• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Terms
 Distribution of the disease
 Conditions favorable for the...
 Points of attack
 Nature of the disease
 Susceptibility and immunity
 Cause
 Symptoms and characteristics of...
 Microscopic structure
 Treatment






Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station - no. 25
Title: Leeches or leeching (Bursattee) [A.W. Bitting]
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027506/00001
 Material Information
Title: Leeches or leeching (Bursattee) A.W. Bitting
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: p. 32-48 : ill. ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Bitting, A. W ( Arvill Wayne ), 1870-1946
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Lake City Fla
Publication Date: 1894
 Subjects
Subject: Horses -- Diseases -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Mules -- Diseases -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Cattle -- Diseases -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Includes bibliographical references.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027506
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000919940
oclc - 18151422
notis - AEN0332

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Table of Contents
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Introduction
        Page 37
        Page 38
    Terms
        Page 39
    Distribution of the disease
        Page 39
        General
            Page 39
        In Florida
            Page 40
    Conditions favorable for the disease
        Page 40
    Points of attack
        Page 41
    Nature of the disease
        Page 42
    Susceptibility and immunity
        Page 42
    Cause
        Page 43
    Symptoms and characteristics of the disease
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    Microscopic structure
        Page 46
    Treatment
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





, September, 18921.


FLORIDA




AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT


STATION.








LEECHES OR LEECHING.
(BIJBSATTEE.)


The Bulletins of this Station will be sent free to any address In Florida
upon application to the Director of the Experiment
Station, Lake City, Fla.



JACKSONVILLE, FLA.
VANCE PRINTING COMPANY.
1895.


Bulletin No. 25.

















BOARD OF TRUSTEES.

HoN. WALTER GWYNN, President .. ..... Sanford
HON. W. D. CHIPLEY, Vice-President . Pensacola
HON. F. E. HARRIS, Ch'n Executive Committee ..... Ocala
HON. A. B. HAGAN, Secretary .. ... .. .Lake City
HON. S. SrRINGER . .... . Brooksville
HON. S. J. TURNBULL ..... .. Monticello
HON. C. F. A. BIELBY.. . . .DeLand


-STATION STAFF.

O. CLUTE, M. S., LL. D .... . ... Director
P. H. ROLFS, M. S . .. Horticulturist and Biologist
A. A. PERSONS, M. S. . . . .Chemist
C. A., FINLEY . ... .... Director's Secretary'
A. L. QUAINTANCE, M. S . .Assistant in Biology
H. K. MILLER, M. .. .. Assistant in Chemistry
JOHN F. MITCHELL' Foreman of Lake City Farm
' J. T. STUBBS. . Supt. Sub-Station, DeFuniak Springs
W. A. MARSH . ... .Supt. Sub-Station, Fort Myers

A. W. BITTING, B. S .Special Investigator of Animal Diseases
Veterinarian of Indiana Experimeht Station, Lafayette, Ind.




















LEECHES OR LEECHING.




Introduction . . . . 37
Terms ........... ....... .. 39
Distribution of the Disease .. .. .. 39
General..... ............... 39
In Florida. ... ............. ..40
The Conditions Favorable for the Disease .... .. 40
Points of Attack. .... . .. .41
Nature of the Disease. . . . 42
Susceptibility and Immunity . . .42
Cause . . . . 43
Symptoms and Characteristics of the Disease . .43 :
Microscopic Structure . .. . ..' 46
Treatment . . . . 46


\
.. ,"













































Microscopic Structure of Bursatte Magnified 500 Times.


Microscopic Structure of Bursatte Magnified 500 Times.











































Typical Case of Bursatte.


Effect of Bursatte on Bone.











INTRODUCTION.


This bulletin, and bulletin 26, soon to follow, on "Big-
head," represent in part the work done by Prof. A. W.
Bitting during the time he was Veterinarian of the Florida
Experiment Station. Unfortunately for Florida, he accepted
a most attractive call to the position of Veterinarian of the
Indiana Experiment Station, induced thereto by an un-,
hampered field of work and a somewhat adequate salary.
His work in Florida was necessarily left in an incomplete
*condition. In looking over the previous work of the Station,
after my assumption of the duties as Director, my attention
was called to the growing value to Florida of investigations of
animal diseases by a trained Veterinarian, and I was led to
write to Dr.'Bitting in regard to frequently recurring questions
as to such diseases. Learning that he felt a strong interest in
-carrying forward some of the work he had begun in this State,
an offer was made to him to spend his summer vacation here.
in 1894. He accepted, conducted his work with vigor and
*enthusiasm and reported it to me in admirable shape. These
two bulletins are a part of said report. Another bulletin on
"Liver-fluke" will soon appear.
It will be seen that these bulletins give no infallible rem-
edies. The quack doctor of men has cures for all the ills that
ifiesh is heir to. The'well-trained doctor of men knows that, in
many cases, medical science has not yet discovered remedies
for most serious diseases.
So the "hoss" doctor (whose decreasing shadow grows
rapidly less), is always sure that he knows what ails every
diseased animal, and that his "ile" is a sure cute. The edu-
cated doctor of animals knows that remedies have not yet been
discovered for some of the most destructive diseases of his
patients. He says this frankly, and gives his labor for years
to careful experimentation, in the hope of discovering reme-
.dies.
While these bulletins give no ''sure cure" of Leeches"
and "Big-head," they do contain in popular form the results of
Dr. Bitting's valuable investigations of the diseases, which are
the latest that have been made, and which have already re-
-ceived honorable recognition from the ablest students of Vete-
rinary science. They throw much light on the subject, and
clear the way for future investigations.








Dr. Bitting had most generous assistance and most hos-
pitable reception from all to whom he applied or whom he
met. Special acknowledgments are due to the Florida Central
and Peninsular and the Jacksonville, Tampa and Key West'
Railroads for granting free transportation on all parts of their
lines. It was through their liberality that the State was so
thoroughly worked. Thirty-seven points in the State were
visited; some only one time, but many of them several times..
This required in.all 3,126 miles of travel.
Through the kindness of the Times- Union, The Florida
Farmer and Fruit Grower and I he Florida Agriculturist the files.
*of their papers were inspected for the literature concerning the
diseases in this State. To Dr. N. B. Rhodes, of Tampa, and to
Messrs. Smith & Pedrick, of Gainesville, thanks are due for
assistance in securing material, and to Dr, J. C. Neal, Director
of the. Experiment Station at Stillwater, Oklahoma, for a record
of the work he did when in Florida.
t; t Recognition should be made, also, of the willingness of
the Board of Trustees of the Florida Agricultural College to
undertake this work, though they were hampered by serious-
financial limitations. Dr. Bitting's work much more than
justifies the expense the Board incurred. It is very seldom
that so much good work is done in so short a time and at so
small an expense. This work is but a part of that which
needs to be done to advance the stock interests of Florida.
Many animal diseases need the constant study of an able
Veterinarian. Among them may be mentioned: Southern
Cattle Fever, Salt-sick, Blind Staggers, Rickets in Hogs, the-
S East Coast Skin Disease, Cholera and Sore Heqd in Poultry,
Ground Itch, Cattle Warts and Parasites. The field is a
most important one, and needs the services of a competent man..
0. CLUTE,
Director Florida Experiment Station.-
LAKE CITY, FLA., September, 1894.




' 1 -


LEECHES OR LEECHING.
(Bursattee, Round-Celled Sarcoma.)

BY A. W. BITTING, B. S.

There are in this State two diseases called Leeches: one
an external affection of horses and cattle, the other an affection
of the livers of cattle, produced by the invasion of a fluke
(Distoma hepatica). This latter disease occursin cattle grazing
near the coast and along the rivers for some distance inland.
While it is productive of no little loss, it is not generally recog-,
nized, and cattle men show but little interest in it. The term
Leeches in this article will be confined exclusively to the
external affection of horses, mules and cattle.
There is no definition in Veterinary literature descriptive
of a disease known.by our local terms Leeches or Leeching.
The same disease is recognized, however, and is called tBur-
sattee, Bursati, Bursatte or Bursatti; the term being derived from
the Indian word "Bursat," meaning rain. The term literally
Means rainsore, the appropriateness of which at once becomes
apparent to stock men. The term Leeches is altogether a
misnomer, and came from the belief that the sores were caused
by the Water Leech. The term will be retained in this article
for the reason that it will cause less confusion to the reader.
So little is known of the pathology of the disease, and so
many conflicting views held as to the cause and nature, that a
definition has not yet been formulated. The following will
serve as a brief statement of its general characteristics.
Leeches is a non-contagious, malignant disease, characterized by an
external sore, in which there are tissue changes involving the
epithelium, connective tissue, muscles, tendons, bones or glands,
associated with the development of bodies known as Leeches.
The disease is slow in its progress, and has a tendency to lecur-_
ence during hot, damp *weather.
DISTRIBUTION OF THE DISEASE.
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION.-The disease is not peculiar to
this State, nor confined to "The Lake Region," as many sup-
pose. It has long been known in India, was reported from
Minnesota in *1886, Kansas and Alabama in 11889, and is
tRobertson's "Practice of Equine Medicine." pages 290-302.
*Lyford, Dr. C. C. The Veterinary Journal, May, 1886. pp. 378 381.
tAnderaon, Dr. John B. The Journal of Comparative Medicine and Surgery, June, 1889,
pages 72-77.




' 1 -


LEECHES OR LEECHING.
(Bursattee, Round-Celled Sarcoma.)

BY A. W. BITTING, B. S.

There are in this State two diseases called Leeches: one
an external affection of horses and cattle, the other an affection
of the livers of cattle, produced by the invasion of a fluke
(Distoma hepatica). This latter disease occursin cattle grazing
near the coast and along the rivers for some distance inland.
While it is productive of no little loss, it is not generally recog-,
nized, and cattle men show but little interest in it. The term
Leeches in this article will be confined exclusively to the
external affection of horses, mules and cattle.
There is no definition in Veterinary literature descriptive
of a disease known.by our local terms Leeches or Leeching.
The same disease is recognized, however, and is called tBur-
sattee, Bursati, Bursatte or Bursatti; the term being derived from
the Indian word "Bursat," meaning rain. The term literally
Means rainsore, the appropriateness of which at once becomes
apparent to stock men. The term Leeches is altogether a
misnomer, and came from the belief that the sores were caused
by the Water Leech. The term will be retained in this article
for the reason that it will cause less confusion to the reader.
So little is known of the pathology of the disease, and so
many conflicting views held as to the cause and nature, that a
definition has not yet been formulated. The following will
serve as a brief statement of its general characteristics.
Leeches is a non-contagious, malignant disease, characterized by an
external sore, in which there are tissue changes involving the
epithelium, connective tissue, muscles, tendons, bones or glands,
associated with the development of bodies known as Leeches.
The disease is slow in its progress, and has a tendency to lecur-_
ence during hot, damp *weather.
DISTRIBUTION OF THE DISEASE.
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION.-The disease is not peculiar to
this State, nor confined to "The Lake Region," as many sup-
pose. It has long been known in India, was reported from
Minnesota in *1886, Kansas and Alabama in 11889, and is
tRobertson's "Practice of Equine Medicine." pages 290-302.
*Lyford, Dr. C. C. The Veterinary Journal, May, 1886. pp. 378 381.
tAnderaon, Dr. John B. The Journal of Comparative Medicine and Surgery, June, 1889,
pages 72-77.




' 1 -


LEECHES OR LEECHING.
(Bursattee, Round-Celled Sarcoma.)

BY A. W. BITTING, B. S.

There are in this State two diseases called Leeches: one
an external affection of horses and cattle, the other an affection
of the livers of cattle, produced by the invasion of a fluke
(Distoma hepatica). This latter disease occursin cattle grazing
near the coast and along the rivers for some distance inland.
While it is productive of no little loss, it is not generally recog-,
nized, and cattle men show but little interest in it. The term
Leeches in this article will be confined exclusively to the
external affection of horses, mules and cattle.
There is no definition in Veterinary literature descriptive
of a disease known.by our local terms Leeches or Leeching.
The same disease is recognized, however, and is called tBur-
sattee, Bursati, Bursatte or Bursatti; the term being derived from
the Indian word "Bursat," meaning rain. The term literally
Means rainsore, the appropriateness of which at once becomes
apparent to stock men. The term Leeches is altogether a
misnomer, and came from the belief that the sores were caused
by the Water Leech. The term will be retained in this article
for the reason that it will cause less confusion to the reader.
So little is known of the pathology of the disease, and so
many conflicting views held as to the cause and nature, that a
definition has not yet been formulated. The following will
serve as a brief statement of its general characteristics.
Leeches is a non-contagious, malignant disease, characterized by an
external sore, in which there are tissue changes involving the
epithelium, connective tissue, muscles, tendons, bones or glands,
associated with the development of bodies known as Leeches.
The disease is slow in its progress, and has a tendency to lecur-_
ence during hot, damp *weather.
DISTRIBUTION OF THE DISEASE.
GENERAL DISTRIBUTION.-The disease is not peculiar to
this State, nor confined to "The Lake Region," as many sup-
pose. It has long been known in India, was reported from
Minnesota in *1886, Kansas and Alabama in 11889, and is
tRobertson's "Practice of Equine Medicine." pages 290-302.
*Lyford, Dr. C. C. The Veterinary Journal, May, 1886. pp. 378 381.
tAnderaon, Dr. John B. The Journal of Comparative Medicine and Surgery, June, 1889,
pages 72-77.





40'


now known all over the United States, except in :that region
S lying east of the Alleghany Mountains and north of the
Potomac River.
The first published account of the disease in this State was
S by Dr. J.-C. Neal in 1887.t
THE DISTRIBUTION IN FLORIDA.-There are probably few
places in this State where the disease may not occur but there
are sections in which its occurrence is of much greater
frequency than in others. The two northern tiers of counties,
situated upon the high ground, suffer least. The regions that
suffer most are those with numerous flat prairies and ponds.
The section of country lying in the southern part of Alachua
County, northern part of Marion County and extending south-
westward across Levy County; the eastern portion of Citrus
County; Hillsborough and Manatee Counties; the country
lying west of the St. Lucie River and that around the head of
the St. Johns River may be considered to furnish the greatest
number of cases. A number of places may be found within
these areas where the disease is very rare, and an equal num-
ber of places can be found in the northern counties where it is
quite prevalent. If the State could be mapped into sections
of high and low land the former would most nearly represent
the area free from disease. I have seen the disease, or received
information of its presence, at Lake City, Welborn, White
Springs, Columbia, Lake Butler, Baldwin, Fort White, Gains-
ville, Arredondo, Wakahoota, Archer, Bronson, Rochelle,
Micanopy, Anthony, Citra, Ooala, Iverness, Dade City, Plant
City, Tampa, Miakka, Manatee, Palmetto, Tavares, Umatilla,
Sajiford, Orlando, Kissimmee, Osteen, St. Lucie River, DeLand,
Belair, Apopka and Palatka. A glance at the map will show
that the disease is very generally distributed. It is also fair
to assume that the disease occurs at the intermediate points.
THE CONDITIONS. FAVORABLE FOR THE DISEASE.
The-disease occurs during the months of highest
temperature, and particularly after the beginning of the rainy
season. Heat and moisture, if they are not necessary factors,
are certainly very prominent ones. An animal seldom suffers
its first attack before the middle of June, but may at any time
from that date until the middle of October. If the animal
has had one attack and the sores apparently heal with the
advent of cool weather, they may re-appear at any time after
the first of April the following year. The months of July and
August bring forth the greatest number of cases.
My own observation extends over a period of but three
seasons, and hence I do not feel justified in making a state-
AWilliams, Dr. W. L. Correspondence, October 2, 1894.
tNeal, Dr. J. C. The Florida Farmer and Fruit Grower, August 3, 1887.





40'


now known all over the United States, except in :that region
S lying east of the Alleghany Mountains and north of the
Potomac River.
The first published account of the disease in this State was
S by Dr. J.-C. Neal in 1887.t
THE DISTRIBUTION IN FLORIDA.-There are probably few
places in this State where the disease may not occur but there
are sections in which its occurrence is of much greater
frequency than in others. The two northern tiers of counties,
situated upon the high ground, suffer least. The regions that
suffer most are those with numerous flat prairies and ponds.
The section of country lying in the southern part of Alachua
County, northern part of Marion County and extending south-
westward across Levy County; the eastern portion of Citrus
County; Hillsborough and Manatee Counties; the country
lying west of the St. Lucie River and that around the head of
the St. Johns River may be considered to furnish the greatest
number of cases. A number of places may be found within
these areas where the disease is very rare, and an equal num-
ber of places can be found in the northern counties where it is
quite prevalent. If the State could be mapped into sections
of high and low land the former would most nearly represent
the area free from disease. I have seen the disease, or received
information of its presence, at Lake City, Welborn, White
Springs, Columbia, Lake Butler, Baldwin, Fort White, Gains-
ville, Arredondo, Wakahoota, Archer, Bronson, Rochelle,
Micanopy, Anthony, Citra, Ooala, Iverness, Dade City, Plant
City, Tampa, Miakka, Manatee, Palmetto, Tavares, Umatilla,
Sajiford, Orlando, Kissimmee, Osteen, St. Lucie River, DeLand,
Belair, Apopka and Palatka. A glance at the map will show
that the disease is very generally distributed. It is also fair
to assume that the disease occurs at the intermediate points.
THE CONDITIONS. FAVORABLE FOR THE DISEASE.
The-disease occurs during the months of highest
temperature, and particularly after the beginning of the rainy
season. Heat and moisture, if they are not necessary factors,
are certainly very prominent ones. An animal seldom suffers
its first attack before the middle of June, but may at any time
from that date until the middle of October. If the animal
has had one attack and the sores apparently heal with the
advent of cool weather, they may re-appear at any time after
the first of April the following year. The months of July and
August bring forth the greatest number of cases.
My own observation extends over a period of but three
seasons, and hence I do not feel justified in making a state-
AWilliams, Dr. W. L. Correspondence, October 2, 1894.
tNeal, Dr. J. C. The Florida Farmer and Fruit Grower, August 3, 1887.







rmeit concerning the influence of the season on the disease.
'The following is offered as the gist of statements given by
many stock-raisers. While it does not apply equally well for
all points in the State, it does to probably nine-tenths. A dry
-season is not favorable to the disease, as the ponds go dry.
A season of excessive rainfall is not favorable, as the'ponds
-then contain fresh water and will run from one basin to
:another. A season of moderate rainfall, so that the water only
-slightly rises or falls in the ponds or on prairies, is most
Favorable. Frequent showers succeeded by hot sunshine are
particularly bad for horses on pasture.
Leeches most frequently attacks animals that graze upon
low flat-woods or prairie. Here the animals stand for hours
in water from a few inches to a foot or more in depth. The
water in some ponds will cause the disease more readily than
in others. Just what may be the difference between them has
not been discovered. Dr. Neal thinks that ponds with sandy
shores are risky, and with black or muddy shores are safe."
In a pond or prairie where an occasional horse will become
,affected, a cow will go free; one in which an occasional cow
will become affected, almost any horse will become so diseased.
A pond that will leech in July or August will be safe in
.December.
Ponds, prairies, flat-woods, pastures commonly thought to
be the necessary influences under which an animal will leech,
-can only be regarded as the most favorable ones. It would be
-safe to estimate that seven out of ten cases do occur in such
locations. The disease may attack an animal in upland past-
ure, and even in a bare lot or stable. A rainy season is not
necessary, but is a condition which increases the number of
-cases and adds to the virulence of an attack.
POINTS OF ATTACK.
While leeches has no particular point of attack, yet it
-does occur on certain regions of the body with greater fre-
-quency than on others. The legs below the knees, the fetlocks,
heels, feet, lips, breast and belly suffer most. Occasional cases
occur in the eyes, the mouth, nose, sides of the face and neck,
-on the prepuce and mammae. Dr. Neal says: "Leeching
begins, usually, upon some part of the body that has been
submerged." Mr. C. M. Smith, of Gainesville, a man of much
experience in "cutting leeches," thinks: "It occurs most often
-on parts a few inches above the water-line." If we generalize
from cases taken all over the State, it will be found that it
makes no difference whether the part is submerged or not.
The disease may occur on one or more points of the body.
'The fact that it attacks the legs below the knees, the feet, lips,








breast and belly, parts ,most readily abraded, has caused some
to think that an injury or bruise serves as a nucleus for the
development. An abrasion of the skin is not necessary, as
observation has settled that point. That a bruise or similar
injury is necessary is highly improbable. The large number
of bruises produced accidentally, by the chafing of the collar
and harness, and the wounds produced by an injury, and in
surgery, the termination of which are known, admit of draw-
ing the conclusion that these are not points of attack. In
only one case hawe I seen leeches follow an accident, and in
that instance the animal carried a foreign body in the wound
for several months.
NATURE OF THE DISEASE.
Leeches affects horses, mules and cattle, the susceptibility
of the animals being in the order given. Hogs, dogs, sheep,.
goats and poultry are exempt. It is generally regarded as.
being non-contagious. One affected animal may be in a lot
with a number of others, free from disease, and none contract
it. A mare may be affected and the colt not, or the colt may
be affected and rub the diseased part over the dam without
inducing it in the latter. The dam may lick the sore; dogs,.
S hogs, cats and poultry may eat excised tissue with impunity.
Men operate upon the disease without taking any extraordinary
* precautions. The possibility of producing it by inoculation
S .has been denied. This has also been observed: leeches in the-
mouth or upon the lips is most frequently a secondary affec-
/ tion, and comes from gnawing the affected parts. If an
animal has leeches on one part of the body, and some other-
part comes in contact with it-as one leg pressing against the-
other while at rest-there is a strong probability of a second-
ary attack in the part that comes in contact with that already
diseased', During the summer of 1892 three cases were brought
to the Experiment Station which showed this feature in a
S striking manner. On one animal a secondary growth was-
produced after numerous experiments.
SUSCEPTIBILITY AND IMMUNITY.
Some animals possess a certain resistive power so they are
not readily attacked. Some never become affected, others not
for ten or fifteen years, others in three or four years, and some
animals cannot stand the effects of a pasture, for more than a
few days or a month. There are no characteristics indicating
that an animal possesses this resistive power. After being
attacked once, and successfully treated, the animal may never
have another, or he may become much more susceptible; the-
latter result is more common.








breast and belly, parts ,most readily abraded, has caused some
to think that an injury or bruise serves as a nucleus for the
development. An abrasion of the skin is not necessary, as
observation has settled that point. That a bruise or similar
injury is necessary is highly improbable. The large number
of bruises produced accidentally, by the chafing of the collar
and harness, and the wounds produced by an injury, and in
surgery, the termination of which are known, admit of draw-
ing the conclusion that these are not points of attack. In
only one case hawe I seen leeches follow an accident, and in
that instance the animal carried a foreign body in the wound
for several months.
NATURE OF THE DISEASE.
Leeches affects horses, mules and cattle, the susceptibility
of the animals being in the order given. Hogs, dogs, sheep,.
goats and poultry are exempt. It is generally regarded as.
being non-contagious. One affected animal may be in a lot
with a number of others, free from disease, and none contract
it. A mare may be affected and the colt not, or the colt may
be affected and rub the diseased part over the dam without
inducing it in the latter. The dam may lick the sore; dogs,.
S hogs, cats and poultry may eat excised tissue with impunity.
Men operate upon the disease without taking any extraordinary
* precautions. The possibility of producing it by inoculation
S .has been denied. This has also been observed: leeches in the-
mouth or upon the lips is most frequently a secondary affec-
/ tion, and comes from gnawing the affected parts. If an
animal has leeches on one part of the body, and some other-
part comes in contact with it-as one leg pressing against the-
other while at rest-there is a strong probability of a second-
ary attack in the part that comes in contact with that already
diseased', During the summer of 1892 three cases were brought
to the Experiment Station which showed this feature in a
S striking manner. On one animal a secondary growth was-
produced after numerous experiments.
SUSCEPTIBILITY AND IMMUNITY.
Some animals possess a certain resistive power so they are
not readily attacked. Some never become affected, others not
for ten or fifteen years, others in three or four years, and some
animals cannot stand the effects of a pasture, for more than a
few days or a month. There are no characteristics indicating
that an animal possesses this resistive power. After being
attacked once, and successfully treated, the animal may never
have another, or he may become much more susceptible; the-
latter result is more common.








I was able to obtain but few records to show the influence
of heredity upon the disease. 'These were not complete, but
the inference drawn was that it does have some effect. It may
have been that the environment for successive generations
made the offspring more. susceptible. The point will not be
urged with* the present data.
As a general statement, a thick-skinned horse is less
liable to be affected than a thin-skinned one.
THE CAUSE OF THE DISEASE.
There are many theories as to the cause of the disease.
Some hold that a leech gets on the animal, enters the skin,
deposits eggs, and these hatch and form the peculiar bodies
known as leeches. Some believe a fly deposits eggs under the
skin, and these develop and cause the sore. There are others
who believe it to be due to a poison of some kind, to a fungus,
and to a very small animal parasite.
Among pathologists the views held are no less confusing;
animal parasites, fungi, fly bites, bruises and irritation have
each had supporters.
Observation upon a number of cases may help settle a few
points. In six cases animals became affected that had neither
access to water nor pasture, which would eliminate the possi-
bility of its being due to water or to the Water Leech. Its
occurrence in the sole of the foot, and other parts of the
body not accessible to flies would eliminate that factor.
Animals become affected under divers forms of diet, so that
poisoning from feed is eliminated as a cause. A microscopic
examination of the tissue fails to reveal animal or vegetable
parasites.
We are not prepared to state just what the cause may be.
It certainly is not due to one thing, but the result of many.
Furthermore, the local sore is not to be considered the only
bodily disturbance.
SYMPTOMS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DISEASE.
The disease begins with a slight local swelling, heat and
pain, a thickening of the skin and the tissues immediately
beneath. The thickened portion gradually decreases from the
center outward, but leaves a well-defined base. This outline
may not be perceptible to-the eye, but can be distinguished by
the sense of touch. The whole is movable, and the skin may
not be attached to the indurated part, or to but a small
portion of it. 'In from two to ten days small spots like the
pointing of an abscess may be seen. The hair falls out,'and
drops of yellowish, watery fluid exude. Across these points
the skin will break, and a malignant sore is formed. The








I was able to obtain but few records to show the influence
of heredity upon the disease. 'These were not complete, but
the inference drawn was that it does have some effect. It may
have been that the environment for successive generations
made the offspring more. susceptible. The point will not be
urged with* the present data.
As a general statement, a thick-skinned horse is less
liable to be affected than a thin-skinned one.
THE CAUSE OF THE DISEASE.
There are many theories as to the cause of the disease.
Some hold that a leech gets on the animal, enters the skin,
deposits eggs, and these hatch and form the peculiar bodies
known as leeches. Some believe a fly deposits eggs under the
skin, and these develop and cause the sore. There are others
who believe it to be due to a poison of some kind, to a fungus,
and to a very small animal parasite.
Among pathologists the views held are no less confusing;
animal parasites, fungi, fly bites, bruises and irritation have
each had supporters.
Observation upon a number of cases may help settle a few
points. In six cases animals became affected that had neither
access to water nor pasture, which would eliminate the possi-
bility of its being due to water or to the Water Leech. Its
occurrence in the sole of the foot, and other parts of the
body not accessible to flies would eliminate that factor.
Animals become affected under divers forms of diet, so that
poisoning from feed is eliminated as a cause. A microscopic
examination of the tissue fails to reveal animal or vegetable
parasites.
We are not prepared to state just what the cause may be.
It certainly is not due to one thing, but the result of many.
Furthermore, the local sore is not to be considered the only
bodily disturbance.
SYMPTOMS AND CHARACTERISTICS OF THE DISEASE.
The disease begins with a slight local swelling, heat and
pain, a thickening of the skin and the tissues immediately
beneath. The thickened portion gradually decreases from the
center outward, but leaves a well-defined base. This outline
may not be perceptible to-the eye, but can be distinguished by
the sense of touch. The whole is movable, and the skin may
not be attached to the indurated part, or to but a small
portion of it. 'In from two to ten days small spots like the
pointing of an abscess may be seen. The hair falls out,'and
drops of yellowish, watery fluid exude. Across these points
the skin will break, and a malignant sore is formed. The







Tissues are broken down, and all unite to form one open surface,,
which never extends beyond the indurated base. The edges
of the skin turn back, leaving a decided mark between what
seems to be the diseased tissue and what seems to be healthy.
Such a division does not actually take place. Within the
thickened tissue are formed the small bodies, called the Leech,
or the Krunker, as they are known in India. Al first they
are very small, but begin to enlarge and attain the size of a
pea, of a grain of corn, and even become half an inch in
diameter. They are readily separated from the fibrous tissue
and resemble a sandspur (burr of Cenchrus tribuloides L.).
These so-called "Leeches" do not-form altogether on the surface
of the ulcer. They are found in all parts of the indurated
base, and may extend back for several inches under the skin.
They keep constantly forming around the ulcer, but slowly;
the skin continues to break, and thus cause an extension or
enlargement of the sore. On the surface of the sore several
may apparently coalesce and form one large one.
There are twd quite distinct forms of sores. In one the
extension into surrounding tissue is slow. It is covered with
a roughened surface which bleeds easily, but is not very sensi-
tive. The Leeches are not abundant, and instead of becoming
hard and grittythey remain rather small and soft. There is
little pus formed, and this is often diluted with a watery fluid.
The tissues vary from a bright red to a dull, livid hue. In
the second form the same characteristics are present, but in a
much exaggerated degree, the destruction of tissue being very
rapid. The development of the Leeches is rapid and abun-
dant. They become of large size, very hard and gritty. There
is a special tendency to invade deep structures. Pus is formed
in considerable quantity, and is foul-smelling. Associated
with these symptoms is a rapid depletion of the system. The
difference between the two forms is one of degree, as the first
may at any time merge into the second if properly stimulated.
S:, Anything producing exhaustion or an unhealthy condition of
the system will have a tendency to change a sore from the
first to the second form. Local irritants will have a like effect.
The following will illustrate how rapidly tissue is replaced in a
sore of the second form: In an experiment, a section varying
from one-fouth to one-half an inch in thickness, four inches
wide and seven inches long was removed. In two days it was
completely restored. Longitudinal incisions a half inch in
depth, followed by an application of caustic potash, was next
tried. 'The surface tissue sloughed off, but was completely
S restored in a week.
The primary lesion rarely breaks out in more than one
point. Secondary lesion may occur at several places at the





45

same time. If the disease is in the skin or mucous membrane,
the greater will be the number of secondary sores. As many
as eighteen have been observed on various parts of the body.
The affected parts may or may not project beyond the
surface of the surrounding parts. Its tendency is inward. If
over a bony structure, in a vascular organ or of an acute type,
there is considerable swelling.
Leeches is peculiar in the manifestation of pain. At.
times there seems to be absence of sensibility, as shown by
pressure, pricking, and even the possibility of excising portions
without causing the animal to flinch. At other times the
slightest touch will meet with resistance. There are periods
when the animal gives little attention to the affected part, and
other periods when he will gnaw or rub it incessantly if he
can reach it. The irritation produced by rubbing, biting, the
application of caustics or escharotics and excision of parts
stimulate growth.
If the disease is situated in the skin or the tissues immedi-
ately beneath, the advent of cool weather may arrest it until
the. following spring. A few cases are reported to have com-
pletely recovered under such conditions. If the seat of attack
is a gland or deep structure, there will be little cessation of
activity.
The disease may involve the skin, mucous membrane,
connective tissue, muscles, tendons, glands, invade joints and
even destroy'hoof and bone. A final result of an unarrested
case of Leeches is death. A hoof or foot may be detached from
a limb, the eye be eaten out, the tongue become so sore that
food cannot be taken, or other organs so affected that the
normal physiological functions cannot be performed. The
length of time an animal can survive will depend upon how
necessary the part is in maintaining life or how much it
admits of exhausting the system.
R. W. Burk, F. R. C. V. S., of Cawnpore, India, in his
contribution upon the disease, states that lesions occur upon
the liver, spleen, intestines and other internal organs. In the
three post mortem examinations in which the viscera were-
examined I failed to find anything present. The effect of the
disease upon the body is that of depletion, especially if it is of
the sloughing type. An animal may appear to be in perfect
health when first attacked, but rapidly loses condition. There-
are periods of inquietude due to the pain or irritation, occa-
sionally slight elevation of temperature for a few days, some-
times a cough, and not infrequently digestive disorders. As
nearly all animals were seen after the disease had made some
progress, the condition of the animals could not be noted in its
earliest stage.







The disease posesses a marked tendency to recur after hav-
ing been once enucleated, either at the same place or on other
points of the body. This recurrence may occur the same year
'~r after a lapse of a few years. There is always an element of un-
certainty about the soundness of ananimal after the first attack.
DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIs.-The disease may be con-
founded with a bloody wart, an unhealthy ulcer, and excessive
granulations (proud flesh) in wounds of accidents or surgical
operations. If a close examination discloses the absence of
the characteristic body, "the Leech", the absence of "points"
surrounding the open part from which a serious exudate
escapes, and of the well-defined base extending back from the
lips of the wound under the skin the case is not leeches.
MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURE.
The microscopic examination of the disease was made
upon tissues taken from eight different subjects in all stages of
development. Different processes were used for fixing, harden-
ing and staining, to determine the presence or absence of animal
, parasites and fungi as well as tissue changes. No parasites
were found except as accidental invaders. The tissue changes
that are found to be present are such as are present in cancer.
*Richard W. Burke. F. R. C. V. S., has called it Atropic
Carcinoma. The following characteristics are 'present: a
stroma of compact fibrous tissue between whose elements are
seen numerous small, round cells. The fibers- take an irreg-
ular direction so that a single section may present a longitu-
dinal in one part of the field, a transverse in another, and the
intermediate steps between the two. The cells between the
fibers have no arrangement; they may be few or many
squeezed together. The blood vessels are very numerous and
irregularly disposed and of varying capacity. The walls are
composed of round or elongated cells instead of those ordinarily
found. The leech on section shows that it is a heterogenous
mass, and has been built up by additions to the outside. A
very thin section will not hold together. These Leeches or
Krunker begin with a mass of round cells, and are the result of
the squeezing of these cells together by the fibrous portion.
In inflammation there is contraction of the tissue and they- are
the result. They may contain crystals of inorganic matter
and pigment cells. The cells are of the embryonic type.
According to the pathological characteristics it belongs to the
round-celled sarcoma. It is a cancer.
TREATMENT.
During the summer of 1892 a case was brought to the
SExperiment Station for treatment, in which it was. impossible
*Burke, Richard W., F. R. C. V. S. Journal of Comparative Medicine achd Surgery,
-Vol. vii., No. 4, October 1886, page 368.







The disease posesses a marked tendency to recur after hav-
ing been once enucleated, either at the same place or on other
points of the body. This recurrence may occur the same year
'~r after a lapse of a few years. There is always an element of un-
certainty about the soundness of ananimal after the first attack.
DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIs.-The disease may be con-
founded with a bloody wart, an unhealthy ulcer, and excessive
granulations (proud flesh) in wounds of accidents or surgical
operations. If a close examination discloses the absence of
the characteristic body, "the Leech", the absence of "points"
surrounding the open part from which a serious exudate
escapes, and of the well-defined base extending back from the
lips of the wound under the skin the case is not leeches.
MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURE.
The microscopic examination of the disease was made
upon tissues taken from eight different subjects in all stages of
development. Different processes were used for fixing, harden-
ing and staining, to determine the presence or absence of animal
, parasites and fungi as well as tissue changes. No parasites
were found except as accidental invaders. The tissue changes
that are found to be present are such as are present in cancer.
*Richard W. Burke. F. R. C. V. S., has called it Atropic
Carcinoma. The following characteristics are 'present: a
stroma of compact fibrous tissue between whose elements are
seen numerous small, round cells. The fibers- take an irreg-
ular direction so that a single section may present a longitu-
dinal in one part of the field, a transverse in another, and the
intermediate steps between the two. The cells between the
fibers have no arrangement; they may be few or many
squeezed together. The blood vessels are very numerous and
irregularly disposed and of varying capacity. The walls are
composed of round or elongated cells instead of those ordinarily
found. The leech on section shows that it is a heterogenous
mass, and has been built up by additions to the outside. A
very thin section will not hold together. These Leeches or
Krunker begin with a mass of round cells, and are the result of
the squeezing of these cells together by the fibrous portion.
In inflammation there is contraction of the tissue and they- are
the result. They may contain crystals of inorganic matter
and pigment cells. The cells are of the embryonic type.
According to the pathological characteristics it belongs to the
round-celled sarcoma. It is a cancer.
TREATMENT.
During the summer of 1892 a case was brought to the
SExperiment Station for treatment, in which it was. impossible
*Burke, Richard W., F. R. C. V. S. Journal of Comparative Medicine achd Surgery,
-Vol. vii., No. 4, October 1886, page 368.







to excise all the diseased tissue. An antiseptic treatment,
consisting of washes of corrosive sublimate and darbolic acid
and bandages of iodoform, was used. The disease made no
improvement. An attempt was made to slough out the dis-
eased part with dry arsenic. Fresh powder was dusted over
the sore and bandaged every day for two weeks with the
result of having a new growth twice the size of the original.
Incising the tissue, and using caustic potash and zinc sulphate,
made it worse. On various subjects solutions of copper sulphate,
permanganate of potash, chloride of zinc, chloride of iroh, and
-tincture of iodine were used without success., Dusting the surface
with powdered calomel, sulphate of iron and alum, either alone
or various combinations, did but little good. Iodide of potash,
.given internallyin drachm doses twice a day for two weeks, re-
peated at an interval of an equal length of time, was tried in six
-cases. During the interval tonics were administered. The
result was a large surface slough in two of which it made an
operation easy. Extract of phytolacca produced no favorable
effects. Various tonics were used in nearly all cases, such as
Fowler's solution of arsenic, iron, quinine, nux vomica, gentian
.and such combinations as the symptoms might suggest. Of
the local applications permanganate of potash was the best to
prevent new growth. Some superficial sores healed with this
treatment. A dressing of two parts of iodoform and one of
-calomel, and this covered with a coat of white lead, under a
bandage, was of some benefit. Fresh dressings were used
daily. Some have claimed good results with carbolic acid
and a white lead dressing. In two experiments a hypordermic
injection of equal parts ammonia, alcohol and water was used.
This mixture was injected in small quantities all around and
under the indurated part. The result was a sloughing of- all
the diseased parts, but the sore thus made did rot heal readily.
'The number of trials were too limited to give it a recommenda-
tion. Dr. I. N. Huston, of Palmetto, Florida, in a letter to
the Experiment Station in December, 1893, describes a similar
method but uses kerosene. Many remedies were tried that
were recommended by various parties who claimed to have
used them successfully, but failed in my hands. The result
of the work ,o far can not be said to be a success with medical
treatment.
Dr. Lyferd says in his paper: "The treatment for my first
year's experience with the disease was of an antiseptic and
-cleansing nature, but with little avail. The next year I tried
caustics and irritants of all descriptions; actual cautery, arsenic,
acids, nitrate of silver, also styptics, sulphate of iron and cop-
per,.tincture of iron, etc. The third year, iodoform, alum and
salicylic acid with some indications of better results, but noth-







ing flattering. For the past two years I have had excellent*
results with a liniment composed of olive oil, aqua ammonia
and fluid extract of arnica; and a powder composed of alum,
salicylic acid, calomel and sulphate of iron, and, as a rule,,
internal treatment by purgatives and tonics."
R. W. Burke, F. R. C. V. S., says: "I have myself tried,_
in numerous cases, local applications of caustic potash, nitrate
of silver, chloride of zinc, chlorate of potash, sulphate of cop-
per, of iron and of zinc, salicylate of soda, salicylic, nitric,.
sulphuric, acetic and carbolic acids, myrrh, aloes, camphor,.
alum, sulphur, etc., without effect. Iodine and sulphurous
acid injections have been latterly tried by myself in many
private cases with equally useless results. T. Marriott, A.V. D.,
speaks very highly of the results of treatment by iodoform.
Very extensive Barsatti growths on the fetlocks, lower lips and
angles of the mouth have been gradually destroyed by caustics
followed by iodoform dressings, and a healthy cicatrix has
been obtained."
As cool weather has such a marked influence upon the*
disease, cold bandages have been suggested. No trial of ice.
was made. In one case in which a gentleman did try such,
applications he found that it allayed the irritability but did,
no more.
There is one method of treating the disease that may be.
considered a success: that is, by excision. This method can
not be used in all cases and has met with some. disapproval.
Opposed to all theories and beliefs, there are hundreds of
animals in the State that have been so treated and are sound.
The success of the operation depends upon the thoroughness-
with which the diseased tissue has been removed. As long as
there is a single leech left, so long we have sufficient tissue
left to start a new growth. In all cases it must be remembered
that the diseased tissue extends to the boundaries of the indu-
rated portion, which may be several inches from the open sore.
The cautery is not necessary, but is used as a means of destroy-
ing possible traces that have escaped the knife and to arrest.
hemorrhage. The disease has a special tendency to recur in
the wound after an operation, and the failures are largely due
to taking too little tissue.
The experiments in treatment at this Station were made
before the necessary appliances for making a microscopic study-
were available. With the additional light which such a study
has thrown upon the disease excision should be the means of
treatment, and that in an early period.
*Burke, Richard W., F. R. C. V. S. Journal of Comparative Medicine and Surgery, Vol.
viii, No. 2, 1887.




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