• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Some factors influencing Florida's...
 Major uses of land in Florida
 Geographic distribution of crops...
 Type of farming areas in Flori...
 Summary






Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station - no. 733
Title: Location of agricultural production in Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027514/00001
 Material Information
Title: Location of agricultural production in Florida
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 62 p. : chart, maps ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Greene, R. E. L ( Robert Edward Lee ), 1910-
Rose, G. Norman
Brooke, Donald Lloyd, 1915-
Publisher: Agricultural Experiment Stations, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1969
 Subjects
Subject: Agricultural geography -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Land use -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: R.E.L. Greene, G.N. Rose, D.L. Brooke.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027514
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000929589
oclc - 18405667
notis - AEP0379

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
        Purpose of study
            Page 3
        Sources of data
            Page 4
        Method of study
            Page 4
    Some factors influencing Florida's agriculture
        Page 4
        Physical factors
            Page 4
            Page 5
            Page 6
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
        Biological factors
            Page 10
        Economic and social factors
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
    Major uses of land in Florida
        Page 14
        Land in farms
            Page 14
            Page 15
        Land not in farms
            Page 16
        Cropland
            Page 16
        Woodland
            Page 16
            Page 17
        Other pasture
            Page 18
    Geographic distribution of crops and livestock
        Page 19
        Field crops
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
        Vegetables
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
        Fruits and nuts
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
        Livestock on farms
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
            Page 47
    Type of farming areas in Florida
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        General farming
            Page 51
            Page 52
        Citrus
            Page 53
        Other
            Page 54
        Vegetable producing areas
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
    Summary
        Page 60
        Page 61
        Page 62
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




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TABLE OF CONTENTS



Page

INTRODUCTION .... .. 3
Purpose of Study ......... ..... 3
Sources of Data ......... ... .- 4
Method of Study .. ... .... .. 4

SOME FACTORS INFLUENCING FLORIDA'S AGRICULTURE 4
Physical Factors .. 4
Biological Factors .. .... 10
Economic and Social Factors .11

MAJOR USES OF LAND IN FLORIDA .. ... 14
Land in Farms ...... .. 14
Land Not in Farms ... .. 16
Cropland .. 16
Woodland .. .. 16
Other Pasture .. ...18
Other Land ..19

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF CROPS AND LIVESTOCK 19
Field Crops .. 19
Vegetables ... .... 26
Fruits and Nuts .40
Livestock on Farms ... ... 44

TYPE OF FARMING AREAS IN FLORIDA 48
General Farming .51
Citrus 53
Other 54
Vegetable Producing Areas 54


SUMMARY








LOCATION OF AGRICULTURAL
PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA
R. E. L. Greene, G. Norman Rose, and D. L. Brooke'
INTRODUCTION
Florida's agriculture has been characterized by its diversity
and continuous growth. Production in 1965 was 98% above the
average level during the 1947-49 period. The 1965 production
was 9 times the total of 1910 and 5 times the total of 1924.
From 1941 to 1965, total production of all agricultural products
in the state increased at the average rate of 5% per year. The
average rate of increase was 4.3% per year for all crops and
7.6% per year for livestock and livestock products.
The kind and combination of enterprises used by farmers in
any specific area results from the interaction of many factors.
Among the more important are soils, topography, climate, mar-
ket prices, availability and cost of labor, transportation facilities,
and judgements of farmers. Some of these factors, such as soils
and climate, place definite limitations on agricultural activity.
However, the introduction of new enterprises and changes in
economic factors such as price relationships may cause a large
change in the agriculture of an area in a relatively short period
of time.
Since certain types of farming tend to become concentrated
in select areas, it is important to examine the agriculture of the
state from time to time to determine what changes have occurred
and where concentrations of certain types of farming are located.
Purpose of Study
The purposes of this study are: (1) to describe the agricul-
ture of the state in terms of (a) the important factors affecting
agricultural production, (b) the major uses of land, and (c) the
geographic distribution of crops and livestock, and (2) to out-
line the location of various types of farming.
This type of study should provide a basis by which farmers,
Agricultural Extension workers, teachers, and research workers
may interpret to better advantage the agricultural problems in
specific areas. It should also serve as a guide to persons un-
familiar with the state who wish to acquire farms in Florida.

'Dr. Greene is a Professor, Mr. Rose an Associate Professor, and Dr.
Brooke a Professor in the Agricultural Economics Department, Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station, Gainesville.








LOCATION OF AGRICULTURAL
PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA
R. E. L. Greene, G. Norman Rose, and D. L. Brooke'
INTRODUCTION
Florida's agriculture has been characterized by its diversity
and continuous growth. Production in 1965 was 98% above the
average level during the 1947-49 period. The 1965 production
was 9 times the total of 1910 and 5 times the total of 1924.
From 1941 to 1965, total production of all agricultural products
in the state increased at the average rate of 5% per year. The
average rate of increase was 4.3% per year for all crops and
7.6% per year for livestock and livestock products.
The kind and combination of enterprises used by farmers in
any specific area results from the interaction of many factors.
Among the more important are soils, topography, climate, mar-
ket prices, availability and cost of labor, transportation facilities,
and judgements of farmers. Some of these factors, such as soils
and climate, place definite limitations on agricultural activity.
However, the introduction of new enterprises and changes in
economic factors such as price relationships may cause a large
change in the agriculture of an area in a relatively short period
of time.
Since certain types of farming tend to become concentrated
in select areas, it is important to examine the agriculture of the
state from time to time to determine what changes have occurred
and where concentrations of certain types of farming are located.
Purpose of Study
The purposes of this study are: (1) to describe the agricul-
ture of the state in terms of (a) the important factors affecting
agricultural production, (b) the major uses of land, and (c) the
geographic distribution of crops and livestock, and (2) to out-
line the location of various types of farming.
This type of study should provide a basis by which farmers,
Agricultural Extension workers, teachers, and research workers
may interpret to better advantage the agricultural problems in
specific areas. It should also serve as a guide to persons un-
familiar with the state who wish to acquire farms in Florida.

'Dr. Greene is a Professor, Mr. Rose an Associate Professor, and Dr.
Brooke a Professor in the Agricultural Economics Department, Florida
Agricultural Experiment Station, Gainesville.








Sources of Data
The sources of data for this study were the 1964 U. S. Census
of Agriculture, the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service,
various studies of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
and Agricultural Extension Service, and the United States
Weather Bureau.

Method of Study
Since physical, economic, biological, and social factors deter-
mine the use of land in any region, they are discussed first to
give a background for the type of farming data which are pre-
sented later. The major uses of land in the state coincide with
the geographic distribution of important crops and classes of
livestock. Various maps are used to show these distributions.
General types of farming are outlined for the state on the basis
of the geographic distribution of crops and livestock. The gen-
eral types of farming are discussed briefly.


SOME FACTORS INFLUENCING FLORIDA'S AGRICULTURE
Physical Factors2
Important factors in Florida's agriculture are soils, climate,
vegetative cover, drainage, and fertility. The extensive produc-
tion of citrus fruits and vegetables is due to climatic advantages.
Research has done much to develop varieties of crops, breeds of
animals, treatment of soils, care of animals, and methods of
combating pests and diseases that are adapted to Florida's land
and climate resources. Under good management, proper ferti-
lization, and good livestock practices, a large volume of crop and
livestock production is achieved.
In most cases, the agriculture of the state has developed
successfully in the face of many unfavorable factors. There is
much flat land which is subject to flooding in periods of heavy
rainfall. Large areas are underlain with compact subsoils. Roll-
ing ridge lands may require terracing or other erosion-control
measures. The warm climate, while it is particularly advanta-
geous to the production of citrus fruits and winter vegetables,
increases the hazards of plant diseases and insects.
Soils. Soils tend to vary with the character of the parent
'This section was adapted from Florida Land Resources and Land Use
by L. A. Reuss, Fla. Agr. Exp. Station Bul. 555, Nov. 1954, pp. 6-15.








Sources of Data
The sources of data for this study were the 1964 U. S. Census
of Agriculture, the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service,
various studies of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
and Agricultural Extension Service, and the United States
Weather Bureau.

Method of Study
Since physical, economic, biological, and social factors deter-
mine the use of land in any region, they are discussed first to
give a background for the type of farming data which are pre-
sented later. The major uses of land in the state coincide with
the geographic distribution of important crops and classes of
livestock. Various maps are used to show these distributions.
General types of farming are outlined for the state on the basis
of the geographic distribution of crops and livestock. The gen-
eral types of farming are discussed briefly.


SOME FACTORS INFLUENCING FLORIDA'S AGRICULTURE
Physical Factors2
Important factors in Florida's agriculture are soils, climate,
vegetative cover, drainage, and fertility. The extensive produc-
tion of citrus fruits and vegetables is due to climatic advantages.
Research has done much to develop varieties of crops, breeds of
animals, treatment of soils, care of animals, and methods of
combating pests and diseases that are adapted to Florida's land
and climate resources. Under good management, proper ferti-
lization, and good livestock practices, a large volume of crop and
livestock production is achieved.
In most cases, the agriculture of the state has developed
successfully in the face of many unfavorable factors. There is
much flat land which is subject to flooding in periods of heavy
rainfall. Large areas are underlain with compact subsoils. Roll-
ing ridge lands may require terracing or other erosion-control
measures. The warm climate, while it is particularly advanta-
geous to the production of citrus fruits and winter vegetables,
increases the hazards of plant diseases and insects.
Soils. Soils tend to vary with the character of the parent
'This section was adapted from Florida Land Resources and Land Use
by L. A. Reuss, Fla. Agr. Exp. Station Bul. 555, Nov. 1954, pp. 6-15.








Sources of Data
The sources of data for this study were the 1964 U. S. Census
of Agriculture, the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service,
various studies of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
and Agricultural Extension Service, and the United States
Weather Bureau.

Method of Study
Since physical, economic, biological, and social factors deter-
mine the use of land in any region, they are discussed first to
give a background for the type of farming data which are pre-
sented later. The major uses of land in the state coincide with
the geographic distribution of important crops and classes of
livestock. Various maps are used to show these distributions.
General types of farming are outlined for the state on the basis
of the geographic distribution of crops and livestock. The gen-
eral types of farming are discussed briefly.


SOME FACTORS INFLUENCING FLORIDA'S AGRICULTURE
Physical Factors2
Important factors in Florida's agriculture are soils, climate,
vegetative cover, drainage, and fertility. The extensive produc-
tion of citrus fruits and vegetables is due to climatic advantages.
Research has done much to develop varieties of crops, breeds of
animals, treatment of soils, care of animals, and methods of
combating pests and diseases that are adapted to Florida's land
and climate resources. Under good management, proper ferti-
lization, and good livestock practices, a large volume of crop and
livestock production is achieved.
In most cases, the agriculture of the state has developed
successfully in the face of many unfavorable factors. There is
much flat land which is subject to flooding in periods of heavy
rainfall. Large areas are underlain with compact subsoils. Roll-
ing ridge lands may require terracing or other erosion-control
measures. The warm climate, while it is particularly advanta-
geous to the production of citrus fruits and winter vegetables,
increases the hazards of plant diseases and insects.
Soils. Soils tend to vary with the character of the parent
'This section was adapted from Florida Land Resources and Land Use
by L. A. Reuss, Fla. Agr. Exp. Station Bul. 555, Nov. 1954, pp. 6-15.








Sources of Data
The sources of data for this study were the 1964 U. S. Census
of Agriculture, the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service,
various studies of the Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
and Agricultural Extension Service, and the United States
Weather Bureau.

Method of Study
Since physical, economic, biological, and social factors deter-
mine the use of land in any region, they are discussed first to
give a background for the type of farming data which are pre-
sented later. The major uses of land in the state coincide with
the geographic distribution of important crops and classes of
livestock. Various maps are used to show these distributions.
General types of farming are outlined for the state on the basis
of the geographic distribution of crops and livestock. The gen-
eral types of farming are discussed briefly.


SOME FACTORS INFLUENCING FLORIDA'S AGRICULTURE
Physical Factors2
Important factors in Florida's agriculture are soils, climate,
vegetative cover, drainage, and fertility. The extensive produc-
tion of citrus fruits and vegetables is due to climatic advantages.
Research has done much to develop varieties of crops, breeds of
animals, treatment of soils, care of animals, and methods of
combating pests and diseases that are adapted to Florida's land
and climate resources. Under good management, proper ferti-
lization, and good livestock practices, a large volume of crop and
livestock production is achieved.
In most cases, the agriculture of the state has developed
successfully in the face of many unfavorable factors. There is
much flat land which is subject to flooding in periods of heavy
rainfall. Large areas are underlain with compact subsoils. Roll-
ing ridge lands may require terracing or other erosion-control
measures. The warm climate, while it is particularly advanta-
geous to the production of citrus fruits and winter vegetables,
increases the hazards of plant diseases and insects.
Soils. Soils tend to vary with the character of the parent
'This section was adapted from Florida Land Resources and Land Use
by L. A. Reuss, Fla. Agr. Exp. Station Bul. 555, Nov. 1954, pp. 6-15.









material, age climate and natural vegetation. Most of Florida's
soils developed from noncalcareous sand and, more rarely,
from clays. Soils are predominantly sandy in character and de-
ficient in lime. Differences in elevations are usually not large.
Erosion is locally important, but in most areas of the state
there is a problem of drainage which is associated with the flat
relief. Heavy rainfall and warm climate have furthered the pro-
cesses of leaching and oxidation on ridge soils. Imperfect drain-
age on flatwood lands has tended to retard these processes.
About a third of the soils of Florida may be classified as
upland or ridge (Figure 1). These are soils described as "red
and yellow" in color plus those described as "dry sands." They
are generally well drained, excessively so in some instances.
Red and yellow soils occupy the higher elevations. The dry sands
occur on the higher ridges and as local elevations along the






II







1 Imperfectly to poorly drained, sands
and loamy sands over dominantly
noncalcareous materials
2 Imperfectly to poorly drained, sands
and loamy sands over calcareous ''
materials; poorly drained marls
3 Poorly to very poorly drained, peats
and mucks
4 Well to moderately well drained, sandy
loams and loamy sands
5 Well to somewhat excessively drained,
sands and loamy sands
f 6 Somewhat excessively to moderately
well drained sands
7 Well to imperfectly drained, sands
over phosphatic limestone
8 Cypress and gum swamps; scrub or
dry sands
Map prepared by Ralph G. Leighty "


Figure 1. Generalized so map of Florida.
Figure 1. Generalized soil map of Florida.








coastal beaches. About two-thirds of the state is relatively flat
land, generally with poor to very poor natural drainage. About
one-fourth of the poorly drained land is classified as "bog soils."
These are largely peats and mucks and are concentrated mainly
in the Everglades. Ten to 12% of the poorly drained land is in
swamps, bogs, ponds, and river bottoms. About 60% of the
poorly drained land is "flatwoods," areas of level pineland, and
about 6% consists of "prairie phases" of flatwoods soil types.
Climate. Much of Florida has a subtropical climate and re-
ceives an average of 60% to 70% of the maximum possible sun-
shine. However, variations of temperature within the state are
pronounced and are important to agriculture. The chief factors
of climatic control are latitude, proximity to the Atlantic Ocean,
Gulf of Mexico, and numerous inland lakes.
The state may be divided into three zones in terms of average
length of growing season (number of days between average date
of last killing frost in spring and average date of first killing
frost in the fall). The Northern Zone includes northwestern and
northeastern Florida. It contains nearly one-half of the land
area of the state and has a growing season that ranges from
240 to 310 days. The rest of the state, excluding only the Lower
Keys, has a growing season that ranges from 310 to 365 days.
There are no records of killing frosts in the Lower Keys. Coastal
areas are warmer in the winter because of the effects of the Gulf
of Mexico and the Atlantic Ocean. Therefore, the length of the
growing season tends to decrease as one goes inland from the
coast toward the middle of the state (Figure 2).
Cold waves, which may be disastrous, are of short dura-
tion, rarely lasting more than three days. Even though minimum
temperatures of 150 to 20 may be reached at such times in
extreme northern sections, temperatures of 32' or slightly higher
may prevail in the southern part of the state. Local differences
in air drainage and distances to inland lakes and rivers may
result in marked differences in temperatures in places close
together geographically.
Temperatures are especially important because temperature
differences are reflected in the distribution of citrus and vegeta-
ble production. Winter vegetables tend to be concentrated in
southern Florida and spring and fall vegetables are found in
central and northern Florida. The major citrus producing areas
are located south of the line that marks a normal annual tem-
perature of 70. Locally, citrus lands are selected on a basis of










68
r 9 -'

.J ',-- o









SKilling frost likely annually. 73, 130
i.
S .'.

SKilling frost likely half the. "
.....u frnt ikeyhl te ,..-. -740
years. .
:J Occasional killing frost. 74 .
No record of killing frost. '. -
Normal annual temperatures. .J.,\ *
690* The major vegetable producing areas are 750
located south of this line. .
70 The major citrus producing areas are locate
south of this line. 760
74. '"' 76'
76



Figure 2. Frost hazard zones and normal annual temperature. (Source: U. S.
Weather Bureau.)

location with respect to air drainage and tempering bodies of
water. Sites for vegetable production in local areas are influenced
by soil moisture and fertility associated with lowlands as well
as by air drainage and resulting frost hazards. General farm
crops tend to be grown in northern and northwestern Florida
where conditions are not favorable for the production of citrus
and early vegetables.
Florida receives abundant rainfall. Average annual totals
vary from near 40 inches on the Keys to a range of 50 to 60
inches on the mainland (Figure 3). The main areas of high
rainfall are the extreme western counties and the interior
southern peninsula, where annual totals average between 55 and
65 inches.
Rainfall distribution throughout the year is very uneven.
The summer "rainy" season, extending from about June through
September or early October, produces about 60 c of the annual
rainfall on the central and southern peninsula in an average year.



































Figure 3. Mean annual precipitation in inches. (Source: U. S. Weather Bureau.)

The four months "rainy" season produces about 55% of the
annual average of the northern peninsula and about 45% of the
average in western counties.
However, rainfall distribution differs greatly from section to
section during fall, winter, and spring. The months of November
through April, on the average, are consistently dry on the
southern peninsula. On the central and northern peninsula,
rainfall diminishes in September and is low in November. Decem-
ber through March, although relatively dry, is usually followed
by marked dry periods in April and May. In the western counties,
October and early November constitute the year's driest period.
Rainfall usually increases again during February and March.
Late April, May, and early June are frequently drought in
the western counties.
Drainage. Approximately two-thirds of the land area of
the state has poor to very poor natural drainage. In the poorly








drained areas, runoff patterns are not well defined. Excess
water moves slowly through broad sloughs into shallow lakes or
sluggish streams and finally into the Gulf or Ocean. In some
areas, underground channels provide an outlet, especially in
northern Florida. Periods when water stands on the land are of
variable duration and frequency. Drainage or water control, or
both, is necessary for crop production, and in some areas is de-
sirable for pasture production. In the absence of control meas-
ures, large areas of the lower lying lands are subject to flooding
(Figure 4).
Throughout the state, drainage is a very important part of
water control. This is due mainly to the uneven seasonal distri-
bution of rainfall. In wet seasons, it is necessary to take the
water off the land while irrigation may be needed in dry seasons.
Thus, water control is primarily a problem of removing excess


EDi1n Areas Subject to Flood Damage


Figure 4. General areas subject to flood damage. (Source: Florida State
Board of Conservation.)








water at certain times of the year and returning water in times
of need. Drainage improvements which do not follow sound
agricultural engineering principles may unduly lower the water
table of adjoining sandy land or expose muck soils to an un-
necessarily high rate of oxidation.
Irrigation. Irregularity of rainfall, the sandy character of
the soil, the high price of farm products, and the increase in
intensity of farming have led to an increasing interest in the
irrigation of agricultural lands. According to the U. S. Census of
Agriculture, 1,138,837 acres of land on Florida farms were irri-
gated in 1964. Acres irrigated increased 725,311 from 1959 to
1964. This compares with an increase of only 48,526 acres from
1949 to 1959.
Many of the irrigation enterprises are single farm installa-
tions which draw water from wells, lakes, springs, and streams.
Grove lands are mainly irrigated by portable perforated pipe-
sprinklers, fixed or movable overhead nozzle-sprinklers, or port-
able pipe flooding. Flood irrigation from ditch or trench is more
common on vegetable lands, although sprinkler and other systems
also are used.
In 1964, 806,993 or 71% of the irrigated land was cropland
largely devoted to citrus and vegetables. The larger acreages of
irrigated cropland harvested were located in central and southern
Florida in counties such as Polk, Orange, St. Lucie, Palm Beach,
and Dade. Irrigation in northeast and northwest Florida was
mainly in the Hastings Potato Area and in counties that grow
tobacco. Counties with sizeable acreages of irrigated pastures
were Osceola, St. Lucie, Martin, Palm Beach, Highlands, Glades,
and Hendry.

Biological Factors
Parasites, including weeds, insects, nematodes, and diseases,
affect the character of agriculture through their effects on yields
and costs. Insects, if not controlled, may completely destroy a
crop or reduce yields below a profitable level during some seasons.
The costs of controlling insects, parasites, or diseases may dis-
courage the production of a particular crop or class of livestock.
The development of new varieties or strains of crops with
higher yields or greater disease resistance may result in an in-
crease in the acreage of this crop in new areas or retention in
older areas. An important contribution of the Florida Agricul-
tural Experiment Stations has been the selection and breeding of








varieties of crops suitable for Florida conditions or breeding
disease-resistant varieties for areas where certain diseases are
a problem. The adaption of citrus more suitable to colder areas
and wetter lands and the development of tomatoes with resis-
tance to wilt and certain strains of viruses are examples. The
development of means of controlling the corn earworm helped
make possible the growth of the sweet corn industry in the state.
The use of improved production practices, better adapted
varieties and breeds of livestock, and modern management prac-
tices may result in considerable increase in returns for selected
enterprises. They also change the relationship of relative returns
between enterprises.

Economic and Social Factors
Soil, topography, climate and biological factors establish the
physical limits within which a crop or type of livestock may be
grown. Whether the crop is actually grown or the extent to
which it is grown depends on a number of factors, the effects
of which are felt largely through prices and costs. Important
economic forces that help to explain the kind of agriculture
found in various parts of the state are size and nearness to
markets, transportation facilities, availability of labor and capi-
tal, size of farm, and land tenure arrangements.
Markets. A rapidly growing population has resulted in a
greatly enlarged local market for farm products. The population
of Florida was estimated to be 5,941,000 on July 1, 19663. This
was an increase of 989,400 from the U. S. Census count on April
1, 1960 and 3,179,700 above the Census count in 1950. The rate
of population growth has been rapid in recent years. The in-
crease was 29% from 1930 to 1940, 46% from 1940 to 1959,
and 79% from 1950 to 1960.
While the total population has increased, the proportion of
the population living in rural areas has decreased. In 1930, 48%
of the total population was classified as rural. By 1960, this
figure had decreased to 26%.
The population of Florida is unevenly distributed over the
state. Five of the 67 counties Broward, Dade, Duval, Hills-
borough, and Pinellas contained 50% of the state's total pop-
ulation on July 1, 1966. Taking the state by regions, 35% of the

"Estimate by Ronald E. Beller, Bureau of Economic and Business Re-
search, College of Business Administration, University of Florida, December
1966. (Figures rounded to nearest 100.)








population was in 10 counties in south Florida, 37% in 20
counties in central Florida, 18% in 21 counties in northeast
Florida, and 10 % in 16 counties in northwest Florida.
The location of the urban population is important from the
standpoint of the location of production for milk and eggs in the
state. The production areas for citrus and vegetables are affected
more by physical factors.
Transportation. -Florida enjoys good transportation facili-
ties. Federal and state highways extend to all sections of the
state. Most farms are located on or are near all-weather roads.
Railroad service includes three important rail lines the Sea-
board Coastline, the Florida East Coast Railway, and the
Southern Railway and a few other minor lines. Jacksonville
is the major rail gateway to Florida. Good rail facilities connect
Florida with the North and West but in many areas of the
state the short local lines are being gradually abandoned. This
has worked a hardship in the case of low-value bulky raw prod-
ucts, for no service has yet replaced the train for carrying
these materials.
Florida is also served by a number of ports. Tampa, Jack-
sonville, Port Everglades, Palm Beach, Miami, and Pensacola
handle most of the traffic. While a large volume of agricultural
products is not shipped out of the state by water, many agricul-
tural supplies are shipped into the state by this means.
Farm Production, Size, and Tenure.- Agricultural produc-
tion in Florida has gone up at a rapid rate for the last 45 years.
Taking the annual average physical production in the years
1947-49 as a base period equal to 100, the production index rose
from 32 in 1920 to 198 in 1965 (Figure 5). This was an increase
of 116 points or an annual increase of 3.7% per year.
During the 1920 to 1965 period, the agriculture of the state
exhibited two diverse trends. From 1935 to 1964, there was a
reduction of 44% in the number of farms, but acres of land
in farms increased 21/2 times (Table 1). Average size of farm
increased from 83 acres to 380 acres. The average value of land
and buildings was $4,407 in 1935 and $109,732 in 1964.
During the period of decrease in number of farms, there was
a definite shift in the tenure pattern. The number of all tenants
decreased from 28% in 1935 to 6% in 1964 (Table 2). The rela-
tive importance of part owners increased. The relative impor-
tance of full owners increased although there was an absolute









Table 1.--Trend in number of farms, land in farms, average size of farm,
and value of land and buildings by census periods, Florida, 1920
to 1964.
Number Land in Average Value of land
Census of of farms' size and buildings
farms (acres) (acres) Per farm Per acre
1920 (January 1) 54,005 6,046,691 112 $ 5,212 $ 47
1925 (January 1) 59,217 5,864,519 99 8,088 82
1930 (April 1) 58,966 5,026,617 85 7,179 84
1935 (January 1) 72,857 6,048,406 83 4,407 53
1940 (April 1) 62,248 8,337,708 134 5,211 39

1945 (January 1) 61,159 13,083,501 214 8,149 38
1950 (April 1) 56,921 16,257,536 290 15,437 58
1954 (Oct.-Nov.) 57,543 18,161,675 316 28,444 115
1959 (Oct.-Nov.) 45,100 15,236,521 338 62,977 224
1964 (Oct.-Nov.) 40,541 15,410,541 380 109,732 289
TFor the censuses of 1954, 1959 and 1964, in the census year; for all other censuses,
in the calendar year preceding the census.
SOURCE: Reports of the U. S. Census of Agriculture, various issues.




Index ,


00000
1920 1930 1940 1950 1960


Figure 5. Index of volume of production of
1920 to 1965 (1947-49) = 100).


crops and livestock, Florida,








Table 2. Per cent of operators in various tenure groups, by census periods,
Florida, 1920 to 1964.
Census of Full Part Managers All All
owners owners Managers tenants operators


1920 (January 1) 66.2 5.1 3.4 25.3 100.0
1925 (January 1) 73.3 3.7 1.7 21.3 100.0
1930 (April 1) 60.2 6.6 4.8 28.4 100.0
1935 (January 1) 62.8 5.0 4.2 28.0 100.0
1940 (April 1) 65.4 6.8 2.6 25.2 100.0
1945 (January 1) 74.4 5.8 3.0 16.8 100.0
1950 (April 1) 75.2 10.8 1.7 12.3 100.0
1954 (Oct.-Nov.) 79.0 12.0 1.4 7.6 100.0
1959 (Oct.-Nov.) 78.8 12.9 2.8 5.5 100.0
1964 (Oct.-Nov.) 76.2 15.0 3.1 5.7 100.0
SOURCE: Adapted from Reports of the U. S. Census of Agriculture, various issues.


Table 3.- Major uses of land in Florida, 1964.
Per cent of
Land use Acres
Land use Acres Total area Land in farms

Approximate land area 34,721,280 100.0 -
Land in farms 15,411,181 44.4 100.0
Cropland harvested 2,203,676 6.4 14.3
Cropland used only for
pasture 741,139 2.1 4.8
Cropland not harvested and
not pastured 635,857 1.8 4.1
Woodland pastured 4,976,675 14.4 32.3
Woodland not pastured 1,539,665 4.4 10.0
Other pasture 4,305,874 12.4 28.0
Other land 1,008,295 2.9 6.5
SOURCE: 1964 U. S. Census of Agriculture.


decrease in number of owners. The decrease in tenants in the
state was associated with the decline in acres in cotton and the
increase in acres in citrus and specialized truck crops.


MAJOR USES OF LAND IN FLORIDA, 19644

This section includes a discussion of major uses of land in
1964 according to the U. S. Census of Agriculture. Land classi-
fications discussed are land in farms, land not in farms, cropland,
woodland pastured, woodland not pastured, other pasture, and
other land.

Land in Farms

According to the Census, the acreage designated as "land in

'The data in this section are from the 1964 U. S. Census of Agriculture.








Table 2. Per cent of operators in various tenure groups, by census periods,
Florida, 1920 to 1964.
Census of Full Part Managers All All
owners owners Managers tenants operators


1920 (January 1) 66.2 5.1 3.4 25.3 100.0
1925 (January 1) 73.3 3.7 1.7 21.3 100.0
1930 (April 1) 60.2 6.6 4.8 28.4 100.0
1935 (January 1) 62.8 5.0 4.2 28.0 100.0
1940 (April 1) 65.4 6.8 2.6 25.2 100.0
1945 (January 1) 74.4 5.8 3.0 16.8 100.0
1950 (April 1) 75.2 10.8 1.7 12.3 100.0
1954 (Oct.-Nov.) 79.0 12.0 1.4 7.6 100.0
1959 (Oct.-Nov.) 78.8 12.9 2.8 5.5 100.0
1964 (Oct.-Nov.) 76.2 15.0 3.1 5.7 100.0
SOURCE: Adapted from Reports of the U. S. Census of Agriculture, various issues.


Table 3.- Major uses of land in Florida, 1964.
Per cent of
Land use Acres
Land use Acres Total area Land in farms

Approximate land area 34,721,280 100.0 -
Land in farms 15,411,181 44.4 100.0
Cropland harvested 2,203,676 6.4 14.3
Cropland used only for
pasture 741,139 2.1 4.8
Cropland not harvested and
not pastured 635,857 1.8 4.1
Woodland pastured 4,976,675 14.4 32.3
Woodland not pastured 1,539,665 4.4 10.0
Other pasture 4,305,874 12.4 28.0
Other land 1,008,295 2.9 6.5
SOURCE: 1964 U. S. Census of Agriculture.


decrease in number of owners. The decrease in tenants in the
state was associated with the decline in acres in cotton and the
increase in acres in citrus and specialized truck crops.


MAJOR USES OF LAND IN FLORIDA, 19644

This section includes a discussion of major uses of land in
1964 according to the U. S. Census of Agriculture. Land classi-
fications discussed are land in farms, land not in farms, cropland,
woodland pastured, woodland not pastured, other pasture, and
other land.

Land in Farms

According to the Census, the acreage designated as "land in

'The data in this section are from the 1964 U. S. Census of Agriculture.








farms" consists primarily of "agricultural" land- that is, land
used for crops and pasture or grazing. It also includes consider-
able areas of land not actually under cultivation or used for
pasture or grazing. The entire acreage of woodland and waste-
land owned or rented by farm operators is included in land in
farms unless it is being held for a nonagricultural purpose.
Only 44% of Florida's approximate land area of 34,721,280
acres was in farms in 1964 (Table 3). In 14 of the state's 67
counties, less than 20% of the total land area was in farms;
19 counties had 20 to 39.9%, 16 counties 40 to 59.9%, and 18
counties 60% or more (Figure 6). About one-half of the counties
with less than 40% of the land area in farms were located in
northwest Florida and one-fifth in south Florida. Counties with
the highest per cent of the total land area in farms were located
in central Florida.


Less than 20.0
20.0-39.9
40.0-59.9
60.0 or more


Figure 6. Per cent of total land in farms, Florida, 1964.








Land Not in Farms


Land not in farms is the difference between the total area of
a county and the acres reported as being in farms. Fifty-six
per cent of the land area of the state was not in farms in 1964
(Table 3). In northeast and northwest Florida, most of the land
not in farms was in forestry except that in military bases. In
south Florida, most of the land not in farms was in swampland
and poorly drained land. A large proportion of this land was in
the Everglades Area.

Cropland
Cropland is the sum of cropland harvested, cropland used only
for pasture, and cropland not harvested and not pastured. Flor-
ida had 3,580,672 acres of cropland in 1964. This was 10.3% of
the total land area in the state and 23.2% of the total land in
farms (Table 3). Because of the physical features of the state,
there was considerable variation from county to county of land
in farms in cropland (Figure 7). The proportion of land in
farms in cropland varied from 1% in Franklin County to 72%
in Dade County. There was no particular pattern of counties of
land in farms in cropland. Palm Beach and Dade counties on the
lower East Coast had the highest per cent of land in farms in
cropland. Extensive acres of truck crops are grown in these
counties. The important citrus counties were fairly high in
per cent of cropland in farms. The counties most consistently
high in per cent of farmland in cropland were in the general
farming areas of north and west Florida.
Cropland harvested amounted to 2,203,676 acres (Table 3).
This was 14% of the land in farms and 61% of all cropland.
Cropland used only for pasture was 741,139 acres or 21% of all
cropland. Cropland not harvested and not pastured amounted
to 635,857 acres or 18% of the total cropland.

Woodland
Woodland has been divided into woodland pastured and wood-
land not pastured. Woodland pastured includes all woodland
where livestock were pastured in 1964. Woodland not pastured
refers to all woodland not used for pasture or grazing, including
land in operated farms that were placed in the soil bank and
planted to trees.








Land Not in Farms


Land not in farms is the difference between the total area of
a county and the acres reported as being in farms. Fifty-six
per cent of the land area of the state was not in farms in 1964
(Table 3). In northeast and northwest Florida, most of the land
not in farms was in forestry except that in military bases. In
south Florida, most of the land not in farms was in swampland
and poorly drained land. A large proportion of this land was in
the Everglades Area.

Cropland
Cropland is the sum of cropland harvested, cropland used only
for pasture, and cropland not harvested and not pastured. Flor-
ida had 3,580,672 acres of cropland in 1964. This was 10.3% of
the total land area in the state and 23.2% of the total land in
farms (Table 3). Because of the physical features of the state,
there was considerable variation from county to county of land
in farms in cropland (Figure 7). The proportion of land in
farms in cropland varied from 1% in Franklin County to 72%
in Dade County. There was no particular pattern of counties of
land in farms in cropland. Palm Beach and Dade counties on the
lower East Coast had the highest per cent of land in farms in
cropland. Extensive acres of truck crops are grown in these
counties. The important citrus counties were fairly high in
per cent of cropland in farms. The counties most consistently
high in per cent of farmland in cropland were in the general
farming areas of north and west Florida.
Cropland harvested amounted to 2,203,676 acres (Table 3).
This was 14% of the land in farms and 61% of all cropland.
Cropland used only for pasture was 741,139 acres or 21% of all
cropland. Cropland not harvested and not pastured amounted
to 635,857 acres or 18% of the total cropland.

Woodland
Woodland has been divided into woodland pastured and wood-
land not pastured. Woodland pastured includes all woodland
where livestock were pastured in 1964. Woodland not pastured
refers to all woodland not used for pasture or grazing, including
land in operated farms that were placed in the soil bank and
planted to trees.








Land Not in Farms


Land not in farms is the difference between the total area of
a county and the acres reported as being in farms. Fifty-six
per cent of the land area of the state was not in farms in 1964
(Table 3). In northeast and northwest Florida, most of the land
not in farms was in forestry except that in military bases. In
south Florida, most of the land not in farms was in swampland
and poorly drained land. A large proportion of this land was in
the Everglades Area.

Cropland
Cropland is the sum of cropland harvested, cropland used only
for pasture, and cropland not harvested and not pastured. Flor-
ida had 3,580,672 acres of cropland in 1964. This was 10.3% of
the total land area in the state and 23.2% of the total land in
farms (Table 3). Because of the physical features of the state,
there was considerable variation from county to county of land
in farms in cropland (Figure 7). The proportion of land in
farms in cropland varied from 1% in Franklin County to 72%
in Dade County. There was no particular pattern of counties of
land in farms in cropland. Palm Beach and Dade counties on the
lower East Coast had the highest per cent of land in farms in
cropland. Extensive acres of truck crops are grown in these
counties. The important citrus counties were fairly high in
per cent of cropland in farms. The counties most consistently
high in per cent of farmland in cropland were in the general
farming areas of north and west Florida.
Cropland harvested amounted to 2,203,676 acres (Table 3).
This was 14% of the land in farms and 61% of all cropland.
Cropland used only for pasture was 741,139 acres or 21% of all
cropland. Cropland not harvested and not pastured amounted
to 635,857 acres or 18% of the total cropland.

Woodland
Woodland has been divided into woodland pastured and wood-
land not pastured. Woodland pastured includes all woodland
where livestock were pastured in 1964. Woodland not pastured
refers to all woodland not used for pasture or grazing, including
land in operated farms that were placed in the soil bank and
planted to trees.
















I Less than 10
10-19
S20-29
S30-39
40 or more


Figure 7. Per cent of farm land used as cropland, Florida, 1964.



Land in farms included 6,156,340 acres in woodland, of which
76% was in woodland pastured and 24% in woodland not pas-
tured (Table 3). Pastured woodland accounted for 32% of the
total land in farms. Pastured woodland is widely distributed
over the state (Figure 8). As one would expect, counties with
the highest per cent of land in farms in cropland were lowest
in per cent of land in woodland pastured.
Woodland not pastured presents a different picture from
woodland pastured. In half of the counties, woodland not pas-
tured accounted for less than 10% of the total land in farms
(Figure 9). The only counties in which woodland not pastured
was a sizeable percentage of all land in farms were mainly in
north and west Florida.












._t I


Less than 15
15-29
30-44
45-59
60 or more


S'at- \


Figure 8. Per cent of farm land in woods pastured, Florida, 1964.


Other Pasture

Other pasture refers to all other land than woodland and
cropland that was used only for pasture or grazing. It included
noncrop, open or brush pasture and cut over or deforested land
that has been improved and is used for pasture.
Of the land in farms, 4,305,874 acres were classified as other
pasture (not cropland and not woodland) (Table 3). This was
28% of the land in farms. Counties with the highest per cent
of the farmland in other pasture were those in the Lake Okee-
chobee area and just north and west of Lake Okeechobee
(Figure 10). The amount of other pasture in counties of north
and west Florida was less than 20% of the total land area in
farms.


















SLess than 10
10-19
MM 20-29
Mini 30-39
40 or more


Figure 9. Per cent of farm land in woods not pastured, Florida, 1964.


Other Land
Other land refers to all land not included in the preceding
land use classification, such as house lots, barn lots, lanes, roads,
ditches, land area of ponds, and wasteland. Other land amounted
to 1,008,295 acres or 6.5% of the total land in farms in 1964.

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION AND IMPORTANCE OF CROPS
AND LIVESTOCK

Field Crops5
General field crops are grown mainly in counties in north and

"Data in this section are from the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting
Service for the 1965-66 crop year.


















SLess than 10
10-19
MM 20-29
Mini 30-39
40 or more


Figure 9. Per cent of farm land in woods not pastured, Florida, 1964.


Other Land
Other land refers to all land not included in the preceding
land use classification, such as house lots, barn lots, lanes, roads,
ditches, land area of ponds, and wasteland. Other land amounted
to 1,008,295 acres or 6.5% of the total land in farms in 1964.

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION AND IMPORTANCE OF CROPS
AND LIVESTOCK

Field Crops5
General field crops are grown mainly in counties in north and

"Data in this section are from the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting
Service for the 1965-66 crop year.








west Florida. Alachua and Marion counties usually mark the
eastern boundary of such crops.
Corn Harvested for Grain. In 1966, no corn was grown in
17 counties in the state and less than 1,000 acres were grown
in 24 counties (Figure 11). However, from the standpoint of
acreage, corn harvested for grain is the most important field
crop grown in Florida.
Fifteen thousand or more acres of corn were grown in 10
counties. Suwannee with 50,500 had the largest acreage of corn
in the state. It was followed by Jackson County with 50,000
acres, Madison County with 27,000 acres, Hamilton County with
23,500 acres, Columbia County with 21,500 acres, and Gadsden
County with 21,000 acres.
Land harvested in corn for grain declined from 756,000 acres



..1"- "S._ .....- .I :,





Less than 10 .
10-19 i *- '".--.
20-29

40 or more
















woodland), Florida, 1 964.
'b *---I








woodland), Florida, 1964.








in 1935 to 307,000 acres in 1960 but increased to 359,000 acres
in 1966. Yield was 10 bushels per acre in 1935 and 43 bushels
in 1966. Even with the decline in acres, the increase in yield
per acre was such that total production of corn in 1966 was
double the production in 1935.

Cotton. -Cotton has ceased to be an important crop in
Florida. Estimated acres harvested in 1966 were 14.300. No
cotton was grown in 42 counties and less than 500 acres in 18
counties (Figure 12). A thousand acres or more were grown
in three counties. These were 4,150 acres in Santa Rosa. 3,580
acres in Jackson, and 1.950 acres in Holmes.

Peanuts Picked and Threshed. Acres harvested in peanuts
picked and threshed were 49,000 in 1966. Jackson County with


I None
E Less than 1,000
1,000 4,999
5,000 9,999
rIIIIIn 10,000 14,999 -
15,000 or more


'5,~8

-'5


Figure 11. Acres in corn harvested for grain, Florida, 1966.

















I None -
SLess than 500
^ 500 999
Ig^ 1,000 or more 3 i


v"I







Figure 12. Acres in cotton harvested, Florida, 1966.

24,800 acres had slightly more than half of the total acres
(Figure 13). Other counties with 2,000 or more acres were
5,500 in Santa Rosa, 3,000 in Holmes, 2,400 in Marion, 2,100 in
Levy, and 2,000 acres in Alachua County. No peanuts were
grown in 42 counties and less than 500 acres in 10 counties.
Peanuts, like corn, have shown a considerable decline in
number of acres harvested but a large increase in yield per
acre. Acres harvested declined from 115,000 acres in 1942 to
49,000 acres in 1966. Yield per acre was 570 pounds in 1942
and 1,475 pounds in 1966. Total production was about 5,000,000
pounds higher in 1966 than it was in 1942.
Peanuts grown alone have shown a greater decline in acres
than peanuts harvested. There were 304,000 acres in peanuts
grown alone in 1943 and 80,000 acres in 1966. Data are not
available on distribution of acres by counties.




















I None
E Less than 500
500 999
1,000 1,499
nl 1,500 1,999
M 2,000 or more


Figure 13. Acres in peanuts picked and threshed, Florida, 1966.


[ Soybeans Harvested for Beans. Soybeans harvested for
beans were estimated at 80,000 acres in 1966. These were grown
mainly in the nine extremely western counties in the state
(Figure 14). The most important counties were Escambia with
26,500 acres, Santa Rosa 22,000 acres, Okaloosa 10,000 acres,
Calhoun 6,800 acres, Jackson 6,500 acres, and Walton 4,500 acres.
Soybeans harvested for beans have been increasing rapidly
in the state. Only 6,000 acres were harvested in 1949 compared
to 80,000 acres in 1966. Yield per acre has increased about one-
third going from 20 bushels in 1949 to 27 bushels in 1966J

Flue-Cured Tobacco. Acres of flue-cured tobacco harvested
in 1966 were estimated at 12,700. Less than 500 acres were
harvested in 17 counties (Figure 15). Counties harvesting 500
acres or more were 3,030 in Suwannee County, 1,680 in Hamil-


'5-





















I None

Less than 500 ?

500 or more
/ -)n- '('D


Figure 14. Acres in soybeans harvested for beans, Florida, 1966.


ton County, 1,660 in Madison County, 1,560 in Alachua County,
1,415 in Columbia County, and 940 in Lafayette County.
Acres harvested in flue-cured tobacco decreased from 22,800
in 1947 to 12,700 in 1966 or 44%. Yield per acre was 1,020
pounds in 1947 and 1,680 pounds in 1966. Total production of
tobacco in 1966 was only about 2,000,000 pounds less than total
production in 1947.

Shade-Grown Tobacco. Forty-three hundred acres of shade
grown and fire-cured tobacco were grown in Florida in 1966.
Most of this tobacco was grown in Gadsden County. Neither the
acres nor the yield per acre of shade tobacco has changed much
in the last 15 years. Acres in shade-grown tobacco were 4,100
in 1951. Yield per acre was 1,315 pounds in 1951 and 1,270
pounds in 1966.


' '? IIJ





















I None


M Less than 500

f 500 or more


Figure 15. Acres in flue-cured tobacco harvested, Florida, 1966.

Wheat Harvested for Grain. Wheat harvested for grain
was 23,000 acres in 1966. Less than 500 acres were grown in
14 counties (Figure 16). Counties with 500 acres or more were
Escambia 9,900 acres, Santa Rosa 5,300, Okaloosa 3,500, Jack-
son 1,500, Calhoun 600, Walton 600, and Madison 550.
About a third of the wheat acreage planted in Florida is
grazed. In 1966 acres planted were 33,000 while acres harvested
for grain were 23,000. No breakdown is available by counties
for the total acres of wheat planted.

Oats. Less than one-half of the oats planted are harvested
for grain. In 1966, acres of oats planted for all purposes were
27,000 while only 11,000 acres were harvested for grain. Acres
of oats planted for all purposes have shown a rapid decline since
1955. Acres of oats planted for all purposes were 188,000 in









r' C *I


SNone

Less than 500

[ 1 500 or more i


Figure 16. Acres in wheat harvested for grain, Florida, 1966.


1955 with 32,000 acres harvested for grain. There is no county
breakdown for oats planted in the state in 1966.
Sugarcane for Sugar and Seed. Acres harvested in sugar-
cane for sugar and seed were estimated at 197,200 in 1966. Most
of the sugarcane is grown in Palm Beach County with some
acres in Hendry and Glades counties. Since the advent of Castro
in Cuba, acres of sugarcane have increased rapidly in Florida.
Acres grown in 1958 were 35,800.

Vegetables

Vegetable crops tend to be concentrated along the East and
West Coast and in south Florida where danger from frost is
not so great. A fall crop is grown in some areas and this is
followed with a spring crop. Winter vegetables are grown



















No commercial or I i
less than 100
100 199

200 499

500- 999
1,000 1,999

S 2,000 6,999

7,000 9,999

[mG 10,000 or more






Figure 17. Acres planted in snap beans (including pole beans), Florida 1965-
66 season.

mainly in Dade County and around Lake Okeechobee.
Data on vegetable production are from the Florida Crop and
Livestock Reporting Service and are for the 1965-66 season. In
the discussion for individual crops, statistical data are first pre-
sented showing the importance of the crop. This is followed
by a brief discussion pointing out significant facts relating to
the distribution of the crop in the state.

Snap Beans:
Importance: Acres planted 48,200
Acres harvested 43,200
Bushels sold fresh 4,406,000
Bushels utilized
in processing 817,000
Value, FOB basis $17,583,000




















No commercial or
less than 100

100 199 -

200 499

500 999
1,000 1,999

] 2,000 or more



SC-.





Figure 18. Acres planted in cabbage, Florida, 1965-66 season.

Data for bush and pole bean varieties are combined. The
lower East Coast is the leading area of production (Figure 17).
The Pompano area constituted 41% of the state's harvested
production of bush beans. Dade County pole beans were nearly
25% of the state's harvest. Palm Beach County (east Palm
Beach and the Everglades area combined) was the leading bush
bean producing county with 25,480 acres planted. Snap beans
were important in some areas in central Florida, but the acre-
ages were much less than that in the above areas.

Cabbage:
Importance: Acres planted 15,100
Acres harvested 14,500
Crates or bags sold
(50-lb.) 5,970,000
Value, FOB basis $10,597,000

















I No Commercial

200 299

1 300 399

400 599 -

600 799

800 999 '--

1,0100 or more








Figure 19. Acres planted in celery, Florida, 1965-66 season.

The Hastings area Flagler, Putnam and St. Johns coun-
ties was the most important producing area, marketing 41%
of the state's total production from 5,600 acres planted (Figure
18). The north central Florida area, primarily Seminole County,
was second in importance followed by the Everglades area. A
relatively small acreage was grown in Hillsborough, Manatee,
Polk, and Charlotte counties.

Celery:
Importance: Acres planted 12,400
Acres harvested 12,200
Crates sold (60-lb.) 8,110,000
Value, FOB basis $23,615,000

Celery is grown in four areas. The Everglades muckland area
of Palm Beach County is by far the most important, marketing








79% of the volume sold from 9,600 planted acres (Figure 19).
There were 2,150 planted acres in the central Florida area, 390
acres in Sarasota County, and 260 acres in Alachua County.

Sweet Corn:


Importance:


Acres planted
Acres harvested
Crates sold (5 doz.)
Value, FOB basis


65,500
55,200
9,341,000
$21,237,000


The Everglades area of Palm Beach County produced 63% of
the sweet corn sold from 39,500 planted or 35,250 acres har-
vested (Figure 20). An additional 7,700 acres of sweet corn
were grown in east Palm Beach County. The Zellwood area of
central Florida ranked second in importance. Other counties


O No commercial or
less than 50
| 50 299

300 999

S1,000 2,999

3,000 5,999

Hm 6, 000 or more


Figure 20. Acres planted in sweet corn, Florida, 1965-66 season.


















E[ Less than 100
- 100 399

f 400 999

LLJ 1,000 1.499

1.500 1.999
II 2,000 or more


Figure 21. Acres planted in cucumbers, Florida, 1965-66 season.

producing a significant amount of sweet corn were Broward
and Dade.

Cucumbers: (Excludes pickle cucumber except over night
dill)
Importance: Acres planted 17,000
Acres harvested 15,300
Bushels sold 3,904,000
Value, FOB basis $12,992,000
The Ft. Myers-Immokalee area has taken the lead in produc-
tion. There, an estimated 7,560 acres were planted of which
6,600 acres were harvested (Figure 21). The second most im-
portant area was Hardee County with 2,160 planted acres in
the 1965-66 season. The only other counties with more than
1,000 acres planted were Dade, Hendry, and Palm Beach.



















= No commercial

- Less than 50

S 50 99

100 299

1 1 300 or more


r1~ -


Figure 22. Acres planted in eggplant, Florida, 1965-66 season.


Eggplant:
Importance: Acres planted 2,400
Acres harvested 2,250
Bushels sold 1,094,000
Value, FOB basis $2,619,000

The Pompano area produced nearly 80% of the eggplant
marketed (Figure 22). Palm Beach County planted over 1,400
acres, making this area the outstanding source. The only other
counties with more than 150 acres planted were Alachua, Hills-
borough, and Broward.



















4


None commercial

Less than 100


100 499

l oii 500- 999
'* '' v\X\-


GinD


1,000 1,999

2,000 or more


K---i;-'


C-


Figure 23. Acres planted in escarole and chicory endive,
season.





Escarole and Chicory Endive:


Florida, 1965-66


Importance:


Acres planted
Acres harvested
Crates sold (25-lb.)
Value, FOB basis


The Everglades area produced about 67% of the crop from
5,930 acres planted, of which 5,700 were harvested (Figure 23).
Zellwood, the second area of importance, produced about 28%
of the crop. Producers in this area, located in Lake and Orange
counties, planted 2,230 acres.


8,600
8,100
3,240,000
$3,888,000


















S None commercial
S Less than 100

WIE 100 -199
^ 200 399
400 599

600 or more





./ .. "


Figure 24. Acres planted in lettuce, Florida, 1965-66 season.

Lettuce:

Importance: Acres planted 4,600
Acres harvested 4,000
Hundredweights sold 380,000
Value, FOB basis $2,622,000
Florida's lettuce is composed of various types and includes
crisphead, butterhead, leaf lettuce, and cas or romaine types.
Hundredweight is used as a unit of measure, since conventional
crates vary by variety.
About 52% of the state's total production was in the Ever-
glades (Palm Beach County) (Figure 24). This was from 2,800
acres planted or 2,480 acres harvested. Central Florida is second
in importance as a producing area with heaviest plantings at
Zellwood.

















S No commercial or
less than 50
Ell 50 99
M 100 199

200 499

| 500 999

__ 1,000 3,999
lJ 4,000 or more


Figure 25. Acres planted in green peppers, Florida, 1965-66 season.

Green Peppers:

Importance: Acres planted 17,900
Acres harvested 16,800
Bushels sold 5,379,000
Value, FOB basis $19,035,000

The Pompano-Martin area ranks first in importance with
46% of the production sold (Figure 25). Producers in Palm
Beach County planted 7,430 acres, leading all counties in the
state. The Ft. Myers-Immokalee area ranked second in im-
portance, with 34% of the State's production. Collier County
led in this area with 3,500 acres planted, the second largest pro-
ducing county in the state. Although peppers were grown in
a number of other counties in the state, none of these counties
planted as much as 1,000 acres.

















E I No Commercial to 49
S 50 299

300 599

S 600 999

1,000 1,299

| 1,300 4,999

5,000 6,999
] 7,000 or more







Figure 26. Acres planted in Irish potatoes, Florida, 1965-66 season.

Potatoes, Irish:

Importance: Acres planted 44,800
Acres harvested 43,500
Hundredweights
produced 6,294,000
Value, FOB basis $22,162,000

The Hastings area was the most important with 30,500 acres
planted for spring harvest (Figure 26). St. Johns County led
this tri-county area of the state with 18,600 acres. Utilization
was primarily by the chipping industry. White-skin varieties
were mainly grown, chiefly Sebagos. South Dade County planted
6,800 acres of winter potatoes, mostly red-skin varieties. Heavi-
est utilization was by the fresh trade, although interest in "reds"
for chipping is becoming apparent. The third important area




















S 0 49

50 199

200 499

*. l 500 999

M 1,000 1,999

111 2,000 or more


I

I1


Figure 27. Acres planted in squash, Florida, 1965-66 season.


of production was the Ft. Myers-Immokalee area, where 3,260
acres were planted for winter harvest.

Squash:

Importance: Acres planted 11,000
Acres harvested 10,000
Bushel equivalents sold 1,355,000
Value, FOB basis $4,702,000
Squash are grown in many counties (Figure 27). Yellow
crooknecks are the most heavily grown. Dade with 3,300 acres
leads all counties in acres planted. Pompano was second in im-
portance. More yellow straight and zucchini are produced in
this area than in any other area. All varieties, including acorn
squash, are grown at Ft. Myers-Immokalee. The Plant City area



















No commercial or
less than 20
20- 99

100 199

~EEl::: 200 299
300 499
S 500 or more








Figure 28. Acres planted in strawberries, Florida, 1965-66 season.


was an important fall and spring producer. The principal variety
is yellow crookneck.

Strawberries:
Importance: Acres planted 2,400
Acres harvested 2,300
Flats sold (12 pints) 2,042,000
Value, FOB basis $6,865,000

The lower East Coast led other areas with nearly 53% of the
state's total production (Figure 28). The west central area,
better known as Palmetto-Plant City area, produced about 34%
of the state's total. Most of the other production was in the
Bradford County area. Production in the lower East Coast is
declining because of a tight labor supply and high wage rates.



















Less than 100

S 100 399
[ 400 999

1,000 -1,999

S 2,000 3,999
[I 4,000 -6,999

U IF 7,000 or more


Figure 29. Acres planted in tomatoes, Florida, 1965-66 season.


Tomatoes:


Importance:


Acres planted
Acres harvested
Crates (40-lb.)
sold fresh:
Value, FOB basis
Crates (40-lb.)
sold processed:
Value (Del. to plant)
Total value of crop


Tomatoes are harvested as mature-green and vine-ripe. Vine-
ripe production is confined mainly to the Pompano and Immoka-
lee-Naples areas. Total acres planted to vine-ripe were 8,900.


53,800
51,400

18,942,000
$69,417,000

3,480,000
$2,030,000
$71,447,000








Of this, 8,200 acres were harvested from which about 35% of
the state's fresh production was marketed. The lower East
Coast's mature-green and vine-ripe crop ranked first in acreage
and production with supplies from November through May
(Figure 29). Southwest Florida, better known as the Ft. Myers-
Immokalee area, was second in importance. However, there were
two distinct mature-green plantings fall and spring. This
was also true of the Ft. Pierce and Manatee-Ruskin areas. To-
matoes in the latter area are mostly "staked" but are harvested,
as are the more numerous "ground plantings," as mature-
greens. All Florida tomatoes are planted for fresh market. After
fresh harvest is complete, ripes for canning are harvested. Utili-
zation is mainly by intrastate processors.
Watermelons:
Importance: Acres planted 62,000
Acres harvested 59,000
Hundredweights sold 10,030,000
Value, FOB basis $19,057,000
Florida's harvest is mainly during April, May, and June.
Earliest production is in the Immokalee-Naples area of the
Southwest section, with some plantings made as early as 17
November 1965. Production in that area in 1966 was estimated
to have been 28% of the state's total (Figure 30 ). The Gaines-
ville district, frequently spoken of as the Chiefland-Trenton-
Newberry deal, planted more acreage than any other and ranked
second in production.

Fruits and Nuts

Citrus." There were 858,082 acres of citrus reported in
Florida in December, 1965. Of this amount, 607,506 acres were
in bearing groves and 250,576 in nonbearing groves. Citrus was
reported as being grown in 35 counties, but five counties -
Hillsborough, Lake, Orange, Polk, and St. Lucie accounted
for 56% of the total citrus acreage (Figure 31).
Citrus production in Florida is divided into two districts:
the Interior district which includes counties along the Ridge
section and the West Coast,,and the Indian River district which
includes counties along the Indian River on the East Coast. The

'Data in this section are from the Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting
Service.












I -


Less than 100

100 399

400 699

700 999
1,000 1,499

1,500 1,999

2,000 2,999

3,000 3,999
4,000 or more


Ai|


Figure 30. Acres planted in watermelons, Florida, 1965-66 season.


most concentrated production in the Interior district is in Hills-
borough, Orange, Lake, Pasco, Polk, and Hardee counties. The
area of concentration in the Indian River section is in Indian
River, St. Lucie, and Martin counties. One-fourth of the non-
bearing groves in the state in 1965 was in the latter three coun-
ties.
Peaches.7 Peaches are a relatively new crop in Florida. The
U. S. Census of Agriculture reported only 4,771 acres in the
state in 1964. No peaches were reported in two counties, less
than 100 acres in 55 counties, 100 to 199 acres in one county,
200 to 299 acres in two counties, and 300 acres or more in seven

7Data on peaches, pecans, and tung nuts are from the 1964 U. S. Census
of Agriculture. Number of trees converted to acres on the basis of 100
peach trees to the acre, 13.4 pecan trees, and 96 tung nut trees.


vlrW


F71








am




Himr


^M

























Interior District









DISTRIBUTION OF ACREAGE
BY TOWNSHIPS
iij LESS THAN 500 ACRES
500 1,000 ACRES
0 1,000 5,000 ACRES
E MORE THAN 5,000 ACRES


Figure 31. Commercial citrus inventory by regulation districts as of Decem-
ber 1965.

counties (Figure 32). Three counties with more than 500 acres
were Hernando 520 acres, Hillsborough 750 acres, and Orange
814 acres.

Pecans. According to the U. S. Census of Agriculture,
there were 35,602 acres of pecans on Florida farms in 1964.
These were mainly in north and west Florida. No pecans were
reported in two counties, less than 200 acres in 48 counties, 200








to 399 acres in seven counties, and 400 acres or more in 10
counties (Figure 33). The three counties with the largest num-
ber of acres were Suwannee, 1,786 acres; Jefferson, 1,620 acres;
and Alachua, 1,578 acres.

Tung Nuts. The 1964 census reported 17,378 acres of tung
nuts in the state. Most of the tung nuts are grown in northwest
Florida. No tung nut trees were reported in 42 counties, less
than 1,000 acres in 20 counties, and more than 1,000 acres in five
counties (Figure 34). There were 1,120 acres reported in Cal-
houn County, 1,429 acres in Bay County, 1,884 acres in Jackson
County, 4,575 acres in Leon County, and 5,689 acres in Jefferson
County.


I.' than 100
100-199
I 200-299
S300 or more


Figure 32. Acres of cropland in peaches, Florida, 1964.














I..,


Less than 200

200-399

400 or more


"
i


Figure 33. Acres of cropland in pecans, Florida, 1964.


Livestock on Farms8

Cattle and Calves. The U. S. Census of Agriculture re-
ported 1,822,007 cattle and calves on Florida farms in 1964. Ap-
proximately 50% of this number was in counties in central Flor-
ida. Counties with the largest numbers were concentrated along
the Kissimmee River or adjacent to Lake Okeechobee (Figure
35). Other counties in which more than 40,000 head of cattle
were reported were Jackson, Alachua, Marion, Hillsborough,
Hardee, Manatee, and St. Lucie. Less than 10,000 head of cattle
were reported in 19 counties, 10,000 to 19,999 head in 17 counties,
20,000 to 29,999 head in 10 counties, and 30,000 to 39,999 head
in seven counties.

'Data in this section are from the 1964 U. S. Census of Agriculture.


d

_L;~-aur


(

i.-i -~


~: -;,
a

i

I-: I

\'


t-




































Figure 34. Acres of cropland in tung nut groves, Florida, 1964.
land. Figure 36 shows a distribution of cattle and calves per


n p f t T e we ls tn 5 c

14 counties, 125 to 149 head in 19 counties, and 150 head or

more in eight counties.
i r r i r rt
I..___. '"'' : '









K Y








Figure 34. Acres of cropland in tung nut groves, Florida, 1964.


Part of the variation in number of cattle and calves between
counties was due to the variation in number of acres in farm-
land. Figure 36 shows a distribution of cattle and calves per
1,000 acres of farmland. This tends to give a more even distri-
bution picture for the state. There were less than 50 cattle and
calves per 1,000 acres of farmland in four counties, 50 to 74 head
in 11 counties, 75 to 99 head in 11 counties, 100 to 124 head in
14 counties, 125 to 149 head in 19 counties, and 150 head or
more in eight counties.

Milk Cows. There were 176,289 milk cows reported on Flor-
ida farms in 1964. For the most part they tended to be con-
centrated in counties near population centers (Figure 37). How-
ever, because of high land values, dairies are tending to move










T I l


% i I I,'' -U

E o Less than 10,000 l !lll ll
S10,000-19,999 -- llllI
S20,000-29,999 j
liif 30,000-39,999
40,000 or more- '.



"- i l_ ~, ', .




i '
14.





-~ ''I




Figure 35. Distribution of cattle and calves, Florida, 1964.


out of areas of high population concentration. Dairies on the
lower East Coast have shifted location more than those in other
areas of the state. There were more milk cows reported in Okee-
chobee County in 1964 than in any other county in the state.
Hillsborough was the second county in number of cows and
Duval was third. Fewer than 2,000 cows were reported in 46
counties of the state, 2,000 to 3,999 in 10 counties, 4,000 to 5,999
in four counties, and 6,000 or more in seven counties.

Hogs and Pigs. Hogs and pigs reported on Florida farms
in 1964 numbered 298,593 head. They tended to be concentrated
in counties where corn and peanuts were important. Jackson
County with 41,340 head had the highest number of any county
(Figure 38). Ten thousand or more head were reported in six
additional counties. Less than 2,000 head were reported in 36

















S Less than 50
50 74
S 75 -99
100 124
125 149
150 or more


Figure 36. Cattle and calves per 1,000 acres of farmland, Florida, 1964.


counties, mainly in central and south Florida.
Figure 39 shows the distribution of hogs per 1,000 acres of
farmland. As in the case of cattle and calves this tends to even
out some of the variation in hog numbers due to differences in
acres of farmland per county. Forty of the counties, mostly in
central and south Florida, had less than 25 hogs per 1,000 acres
of farmland, nine counties 25 to 49, nine counties 50 to 74, and
nine counties 75 or more.

Hens and Pullets of Laying Age. There were 7,799,262
hens and pullets of laying age reported on Florida farms in 1964.
The heaviest area of concentration was in Hernando, Hills-
borough, and Pasco counties. However, 250,000 head or more
were reported in nine counties, mainly in central Florida (Figure
40). Less than 50,000 head were reported in 38 counties, 50,000



















SLess than 2,000
[TS3 2,000-3,999, I
lllll 4,000-5,999 -
6,000 or more













TYPE OF FARMING AREAS IN FLORIDA
'I I







-a -







Figure 37. Distribution of milk cows, Florida, 1964.

to 99,999 in nine counties, 100,000 to 149,999 in four counties,
and 150,000 to 249,999 head in seven counties.


TYPE OF FARMING AREAS IN FLORIDA

The 1964 U. S. Census of Agriculture recognized 10 major
types of farming in the state, namely cash grain, tobacco, cotton,
other field crop, vegetable, fruit and nut, poultry, dairy, other
livestock, and general. The classification was based on the source
of cash income in 1964. For a farm to be classified as of a given
type, it was necessary that it should derive 50% or more of the
value of farm products sold from the source indicated by the
description. For example, a farm was classified as a tobacco
farm if 50% or more of the cash income from the sale of farm
products was derived from tobacco. Part time, residential, and











0,1010 oro- -"
r--4r














off type farms were not classified by type. They were called
miscellaneous or unclassified f arms.
The location of arms of specific types or combination of









K.
i- 0:f









iFigure orid c ountie s r unsuit d to rop produion. S .


mliscelanes oret ulassih d or o o





Tabcluded as a part of 4 shows the number and in proportions of farms of variousng
covtypes in 1964. The lly a small pargest number ofany communties. For these reasons,
'L -- "








Fivegetable, and general. Slightlyon overf hogs and pigs, Florida, 1964.in the

miscellaneous or unclassified farms.ed.


Tale i 4 shows of farm do no sape c typ in or ams oin aion o
types gives rise to type of farming areas. Large areas of soils
in many Florida counties are unsuited to crop production. Such
land is in forest, marsh and cut-over lands and often is not in-
cluded as a part of the land in farms. Commercial farming
covers only a small part of many counties. For these reasons,
distinct types of farming do not stand out in Florida as in many
states in the United States. Type of farming areas has been









: ::'i: i '. '" : '.'


_lI 'f. JI! i. (4I Fl S


..... ..,
i .. I
X_ ,




: h .. _I ,
S I '


i-- --



'--_ _-- -









Figure 39. Hogs and pigs per 1,000 acres of farmland, Florida, 1964.


Table 4.- Number and per cent of farms by type, Florida, 19641.
Number of
Type Farmsi Per cent
Fruit and nut 7,375 18.2
Other livestock 3,832 9.4
Tobacco 2,135 5.3
Vegetable 1,566 3.9
General 1,414 3.5
Poultry 1,014 2.5
Other field crop 872 2.2
Cash grain 744 1.8
Dairy 578 1.4
Cotton 183 .4
Miscellaneous 20,828 51.4
Total 40,541 100.0
'U. S. Census of Agriculture.











-, A


SLess than 25,000
:l 25,000-49,999
mm 50,000-99,999
[j.::: 100,000-149,999
[1111] 150,000-249,999
= 250,000 or more


r~ "'


Figure 40. Distribution of hens and pullets of laying age, Florida, 1964.


designated for general farming, citrus, other, and vegetable
(Figures 41 and 42). Each of these main types have been
divided into subareas. A short discussion of these subareas is
included in the following pages.


General Farming

General farming areas are found in north and west Florida.

Area 1. West Florida. This area, located in the extreme
western end of the state, includes the farming area in four coun-
ties Escambia, Santa Rosa, Okaloosa, and Walton. Principal
crops grown are small grains, soybeans, and corn. Cotton con-
tinues to be grown on some of the farms in the area. Cattle
and calves are important on many of the farms. The farming


















GENERAL FARMING
i. West Florida--Small Grains, Soybeans,
Corn
2. Northwest Florida--Corn, Peanuts
3. Gadsden--Shade Tobacco
4. North Florida--Corn, Flue-cured Tobacco
5. North Central Florida--Corn, Watermelons,
Miscellaneous Vegetables, Some Citrus .

CITRUS
6. Indian River District
S7. Interior District

OTHER
8. Jacksonville--Dairy, Poultry, Market Gardens
9. Everglades--Sugar Cane, Truck Crops









Figure 41. General, citrus, and other type of farming areas, Florida.



is carried out on well to moderately well drained sandy loams
and loamy soils. There are large areas of excessively drained
sands and loamy sands, but much of this land is not in farms.
Only 30% of the land in Escambia County was in farms in 1964,
and less than 20% of the total land area of Santa Rosa, Oka-
loosa, and Walton counties was in farms.

Area 2. Northwest Florida. This area includes 11 counties
and part of Gadsden County. However, in five counties, less
than 20 % of the land area is in farms and in three counties only
20% to 39% of the land area is in farms. The principal crops
grown are corn and peanuts. Cotton is still grown on some of
the farms in the area. Hogs are an important enterprise on many
of the farms. The same is true of cattle and calves. The farming
is carried out on well- to moderately well-drained sandy loams




-q


and loamy soils, well- to somewhat excessively-drained sands
and sandy loams, and somewhat excessively- to moderately well-
drained sands.
Area 3. Gadsden County. This area covers a part of Gads-
den County and includes the principal shade tobacco area in the
state. Cattle and calves are important on many of the farms.
Cattle are often kept or beef cattle are fed out to produce manure
to be used on the tobacco land.
Area 4. North Florida. This area includes 10 counties and
parts of Alachua and Gilchrist counties. Corn and flue-cured
tobacco are the principal crops grown. Hogs and pigs are im-
portant on some of the farms. There is a variety of soil types
in the area, but most of the farming is on well-drained sandy
loams and loamy soils and on somewhat excessively to moderately
well-drained sands. The land is farmed fairly intensively; with
the exception of three counties, 20% or more of the land in
farms is in cropland.
Area 5. North Central Florida. This area includes Levy
and parts of Alachua, Gilchrist, and Marion counties. Principal
crops grown are corn, watermelons, miscellaneous vegetables,
and some citrus. Cattle and calves are important on many of
the farms. Alachua and Marion counties also contain a number
of horse farms.

Citrus

Citrus has expanded greatly in the state, especially within
the last 10 years. Forty per cent of the acreage in December
1965 was planted since January 1, 1960. The citrus belt of the
state is divided into the Indian River and the Interior districts
for purposes of marketing.
Area 6. Indian River District. This area is composed of
St. Lucie County and parts of Brevard, Indian River, Martin,
Palm Beach, and Volusia counties. Most of the citrus is planted
on imperfectly to poorly drained sands and loamy sands over
dominantly noncalcareous materials. The most concentrated
areas of production are in Indian River and St. Lucie counties.
Area 7. Interior District. The Interior District includes
the rest of the area of the state where citrus is grown. This
area includes a variety of soil types from well drained to poorly








drained sands. Citrus is widely scattered over the central penin-
sula of Florida, but the most concentrated areas of production
are in Lake, Orange, and Polk counties.
Other types of farming are also important in this area. Egg
production is important in Hernando, Pinellas, Broward, Pasco,
Dade, Hillsborough, Orange, and Lake counties. Beef cattle pro-
duction is important in Sumter, Hernando, Pasco, Polk, Osceola,
Manatee, Hardee, Highlands, Okeechobee, Sarasota, DeSoto,
Glades, Hendry, Palm Beach, Broward, and Collier counties.

Other
Area 8. Jacksonville-Dairy, Poultry, and Market Gardens.
- This area includes Clay, Duval, and Nassau counties. It in-
cludes a number of dairy and poultry farms; miscellaneous truck
crops are also grown for sale on the Jacksonville market.
Area 9. Everglades-Sugarcane and Truck Crops. Sugar-
cane is grown on the muckland around Lake Okeechobee. Sugar-
cane has undergone a large increase in production in the last
nine years, going from 35,800 acres harvested in 1958 to 197,200
acres in 1966. This is also an important vegetable producing
area.

Vegetable Producing Areas
Vegetable production areas are influenced by soils, tempera-
ture, drainage, and availability of adequate water for irrigation.
Water control is of the utmost importance to the vegetable
grower. The most successful grower endeavors to locate in an
area where moisture deficiencies may be alleviated by irrigation
or where excesses may be removed through drainage.
Production areas are often singularly adapted to the growth
of specific commodities or types inasmuch as certain types are
more readily adapted to lower temperatures on certain soils.
Buyer concentration in specific areas also influences the selec-
tion of commodities grown. Other factors influencing commod-
ities grown are demands for mixed loads, need for precooling
certain vegetables, or reicing enroute.
Eight major vegetable producing areas and 20 subareas have
been designated (Figure 42).
Southeast. This area includes south Dade or the Home-
stead area, Pompano area, and Martip County. In the south








drained sands. Citrus is widely scattered over the central penin-
sula of Florida, but the most concentrated areas of production
are in Lake, Orange, and Polk counties.
Other types of farming are also important in this area. Egg
production is important in Hernando, Pinellas, Broward, Pasco,
Dade, Hillsborough, Orange, and Lake counties. Beef cattle pro-
duction is important in Sumter, Hernando, Pasco, Polk, Osceola,
Manatee, Hardee, Highlands, Okeechobee, Sarasota, DeSoto,
Glades, Hendry, Palm Beach, Broward, and Collier counties.

Other
Area 8. Jacksonville-Dairy, Poultry, and Market Gardens.
- This area includes Clay, Duval, and Nassau counties. It in-
cludes a number of dairy and poultry farms; miscellaneous truck
crops are also grown for sale on the Jacksonville market.
Area 9. Everglades-Sugarcane and Truck Crops. Sugar-
cane is grown on the muckland around Lake Okeechobee. Sugar-
cane has undergone a large increase in production in the last
nine years, going from 35,800 acres harvested in 1958 to 197,200
acres in 1966. This is also an important vegetable producing
area.

Vegetable Producing Areas
Vegetable production areas are influenced by soils, tempera-
ture, drainage, and availability of adequate water for irrigation.
Water control is of the utmost importance to the vegetable
grower. The most successful grower endeavors to locate in an
area where moisture deficiencies may be alleviated by irrigation
or where excesses may be removed through drainage.
Production areas are often singularly adapted to the growth
of specific commodities or types inasmuch as certain types are
more readily adapted to lower temperatures on certain soils.
Buyer concentration in specific areas also influences the selec-
tion of commodities grown. Other factors influencing commod-
ities grown are demands for mixed loads, need for precooling
certain vegetables, or reicing enroute.
Eight major vegetable producing areas and 20 subareas have
been designated (Figure 42).
Southeast. This area includes south Dade or the Home-
stead area, Pompano area, and Martip County. In the south


















































SOUTHEAST
i. Homestead Bush and pole beans, cabbage,
sweet corn, cucumbers, potatoes, squash,
strawberries, tomatoes.
2. Pompano Lama beans, bush beans, sweet
corn, cucumbers, eggplant, peppers,
squash, strawberries, tomatoes.
3. Martin County Cantaloups, peppers,
strawberries, tomatoes, watermelons.

SOUTHWEST
4. Ft. Myers-ImIokalee Cantaloups, cabbage,
sweet corn, cucumbers, peppers, potatoes,
squash, tomatoes, watermelons.

EVERGLADES
5. Bush beans, cabbage, celery, sweet corn,
escarole and chicory, Lettuce, potatoes,
radishes.

WEST CENTRAL
6. Sarasota Cabbage, celery, escarole and
chicory, lettuce, potatoes, rad she's.
7. Manatee-Ruskin Cabbage, cauliflower,
tomatoes, watermelons.
8. Plant City-Balm Bush and pole beans,
Ilma beans, cabbage, lettuce, peppers,
potatoes, squash, strawberries, water
melons.
9. Wauchula Cucumbers, tomatoes, water-
melons.

EAST CENTRAL
10. Ft. Pierce Tomatoes, watermelons.

NORTH CENTRAL
11. Sanford-Oviedo-Zellood Bush and pole
beans, cabbage, celery, sweet corn, cucum
bers, escarole and chicory, greens,
lettuce, peppers, spinach radishes.
12. Webster Cucuers, peppers, tomatoes.
13. Oxford-Pedro Cantaloups, tomatoes,
watermelons.


J eA~
5 G5


NORTH
14. Island Grove-Hawthorn Lma beans, snap
beans, celery, squash, watermelons.
15. GainesvllleAlachua Bush beans, cucum-
bers, peppers, potatoes, squash.
16. Hastings Cabbage, potatoes.
17. Starke-BrookerLake Butler Lima beans,
snap beans, cucumbers, green peppers,
potatoes, squash, strawberries.

WEST
18. Gadsden County Pole beans, squash.
19. Escambia County Potatoes.
20. Holmes-Jackson-Washington Counties -
Watemelons, miscellaneous vegetables.

IM C.eroal Vegetables -


Figure 42. Vegetable producing areas, Florida.






Dade or Homestead area, two types of soils are dominant: (1)

poorly drained marls and (2) rocklands. The "east glades and

finger glades" are Perrine marl soils where early settlers "home-

steaded" with little clearing difficulty. Although there are canals

for drainage, there is not the adequate two-way water control

found in the Everglades around Lake Okeechobee. Potatoes,







sweet corn, and pole beans are grown. 'The "rocklands" are
cleared palmetto and piney woods on Rockdale or miscellaneous
rockland soils. Scarifying operations involve very thin surface
cuttings, but the rocklands become more tillable with each cul-
tivation. The limerock is full of holes and cavities. Water runs
through it freely. The water table is only a few feet below the
surface, permitting irrigation from shallow wells by pumps.
Tomatoes for mature-green harvest are heavily planted, as are
beans, especially pole varieties, cucumbers, and squash, in high
lying rockland near Homestead where there are thin deposits of
sand and reddish clay. These soils hold enough moisture and
plant nutrients to permit growth of these commercial vegetables.
The Pompano area is the narrow coastal area just inland
from the Atlantic Coast in Broward and Palm Beach counties.
It is made up of sandy soils of the Delray and Pompano series.
The Pompano soils are derived from thin to moderately thick
beds of marine sands overlying alkaline materials. They are
light in color and less poorly drained than the Delray soils.
Water moves off slowly because of lack of slope. Most of the
area is under fair to good water management. The portion
located primarily east of U. S. Highway 441 to the Military Trail
in East Palm Beach County is organized as a drainage district
and operated with tax assessments on the land cultivated. Con-
trol is both for irrigation and water removal. This is probably
the area of least frost danger. The close proximity of the Gulf
Stream provides protection, especially when there is an east
wind. Plantings of tender crops are made for harvest in No-
vember through April and often into May.
Bush beans are grown extensively. Plantings are made in
double rows on beds of sandy soil. Practically all crops are grown
on "beds" for better water control. Pepper production is im-
portant but has moved out of Broward County for the most
part. Acreages for spring harvest are grown in the area north
of West Palm Beach, extending into Jupiter in Martin County.
Cucumbers, eggplant, and squash are grown in volume. Most
of the cucumbers are for the fresh market. The squash are pre-
dominantly of the yellow and green summer types.
Vine-ripe tomatoes have become a major industry in recent
years. These trellis-grown varieties are permitted to ripen to a
flush of pink before harvest. Shipment is made in smaller con-
tainers, and they move directly to the consumer, bypassing cen-
trally located ripening rooms. Sweet corn has regained an earlier
lost popularity. It comes into production in late December or








early January and with favorable weather continues into April.
The Pompano State Farmers Market located in Pompano is a
primary outlet for tender vegetables grown in this and other
South Florida vegetable areas.
Principal crops grown in Martin County are cantaloupes,
peppers, strawberries, tomatoes, and watermelons.

Southwest. This includes the Ft. Myers-Immokalee area
and encompasses several soil types. The Immokalee series was
formed from thick beds of unconsolidated soils and is somewhat
poorly drained. Surface runoff is slow. With liberal applications
of fertilizer and water control, satisfactory vegetable production
is realized. Earlier farming was confined to sandy soils in Ft.
Myers-Iona sections and marl of Ochopee. Today farming in
these southwest counties is spread from Devil's Garden on the
east to Naples on the Gulf, encompassing many sloughs, higher
sand ridges, and the lona sands along the lower Caloosahatchee
River near the shores of San Carlos Bay. Cantaloupes and
cabbage are grown. Fall and spring cucumbers are grown in
profusion; trellis tomatoes for vine-ripe harvest and ground
tomatoes harvested as mature-green; peppers; red and white-
skin potatoes; acorn, green, and yellow squash; sweet corn; and
watermelons for early market are produced in volume.

Everglades. These are muck soils located east, southeast,
and south of Lake Okeechobee. Poor natural drainage is offset
by a system of major and minor canals, laterals, field ditches,
and mole drains. The major drainage system is maintained by
a district drainage tax assessed on the land owners.
Major crops are of the hardy type celery, leaf crops of
escarole, chicory, endive, the various lettuce types, cabbage,
carrots, and radishes. Tender crops more susceptible to freeze
and frost are grown in the fall and again extensively in the
spring. Sweet corn is the principal tender crop and totaled
37,700 acres planted during the 1965-66 season. Midseason sweet
corn is grown on the islands in Lake Okeechobee or warmer land
close to the lake.

West Central. The west central counties are made up of
several smaller areas. The Sarasota mucklands are especially
noted for celery production. Leaf crops of lettuce, particularly
Bibb, escarole, and chicory are grown. Radishes are an important
muckland crop. Sarasota's counterpart, but located further in-








land, is the Istokpoga mucklands at Lake Placid where salad leaf
crops and radishes are grown.
Manatee-Ruskin farms have cold protection from adjacent
Tampa Bay waters. Both fall and spring tomatoes are grown,
primarily on stakes, for mature-green harvest. Cabbage, cauli-
flower, and watermelons are also grown. Balm has grown early
Irish potatoes for years. This area diversifies along with Plant
City to the north where strawberries are of primary importance.
Bush and pole beans, lima beans, butterbeans, yellow crookneck
squash, eggplant, okra, peppers, and southern peas are grown
extensively. Strawberries are also grown at Palmetto near the
bay. Arcadia-Wauchula produce fall and spring cucumbers,
smaller acreages of eggplant, peppers, tomatoes, and water-
melons in the spring. Cabbage is grown throughout the area.
Soils are primarily sandy. Irrigation is by various means. Sara-
sota mucklands use seepage irrigation through mole-drained
fields, interplanted with a system of canals and cross ditches.
Overhead sprinkler irrigation systems are used extensively at
Plant City and in the Wauchula area.
East Central. This is the Ft. Pierce area, an important
fall and spring producing and marketing area. Most farming is
confined to tomatoes, with considerable watermelons, some cab-
bage, cucumbers, and peppers in the south portion of the area.
Production is spread over a large area encompassing several
counties as producers move to new land for each season's to-
mato plantings.
North Central. North central Florida sand land producing
areas are Samsula, Sanford and Webster. Recently, some sandy
soils have been brought into production at Zellwood. Cabbage,
celery, and lettuce are important crops in these areas. They are
considered winter vegetables, but cabbage is usually harvested
for a longer period of time here than in other areas of produc-
tion late November to early June. Beans, cucumbers, egg-
plant, and peppers are grown particularly in the spring. Cucum-
bers for pickling have become important in this area in recent
years. Fresh market or table stock cucumbers dominate in the
Webster area. Plant production in Webster has become im-
portant, with peppers and strawberry plants being particularly
significant.
Muckland soils at Oviedo, Leesburg, and Zellwood are be-
coming increasingly important. Sweet corn is planted extensively
in March and April for late May, June, and early July harvest.








Celery is grown for early fall harvest; often being the first fall
harvested crop in Florida to harvest. Plantings are also made
in late spring with marketing into late June and early July.
Escarole, chicory, butter head lettuce, leaf lettuce, and chinese
cabbage are grown throughout the season but have two dominant
harvest periods November-December and April-May. Red
and white radishes are grown in volume throughout the season
as are carrots. Consumer packaging is done extensively on these
items.
Herb type seasonings are grown at Zellwood, primarily pars-
ley for soups; for salads and garnishes, anise and dill.
Beans, collards, mustard, spinach, and turnips are grown
extensively for processing both in the fall and again in the
spring. Most of these commodities are also grown for the fresh
market.
Two specialty crops at Oviedo are green onions and water-
cress.
The sandlands at Sanford are irrigated through terra cotta
tile with sulphur water from flowing wells. Zellwood mucklands
have a tax assessed drainage system in Orange County and a
privately owned farmer operated system in Lake County. Water
from Lake Apopka is fed through a system of canals, field
ditches, and mole drains. The muck soils are susceptible to tem-
peratures lower than surrounding higher sandlands. Tender
crops are not planted for midseason harvest as a precautionary
measure. Often an early frost will kill some early fall tender
vegetables. Frost formation in early November is not uncom-
mon. Late frost has killed tender spring vegetables as late as
mid-April.
North. This area is made up of four smaller areas -
Island Grove-Hawthorne, Gainesville-Alachua, Hastings area,
and the Starke-Brooker-Lake Butler area. Principal vegetables
grown in the Island Grove-Hawthorne area are lima beans, snap
beans, celery, squash, and watermelons. The celery is grown on
muck soils while the other crops are grown on sandlands.
The Gainesville-Alachua area is lessening in importance as a
producer of tender vegetables and potatoes. Mostly beans,
cucumbers, peppers, and potatoes are grown. Soils are heavy
sandy loams and are productive. The marketing season is usually
short with most harvest in May and June.
The Hastings area west of St. Augustine lies adjacent to
and east of the St. Johns River. Soils are mainly sandy Southern








flatwoods. Irrigation is mainly of the seepage type. Cabbage
is an important crop with harvest during the period December
to April. Irish potatoes are the leading crop in the area with
heaviest harvest in May. About two-thirds of the crop is utilized
by the potato chipping industry. A small percent is processed
in cans or is frozen. The balance goes to the fresh market. This
is the most important potato producing area in Florida.
Lima beans, cucumbers, green peppers, potatoes, squash, and
strawberries are grown in the Starke-Brooker-Lake Butler area.
West. The west area covers west Florida. Widely scat-
tered production of watermelons and southern vegetables occurs
throughout west Florida. Fall and spring acreage of pole beans
are grown in Gadsden County. Squash is grown as a spring
vegetable. The Florida season usually starts in Gadsden County
in later September, and this is also the last area to finish har-
vesting in the spring, often picking pole beans until late June.
Potatoes are grown in Escambia County, and watermelons and
miscellaneous vegetables in Holmes, Jackson, and Washington
counties.

SUMMARY

The kind and combination of enterprises used by farmers in
any specific area result from the interaction of many factors.
It is important to examine the agriculture of the state from
time to time to determine what effects these factors have had
on farms of various types.
The purposes of this study were (1) to describe the agri-
culture of the state discussing (a) the important factors affect-
ing agricultural production, (b) major use of land in 1964, and
(c) geographic distribution of crops and livestock, and (2) to
outline the location of various types of farming.
Since physical factors in combination with economic, biologi-
cal, and social factors determine the use of land in a region,
these factors are discussed first. The major use of land follows
along with the geographic distribution of important crops and
livestock. General types of farming are outlined for the state
on the basis of geographic distribution of crops and livestock
on farms of various types.
Only 44% of Florida's approximate land area of 34,721,280
acres was in farms in 1964. Of the land in farms there were
3,580,672 acres of cropland, 6,156,340 acres in woodland, 4,305,-







874 acres in other pasture (not cropland and not woodland), and
1,008,295 acres in other land.
General field crops are grown mainly in north and west Flor-
ida. From the standpoint of acres harvested, the most important
field crop grown in Florida in 1966 was corn. Acres harvested in
some other crops were 49,000 acres in peanuts picked and
threshed, 12,700 acres in flue-cured tobacco, and 22,000 acres
in wheat for grain. Sugarcane was grown mainly around Lake
Okeechobee. Acres harvested in 1966 were 197,200.
There were 48,200 acres planted in snapbeans in the 1965-66
season. The lower East Coast was the leading area of produc-
tion. Acres planted in cabbage were 15,100. The Hastings area
marketed 41% of the state's total production. Acres planted in
celery were 12,400. Of the volume sold, 79 % was marketed from
the Everglades area. Acres planted in cucumbers were 17,000.
Ft. Myers-Immokalee was the most important area of produc-
tion. Acres planted in chicory and endive were 8,600. The Ever-
glades area produced 67% of the crop.
Acres planted to green peppers were 17,000. The Pompano-
Martin area produced 467 of the production. There were
44,800 acres planted to Irish potatoes, and two-thirds of the total
production was in the Hastings area. There were 11,000 acres
planted to squash and 53,800 acres planted to tomatoes. Squash
were widely grown over a number of counties. The lower East
Coast ranked first in acreage and production of tomatoes with
supplies from November through May. Acres planted in water-
melons were 62,000. Twenty-eight per cent of the state's total
production was in the Immokalee-Naples area. The Gainesville
district ranked first in acres planted and second in production.
There were 858,082 acres of citrus reported in Florida in
December 1965. Of this amount, 607,506 acres were in bearing
groves and 250,576 acres in nonbearing groves. Fifty-six per
cent of the total citrus acreage was in five counties.
The Census reported 1,822,007 cattle and calves, 176,289 milk
cows, 298,593 hogs and pigs, and 7,799,262 hens and pullets on
Florida farms in 1964. Approximately 50% of the cattle and
calves were in counties in Central Florida. The largest number
of milks cows was in Okeechobee County with Hillsborough
second and Duval third. Jackson County had the largest number
of hogs and pigs. The heaviest concentration of hens and pullets
was in Hillsborough, Pasco, and Hernando counties.
Types of farming have been divided into general farming,







citrus, vegetable and other producing areas. There are five gen-
eral farming areas in North and West Florida; a dairy, poultry,
and market garden area around Jacksonville; and a sugarcane
producing area around Lake Okeechobee. Citrus has been broken
down into Indian River and Interior districts. Vegetable pro-
duction has been divided into eight major areas and 20 subareas.




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