expeller product. The cottonseed meal was obtained
from the Dothan Oil Meal Company, Dothan, Alabama, (from
same batch as that fed in Trial II, Experiment V and in Experi-
ment VI). Two replicated lots of five pigs each were fed on
each of the two treatments. The rations were formulated to
contain approximately 14 percent of crude protein and were
fortified with 20 gms. of aureomycin per ton, in addition to min-
eral and vitamin supplements as described in the general pro-
cedure. Results of the experiment are shown in Table 7. Data
of the two replications are combined.

TABLE 7.-EFFECT OF SUBSTITUTING LOW-GOSSYPOL COTTONSEED MEAL
FOR 50 PERCENT OF THE SOYBEAN MEAL IN A TYPICAL CORN-SOYBEAN
MEAL RATION (54-day trial).
S1/ Soybean Meal
Rations All Soybean I% Low-Gossypol
Meal Cottonseed Meal
Lot No. ................. --........... -- 1 2

Number of pigs ........................... 10 10
Av. initial wt., lbs. ..........-....-..- ...... 52.4 52.3
Av. gain per pig, lbs. ................-. ... 88.5 95.9
Av. daily gain, lbs. and 1.64 1.78*
standard error ................ ...... 0.05 -_ 0.06
Av. daily feed consumption, lbs. ....... 4.84 5.45
Feed per 100 lbs. gain, lbs. ............... 295.5 306.7

Daily gains significant over Lot 1 (P = .05).

The average daily gains were significant in favor of the
group that received the combination of soybean meal and cot-
tonseed meal. These animals also consumed more feed per
head per day but were slightly less efficient in converting it to
gains. Both groups performed remarkably well in this test
but the data indicate that the cottonseed meal improved the
corn-all soybean meal ration.

Part II. A Gestation-Lactation Study

EXPERIMENT I.-A COMPARISON OF SOYBEAN MEAL
AND LOW GOSSYPOL-COTTONSEED MEAL AS
SOURCES OF PROTEIN FOR THE GESTATING-LAC-
TATING SOW (WINTER AND SPRING 1953-54)
Eighteen purebred Durocs (14 mature sows and 4 gilts),
four purebred Hampshires (2 mature sows and 2 gilts), and
two purbred Spotted Poland Chinas (both mature sows) were







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


percent expeller product. The cottonseed meal was obtained
from the Dothan Oil Meal Company, Dothan, Alabama, (from
same batch as that fed in Trial II, Experiment V and in Experi-
ment VI). Two replicated lots of five pigs each were fed on
each of the two treatments. The rations were formulated to
contain approximately 14 percent of crude protein and were
fortified with 20 gms. of aureomycin per ton, in addition to min-
eral and vitamin supplements as described in the general pro-
cedure. Results of the experiment are shown in Table 7. Data
of the two replications are combined.

TABLE 7.-EFFECT OF SUBSTITUTING LOW-GOSSYPOL COTTONSEED MEAL
FOR 50 PERCENT OF THE SOYBEAN MEAL IN A TYPICAL CORN-SOYBEAN
MEAL RATION (54-day trial).
S1/ Soybean Meal
Rations All Soybean I% Low-Gossypol
Meal Cottonseed Meal
Lot No. ................. --........... -- 1 2

Number of pigs ........................... 10 10
Av. initial wt., lbs. ..........-....-..- ...... 52.4 52.3
Av. gain per pig, lbs. ................-. ... 88.5 95.9
Av. daily gain, lbs. and 1.64 1.78*
standard error ................ ...... 0.05 -_ 0.06
Av. daily feed consumption, lbs. ....... 4.84 5.45
Feed per 100 lbs. gain, lbs. ............... 295.5 306.7

Daily gains significant over Lot 1 (P = .05).

The average daily gains were significant in favor of the
group that received the combination of soybean meal and cot-
tonseed meal. These animals also consumed more feed per
head per day but were slightly less efficient in converting it to
gains. Both groups performed remarkably well in this test
but the data indicate that the cottonseed meal improved the
corn-all soybean meal ration.

Part II. A Gestation-Lactation Study

EXPERIMENT I.-A COMPARISON OF SOYBEAN MEAL
AND LOW GOSSYPOL-COTTONSEED MEAL AS
SOURCES OF PROTEIN FOR THE GESTATING-LAC-
TATING SOW (WINTER AND SPRING 1953-54)
Eighteen purebred Durocs (14 mature sows and 4 gilts),
four purebred Hampshires (2 mature sows and 2 gilts), and
two purbred Spotted Poland Chinas (both mature sows) were






Cottonseed Meal as a Source of Protein for Swine


divided into two similar groups of 12 animals each. The ani-
mals were placed on the experimental rations shown in Table
8 at the time of breeding and continued on these rations through-
out gestation and lactation. Group I was fed soybean meal as
a source of supplementary protein and Group II was fed pre-
pressed solvent-extracted cottonseed meal. This was the same
batch of cottonseed meal used in Trial II of Experiment V and
in Experiments VI and VII. The rations were self-fed during
gestation and a program of hand feeding was following during
lactation. The purpose of self-feeding during the gestation
period was to obtain a critical test of the cottonseed meal by
permitting a high level of feed consumption. As might be
expected, the animals, particularly the mature sows, gained
weight too rapidly. After eight weeks of the gestation period,
an effort was made to reduce gains by further increasing the
bulkiness of the rations. This was accomplished by replacing
10 pounds of ground corn in each ration with 10 pounds of un-
ground citrus pulp. Gains were curtailed some but all animals
in both groups were in higher condition than desirable at the
time they farrowed. During gestation the animals grazed
sweet yellow lupine and during the lactating period the pasture
consisted of oats or millet.

TABLE 8.-RATIONS FED Sows DURING GESTATION AND LACTATION.*

Group 1 Group 2

Ground yellow corn ................................... 28.0 26.0
Ground whole oats -----.........................30.0 30.0
Alfalfa leaf m eal ...................................... 25.0 25.0
Soybean m eal .......................---................ 15.0
Cottonseed m eal ...................................... ... 17.0
Ground limestone -------- -------............ ....... 1.0 1.0
Steamed bonemeal ----... -------..- .-.. ............. 0.5 0.5
Iodized salt -------- ----------- --.--- ................ 0.5 0.5
100.0 100.0

Lederle Aurofac 2-A added at level to provide 20 gms. of aureomycin per ton of feed
to both rations.

The animals were moved into farrowing houses three days
prior to farrowing and returned to pasture in groups of two to
four sows and litters per lot one week after farrowing. At two
weeks of age, palatable, well-fortified creep mixtures were made
available to all suckling pigs of the experiment. All pigs were







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


weaned at 56 days of age. Results of the experiment are
summarized in Table 9.

TABLE 9.-GESTATION-LACTATION PERFORMANCE OF Sows FED RATIONS
CONTAINING SOYBEAN MEAL AND COTTONSEED MEAL.


Group I
(Soybean)

No. of sows started on test .........---.~.....- .... 12
No. of sows finished test .................-- .......... 10
Av. wt. per sow at farrowing, lbs ........... 549
Av. wt. per sow at weaning, lbs ...............-- 429
Av. loss in wt. during lactation, lbs. ............... --120
Av. number of pigs farrowed per sow, lbs..... 9.8
*Percent of pigs farrowed strong ...--.--.......- 58.2
*Percent of pigs farrowed medium ...-----........ 27.6
*Percent of pigs farrowed weak ..............----- 2.0
Percent of pigs farrowed dead .....-.........----- 8.2
Percent of pigs farrowed partially resorbed 5.1
Av. birth wt. of pigs farrowed resorbedd
fetuses excluded) ..............------------ -------. 3.20
Av. number of pigs weaned per litter ........... 6.80
Percent of live pigs farrowed which
were weaned ............----------------- ....- 79.1
Av. weaning wt. per pig .....-------...-.....-...... 40.9
Total av. wt per litter weaned ........................ 277.8

Strong-3.0 lbs. and over
Medium-2.0-2.9 lbs.
Weak-under 2.0 lbs.


Group II
(Cottonseed)

12
9
550
421
-129
9.8
56.8
26.1
3.4
11.3
2.3
3.11
6.00
71.1
40.2
241.4


Of the 12 animals started in each group, 10 finished the ex-
periment in Group 1 (soybean meal) and 9 finished the experi-
ment in Group 2 (cottonseed meal). One animal in Group 1 and
two in Group 2 failed to conceive. The second sow in Group 1
aborted in late pregnancy and the third sow in Group 2 died
in early gestation of undetermined cause. The animals in the
two groups averaged practically the same weight at farrowing.
The loss of weight during lactation was similar for both groups.
Each group farrowed an average of 9.8 pigs and the percentages
of strong, medium and weak pigs were quite similar for the two
groups. Neither were there striking differences in percentage
of pigs farrowed dead or in observed fetal resorptions. Average
birth weights were slightly in favor of the soybean meal ration
(3.20 lbs.) as compared with the cottonseed meal ration (3.11
lbs.). The animals fed soybean meal weaned an average 6.8
pigs and those fed cottonseed meal weaned 6.0 pigs. The aver-
age weights were 40.9 and 40.2 pounds per pig for the soybean
meal and cottonseed meal groups, respectively.







Cottonseed Meal as a Source of Protein for Swiine


The overall performance of the sows fed soybean meal was
slightly better in certain respects than that of those fed cotton-
seed meal. However, in view of normal variations expected in
sow performance, these differences were not too important,
since the experimental groups consisted of relatively small num-
bers. Nothing observed in the experiment indicated that this
low-gossypol cottonseed meal could not be used as the entire
source of supplementary protein in sow rations during gestation
and lactation.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
A four-year study (1950-1954) involving 286 weanling pigs
fed in dry lot and 24 brood sows fed on pasture during ges-
tation and lactation was conducted to determine the value of
low-gossypol cottonseed meal in swine rations.
In the early part of the growth studies involving weanling
pigs, the harmful effect of conventional cottonseed meal high
in gossypol was reaffirmed. At the same time it was demon-
strated that specially processed low-gossypol cottonseed meal
containing only 0.024 percent of free gossypol was tolerated by
the weanling pigs in quantities up to 35 percent of the ration.
Subsequent experiments, although not designed to determine
gossypol tolerance levels, suggested that 0.04 percent of free
gossypol was a safe upper limit for cottonseed meal used in
swine feeding.
Even though symptoms of gossypol poisoning were not ob-
served when low-gossypol meal was the only supplemental pro-
tein, the performance of the pigs was less than optimum. To
obtain information on the nutritive deficiencies which may exist
in a ration compounded of yellow corn and low-gossypol cot-
tonseed meal, several supplemental feed materials were studied.
A vitamin mixture containing generous amounts of thiamine,
riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine, choline chloride
and folic acid was added to such ration and did not improve the
performance of the pigs. A high level of vitamin A and thia-
mine supplementation also proved ineffective.
In an early experiment the value of an APF (animal protein
factor) supplement containing aureomycin and B12 was clearly
demonstrated. Further studies on the supplemental value of
aureomycin indicated that a high level of this antibiotic (60
grams per ton) was generally beneficial. However, the response






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


to such supplementation was variable and appeared to be in-
fluenced by other factors in addition to the ration itself.
The supplemental value of the amino acids methionine and
lysine was investigated. The addition of methionine, at the
levels used, either alone or in combination with lysine, did not
improve a corn-low gossypol cottonseed meal ration. Neither
was the response from lysine, at the levels used, consistently
favorable. However, in one experiment the addition of a level
of 0.8 percent of lysine to the ration did improve gains. These
results would seem to indicate that at least a borderline de-
ficiency of lysine, in terms of the young pig's needs, probably
exists in most cottonseed meals. A high incidence of hair coat
fading was observed in the Duroc pigs. This also would seem
to confirm that insufficient lysine was present in the rations.
A product known as DSC (distillers solubles concentrate), con-
taining a fair amount of the important amino acids, was fed
in one experiment at a level of 5 percent with the hope of im-
proving the overall balance of amino acids in the corn-cotton-
seed meal ration. The product was without noticeable effect.
Several other supplements, including a high level of copper
sulfate (20 gms. per 100 Ibs. of feed), zinc (10 ppm), condensed
fish solubles (3%), a surfactant compound known as S.E. phos-
phate C-674 (0.05%), crude cottonseed oil (4/%) and raw waste
beef fat (4%) were studied with generally negative results.
Iron sulfate (0.25%) was fed in two experiments, and in four
of six comparisons appeared to be beneficial. Since iron has
been shown to be an effective antidote for gossypol poisoning,
it seems that the presence of gossypol may have been a limit-
ing factor on growth, although no physical symptoms of poison-
ing were observed.
An observation of interest was the enormous individual varia-
tion in growth among animals fed cottonseed meal rations.
Some animals made excellent gains while others on the same
ration did poorly. Such differences in individual response were
not observed when the protein supplement was soybean meal.
Many of these unthrifty animals were afflicted with a dermatitis
or skin condition, from which they would normally recover
slowly and spontaneously without a change in ration. Turning
them out to pasture brought about a complete recovery much
more quickly. The solvent-extracted meals tested in the early
experiments of this study produced a higher incidence of derma-
titis than the low-gossypol meals produced by other processing







Cottonseed Meal as a Source of Protein for Swine


methods. The exact cause of the skin lesions has not been
determined. Efforts in this direction were hampered by the in-
ability to produce the condition experimentally when desired.
Soybean meal is the most widely used plant protein supple-
ment for swine feeding. In the last series of growing-fattening
experiments it was shown that a 50-50 combination of low-
gossypol cottonseed meal and soybean meal was superior to
soybean meal alone. These results certainly indicate that high
quality low-gossypol cottonseed meal is a valuable ingredient
for use in the growing-fattening ration of swine and can be
used to excellent advantage in combination with soybean meal.
An experiment also was conducted to compare soybean meal
with low-gossypol cottonseed meal for sows during gestation
and lactation when fed on pasture. Results indicated that the
two meals were equally valuable for this purpose.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors are indebted to: A. L. Ward and G. A. Harper of the Educa-
tional Service, National Cottonseed Products Association, Inc., Dallas, Texas,
for obtaining and supplying much of the cottonseed meal used in these
experiments; Dr. A. M. Altschul of the Southern Regional Research Labora-
tory, New Orleans, for making gossypol analyses; Dr. C. F. Simpson,
Veterinary Science Department, University of Florida, for assistance on
autopsies; C. B. Shawver, R. F. Sewell, M. Milicevic, J. W. Stroud, R. B.
Sleeth, D. H. Kropf, W. A. Ney, L. T. Albert, C. E. Haines, J. I. McKigney,
L. Gillespie and F. A. McMillan, graduate students at the University of
Florida, Department of Animal Husbandry and Nutrition, for their techni-
cal assistance during various phases of this study; and to W. C. Fowler and
W. E. Collins, herdsmen at the Experiment Station Swine Unit, for care of
the experimental animals.

LITERATURE CITED
1. BLOCK, R. J., and DIANA BOLLING. The amino acid composition of pro-
teins and foods. Charles C. Thomas and Company. 1945.
2. CATRON, D. V., A. H. JENSEN, P. G. HOMEYER, H. M. MADDOX and G. C.
ASHTON. Re-evaluation of protein requirements of growing-fatten-
ing swine as influenced by feeding an antibiotic. Jour. Anim. Sci.
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3. CURTISS, C. F. Feeding cottonseed meal and other meals to hogs. Iowa
Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 28. 1895.
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Pencillin, lysine, methionine and fish solubles supplement a corn-







26 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

degossypolized cottonseed meal ration for weanling pigs. Jour. Anim.
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11. STEPHENSON, E. L., R. R. NOLAND and A. A. CAMP. Cottonseed meal
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Ga. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 119. 1916.
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toxicity. II. Iron as an antidote. Jour. Biol. Chem. 15: 161. 1913.
15. WITHERS, W. A., and F. E. CARRUTH. Gossypol, the toxic substance in
cottonseed meal. Jour. Agr. Res. 5: 261. 1915.




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