• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Board of control and staff
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Life cycle
 Losses
 Infected areas
 Symptoms
 Diagnosis
 Management control
 Chemical control of snails
 Treatment of cattle for the removal...
 Recommended practices
 Summary






Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station - no. 502
Title: Liver fluke disease and its control
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027511/00001
 Material Information
Title: Liver fluke disease and its control
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 19 p. : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Swanson, Leonard E., b. 1898
Batte, Edward G ( Edward Guy )
Dennis, Walter R
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1952
 Subjects
Subject: Liver flukes   ( lcsh )
Liver flukes -- Control   ( lcsh )
Fascioliasis   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Leonard E. Swanson, Edward G. Batte and Walter R. Dennis.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027511
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000925782
oclc - 18267197
notis - AEN6438

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Page 1
    Board of control and staff
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
    Introduction
        Page 5
    Life cycle
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    Losses
        Page 8
    Infected areas
        Page 9
    Symptoms
        Page 10
    Diagnosis
        Page 11
    Management control
        Page 11
        Page 12
    Chemical control of snails
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Treatment of cattle for the removal of liver flukes
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
    Recommended practices
        Page 18
    Summary
        Page 18
        Page 19
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida









UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
WILLARD M. FIFIELD, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA



Liver Fluke Disease and

Its Control
By LEONARD E. SWANSON, EDWARD G. BATTE
and WALTER R. DENNIS

1
ADULT FLUKE
LIVES IN BILE
DUCT OF LIVER
FLUKES LIVE TO BE REACH SEXUAL PAURITTIl
3 TO 5 YEARS OF AGE BILE DUCT IN ABOUT6OIMS


EGGS LAIDINBILE ENCYSTED CER-
DUCTS. PASSED / CARIA.IFECTNE
OUT/ITHFECES STEWl GRASS

(-'
PRESENCE OfWATER EINCSTOMWVEGETATION
EGGSHATHINMIB"18DAYS AREVABLEIP1o6nEMTHS











4
Fig. 1.-The life cycle of liver flukes requires water for all ages except
snRACIl ad t OR ll b el f y CERCARIA OR
FREE-Sl.INIMG / FREE-SWMING
AGRICULTURATUREFUALE EXPERIMENT STATION
3 GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA

LIVE Il.3HRS.IFABLETO A SNAILS LIBERATE
RINDSUTABLE SMALHOST CERCARIA IN 49 DAYS
INTERMEDOIATE
HOST FRESH
WATER SNAIL
4
Fig. 1.-The life cycle of liver flukes requires water for all ages except
adults, which are in the bile ducts of the liver. The weak point in the life
cycle is that the snail, 4, is an essential intermediate host. Destroy the
snail and the flukes will be eliminated from your premises.



Single copies free to Florida residents on request to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


Bulletin 502


September 1952










BOARD OF CONTROL

Frank M. Harris, Chairman, St. Petersburg
Hollis Rinehart, Miami
Eli H. Fink, Jacksonville
George J. White, Sr., Mount Dora
Mrs. Alfred I. duPont, Jacksonville
George W. English, Ji., Ft. Lauderdale
W. Glenn Miller, Monticello
W. F. Powers, Secretary, Tallahassee
EXECUTIVE STAFF
J. Hillis Miller, Ph.D., President
J. Wayne Reitz. Ph.D., Provost for Agr.5
Willard M. Fifield, M.S., Director
J. R. Beckenbach, Ph.D., Asso. Director
L. 0. Gratz, Ph.D., Assistant Director
Rogers L. Bartley, B.S., Admin. Mgr.3
Geo. R. Freeman, B.S., Farm Superintendent


MAIN STATION, GAINESVILLE

AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS
H. G. Hamilton, Ph.D., Agr. Economist' 3
It. E. L. Greene, Ph.D., Agr. Economis' 3
M. A. Brooker, Ph.D., Agr. Economist :
Zach Savage, M.S.A., Associate
A. H. Spurlock, M.S.A., Associate
D. E. Alleger, M.S., Associate
D. L. Brooke, M.S.A., Associate4
M. R. Godwin, Ph.D., Associate3
IT. W. Little, M.S., Assistant *
W. K. McPherson, M.S., Economist
Eric Thor, M.S., Asso. Agr. Economist
.I. L. Ten-ant, Ph.D., Agr. Economist
Levi A. Powell, Sr., M.S.A., Asst. Agr.
Economist
Cecil N. Smith, M.A., Asso. Agr. Economist

Orlando, Florida (Cooperative USDA)
G. Norman Rose, B.S., Asso. Agri. Economist
J. C. Townsend, Jr., B.S.A., Agricultural
Statistician 2
J. B. Owens, B.S.A., Agr. Statistician 2
J. K. Lankford, B.S., Agr. Statistician
AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING
Frazier Rogers, M.S.A., Agr. Engineer
J. M. Johnson, B.S.A.E., Agr. Eng.3
J. M. Myers, B.S., Asso. Agr. Engineer
J. S. Norton, M.S., Asst. Agr. Eng.
AGRONOMY
Fred II. Hull, Ph.D., Agronomist 1
G. B. Killinger, Ph.D., Agronomist
H. C. Harris, Ph.D., Agronomist
R. W. Bledsoe, Ph.D., Agronomist
W. A. Carver, Ph.D., Associate
Darrel D. Morey, Ph.D., Associate 2
Fred A. Clark, M.S., Assistant2
AMyron C. Grennell, B.S.A.E., Assistant *
E. S. Horner, Ph.D., Assistant
A. T. Wallace, Ph.D., Assistant 0
D. E. McCloud, Ph.D., Assistant
H. E. Buckley, B.S.A., Assistant
E. C. Nutter, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist

ANIMAL HUSBANDRY AND NUTRITION
T. J. Cunha, Ph.D., An. Husb.1 3
G. K. Davis, Ph.D., Animal Nutritionist 3
S. John Folks, Jr., M.S., Asst. An. Hush.
'Katherine Boney, B.S., Asst. Chem.
A. M. Pearson, Ph.D., Asso. An. Husb.3
John P. Feaster, Ph.D., Asst. An. Ntri.
H. D. Wallace, Ph.D., Asst. An. Husb.3
M. Koger, Ph.D., An. Husbandman 3
E. F. Johnston, M.S.. Asst. An. Husbandman
J. F. Hentges, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. An. Hush.

DAIRY SCIENCE
E. L. Fouts, Ph.D., Dairy Tech.13
R. Becker, Ph.D., Dairy Husb.3
S. P. Marshall, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy Husb.3
W. A. Krienke, M.S., Asso. Dairy Tech.3


P. T. Dix Arnold, M.S.A., Asst. Dairy Hush.'
Leon Mull, Ph.D., Asso. Dairy Tech.
H. H. Wi:kowske, Ph.D., Asst. Dairy Tech.
James M. Wing, M.S., Asst. Dairy Husb.
EDITORIAL
J. Francis Cooper, M.S.A., Editor3
Clyde Beale, A.B.J., Associa:e Editor
L. Odell Griffith, B.A.J., Asst. Editors
J. N. Joiner, B.S.A., Assistant Editor
William G. Mitchell, A.B., Assistant Editor
ENTOMOLOGY
A. N. Tissot, Ph.D., Entomologist'
L. C. Kuitert, Ph.D., Associate
H. E. Bratley, M.S.A., Assistant
F. A. Robinson, M.S., Asst. Apiculturist
R. E. Waites, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist
HOME ECONOMICS
Ouida D. Abbott, Ph.D., Home Econ.'
R. B. French, Ph.D., Biochemist
HORTICULTURE
G. H. Blackmon, M.S.A., Horticulturist'
F. S. Jamison, Ph.D., Horticulturist 34
Albert P. Lorz, Ph.D., Horticulturist
P. K. Showalter, M.S., Asso. Hort.
R. A. Denn:son, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
R. H. Sharpe, M.S., Asso. Horticulturist
V. F. Nettl.s, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
F. S. Lagasse, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.2
P. D. D'cekey, M.S.A., Asso. Hort.
L. H. Halsey, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
C. B. Hall, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
Austin Griffiths, Jr., B.S., Asst. Hort.
S. E. McFadden, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
C. H. VanMiddelem, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
Buford Thompson, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
James Montelaro, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
LIBRARY
Ida Keeling Cresap, Librarian

PLANT PATHOLOGY
W. B. Tisdale, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist'
Phares Decker, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Erdman West, M.S., Mycologist and Botanist
Robert W. Earhart, Ph.D., Plant Path.2
Howard N. Miller, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
Lillian E. Arnold, M.S., Asst. Botanist
C. W. Anderson, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
POULTRY HUSBANDRY
N. R. Mehrhof, M.Agr., Poultry Husb. 3
J. C. Driggers, Ph.D., Asso. Poultry Husb.
SOILS
F. B. Smith, Ph.D., Microbiologist1
Gaylord M. Volk, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
J. R. Neller, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Nathan Gammon, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
Ralph G. Leighty, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor
G. D. Thornton, Ph.D., Asso. Microbiologist s
Charles F. Eno, Ph.D., Asst. Soils Micro-
biologist 4
H. W. Winsor, B.S.A., Assistant Chemist
R. E. Caldwell, M.S.A., Asst. Chemist"
V. W. Carlisle, B.S., Asst. Soil Surveyor
J. H. Walker, M.S.A., Asst. Soil Surveyor
S. N. Edson, M. S., Asst. Soil Surveyor 3
William K. Robertson, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
0. E. Cruz, B.S.A., Asst. Soil Surveyor
W. G. Blue, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
J. G A. Fiskel, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
H. F. Ross, B.S., Soils Microbiologist
L. C. Hammond, Ph.D., Asst. Soil Physicist 3
H. L. Breland, Ph.D., Asst. Soils Chem.
VETERINARY SCIENCE
D. A. Sanders, D.V.M., Veterinarian 1
M. W. Emmel, D'.V.M., Veterinarian 3
C. F. Simpson, D.V.M., Asso. Veterinarian
L. E. Swanson, D.V.M., Parasitologist
Glenn Van Ness, D.V.M., Asso. Poultry
Pathologist
W. R. Dennis. D.V.M., Asst. Parasitologist









BRANCH STATIONS

NORTH FLORIDA STATION, QUINCY
W. C. Rhoades, Jr., M.S., Entomologist in
Charge
R. R. Kincaid, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
L. G. Thompson, Jr., Ph.D., Soils Chemist
W. H. Chapman, M.S., Asso. Agronomist
Frank S. Baker, Jr., B.S., Asst. An. Husb.
T. E. Webb, B.S.A., Asst. Agronomist
Frank E. Guthrie, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist
Mobile Unit, Monticello
R. W. Wallace, B.S., Associate Agronomist
Mobile Unit, Marianna
R. W. Lipscomb, M.S., Associate Agronomist
Mobile Unit, Pensacola
R. L. Smith, M.S., Associate Agronomist
Mobile Unit, Chipley
J. B. White, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist

CITRUS STATION, LAKE ALFRED
A. F. Camp, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
W. L. Thompson, B.S., Entomologist
R. F. Suit, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
E. P. Ducharme, Ph.D., Asso. Plant Path.
C. R. Stearns, Jr., B.S.A., Asso. Chemist
J. W. Sites, Ph.D., Horticulturist
H. O. Sterling, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
H. J. Reitz, Ph.D., Horticulturist
Francine Fisher, M.S., Asst. Plant Path.
I. W. Wander, Ph.D., Soils Chemist
J. W. Kesterson, M.S., Asso. Chemist
R. Hendrickson, B.S., Asst. Chemist
Ivan Stewart, Ph.D., Asst. Biochemist
D. S. Prosser, Jr., B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
R. W. Olsen, B.S., Biochemist
F. W. Wenzel, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist
Alvin H. Rouse, M.S., Asso. Chemist
H. W. Ford, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
L. C. Knorr, Ph.D., Asso. Histologist
R. M. Pratt, Ph.D., Asso. Ent.-Pathologist
J. W. Davis, B.S.A., Asst. in Ent.-Path.
W. A. Simanton, Ph.D., Entomologist
E. J. Deszyck, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
C. D. Leonard, Ph.D., Asso. Horticulturist
W. T. Long, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist
M. H. Muma, Ph.D., Asso. Entomologist
F. J. Reynolds, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
W. F. Spencer, Ph.D., Asst. Chem.
I. H. Holtsberg, B.S.A., Asst. Ento.-Path.
K. G. Townsend, B.S.A., Asst. Ento.-Path.
J. B. Weeks, B.S., Asst. Entomologist
R. B. Johnson, M.S., Asst. Entomologist
W. F. Newhall, Ph.D., Asst. Biochem.
W. F. Grierson-Jackson, Ph.D., Asst. Chem.
Marion F. Oberbacher, Ph.D., Asst. Plant
Physiologist
Evert J. Elvin, B.S., Asst. Horticulturist
Roger Patrick, Ph.D., Bacteriologist

EVERGLADES STATION, BELLE GLADE
W. T. Forsee, Jr., Ph.D., Chemist Acting in
Charge
R. V. Allison, Ph.D., Fiber Technologist
Thomas Bregger, Ph.D., Physiologist
J. W. Randolph, M.S., Agricultural Engr.
R. W. Kidder, M.S., Asso. Animal Husb.
C. C. Seale, Associate Agronomist
N. C. Hayslip, B.S.A., Asso. Entomologist
E. A. Wolf, M.S., Asst. Horticulturist
W. H. Thames, M.S., Asst. Entomologist
W. N. S oner, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
W. A. Hills, M.S., Asso. Horticulturist
W. G. Genung, B.S.A.. Asst. Entomologist
Frank V. Stevenson, M.S., Asso. Plant Path.
Robert J. Allen, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
V. E. Green, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist
J. F. Darby, Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.
H. L. Chapman, Jr., M.S.A., Asst. An. Husb.
Thos. G. Bowery, Ph.D., Asst. En.omologist
V. L. Guzman, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
M. R. Bedsole, M.S.A., Asst. Chem.
J. C. Stephens. B.S., Drainage Engineer
A. E. Kretsehmer, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Soils
Chem.


SUB-TROPICAL STATION, HOMESTEAD
Geo. D. Ruehle, Ph.D., Vice-Dir. in Charge
D. O. Wolfenbarger, Ph.D., Entomologist
Francis B. Lincoln, Ph.D., Horticulturist
Robert A. Conover, Ph.DI., Plant Path.
John L. Malcolm, Ph.D., Asso. Soils Chemist
R. W. Harkness, Ph.D., Asst. Chemist
R. Bruce Lelin, Ph.D., Asst. Hort.
J. C. Noonan, M.S., Asst. Hort.
M. H. Gallatin, B.S., Soil Conservationist

WEST CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION,
BROOKSVILLE
William Jackson, B.S.A., Animal Husband-
man in Charge 2

RANGE CATTLE STATION, ONA
W. G. Kirk, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
E. M. Hodges, Ph.D., Agronomist
D. W. Jones, M.S., Asst. Soil Technologist

CENTRAL FLORIDA STATION, SANFORD
R. W. Ruprecht, Ph.D., Vice-Dir. in Charge
J. W. Wilson, Sc D., Entomologist
P. J. Westgate, Ph.D., Asso. Hort.
Ben. F. Whitner, Jr., B.S.A., Asst. Hort.
Geo. Swank, Jr., Ph.D., Asst. Plant Path.

WEST FLORIDA STATION, JAY
C. E. Hutton, Ph.D., Vice-Director in Charge
H. W. Lundy, B.S.A., Associate Agronomist
W. R. Langford, Ph.D., Asst. Agronomist

SUWANNEE VALLEY STATION,
LIVE OAK
G. E. Ritchey, M.S., Agronomist in Charge

GULF COAST STATION, BRADENTON
E. L. Spencer, Ph.D., Soils Chemist in Charge
E. G. Kelsheimer, Ph.D., Entomologist
David G. A. Kelbert, Asso. Horticulturist
Rol-ert O. Magie, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
J. M. Walter, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Donald S. Burgis, M.S.A., Asst. Hort.
C. M. Geraldson, Ph.D., Asst. Horticulturist
Amegda Jack, M.S., Asst. Soils Chemist


FIELD LABORATORIES

Watermelon, Grape, Pasture-Leesburg
C. C. Helms, Jr., B.S., Asst. Agronomist
L. H. Stover, Assistant in Horticulture
Strawberry-Plant City
A. N. Brooks, Ph.D., Plant Pathologist
Vegetatles-Hastings
A. H. Eddins, Ph.D., Plant Path. in Charge
E. N. McCubbin, Ph.D., Horticulturist
T. M. Dobrovsky, Ph.D., Asst. Entomologist

Pecans-Monticello
A. M. Phillips, B.S., Asso. Entomologist2
John R. Large, M.S., Asso. Plant Path.
Frost Forecasting-Lakeland
Warren O. Johnson, B.S., Meteorologist 2


1 Head of Department
2 In cooperation with U. S.
SCooperative, other divisions, U. of F.
4 On leave

































7f
\ I








Fig. 2.-Encysted liver fluke cercariae on leaves.
This stage in the life cycle is infective to all ani-
mals that eat vegetation. The fluke cysts can be
seen with the naked eye as pearly shining objects
about the size of a fine pencil point.










Liver Fluke Disease and Its Control

By LEONARD E. SWANSON, EDWARD G. BATTE
and WALTER R. DENNIS

CONTENTS
Page Page
Introduction ........ .......... ......... 5 Management control .................................... 11
Life cycle -... .......... ....... 5 Chemical control of snails ..................... 13
Losses ............... ........ 8 Treatment of cattle for the removal of
Infected areas ....... ..... ........... ......... 9 liver flukes ...................................... .. 16
Symptoms ....................... ..... ... .. 10 Recommended practices .......................... .. 18
Diagnosis .. ... .. ...... 11 Summary ................. .. ......................... 1A

INTRODUCTION

Liver fluke disease is caused by a parasite having the appear-
ance of a flat, leaf-like worm, technically known as Fasciola
hepatica Linn. and commonly known as leeches in the liver, or
liver rot. The adult liver fluke lives in the bile ducts of cattle,
deer, elk, moose, sheep and goats. Occasionally man, pigs, horses
and rabbits are infected.
The adult parasitic liver fluke (Fig. 3) measures from 3/ to
1 inches long by 1/3 to 1/ inch wide. It is greyish-brown, flat,
broader at the anterior end than at the posterior, giving the
appearance of shoulders, and has a cone-shaped projection with
an oral and a ventral sucker. This adult parasite is herma-
phroditic (possesses both sexes in the same individual). It
feeds on tissue, bile and inflammatory exudate. It is not a
bloodsucker.
LIFE CYCLE
The life cycle of this parasite is shown diagrammatically in
Fig. 1. Adult liver flukes live and lay their eggs in the bile
ducts of the host. These eggs are passed out of the bile ducts
with the bile to the gallbladder. They are then carried into the
intestinal tract by the bile, mixed with the intestinal contents
and passed from the host in the manure to the ground.
Those eggs that reach water hatch in from 14 to 18 days
into stage number 3 (Fig. 1), technically known as miracidium
(free swimming immature fluke). These seek a fresh-water
snail which is the intermediate host, stage 4 (Fig. 1). If these
immature flukes are unable to find the proper snail they die in
from one to three hours. However, when the miracidia contact

1 Formerly Associate Parasitologist, Department of Veterinary Science.










Liver Fluke Disease and Its Control

By LEONARD E. SWANSON, EDWARD G. BATTE
and WALTER R. DENNIS

CONTENTS
Page Page
Introduction ........ .......... ......... 5 Management control .................................... 11
Life cycle -... .......... ....... 5 Chemical control of snails ..................... 13
Losses ............... ........ 8 Treatment of cattle for the removal of
Infected areas ....... ..... ........... ......... 9 liver flukes ...................................... .. 16
Symptoms ....................... ..... ... .. 10 Recommended practices .......................... .. 18
Diagnosis .. ... .. ...... 11 Summary ................. .. ......................... 1A

INTRODUCTION

Liver fluke disease is caused by a parasite having the appear-
ance of a flat, leaf-like worm, technically known as Fasciola
hepatica Linn. and commonly known as leeches in the liver, or
liver rot. The adult liver fluke lives in the bile ducts of cattle,
deer, elk, moose, sheep and goats. Occasionally man, pigs, horses
and rabbits are infected.
The adult parasitic liver fluke (Fig. 3) measures from 3/ to
1 inches long by 1/3 to 1/ inch wide. It is greyish-brown, flat,
broader at the anterior end than at the posterior, giving the
appearance of shoulders, and has a cone-shaped projection with
an oral and a ventral sucker. This adult parasite is herma-
phroditic (possesses both sexes in the same individual). It
feeds on tissue, bile and inflammatory exudate. It is not a
bloodsucker.
LIFE CYCLE
The life cycle of this parasite is shown diagrammatically in
Fig. 1. Adult liver flukes live and lay their eggs in the bile
ducts of the host. These eggs are passed out of the bile ducts
with the bile to the gallbladder. They are then carried into the
intestinal tract by the bile, mixed with the intestinal contents
and passed from the host in the manure to the ground.
Those eggs that reach water hatch in from 14 to 18 days
into stage number 3 (Fig. 1), technically known as miracidium
(free swimming immature fluke). These seek a fresh-water
snail which is the intermediate host, stage 4 (Fig. 1). If these
immature flukes are unable to find the proper snail they die in
from one to three hours. However, when the miracidia contact

1 Formerly Associate Parasitologist, Department of Veterinary Science.










Liver Fluke Disease and Its Control

By LEONARD E. SWANSON, EDWARD G. BATTE
and WALTER R. DENNIS

CONTENTS
Page Page
Introduction ........ .......... ......... 5 Management control .................................... 11
Life cycle -... .......... ....... 5 Chemical control of snails ..................... 13
Losses ............... ........ 8 Treatment of cattle for the removal of
Infected areas ....... ..... ........... ......... 9 liver flukes ...................................... .. 16
Symptoms ....................... ..... ... .. 10 Recommended practices .......................... .. 18
Diagnosis .. ... .. ...... 11 Summary ................. .. ......................... 1A

INTRODUCTION

Liver fluke disease is caused by a parasite having the appear-
ance of a flat, leaf-like worm, technically known as Fasciola
hepatica Linn. and commonly known as leeches in the liver, or
liver rot. The adult liver fluke lives in the bile ducts of cattle,
deer, elk, moose, sheep and goats. Occasionally man, pigs, horses
and rabbits are infected.
The adult parasitic liver fluke (Fig. 3) measures from 3/ to
1 inches long by 1/3 to 1/ inch wide. It is greyish-brown, flat,
broader at the anterior end than at the posterior, giving the
appearance of shoulders, and has a cone-shaped projection with
an oral and a ventral sucker. This adult parasite is herma-
phroditic (possesses both sexes in the same individual). It
feeds on tissue, bile and inflammatory exudate. It is not a
bloodsucker.
LIFE CYCLE
The life cycle of this parasite is shown diagrammatically in
Fig. 1. Adult liver flukes live and lay their eggs in the bile
ducts of the host. These eggs are passed out of the bile ducts
with the bile to the gallbladder. They are then carried into the
intestinal tract by the bile, mixed with the intestinal contents
and passed from the host in the manure to the ground.
Those eggs that reach water hatch in from 14 to 18 days
into stage number 3 (Fig. 1), technically known as miracidium
(free swimming immature fluke). These seek a fresh-water
snail which is the intermediate host, stage 4 (Fig. 1). If these
immature flukes are unable to find the proper snail they die in
from one to three hours. However, when the miracidia contact

1 Formerly Associate Parasitologist, Department of Veterinary Science.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


these snails they burrow into the soft tissues, coming to rest
in the liver.
In Florida Pseudosuccinea columella Say and Fossaria cuben-
sis Pf., commonly referred to as right-handed snails, serve as
the intermediate hosts of the liver fluke. These same fresh
water snails also serve as the intermediate hosts for the rumen
flukes, Paramphistomum cervi Schrank and Cotylophoron coty-
lophorum Fish, commonly found in cattle raised on liver fluke-
infected areas. To distin-
guish this fresh-water snail
from others commonly
found, place the snail on
the palm of the hand, point
of the cone away with the
opening toward the ob-
server, the fluke snail's
opening will be on your
f right, hence the name right-
h handed snail (Fig. 4 inset).
S.. The young flukes develop
and multiply asexually (by
simple division) within the
body of the snails. For each
immature fluke entering a
snail, from one to several
hundred immature flukes
may develop. In approxi-
mately 49 days, depending
upon temperature of the
water, weather and habi-
tat, the young, stage 5
(Fig. 1) cercariae or free-
Fig. 3.-Adult liver fluke, Fasciola swimming tadpole flukes
hepatica Linn., enlarged 2Y2 times to are liberated. They swim
show oral and ventral suckers and shape. are liberated. They swim
about in water and upon
striking an object such as grass or other vegetation cling to the
object and subsequently break off their tails. The wound se-
cretes a sticky protective covering which surrounds the parasite
and firmly attaches it to the object.
These encysted cercariae, stage 6 (Fig. 1), are the infective
stage for any animal which may eat the vegetation containing
the cysts. These cercariae may be observed on blades of grass







Liver Fluke Disease and Its Control


with the naked eye as pearly-like shining objects about the size
of a fin2 pencil pint (Fig. 2). Animals grazing in or around
swamps, ditches, flooded areas, artesian well overflows or recently
flooded areas may eat vegetation containing the fluke cysts.
When they reach the digestive tract (stomach) the protective
covering of the cercaria is dissolved, liberating the young fluke.
These immature flukes pass on to the small intestine, burrow
through the intestinal wall into the peritoneal (body) cavity.
There they find the liver, penetrate the capsule, and wander


Fig. 4.-Right-handed snails, intermediate hosts of liver flukes, feeding
on mud in a ditch. Inset shows three most commonly found fresh water
snails in Florida. The one on the right is the right-handed snail or inter-
mediate host. The point of the shell is away from the observer and the
opening is on the right.


A00-i







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


through the liver tissue until they reach the bile ducts where
sexual maturity is reached in about 60 days after ingestion. The
life cycle is then repeated. It requires from four to six months
to complete the life cycle, from egg to egg.
Liver fluke-infected bile ducts are hard, pipe stem-like, calcified
and when cut exude a dirty black fluid mixed with debris, bile,
flukes and eggs. These bile ducts are greatly enlarged and can
be observed as white streaks in the liver. They are rough and
hard to the touch and grate when cut with a knife. Heavily
infected livers may look rough, with a nodular appearance, and
are greatly enlarged (Fig. 5).


Fig. 5.-Heavily infected liver of a four-year-old cow. Concave or visceral
surface on left, convex parietal surface on right.

LOSSES
Inspectors at the various slaughterhouses condemn livers for
human consumption that have one or more flukes or that show
evidence of scar tissue of previous infection. During the calen-
dar years of 1947 and 1948 it was found that losses from con-
demned fluke-infected livers at the large slaughterhouses in
Florida amounted to $101,358.00, as based on the market value
of edible liver at that date.
This estimate does not include losses of condemned livers in







Liver Fluke Disease and Its Control


many small local butcher establishments throughout the state
where large aggregate numbers of animals are slaughtered
weekly. Furthermore, it does not take into consideration the
actual death losses or the lowered efficiency of beef and dairy
animals on the farms as a result of liver fluke infection. The
yearly loss to livestock producers in round figures could be con-
servatively set at $100,000 in Florida alone.

INFECTED AREAS
Liver fluke disease is known to be established in 25 of the 67
counties of this state. Fortunately flukes cannot propagate in
all locations, since they require a fresh water snail to complete
their life cycle (Fig. 1). The snail intermediate host propagates
only in water having a pH of from 6.0 to 7.8 and on terrain
commonly referred to as sweet soils. Cypress lowlands or piney
woods areas are too acid for snail development and consequently
are free of liver flukes.
Rivers, tributaries, lakes and ponds are constant sources of
infection, especially if lime rock or marl-type soils are present.
Seeping banks, springheads and bay heads may be inhabited
by the snails. Lands that are heavily limed to sweeten the soil
may propagate snails if standing water is present. Drainage
from rains over the limed fields has produced new areas suitable
Fig. 6.-Typical discarded artesian well and potential liver fluke area.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


for snail propagation in ponds and streams receiving the over-
flow.
Artesian wells are ideal sources of water for the propagation
of snails. Often no attempt is made to shut off or control their
flowing over extended areas throughout the year. Pastures,
ponds or sloughs receiving water from such sources constitute
ideal breeding grounds for snails. Corroded pipes or valves on
old artesion wells frequently make it impossible to close them
off. If these wells are not kept in a good state of repair, or
capped, environmental conditions soon become favorable for
snails.
If infected cattle are introduced into the herd they will spread
the infection. This in turn will result in fluky cattle which are
inferior to and less economical than liver fluke-free animals.
One acre of such an area as represented in Fig. 6 could infect
cattle having access to it within a short time.
The snails which serve as intermediate hosts to liver flukes
prefer shallow water and muddy areas, especially subterrestrial
waters which carry the necessary calcium, phosphorus and other
essential minerals for their propagation. A good example of
the liver fluke intermediate snail hosts occurring on mud, typical
of many Florida farms and ranches, is shown in Fig. 4. The
photo inset shows the three principal fresh water snail types
found in Florida. The one on the right serves as the inter-
mediate host for these flukes and is commonly referred to as
the right-handed snail.
Transportation of these intermediate host snails from infected
to non-infected areas has been observed following hurricanes,
flash floods and irrigation. They even may be carried by birds
and animals. It has been observed that following hurricanes,
flash floods, etc., cattle have become infected, even though snails
are not present in their pasture under normal conditions. This
is due to the transportation of infected snails by high water and
the liberation of the fluke cercaria with subsequent snail death
from desiccation, leaving the encysted cercaria on grass which
was later consumed by cattle.

SYMPTOMS
There are no definite symptoms of liver fluke disease that will
differentiate this condition from other parasitic infections.
Fluke-infected cattle may appear thrifty and fat even when
heavily infected. However, in most cases they are in poor physi-







Liver Fluke Disease and Its Control


cal condition, showing rough hair coats and diarrhea. Infected
animals will lag behind the herd or try to isolate themselves
when driven. Occasionally an edematous swelling (bottle jaw)
is observed under the jaw of fluke-infected animals. The usual
history is that the animals infected most seriously were the
aggressive grazers that fed persistently on heavily infected
grasses occurring along ditch banks, low areas and canals. They
seek the lush grasses-the very places where fluke cysts are
most likely to be found.
DIAGNOSIS
Liver fluke disease can be diagnosed in the living animal by
microscopic examination of the feces for fluke ova. Take directly
from the rectum a 250- to 300-gram sample (approximately 1/2
pint), place in a clean jar or other container, chill overnight in
a refrigerator and examine the following day. Practicing veteri-
narians have properly equipped laboratories to make this test,
which is time consuming but very accurate, even in light in-
fection.
Regular flotation methods commonly used for other parasitic
egg determination are entirely unreliable. However, sedimenta-
tion is effective for accurate fluke egg counts. Moreover, if a
fecal sample is negative it does not necessarily mean that the
animal or herd is free of infection, as eggs may not have been
liberated from the gallbladder at that particular time. Several
animals from each herd should be checked before a definite
diagnosis is made.
Postmortem examination of slaughtered or dead animals with
close observation of the liver for evidence of live flukes is the
most accurate method of diagnosis. The veterinary inspectors
and butchers at slaughterhouses are familiar with flukes and, if
requested, will show them or notify you of their presence or
absence in the cattle. They are interested in good cattle and
will gladly help with your problems. If liver flukes or fluke
scars are found, consult the local veterinarian or county agent
for advice.
MANAGEMENT CONTROL
Liver fluke disease can be controlled through proper manage-
ment methods and practices, including a program of snail eradi-
cation and treatment of infected animals. Liver flukes cannot
reproduce or infect cattle without the snail intermediate host
(Fig. 4). Snail breeding areas should be sought out so that







Liver Fluke Disease and Its Control


cal condition, showing rough hair coats and diarrhea. Infected
animals will lag behind the herd or try to isolate themselves
when driven. Occasionally an edematous swelling (bottle jaw)
is observed under the jaw of fluke-infected animals. The usual
history is that the animals infected most seriously were the
aggressive grazers that fed persistently on heavily infected
grasses occurring along ditch banks, low areas and canals. They
seek the lush grasses-the very places where fluke cysts are
most likely to be found.
DIAGNOSIS
Liver fluke disease can be diagnosed in the living animal by
microscopic examination of the feces for fluke ova. Take directly
from the rectum a 250- to 300-gram sample (approximately 1/2
pint), place in a clean jar or other container, chill overnight in
a refrigerator and examine the following day. Practicing veteri-
narians have properly equipped laboratories to make this test,
which is time consuming but very accurate, even in light in-
fection.
Regular flotation methods commonly used for other parasitic
egg determination are entirely unreliable. However, sedimenta-
tion is effective for accurate fluke egg counts. Moreover, if a
fecal sample is negative it does not necessarily mean that the
animal or herd is free of infection, as eggs may not have been
liberated from the gallbladder at that particular time. Several
animals from each herd should be checked before a definite
diagnosis is made.
Postmortem examination of slaughtered or dead animals with
close observation of the liver for evidence of live flukes is the
most accurate method of diagnosis. The veterinary inspectors
and butchers at slaughterhouses are familiar with flukes and, if
requested, will show them or notify you of their presence or
absence in the cattle. They are interested in good cattle and
will gladly help with your problems. If liver flukes or fluke
scars are found, consult the local veterinarian or county agent
for advice.
MANAGEMENT CONTROL
Liver fluke disease can be controlled through proper manage-
ment methods and practices, including a program of snail eradi-
cation and treatment of infected animals. Liver flukes cannot
reproduce or infect cattle without the snail intermediate host
(Fig. 4). Snail breeding areas should be sought out so that







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


the life cycle of the fluke can be interrupted. If artesian wells
are involved (Fig. 6) they should be shut off, repaired or capped.
Drinking water for cattle, originating from artesian wells should
be piped to tanks and the flow properly controlled by automatic
floats kept in good repair. Since sulfur water will corrode iron
pipes, it is necessary to inspect them frequently and repair
leaks regularly. Stainless steel equipment may be used. A
good float for automatic water systems consists of an empty
gallon jug tightly corked and secured to the float valve with a
chain.
V-type ditches (Fig. 7) afford good drainage for swamps,
sloughs, ponds or old ditches, as this type of drainage allows
the sun to dry out the area and kill the snails. These ditches
can be mowed, grazed or driven across, and will prevent ac-
cumulations of bodies of water after rains or floods. Standing
water or wet areas that persist over 21 days are potential sources
for snail propagation. Pasture drainage should be arranged
to prevent accumulation of and permit all surplus water, rain,
irrigation, etc., to drain out. These ditches should be kept free

Fig. 7.-V-type ditch cut through a wet area provides good drainage and
prevents snail breeding, increases available pastures and can be mowed
or driven across.







Liver Fluke Disease and Its Control


of heavy or rank vegetation. Log or board bridges or wooden
culverts should not be used, as they are especially good breeding
and hibernating areas where snails can survive dry periods.
These crossings preferably should be replaced with landing
strips or other metal mats in a V-type ditch. This will dis-
courage snail propagation and permit automobiles, trucks, etc.,
to be driven across.
Where it is impractical to drain swamps, ponds and other
low, wet areas, fill them in or fence them off out of reach of
cattle. If irrigation is required to insure good grass growth,
it is permissible to flood the pasturage for three to five days and
then immediately drain all ditches and areas of all surplus
water. Washing water from barns, milk rooms and corrals
should be drained into a deep canal not accessible to livestock.

CHEMICAL CONTROL OF SNAILS
A number of chemicals recently have been found that will
destroy snails in the laboratory. However, nothing is known
of their effect on snails, animals or vegetation in the field. An
older chemical, copper sulfate (bluestone, blue vitriol), is the
chemical of choice for snail eradication in the liver fluke control
program. This chemical has been used for years and has proven
effective against snails and safe for cattle and vegetation when
properly applied. It must, however, be handled with care as
it will destroy fish. The recommended snail control is 1 part
of powdered copper sulfate to 4 parts of sand or dry earth
broadcast as one sows seed over the wet areas, ponds and
sloughs. Apply 20 pounds of the chemical per acre. For treat-
ing streams 24 pounds of the chemical to the cubic foot per
second flow of water may be applied.
To determine the cubic feet per second flow of water in a
stream, select a section 60 feet long where there is an even flow,
multiply the average depth by the average width by the velocity
(rate of flow) by 24. This equals the number of pounds of cop-
per sulfate to apply to that particular stream.
Example.-Stream average width of 6 feet, average depth of 6 inches,
and a rate of 2 feet per second of water (flow measured by placing a chip
at the head water and timing its flow for 60 feet).
6 x 0.5 x 2 x 24 = 144 pounds of copper sulfate.
The application to streams may be made by placing large
lumps of copper sulfate in heavy sacks at the headwaters or by
adding a definite amount of the solution from barrels into the







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


stream. To make a stock solution for applying bluestone to a
stream place 33 pounds of powdered or granular copper sulfate
(bluestone) in a 55-gallon wooden barrel, add water and stir
until dissolved, fill the barrel with water to the 50-gallon mark.
Then select a second wooden barrel smaller in size (15 gallons)
and install at the bottom end a glass tube, which is calibrated
to deliver into the stream 18 ounces of the stock solution per
cubic foot flow of water per minute. To maintain a constant
flow of copper sulfate solution into the stream the small barrel
receives its supply from the larger barrel by means of a tube
allowing just sufficient solution to flow so as to maintain a con-
stant level in the small barrel. This may be accomplished by use
of a check valve.
The banks and wet areas around these streams also should be
treated with the broadcast chemical. The chemical will kill all
snails contacted in the ditch as far as the water will flow in 24
hours. It will not kill the snail eggs and its application must
be repeated within 18 to 21 days for complete control.
The most practical and efficient method of applying copper
sulfate to snail-infested areas is by use of a power spray ma-
chine (Figs. 8 and 9). Thirty-three pounds of granular or pow-
dered copper sulfate to 400 gallons of water are used. The
Fig. 8.-A power spray machine pulled by a tractor is an efficient means
of applying copper sulfate to wet areas heavily overgrown with vegetation.
Cover all wet areas thoroughly, using 33 pounds of copper sulfate to 400
gallons of water.







Liver Fluke Disease and Its Control


chemical is dissolved by agitation or by stirring and is applied
by use of a boom-type spray nozzle. While spraying ditches
spray their banks back several feet, beginning at the water's
edge. The edges of large bodies of water should be sprayed
for effective control, as the liver fluke snail prefers shallow
water and is not found in deep water.
Areas being sprayed must have complete coverage, and care
should be taken to make certain that the material penetrates
vegetation and contacts the snails. The application should be
repeated within 21 days for complete destruction of snail life.
One teaspoonful (4.97 grams) copper sulfate (powdered) to
each 100 gallons of water will destroy algae and snails in water
troughs but will not kill the snail eggs; therefore, this treat-
ment should be repeated within 21 days.

TREATMENT OF CATTLE FOR THE REMOVAL
OF LIVER FLUKES
After establishing a program of snail eradication through
drainage, filling, fencing and treatment of infected areas with
copper sulfate, treat the herd to remove adult liver flukes from

Fig. 9.-Applying copper sulfate solution to streams, wet banks and ponds
by the use of a power spray machine and boom nozzles.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


their livers. Treat all cattle over four months of age with
hexachlorethane at a dose rate of 10 grams per 100 pounds
body weight. However, the dose rate should be lowered in
weak, heavily parasitized animals. For safe and effective dosing
the animals should be fasted overnight before treatment. The
treatment should be repeated within 21 days to destroy the
flukes which were immature or in the liver tissue at the time
of the first treatment.
Hexachlorethane is available as a drench from practicing
veterinarians and various chemical houses. It is packaged only
as a drench, with the proper dose schedule on the label, and
may be administered with a dose syringe or bottle. To be sure
that the proper dose is administered shake the contents vigor-
ously or stir them with a stick to make sure of an even suspen-
sion. Heavily infected herds should be treated twice in the
fall, at 21-day intervals, and once in the spring. It must be
remembered that this treatment is for the removal of adult
flukes and does not correct the pathology present as a result
of these parasites. The scars are permanent and are the cause
of condemnation of the livers at time of slaughter.
All new cattle purchased should have a fecal sample examined
for liver fluke infection. If they are from fluke areas or found

Fig. 10.-This six-months-old calf was found dead in a fluke-infected
pasture. Autopsy revealed peritonitis, fluids in abdominal cavity and
1,025 mature and immature liver flukes in the liver tissue and bile ducts,
with many slit-like lesions on the liver surface.







.7- f


Fig. 11.-Santa Gertrudis bull 30 minutes before he died. Autopsy
revealed hardening (cirrhosis) of the liver and blockage of the bile duct
from liver flukes, debri and calcification. The bull is standing in typical
fluke-infected area.






Fig. 12.-Liver-fluke infected herd, showing marked emaciation, with
the typical tucked-up appearance of fluke infection. Two treatments
with hexachlorethane 21 days apart cleared the adult infection and the
herd made rapid recovery. Prior to 1947 animal death losses from flukes
averaged about 3 percent. No deaths have occurred in this herd since
treatment began in 1947. The animals are treated annually for liver flukes
and the usual precaution against reinfection is taken.


~Lll~lllllllbll
i


\ I


C"fU~

li~s~ -

)f~:Er o 1







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


to be infected, they should be isolated and given two doses of
hexachlorethane at 21-day intervals, rechecked for fluke ova
within 30 days, and if negative, they may be added to the herd.

RECOMMENDED PRACTICES
1. Observe animals for symptoms of fluke infection.
2. Have animals checked for fluke ova.
3. Follow slaughter animals to the packinghouse and check
them for the presence or absence of liver fluke infection.
4. Cap or otherwise control artesian well flows; water ani-
mals from watering troughs equipped with automatic floats.
5. Provide shallow V-type drainage of wet area.
6. Fill in or fence out areas impractical to drain.
7. Make periodic observations for the presence of liver fluke
snails.
8. Treat all snail-infested areas with copper sulfate (do not
substitute), repeating the application in 21 days.
9. Treat all liver fluke-infected animals with hexachlor-
ethane, 10 grams per 100 pounds body weight, repeat in 21 days.

SUMMARY
The economic importance and potential danger of liver fluke
disease to the cattle industry of the state make it desirable to
combat the infection and prevent its spread to new areas.
Cattlemen should keep in touch with packers to determine the
fluke parasite picture of the herd.
Close observation should be made for potential snail breeding
areas in or near low wet areas, swamps, sloughs, ponds, ditches
and artesian wells.
Water should be prevented from standing over three weeks in
pastures and adequate drainage systems should be provided.
Snail-infested areas should be drained and treated with cop-
per sulfate.
Drinking troughs should be equipped with automatic float
controls.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


to be infected, they should be isolated and given two doses of
hexachlorethane at 21-day intervals, rechecked for fluke ova
within 30 days, and if negative, they may be added to the herd.

RECOMMENDED PRACTICES
1. Observe animals for symptoms of fluke infection.
2. Have animals checked for fluke ova.
3. Follow slaughter animals to the packinghouse and check
them for the presence or absence of liver fluke infection.
4. Cap or otherwise control artesian well flows; water ani-
mals from watering troughs equipped with automatic floats.
5. Provide shallow V-type drainage of wet area.
6. Fill in or fence out areas impractical to drain.
7. Make periodic observations for the presence of liver fluke
snails.
8. Treat all snail-infested areas with copper sulfate (do not
substitute), repeating the application in 21 days.
9. Treat all liver fluke-infected animals with hexachlor-
ethane, 10 grams per 100 pounds body weight, repeat in 21 days.

SUMMARY
The economic importance and potential danger of liver fluke
disease to the cattle industry of the state make it desirable to
combat the infection and prevent its spread to new areas.
Cattlemen should keep in touch with packers to determine the
fluke parasite picture of the herd.
Close observation should be made for potential snail breeding
areas in or near low wet areas, swamps, sloughs, ponds, ditches
and artesian wells.
Water should be prevented from standing over three weeks in
pastures and adequate drainage systems should be provided.
Snail-infested areas should be drained and treated with cop-
per sulfate.
Drinking troughs should be equipped with automatic float
controls.







Liver Fluke Disease and Its Control 19

Liver fluke disease can be effectively controlled if the recom-
mendations are carefully followed. However it is a long-time
cooperative project.
Consult your local veterinarian, county agent or other ex-
tension workers and set up a control program which should
include your neighboring cattlemen.




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