• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Introduction
 Purpose of study
 Source of information
 Limitations of data
 Labor and material requirements...
 Summary
 Acknowledgement






Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station - no. 660
Title: Labor and material requirements for vegetable crops
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027504/00001
 Material Information
Title: Labor and material requirements for vegetable crops
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 83 p. : maps ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Brooke, Donald Lloyd, 1915-
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1963
 Subjects
Subject: Vegetables -- Economic aspects -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: D.L. Brooke.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027504
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000929042
oclc - 18353360
notis - AEN9806

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Purpose of study
        Page 5
    Source of information
        Page 5
    Limitations of data
        Page 6
    Labor and material requirements for vegetable crops
        Page 7
        Tomatoes
            Page 8
            Ground-grown
                Page 8
                Page 9
                Page 10
                Page 11
            Staked
                Page 12
                Page 13
                Page 14
                Page 15
                Page 16
                Page 17
                Page 18
        Snap beans
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
        Sweet corn
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
        Celery
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
        Green peppers
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
            Page 36
            Page 37
            Page 38
            Page 39
        Watermelons
            Page 40
            Page 41
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
            Page 46
        Cucumbers
            Page 47
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
            Page 51
            Page 52
            Page 53
        Cabbage
            Page 54
            Page 55
            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
        Squash
            Page 60
        Lettuce and escarole
            Page 60
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
            Page 67
        Eggplant
            Page 68
            Page 69
        Lima beans
            Page 70
            Page 71
            Page 72
            Page 73
        Pole beans
            Page 74
        Chinese cabbage
            Page 75
        Southern peas
            Page 76
            Page 77
        Page 78
        Radishes
            Page 79
        Spinach
            Page 80
    Summary
        Page 81
        Page 82
    Acknowledgement
        Page 83
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida

























V e boo\e


cvoS


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CONTENTS
Page

INTRODUCTION ............ .. -... ... -..-.. ..-----... -- ...... 3

PURPOSE OF STUDY ..---...............-----..-.. -----..-.. --.-------.-- .... 5

SOURCE OF INFORMATION ........... ......-- .....--.... -............ -... 5

LIMITATIONS OF DATA ..--...-.....-- ...---- .....--.-- .. ---.... ......... 6

LABOR AND MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS FOR VEGETABLE CROPS ................... 7
Tomatoes .............--.....-. ...... -...........................- 8
Ground-grown ...-............ .... ... ...................- .. 8
Staked ..........--...... ...~.- ...-... ...--..... ......- 12
Snap beans .......-.......... ...... ........................... 19
Irish potatoes .......- ..................... ........-......... ... 19
Sweet corn .......- ............. ...--. ..- ... ......... .. ...--.-.. 25
Celery ...................- ... ... ........ ... .. .. .........-.. -.. ... 29
Green peppers ....... .............- ...- ..... ....- .... .. .. ........... 32
Watermelons ..........................................--- .... ...-..........40
Cucumbers .. ......... ......... ...-- ...--- ..-- ---47
Cabbage ........-..-..........---...-- ... ....---. 554
Squash ................ .....-................-- .....--- ... 60
Lettuce and escarole ............... ....-----........ 60
Eggplant ...... .....-... ... .... .............-... ......- 68
Lima beans -..-........- . .....--- ...- ..... -- ....-- ...- ...-.. .. 70
Pole beans .-.........-.-- --...... 74
Chinese cabbage .............- ....... ---.......... 75
Southern peas ...................... ..- -- 76
Radishes ......................-................................. 78
Spinach ...-......... ................. --..- .... .. ...-- -- 80

SUMMARY .....- .. ~-.-..-- -.. ...----- -............-- 81


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS











LABOR AND MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS

FOR VEGETABLE CROPS

D. L. BROOKE1


INTRODUCTION

Vegetable crops are an important segment of Florida's ag-
riculture. In 1961 sales of commercial vegetables, including
Irish potatoes, strawberries, and watermelons, amounted to
$169,000,000, or 20 percent of the cash receipts from sales of all
agricultural products. For the five years 1955-59 this propor-
tion averaged 24 percent of farm marketings2



188


16
15

Legend:

1. Dade County
2. Pompano
3. Martin County
4. Immokalee-Lee
5. Everglades
6. Fort Pierce
7. Lake Istokpoga1
8. Wauchula
9. Sarasota County
10. Manatee-Ruskin
11. Plant City #
12. Sanford-Oviedo-Zellwood
13. Marion-Sumter
14. McIntosh
15. Alachua County
16. Starke-Brooker
17. Hastings 2
18. Gadsden County
19. Jackson County
20. Washington-Holmes
21. Escambia County






Fig. 1.-Principal vegetable producing areas of Florida
(excluding watermelons).

'Agricultural Economist, Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations.
SData from Farm Income Situation Reports, USDA, AMS.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Average acreage devoted to important vegetables in Florida
and the average value of the harvested production for the five sea-
sons 1956-57 to 1960-61 are shown in Table 1. Tomatoes led
all crops in value and, together with snap beans, Irish potatoes,
sweet corn, and celery, accounted for 66 percent of the value of
all vegetable crops listed. The values given for the amount of
sales and total acreage do not include okra, field peas, radishes,
greens, broccoli, or carrots. The values shown are for crops re-
ported by the U. S. Department of Agriculture.

TABLE 1.-FIVE-YEAR AVERAGE ACREAGE AND VALUE OF HARVESTED PRO-
DUCTION OF IMPORTANT VEGETABLE CROPS, FLORIDA, SEASONS 1956-57
TO 1960-61.

Five-Season Average
Crop Acreage Value
Acres $000

Tomatoes 47,700 42,420
Beans, snap 55,060 16,241
Potatoes, Irish 41,440 14,783
Corn, sweet 41,320 13,298
Celery 11,300 13,044
Peppers, green 13,360 12,403
Watermelons 80,000 10,971
Cucumbers 16,950 9,362
Cabbage 16,560 5,911
Squash 11,120 3,599
Escarole 5,960 3,023
Eggplant 2,880 1,839
Strawberries 2,040 1,868
Lettuce 3,360 1,422
Other* 4,670 1,288

Total 353,720 $151,472

Lima beans, cantaloups, cauliflower, spinach.
Source: USDA, Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, Florida Vegetable Crops,
Vol. XVII, 1961.

Areas of production are shown in Fig. 1. Most vegetables
are produced in the peninsular portion of the state. Exceptions
are watermelons in Jackson, Madison, Columbia, and Suwannee
counties, cucumbers in Jackson, snap beans in Gadsden, and Irish
potatoes in Escambia County. Growing practices for the same
crop differ among areas, and there is wide variation in climate
and growing season.







Labor and Material for Vegetable Crops


PURPOSE OF STUDY
The purpose of this study is to provide information by areas
on the usual amount of labor required by operations, approx-
imate dates of performance, and amounts of materials used in the
production of vegetable crops. Such data are useful to new or
prospective farmers, agricultural students, teachers, research
workers, and public agencies. They may be used to arrive at a
suitable combination of crops or to indicate the aggregate size
of a farm operation. While not a substitute for farm accounts,
general estimates of the cost of production and harvesting of
vegetable crops may be made by applying current rates to the
respective quantities of labor and materials required. Such an
estimate omits certain items of cost as indirect labor, repairs and
overhead costs, land rent, depreciation, interest, taxes, and in-
surance.3
SOURCE OF INFORMATION
Estimates of usual labor and material requirements were
obtained by personal interview with farmers in the various areas
of production. Each farmer was asked to estimate the time re-
quired for each operation in producing and harvesting a crop
and the approximate dates when such operations were perform-
ed. Materials normally used were also estimated by the growers,
together with normal yield. In a few cases data on labor and
materials from cost account records were added in with grow-
ers' estimates. No systematic sampling procedure was used,
but an attempt was made to get representative, successful grow-
ers. Therefore, it is believed the data show the practices of
the better farmers.
As summarized, the results show the most common practice
for the majority of growers. Unusual operations or methods
were omitted. Labor and power requirements, as shown, include
the hours of man labor and tractor use. Truck use and, in most
cases, pumping time for irrigation and drainage motors were
omitted because of the difficulty in calculating the hours used.
On some crops, trucks were used in a number of operations, but
on others they were used merely to go to and from the field
morning and night. Even though idle most of the day, they
were still tied up with the operations in progress. Pumps were
Costs per acre on an annual basis for growing and harvesting major
vegetable crops in Florida are available in mimeographed form.







Labor and Material for Vegetable Crops


PURPOSE OF STUDY
The purpose of this study is to provide information by areas
on the usual amount of labor required by operations, approx-
imate dates of performance, and amounts of materials used in the
production of vegetable crops. Such data are useful to new or
prospective farmers, agricultural students, teachers, research
workers, and public agencies. They may be used to arrive at a
suitable combination of crops or to indicate the aggregate size
of a farm operation. While not a substitute for farm accounts,
general estimates of the cost of production and harvesting of
vegetable crops may be made by applying current rates to the
respective quantities of labor and materials required. Such an
estimate omits certain items of cost as indirect labor, repairs and
overhead costs, land rent, depreciation, interest, taxes, and in-
surance.3
SOURCE OF INFORMATION
Estimates of usual labor and material requirements were
obtained by personal interview with farmers in the various areas
of production. Each farmer was asked to estimate the time re-
quired for each operation in producing and harvesting a crop
and the approximate dates when such operations were perform-
ed. Materials normally used were also estimated by the growers,
together with normal yield. In a few cases data on labor and
materials from cost account records were added in with grow-
ers' estimates. No systematic sampling procedure was used,
but an attempt was made to get representative, successful grow-
ers. Therefore, it is believed the data show the practices of
the better farmers.
As summarized, the results show the most common practice
for the majority of growers. Unusual operations or methods
were omitted. Labor and power requirements, as shown, include
the hours of man labor and tractor use. Truck use and, in most
cases, pumping time for irrigation and drainage motors were
omitted because of the difficulty in calculating the hours used.
On some crops, trucks were used in a number of operations, but
on others they were used merely to go to and from the field
morning and night. Even though idle most of the day, they
were still tied up with the operations in progress. Pumps were
Costs per acre on an annual basis for growing and harvesting major
vegetable crops in Florida are available in mimeographed form.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


used extensively during some seasons and seldom in others. In-
dividuals owned the equipment in some cases; whereas, in others
it belonged to and was operated by the local drainage district.
It should be pointed out that the total amount of labor re-
quired in operating a farm cannot be obtained exclusively from
the data given in the following tables. A great deal of labor
is required for jobs not directly related to any individual crop
or enterprise. Work on roads, bridges, fences, repairs to equip-
ment and buildings, and all daily farm chores come in this classi-
fication. If all labor performed on a farm were prorated to var-
ious enterprises, the amount used would be higher than that
shown in the tables of requirements.

LIMITATIONS OF DATA
These data were obtained for different crops and areas over
the three-year period 1959 to 1961. Their reliability is decreased
with the passing of time and the increases in technology.
Labor requirements per acre or per unit of production tend
to decrease over a long period with increases in efficiency, but
such changes are gradual. Labor required for hand operations,
as in picking beans, does not change as much as in the case of
operations which can be mechanized. One of the most rapidly
changing aspects of farming has been in insect and disease con-
trol measures. Many new materials have become available in
recent years, and these often have resulted in changes in spray-
ing or dusting practices. In many instances the quantity re-
quirement has not changed as much as the material used. The
tables on material requirements are not to be taken as recom-
mendations, but represent average usages in actual practice at
the time studied. It is suggested that proposed control materials
and measures be checked with qualified persons before using, in
order to get the latest recommendations.
The yield of most vegetable crops fluctuates widely from year
to year, even on the same farm. It was often difficult for a
grower to give a good estimate of his normal yield, since yields
are frequently quite variable between seasons. Hazards of flood
and frost are high and tend to reduce average yield over a period
of years.
The most recent five-season average yields of vegetable crops
in Florida are shown in Table 2. These are weighted state
averages rather than averages for any section or area and include







Labor and Material for Vegetable Crops


fall, winter, and spring crops. No attempt should be made by
readers to average yields by areas given in later tables. The
latter are simple averages of records obtained and were included
for purposes of adjusting harvesting labor requirements to yields
other than those indicated.

TABLE 2.-FIVE-YEAR AVERAGE YIELD PER ACRE OF IMPORTANT VEGETABLE
CROPS, FLORIDA, SEASONS 1956-57 TO 1960-61.

Five-Season
Crop Unit Average
Units Cwt.
Tomatoes 60 lb. 176 106
Beans, snap bu. 110 33
Potatoes, Irish cwt. 140 140
Corn, sweet crates 161 68
Celery crates 602 361
Peppers, green bu. 298 83
Watermelons cwt. 95 95
Cucumbers bu. 183 95
Cabbage tons 7.9 158
Squash bu. 107 45
Escarole bu. 464 116
Eggplant bu. 319 105
Strawberries lbs. 3020 30
Lettuce cwt. 83 83
Beans, lima bu. 88 28

Source: USDA, Florida Crop and Livestock Reporting Service, Florida Vegetable Crops,
Vol. XVII, 1961.


LABOR AND MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
FOR VEGETABLE CROPS

Requirements for labor and materials vary widely among
areas for the same crop; they also vary from one season to an-
other, as well as among farms. The averages shown in the fol-
lowing tables, therefore, should be used with some degree of
discretion. Harvest labor required is based on yield given in
each table. Since harvest labor varies almost directly with
yield, proper adjustment should be made for a different yield.
Seasonal arrangement of labor required is not attempted,
because for some crops it is possible within a single area to find
every operation pertaining to its production and harvesting going
on at the same time. The range in usual dates of performance
is given instead of seasonal distribution. It should be understood
that these dates may not apply to a single crop, but rather in-







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


dicate the period during which the grower performs a given
operation.
Tomatoes
Ground-grown.-Labor requirements per acre of ground-
grown tomatoes were highest in those areas where new land is
cleared each year or for each crop. From 27.5 to 34.6 man hours
and from 2.5 to 3.1 tractor hours per acre were required for land
clearing (Table 3). In the Fort Pierce, Immokalee-Lee, and
Wauchula areas growers usually move to new land each year
and in some instances for each crop. New land is used in the
interests of freedom of the crop from weeds and soil pests. The
land must be ditched and diked, have pumps installed, be drain-
ed, and have roads and bridges built before it can be planted.
In the Dade area, rockland is used for several crops of tomatoes;
therefore, labor for land clearing and scarifying is not included
as a normal practice. There are indications that even there,
disease problems may require the use of newly cleared land after
three years of tomato crops. In the Marion-Sumter area toma-
toes are rotated with pasture grasses and some cover crops.
Except for preplanting preparation, total pre-harvest labor re-
quirements do not vary greatly among areas. Harvest labor
requirements range from 0.46 to 0.64 man hours per crate of
tomatoes sold.
Dade County and the Immokalee-Lee areas produce fall, win-
ter, and spring crops, while production in the Fort Pierce and
Wauchula areas is in the fall and spring. Marion-Sumter pro-
duction is for late spring harvest (Table 4). Fall crop plantings
are made from late July to mid-September, winter plantings
from late September to November, and spring plantings from
mid-December to March.
Homestead and Indian River were the important varieties
of tomatoes planted (Table 5). From 0.2 to 0.8 pound of seed
was required per acre, depending upon whether seed was drilled
in the field or plants were raised in a seedbed and reset to the
field. From 4,000 to 6,300 plants were required per acre for
setting in the field, depending upon width of rows and spacing
in the row. Growers in most areas applied 1,000 to 4,000 pounds
of phosphate, high calcium lime, or dolomite as a soil amend-
ment on new land prior to land preparation. On second and third
crop land the amount used was reduced, or in many cases none
was applied. Fertilizer requirements, other than soil amend-







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


dicate the period during which the grower performs a given
operation.
Tomatoes
Ground-grown.-Labor requirements per acre of ground-
grown tomatoes were highest in those areas where new land is
cleared each year or for each crop. From 27.5 to 34.6 man hours
and from 2.5 to 3.1 tractor hours per acre were required for land
clearing (Table 3). In the Fort Pierce, Immokalee-Lee, and
Wauchula areas growers usually move to new land each year
and in some instances for each crop. New land is used in the
interests of freedom of the crop from weeds and soil pests. The
land must be ditched and diked, have pumps installed, be drain-
ed, and have roads and bridges built before it can be planted.
In the Dade area, rockland is used for several crops of tomatoes;
therefore, labor for land clearing and scarifying is not included
as a normal practice. There are indications that even there,
disease problems may require the use of newly cleared land after
three years of tomato crops. In the Marion-Sumter area toma-
toes are rotated with pasture grasses and some cover crops.
Except for preplanting preparation, total pre-harvest labor re-
quirements do not vary greatly among areas. Harvest labor
requirements range from 0.46 to 0.64 man hours per crate of
tomatoes sold.
Dade County and the Immokalee-Lee areas produce fall, win-
ter, and spring crops, while production in the Fort Pierce and
Wauchula areas is in the fall and spring. Marion-Sumter pro-
duction is for late spring harvest (Table 4). Fall crop plantings
are made from late July to mid-September, winter plantings
from late September to November, and spring plantings from
mid-December to March.
Homestead and Indian River were the important varieties
of tomatoes planted (Table 5). From 0.2 to 0.8 pound of seed
was required per acre, depending upon whether seed was drilled
in the field or plants were raised in a seedbed and reset to the
field. From 4,000 to 6,300 plants were required per acre for
setting in the field, depending upon width of rows and spacing
in the row. Growers in most areas applied 1,000 to 4,000 pounds
of phosphate, high calcium lime, or dolomite as a soil amend-
ment on new land prior to land preparation. On second and third
crop land the amount used was reduced, or in many cases none
was applied. Fertilizer requirements, other than soil amend-






TABLE 3.-TOMATOES: LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN HOURS PER ACRE, BY AREAS.


Dade Fort Pierce Immokalee-Lee
Operation 11 growers 14 growers 8 growers
Man Tractor Man Tractor Man Tractor
hours hours hours hours hours hours


Pre-harvest labor:
Seedbed* ............... ...... .................
Field:
Ditching and draining, roads, pumps ..................
Preparing land ............................ ..............
Preparing rows and fertilizing ............................

Planting or setting ........................................
Cultivating and fertilizing ---....................................
Insect and disease control ......................................
Hoeing, raking, weeding .................... ----....................
Irrigating .....-.......---- ....................--.................................


40.8** 4.3**
1.8 1.6

3.0 2.6

4.9 2.7
8.8 8.8
18.0
6.0


Total pre-harvest labor ............................. ......... 55.2 17.4 84.3 23.9 83.3 20.0

Harvest labor:
Picking and lugging ....................................... 100.0 100.5 104.2
Hauling to packinghouse ............................ 3.8 8.5 13.7

Total harvest labor ....................... .......... 103.8 109.0 117.9

Other labor ....... .................................... .3 0.3 3.8 0.8 1.0 1.0

Total-all operations ..................... ...... 159.3 17.7 197.1 24.7 202.2 21.0

Estimated yield, 60 lb. crates ...... ........... ................... 200 200 225

Per acre of field-set plants.
** Where second crop land is used, deduct 34.6 man and 3.1 tractor hours for clearing land, fencing, and initial field and road layout.


_ _











TABLE 3.-TOMATOES: LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN HOURS PER ACRE, BY AREAS. (CONCLUDED)


Operation


Marion-Sumter
18 growers
Man Tractor
hours hours


Pre-harvest labor:
Seedbed:*
Field:
Ditching and draining, roads, pumps ..................................
Preparing land ............................................................. 4.1 3.2
Preparing rows and fertilizing .............................. ..... ....... 2.4 2.3
Planting or setting ..................................... .............. 14.5 2.2
Cultivating and fertilizing .............-........................... .. 6.8 6.6
Insect and disease control ............. ......... ............... 2.3 2.4
Hoeing, raking, weeding -............. ......... .................... ......... .10.0
Irrigating .......... ..............- ...................... ..... .......... .... ........... 10.5


Total pre-harvest labor


16.7


Wauchula
8 growers
Man Tractor
hours hours




28.8f 3.8t Q
2.4 2.4 2.
1.0 1.0
1.0 1.0 -
4.9 4.9
7.9 7.9
28.3
6.3

80.6 21.0


Harvest labor:
Picking and lugging ............................ ....................................... .. 68.4 110.9
Hauling to packinghouse -- .. ............ ... .... .............................. 5.6 223.3

Total harvest labor .............. ...... .............................. .. .. 74.0 134.2

Other labor -.... ....- ...... ...-- .............- ......... -........ 1.9 1.9

Total- all operations .......... ............................ ............ 124.6 16.7 216.7 22.9

Estimated yield, 60 lb. crates .................. .................. .- 160 210
Per acre of field-set plants.
t Where second crop land is used, deduct 27.5 man and 2.5 tractor hours for clearing land, fencing and initial field and road layout.


-.






03


I







TABLE 4.-TOMATOES: USUAL SEASON OF OPERATIONS, BY AREAS.


Operation Dade Fort Pierce Immokalee-Lee
Fall Spring

Seedbed ...... -.. ---.........--.................... Aug. 10 Jan. 15
Field:
Ditching, diking, roads, clearing* ..-- May 1- July 31 Oct. 1 Dec. 1 June 1- Dec. 1
Preparing land ..................... Aug. 1 Jan. 15 July 1- Sept. 1 Nov. 1- Dec. 20 Aug. 1 Dec. 15
Preparing rows and fertilizing ........... Aug. 10 Feb. 1 Aug. 10 Sept. 15 Dec. 15 Feb. 1 Aug. 10 Jan. 15
Planting or setting ............................ Aug. 15 Feb. 1 Aug. 10 Sept. 15 Dec. 15 Feb. 1 Aug. 10 Jan. 31
Cultivating and fertilizing ................... Aug. 25 Mar. 10 Sept. 10 Nov. 10 Jan. 10 Apr. 10 Sept. 1 Apr. 15
Insect and disease control ................... Aug. 25 Apr. 10 Aug. 25 Dec. 10 Jan. 10 May 25 Sept. 1 May 10
Hoeing, raking, weeding ........................ Sept. 1- Mar. 1 Sept. 1 Oct. 10 Jan. 15- Mar. 1 Sept. 1- Mar. 1
Irrigating ..................- ...... ............- Sept. 1 Dec. 15 Dec. 15 May 15

Harvesting .................. ........................... Nov. 15 Apr. 10 Nov. 10 Dec. 20 Apr. 15 June 1 Nov. 10 May 20



Operation Marion-Sumter Wauchula
Fall Spring
Ditching, diking, roads, clearing* ...... .... .......... July 1 Oct. 31 Oct. 25 Jan. 1
Preparing land ........................................... Oct. 1- Jan. 1 June 1 Aug. 15 Nov. 15- Jan. 1
Preparing rows and fertilizing ......------------ .............................. Dec. 15- Jan. 20 July 20 Aug. 15 Dec. 15-Jan. 1
Planting or setting ............. ... -............................... ......... Jan. 5 Mar. 15 July 20 Aug. 15 Dec. 25- Jan. 10
Cultivating and fertilizing .............................. Feb. 10 May 15 Aug. 1 Oct. 20 Jan. 15 Apr. 20
Insect and disease control ... ....................... Feb. 15 June 15 Aug. 1-Dec. 1 Feb. 1- May 15
Hoeing, raking, weeding .................................... Mar. 1- Apr. 15 Aug. 1- Oct. 1 Jan. 20 Feb. 15
Irrigating ... Jan. 20 June 15 Jan. 1- May 15

Harvesting ............... ....... .................... May 10 June 15 Nov. 1 -Dec. 10 Apr. 20 June 1

May be done at any time in advance of land preparation.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


ment, ranged from 2,400 pounds per acre in the Marion-Sumter
area to 4,100 pounds in the Dade County area. The amount ap-
plied varied with soil and weather conditions. From two to three
applications of supplemental fertilizer were made during the
growth of the crop. In some areas, particularly during a wet
season, growers may use as much as 50 percent more fertilizer
in making a crop. Some of the supplemental material was ap-
plied as a foliar spray in many cases.
From 2,000 to 2,600 gallons of spray made up of inorganic
coppers and organic fungicides mixed with chlorinated hydrocar-
bons, and organic phosphate insecticides are required in all areas
except Marion-Sumter. There, growers reported using only 620
gallons per acre of mixed spray. Most growers sprayed at five
to seven day intervals, applying an average of 100 gallons of
spray per acre per application. Less is required when plants
are small and more as the plants mature. More frequent spray-
ing may be necessary if weather conditions are favorable for
the development of foliage diseases.
Staked.-The staking of tomatoes has long been practiced
in the Manatee-Ruskin area. Until recent years the fruit was
always picked green in the same manner as the ground-grown
crop in other areas. However, with the introduction of vine-
ripe tomato production a few years ago, the crop is picked green
or vine-ripe depending upon the current price situation for the
two products. The Immokalee-Lee staked production developed
when growers from Manatee-Ruskin moved to that area using
the same production practices and having the same market alter-
natives with the added advantage of a longer season.
Vine-ripened tomato production on the Lower East Coast de-
pended upon stakes in its early stages, but some growers have
changed to the use of posts and wire to hold vines off the ground.
Their method is perhaps best described as one of trellising, re-
quiring many man hours for tying the vines to the wires. Prac-
tically all of the tomatoes grown in this manner are marketed
as vine-ripes and are picked as they begin to show a pink color
characteristic of maturity. Of course, the more intensive meth-
ods of the Lower East Coast growers require a greater number
of man hours for crop production (Table 6). Yields are greater
and vine-ripe prices higher than for ground-grown tomatoes
marketed as a mature green product.









Labor and Material for Vegetable Crops


The Manatee-Ruskin area produces a fall and spring crop,
while the other two staked tomato areas harvest from late No-
vember or early December into May of each year (Table 7).

TABLE 5.-TOMATOES: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
PER ACRE, BY AREAS.

Area: Dade


Seedbed:*

Seed ...................-..-.. .... ..

Fertilizer .......................
Spray ........-.............-..


Field:

Seed .................. ................

Soil amendments .............
Fertilizer ..........-.....----------

Supplemental fertilizer ...
Poison bait ....-........-........
Spray ..-.........- ..... ......


Weed control chemicals ....
Systemic poisons ---............
Containers ........................


Kind




Homestead strains, Indian
River
4-8-8; 4-8-10; 6-12-6
Inorganic coppers; organic
fungicides; organic phos-
phate insecticides


Homestead strains, Indian Riv-
er, plants from seedbed
Phosphate
4-7-5; 4-8-8; 4-8-10;
4-8-12; 4-16-6; 6-12-6
Nitrate of potash
Chlorinated hydrocarbon
Inorganic coppers; organic
fungicides; chlorinated hy-
drocarbon and organic phos-
phate insecticides
CDEC
Organic phosphate
Various-packinghouse item


Area: Fort Pierce


Item


Seed .-..................................

Soil amendments ...............
Fertilizer ..........- .............-
Supplemental fertilizer ...

Poison bait -......................
Spray .............-- .............. .... .


Containers .....-...................


Per acre of field-set plants.


Kind


Homestead strains, Indian
River
High calcium lime or dolomite
4-7-5; 4-8-6; 4-8-8
Nitrate of potash or
20-20-20
Chlorinated hydrocarbon
Antibiotics; inorganic coppers;
organic fungicides; chlorin-
ated hydrocarbon and or-
ganic phosphate insecticides
Various-packinghouse item


Amount




0.2 lb.
27 lb.

10 gal.


1 lb.
6,300
1,000 lb.

4,000 lb.
100 lb.
30 lb.


2,000 gal.
1.5 gal.
30 lb.


Amount



0.5 lb.
4,000 lb.
2,550 lb.
100 lb.
15 lb.
40 lb.


2,400 gal,









Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


TABLE 5.-TOMATOES: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
PER ACRE, BY AREAS.--(CONCLUDED).

Area: Immokalee-Lee

Item Kind Amount


Seed .............-......---....--.... Homestead strains 0.6 lb.
Soil amendments ........... Dolomite, high calcium lime 3,000 lb.
Fertilizer .............................. 4-7-5; 4-8-8; 4-8-12 2,650 lb.
Supplemental fertilizer ... Nitrate of potash or liquid
equivalent 300 lb.
Poison bait ................. Chlorinated hydrocarbon 30 lb.
Spray ..................--.. ............ Organic fungicides; chlori-
nated hydrocarbon and or-
ganic phosphate insecticides,
inorganic coppers, hexa-
chlorophene 2,550 gal.
Containers ...........--......-.... -- Various-packinghouse item


Area: Marion-Sumter

Item Kind Amount


Seed ................................ Homestead strains 0.75 lb.
or
Plants .--........----.... .............. Purchased 4,000
Fertilizer ....... ----.............. 4-7-5; 4-8-8; 6-8-8 2,000 lb.
Supplemental fertilizer -- Nitrate of potash, ammonium
nitrate; 12-0-14; 14-0-28;
15-0-15 400 lb.
Poison bait ......................... Chlorinated hydrocarbon 30 lb.
Spray .--........--.-.-..-- ------ Inorganic coppers; organic
fungicides; chlorinated hy-
drocarbon and organic phos-
phate insecticides 620 gal.
Containers ---.. --....-......... Various-packinghouse item


Area: Wauchula

Item Kind Amount


Seed ...................................... Homestead strains 0.5 lb.
Soil amendments ................ High calcium lime, dolomite 1,500 lb.
Fertilizer ............................. 4-7-5; 4-8-8 2,500 lb.
Supplemental fertilizer .... Nitrate of potash 400 lb.
Poison bait ........................ Chlorinated hydrocarbon 30 lb.
Spray .--.................-----.... Organic fungicides; chlori-
nated hydrocarbon and or-
ganic phosphate insecticides 2,000 gal.
Containers .................--.. Various-packinghouse item





TABLE 6.-TOMATOES (STAKED): LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN HOURS PER ACRE, BY AREAS.


Immokalee-Lee Manatee-Ruskin Lower East Coast
Operation 4 growers 1 17 growers 7 growers
Man Tractor Man Tractor Man Tractor
hours hours hours hours hours hours

Pre-Harvest Labor:
Seedbed* ....................................... .- 3.2 0.2
Field:
Ditching and draining, roads, pumps ....................... 52.7** 4.6** 2.0 1.7 32.2 1.0
Preparing land ................................................. 3.1 2.2 4.1 3.3 4.4 3.9
Preparing rows and fertilizing .................................... 1.8 1.1 1.5 1.0 1.0 1.0
Planting or setting .. ...... .......................................... 3.3 0.7 14.0 1.0 1.5 1.0
Cultivating and fertilizing ....................................... 15.6 5.0 6.0 4.7 29.1 7.5t
Insect and disease control ........................................ 10.7 10.7 6.7 6.7 25.2 12.6
Hoeing, raking, weeding .............................................. 13.7 30.8 40.0
Irrigating .... ................................. ............ ........ 9.6 3.0 3.0
Pruning and tying .................................................... 58.2 45.0 432.0
Staking and wiring ............................ ........ ......... 36.2 18.6 1.0 70.0 3.6
Removing stakes and wire ........................................ 35.0 13.5 0.8 34.4 2.2
Cold protection .....--- ----........... ..... ..........-......-..-.......... 3.7

Total pre-harvest labor .......-.....2....4................ 243.6 24.3 148.4 20.4 672.8 32.8

Harvest labor:
Picking and lugging ........... ..... .... .... .............. .... 177.6 150.0 200.0
Hauling to packinghouse .. .................................... 22.2 20.6 12.6

Total harvest labor .............. .................... ........... 199.8 170.6 212.6

Other labor .............. ....... .. ..... ..... ................ ... 2.0 2.0 1.6 1.6 2.7 2.7

Total- all operations ........................... .... .................... 445.4 26.3 320.6 22.0 888.1 35.5

Estimated yield, 60 lb. crates ---.--.......------- ........ ............. I 333 300 560
Per acre of field-set plants.
** Where second crop land is used, deduct 34.6 man and 3.1 tractor hours for clearing land, fencing, and initial field and road layout.
SIn addition four growers using mules for cultivation averaged 26.4 mule hours per acre.














TABLE 7.-TOMATOES (STAKED): USUAL SEASON OF OPERATIONS, BY AREAS.


Operation Immokalee-Lee Manatee-Ruskin Lower East Coast
________Fall Spring

Seedbed: July 10- Sept. 20
Field:
Ditching, diking, roads, clearing ..-......... May 1- Dec. 1* Aug. 1- Dec. 1 Dec. 1 -May 1 Aug. 25 Apr. 15
Preparing land ............................... July 15 Sept. 1 July 15 Aug. 31 Oct. 1 Dec. 31 July 20 Nov. 15
Preparing rows and fertilizing ............ Aug. 10 Dec. 20 Aug. 15 Sept. 15 Dec. 1 Jan. 15 Aug. 15 Nov. 15
Planting or setting ............................ Aug. 20 Dec. 20 Aug. 20 Sept. 20 Jan. 5 Feb. 10 Aug. 25 Nov. 15
Cultivating and fertilizing .-............... Sept. 1 Apr. 15 Sept. 1- Nov. 1 Jan. 15- May 1 Sept. 1 Apr. 15
Insect and disease control -.................. Sept. 1 May 15 Aug. 20 Jan. 1 Jan. 10- June 1 Sept. 1- Apr. 25
Hoeing, raking, weeding ..-........................ Sept. 10 May 1 Sept. 10 Oct. 15 Feb. 1 Apr. 1 Sept. 15 Feb. 1
Irrigating ...................... ... Sept. 1 May 1 Sept. 1 Dec. 31 Jan. 10 May 20 Aug. 25 Apr. 15
Pruning and tying ........................... Sept. 20 Mar. 10 Sept. 20 Nov. 1 Feb. 15 Mar. 31 Oct. 5 Feb. 15
Staking and wiring ....................- ...... Oct. 10 Feb. 10 Sept. 25 Oct. 15 Feb. 15 Mar. 15 Oct. 10- Jan. 15
Removing and hauling stakes and wire Jan. 15 June 15 Jan. 1 -Feb. 15 I June 1 June 30 May 1 May 31


Harvesting .................. -.........---...... Nov. 20 May 31 Nov. 10 Jan. 10 I Apr. 20- June 1 Dec. 1 -May 1


May be done at any time in advance of land preparation.








Labor and Material for Vegetable Crops


Land clearing in the Immokalee-Lee area takes place six to eight
months in advance of preparing the land for planting. Some new
land is used each year in the Manatee-Ruskin area, but once
cleared it may be used for several crops of tomatoes. Most grow-
ers rotate the use of land, particularly those fields which are
tiled for irrigation and drainage.
Homestead strains, Manalucie, and Indian River are the prin-
cipal varieties of tomatoes used for staked and vine-ripe produc-
tion. From 0.3 to 1.0 pound of seed is required to plant an acre,
depending upon whether or not seed are drilled in the row or
plants are raised in a seedbed and set in the field (Table 8). On
new land in the Immokalee-Lee area 6,000 pounds of soil amend-
ment are applied. On older land in the other areas about 2,000
pounds of a soil amendment are applied annually. Complete
fertilizer requirements range from 3,150 pounds to 9,600 pounds
per acre depending upon weather and length of crop. From
2,400 to 4,400 gallons of spray are required.

TABLE 8.-TOMATOES (STAKED): USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
PER ACRE, BY AREAS.
Area: Manatee-Ruskin


Item


Seedbed:*
Seed ...........................
Fertilizer ...............-........
Poison bait .....................
Spray .................................


Field:
Plants (from seedbed) ...
Soil amendments .............
Fertilizer .-.... .............
Supplemental fertilizer
Spray ..............................



Soil fumigant ------
Stakes --..............-... ....
Twine ...............................
Containers ..........................


Kind


Homestead 24
4-8-8; 4-9-3; 4-10-8
Chlorinated hydrocarbons
Organic fungicides; chlori-
nated hydrocarbon and
organic phosphate insec-
ticides; antibiotics

Homestead 24
Dolomite, high calcium lime
4-8-8; 4-8-10; 4-10-8
Nitrate of potash
Organic fungicides; chlor-
inated hydrocarbon and
organic phosphate insec-
ticides; agricultural an-
tibiotics
SMDC (vapam, v.p.m.)
Cypress
Binder
Various-packinghouse
item


* Per acre of field-set plants.


Amount


27 gal.


4,800
2,000
3,000
150


2,400 gal.
12 gal.
6,000
100 lb.









18 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


TABLE 8.-TOMATOES (STAKED): USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
PER ACRE, BY AREAS.-(CONCLUDED).


Area: Immokalee-Lee


Item Kind Amount


Seed ............ ........ ........ Manalucie, Indian River,
Homestead 24, Manapal 0.5 lb.
Soil amendments ......-.....- Dolomite, high calcium lime 6,000 lb.
Fertilizer ........................... 4-8-8 6,000 lb.
Supplemental fertilizer Nitrate of potash 75 lb.
Spray ........---.............--- -.. Organic fungicides; chlor-
inated hydrocarbon and
organic phosphate insec-
ticides; inorganic coppers 3,300 gal.
Stakes ................................ W ooden 5,500
Twine --..............-................ Binder 100 lb.
or
Posts ....................... Wooden 3 in. x 5 ft. or
2 in. x 6 ft. 100-267
Wire ........................... .. Galvanized, No. 14 or 18 4,500-9,000 ft.
Twine --............................... -Binder 100 lb.
Containers .......................... Various-packinghouse
item



Area: Lower East Coast (Vine Ripe)


Item Kind Amount


Seed ................---- ..... Manalucie, Indian River,
Manapal 1 lb.
Soil amendments ............. Dolomite 2,000 lb.
Fertilizer .......-................. 4-7-5; 4-8-8; 4-8-10 9,000 lb.
Supplemental fertilizer Nitrate of potash 600 lb.
Soil fumigant .....-..- EDB, 2-3 gal.
DD 10 gal.
Poison bait ...----.................... Chlorinated hydrocarbon 2-10 lb.
Spray ....~~.~.-- Antibiotics; inorganic cop-
pers; organic fungicides;
chlorinated hydrocarbons
and organic phosphate in-
secticides 4,400 gal.
Stakes ..............-.. Wooden, 2" x 2" 500-650
End posts .. ---. ... Wooden, 6" x 7' 40
W ire ....--....................... .- No. 9 or 10 galvanized 50-100 lb.
Twine .......-..........-..... ...... Binder twine 45-130 lb.
Staples ............--- Metal, galvanized 1.7 lb.
Plant ties --...... .......... 45,000-90,000
Containers ...........--........ Various-packinghouse
item







Labor and Material for Vegetable Crops


Snap Beans

The usual labor requirements per acre for growing and har-
vesting snap beans are shown in (Table 9). In the Pompano
area beans are planted on a high bed. The fields are ditched for
drainage. After each cultivation, drains are opened with a hand
shovel, requiring about six hours per acre. In the Everglades
area the ditching consists of mole draining with a tractor and
some work clearing main ditches. The Sanford land is tile drain-
ed.
Bean production is highly mechanized and requires a relative-
ly small amount of man labor. Most of the labor required for
a bean crop is in the picking-a hand operation in all areas. In
the Everglades, grading and packing are done at a packinghouse.
In Pompano, grading and packing may be done in the field by
hand or on the farm at a packinghouse. In either case it is farm
controlled. Little formal field grading and packing are done in
the Sanford area; consequently, the harvesting and packing
operations were not separated.
The Sanford area produces a fall and a spring crop of snap
beans. Planting of the fall crop is done in September with har-
vesting in November and December. The spring crop is planted
in February and March for harvest in April and May (Table 10).
In the Everglades and Pompano areas planting and harvesting
by most growers is on a schedule basis. A certain number of
acres is planted each week, weather permitting. Harvesting,
then, is also scheduled, and labor needs are more uniform. Ever-
glades growers may break the planting schedule to avoid having
beans in February when cold damage is most likely to occur.
Frosts are quite infrequent in the Pompano area, so losses from
cold damage are less likely.
The usual material requirements per acre for snap beans are
shown in Table 11. Harvester, Contender, and Wade were the
most popular varieties of green beans. From 50 to 60 pounds
of seed were required to plant an acre, depending upon spacing
in the row, width of rows, and seed size.
Fertilizer requirements ranged from 400 pounds in the Ever-
glades to as much as 2,150 pounds in Sanford. Analysis of fer-
tilizer used varied among areas.
Sulfur, either in liquid or dust form, was used as a fungicide
in all areas along with chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides.










TABLE 9.-SNAP BEANS: LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN HOURS PER ACRE, BY AREAS.

Everglades Pompano Sanford
Operation 10 growers 11 growers 5 growers
Man Tractor Man Tractor Man Tractor
hours hours hours hours hours hours

Pre-harvest labor:
Field:
Ditching and draining ................................. 0.2 0.2 5.7 0.5
Preparing land ....................... ... 2.8 2.8 3.8 3.8 4.0 4.0
Preparing rows and fertilizing ................ ...-.. 0.8 0.8. .
1.5 0.5 1.0 1.0
Planting ....... .......-- ...... ... ............ J 1.1 0.8
Cultivating and fertilizing .................... 1.5 1.5 2.6* 1.8 5.5 4.7
Insect and disease control ... .. ---0.6 0.6 1.0 0.9 1.6 1.6

Total pre-harvest labor ..- .............................. 6.6 5.6 15.0 8.6 12.1 11.3

Harvest labor:
Picking ................................. 88.8 79.2
Lugging ......- ....... ... ..........-- .... 4.4 4.3 121.3
Checkers and field foreman ........- ......... ......... 1.6 1.5
Packing ................................... ** 9.5
Hauling ..-....................- ........ .. 1.6 2.0 4.9

Total harvest labor _....................-............. -96.4 96.5 126.2

Other labor .....-......... ..... ......... ........... 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.5 0.5

Total-all operations -................ --------.............:. 104.0 6.6 112.5 9.6 138.8 11.8

E +; mnats d yield. bushels ....................... ............ ... 100 100 175
Growers using mules for cultivating required 8.2 man hours and 8.2 mule hours per acre.
** Done at packinghouse. Others are field or farm packed.
t Required only after last production of the season.








TABLE 10.-SNAP BEANS: USUAL SEASON OF OPERATIONS, BY AREAS.


Operation Everglades Pompano

Ditching and draining ........................ ..... .......-...... ......... ........ -.-..-...... Aug. 10 M ay 15 Sept. 1 Feb. 15
Preparing land .................. ....................................... ...... Aug. 10 Mar. 15 Aug. 1- Jan. 15
Preparing rows and fertilizing ................. ... .... ........ ....................... ... Sept. 10 Mar. 15 Sept. 15- Feb. 15
Planting ...... -1.......................... ... ..... ............ ... -.. ..... .......... ...- ........... Sept. 10 M ar. 15 Sept. 15 Feb. 15
Cultivating and fertilizing ..............- .................... ......- ................. Sept. 20 Apr. 25 Oct. 1 Apr. 1
Insect and disease control ......................-................. .- ..- ...........-.... .... Sept. 20 May 10 Oct. 5 Apr. 15

Harvesting ......... .. ..................- ..-............ ......... Nov. 1 May 15 Nov. 5 Apr. 15


Operation Sanford
o_______ Fall Crop i Spring Crop

Ditching and draining -- -- ----- ---- ....... .- ................ ..-
Preparing land -------------. .....---- .. ..... .J. Aug. 1 Sept. 1 Jan. 15 Feb. 28
Preparing rows and fertilizing ----- ............-.-.---------..... .. ........ Aug. 15 Sept. 30 Feb. 20 Mar. 20
Planting .~..-.. ...... Sept. 1 Sept. 30 Feb. 20- Mar. 20
Cultivating and fertilizing ................ ......... .................... ..... ............... .... Sept. 10 Nov. 15 M ar. 1 Apr. 20
Insect and disease control .............................. ......-..... ...................... ........... Sept. 15 Dec. 1 Mar. 1 May 15

Harvesting ........ ......... -.......... ......... ......-..... Nov. 1- Dec. 15 Apr. 15- May 15








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Where spray was used, from 200 to 375 gallons per acre were re-
quired. Those using dust applied from 55 to 90 pounds per acre.

TABLE 11.-SNAP BEANS: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
PER ACRE, BY AREAS.

Area: Everglades

Item Kind Amount

Seed ........... ......... Harvester, Improved Tender-green,
Wade, Contender, Black Valen-
tine 50 lb.
Fertilizer ........................ 0-14-5; 0-10-10; 0-8-12; 0-16-0;
3-14-5 400 lb.
Dust ................................. Sulfur; chlorinated hydrocarbon
and organic phosphate insecti-
cides 90 lb.
Containers ...............------.......... Bushel hampers 100


Area: Pompano

Item Kind Amount


Seed ...................... ......... Contender, Harvester, Wade,
Extender 60 lb.
Fertilizer .....-......--....--- 4-7-5; 5-7-6; 6-4-8; 6-7-10; 8-6-8 1,200 lb.
Spray* ......--........ -----. Sulfur; organic fungicides; chlor-
inated hydrocarbon insecticides 200 gal.
Dust* ........-. ---------Same as above 90 lb.
Containers ......-..-.....----.. Bushel hampers 100


Area: Sanford

Item Kind Amount

Seed ...................................... Contender, W ade, Harvester 60 lb.
Fertilizer ........................... 4-6-5; 4-7-5; 6-4-8 2,150 lb.
Supplemental fertilizer .... Nitrate of potash; calcium nitrate 200 lb.
Spray* ..---............-. ------Sulfur; chlorinated hydrocarbon
insecticides 375 gal.
Dust* ......--.---........ ---- Same as above 55 lb.
Containers ................. Bushel hampers 175

Either one or both may be used.

Irish Potatoes

Usual labor requirements in hours per acre for the production
and harvesting of Irish potatoes are shown in Table 12. Total







TABLE 12.-IRISH POTATOES: LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN HOURS PER ACRE, BY AREAS.

Dade ] Everglades Immokalee-Lee Hastings
Operation 10 growers 4 growers 6 growers 22 growers
Man Tractor I Man Tractor Man Tractor Man Tractor
hours hours hours hours hours hours hours hours

Pre-harvest labor:

Field:
Ditching and draining ... ............ .. 1.0 1.0 5.8 0.6 7.1 1.3
Preparing land .................................... ... 2.9 2.9 5.2 5.2 3.1 2.7 1.8 1.8
Preparing rows ....................................... 11.1 1.0 10.5 0.6 11.5 1.2 0.4 0.4
Planting and fertilizing ....-.................... 9.0 1.0
Cultivating and fertilizing ...................... 2.5 2.5 2.1 2.1 3.4 2.5 1.4 1.4
Insect and disease control ........................ 2.5 2.5 2.8 2.6 5.2 3.5 1.6 1.6
Hoeing, raking, weeding ......................... 8.3
Irrigating ................................................. 2.3 7.0 3.0*

Total pre-harvest labor ......................... ........... 21.3 8.9 29.9 11.5 36.0 10.5 24.3 7.5

Harvest labor:
Digging .................---- .......... ..---- ............. 1.9 1.9 1.4 1.3 2.1 1.6 1.5 1.5
Picking up ................... ---.............. ...... 31.9 27.4 24.2 27.0
Hauling to packinghouse ................................. 5.2 7.0 6.5 4.1

Total harvest labor ........................ ............ 39.0 1.9 35.8 1.3 32.8 1.6 32.6 1.5

Other labor ..................... ........................................ 0.6 0.6 0.8 0.8 3.4 2.7

Total-all operations ................. ................ 60.9 11.4 65.7 12.8 69.6 12.9 60.3 11.7

Estimated yield, cwt ...................... ................. 162.5 150 175 150
Necessary only in dry years.









TABLE 13.-IRISH POTATOES: USUAL SEASON OF OPERATIONS, BY AREAS.


Operation Dade Everglades


Ditching and draining ..................... ........ .............. .... ---.............. July 15-Jan. 1
Preparing land .......... .....................................-.. ..... Oct. 1 Nov. 15 Aug. 10- Sept. 15
Preparing rows --.................. Nov. 1 Nov. 30
Planting and fertilizing ..- .................................................... Nov. 1 Nov. 30 Sept. 10 Sept. 30
Cultivating and fertilizing -........- ....... ................ Nov. 10 Feb. 1 Sept. 25 Dec. 15
Insect and disease control ...-- ..- ...... .............. Nov. 10 Feb. 28 Oct. 1 Jan. 15
Hoeing, raking, weeding ........ ............. .......--.-- ---- ...........------...... Oct. 20 Dec. 1
Irrigating .......................... ... .. ........ .. ................... .. ........


Harvesting ...... ................ .......................................... ... Feb. 1 Mar. 31 Dec. 26 Jan. 31




Operation Immokalee-Lee Hastings


Ditching and draining ....---- ..... ..................... ....... ......... Aug. 1 Jan. 31 Oct. 1 Mar. 31
Preparing land .....................................Aug. 1 Nov. 15 Oct. 1 Dec. 15
Preparing rows --.....- ..... ..- ..... ............... Oct. 15- Nov. 30 Dec. 1 Dec. 31
Planting and fertilizing ..... .....- ..... ..- .... .... .. .......... .............. Oct. 15- Nov. 30 Dec. 20 -Jan. 31
Cultivating and fertilizing ......... ........ ............ ----.---........... ........... Nov. 1 Jan. 31 Jan. 15 Mar. 31
Insect and disease control .. ---..-............-...--... ............. ..... Nov. 1 Feb. 28 Feb. 10 Apr. 10
H oeing, raking, w eeding ..-...... ........- ...........- ......-- .......... ...... ....
Irrigating -..................... -..-............-- ............-- .... .... ....................... Oct. 15 Jan. 31 Jan. 15 M ar. 31


Harvesting .--..------ ...... ..-......- ............................. Jan. 10- Apr. 1 Apr. 10- May 25







Labor and Material for Vegetable Crops


pre-harvest labor requirements were highest in the Immokalee-
Lee area, and labor requirements for harvesting were highest
in the Dade County area. The least amount of pre-harvest labor
was required in Dade County, and harvest labor requirements
were lowest in the Hastings area.
Growers in the Everglades and Immokalee-Lee areas begin
preparing land for planting in August (Table 13). In Dade
County and the Hastings area land preparation begins in October
or later.
Planting and fertilizing is completed in September in the
Everglades area. The Immokalee-Lee area plants from October
15 to November 30, and Dade County plants in November.
Planting at Hastings starts before Christmas and is usually com-
pleted by February 1. Harvesting begins in late December in
the Everglades, in January in the Immokalee-Lee area, February
in Dade County, and April in the Hastings area.
Material requirements for Irish potatoes show considerable
variation among production areas (Table 14). Growers in the
Everglades area use 1,500 pounds of seed per acre, as contrast-
ed with 2,400 pounds in Dade County. Everglades area growers
used an average of 1,100 pounds of fertilizer and 800 pounds
of sulfur per acre on muck land as compared with an average
of 2,875 pounds of complete fertilizer and 60 pounds per acre of
foliar spray material used on sand land in the Immokalee-Lee
area. All of the complete fertilizer was applied in one applica-
tion at planting time in all areas. Supplemental fertilizer ap-
plications or foliar sprays, when used, were made from 30 to 60
days after planting.
Organic fungicides and chlorinated hydrocarbon and organic
phosphate insecticides were used as sprays in all areas. Growers
follow a regular spray schedule of five to seven days in south
Florida areas and use a total of from 1,550 to 2,000 gallons of
spray per acre. Less spraying for insect and disease control is
required in the Hastings area, where growers reported an aver-
age use of 800 gallons per acre.

Sweet Corn

Sweet corn production methods are highly mechanized in the
two areas studied, and there is little difference in the labor re-
quirements (Table 15). More man hours were required for land
preparation, cultivating, and fertilizing in the Zellwood area,








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


TABLE 14.-IRISH POTATOES: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
PER ACRE, BY AREAS.


Area: Dade


Item Kind Amount


Cover crop seed ...............- Hegari, sesbania, sorghum 25-40 lb.
Seed ..................................... Pontiac, Red Pontiac, LaSoda 2,400 lb.
Seed treatment .................. Formaldehyde dip 0.06 gal.
Ammonium thiocyanate 0.045 gal.
Captan 0.48 lb.
Wireworm control ...........- Chlorinated hydrocarbons 1 gal.
Systemic poisons ............... Organic phosphate 30 lb.
Fertilizer .........----............... 4-8-6 2,000 lb.
Spray --................--............... Organic fungicides; chlori-
nated hydrocarbon and
organic phosphate insecti-
cides 1,550 gal.
Vine killer ......................... Sodium arsenite 0.8 gal.
Containers ..----........................50-lb. burlap or paper bags 325



Area: Everglades


Item Kind Amount


Seed ................. ............... Red Pontiac 1,500 lb.
Seed treatment ............... Formaldehyde dip 0.06 gal.
Agricultural antibiotic 1 oz.
Captan 0.48 lb.
Wireworm control ........... Chlorinated hydrocarbon in
fertilizer 20 lb.
Fertilizer ..........--.......-- -- ..... 0-12-16 1,100 lb.
Sulfur 800 lb.
Supplemental fertilizer ... 20-20-20 0.6 gal.
Spray ..--...-... .............. Sulfur; organic fungicides;
chlorinated hydrocarbon and
organic phosphate insecti-
cides 2,000 gal.
Vine killer ....--.....--.......... Sodium arsenite 0.8 gal.
Containers ------... 50-lb. sacks 300








Labor and Material for Vegetable Crops 27




TABLE 14.-IRISH POTATOES: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
PER ACRE, BY AREAS.--(CONCLUDED).


Area: Immokalee-Lee


Item Kind Amount


Cover crop seed ..-----. Sesbania 20 lb.
Seed ......-----.. -------.. Bliss Triumph, Red Pontiac,
Sebago 2,000 lb.
Seed treatment ................ Agricultural antibiotic 1 oz.
Wireworm control ..---.... Chlorinated hydrocarbon;
organic phosphate 1 gal.
Soil amendments .............. Dolomite 1,000 lb.
Fertilizer ................... ..- .... 4-8-8; 5-8-10; 5-10-5;
6-10-8; 6-10-12 2,875 lb.
Supplemental fertilizer .. Urea 60 lb.
Spray ...........-....-...--------- Organic fungicides; chlori-
nated hydrocarbon and
organic phosphate insecti-
cides 1,600 gal.
Vine killer -.............---...-- Sodium arsenite 0.8 gal.
Containers .................... 50-lb. paper and burlap bags 350



Area: Hastings


Item Kind Amount


Cover crop seed Sart, Star Millet, FS-1, 12 lb.
Hegari, Sesbania, Sorghum 20 lb.
Seed ................----------.--..... Sebago, Red Pontiac 1,700 lb.
Wireworm control ...--...........Chlorinated hydrocarbon;
organic phosphate 1 gal.
Fertilizer ..........................---- 6-8-8; 7-8-8; 7-9-9 2,300 lb.
Supplemental fertilizer ...-.. Nitrate of potash; nitrate
of soda; 10-10-10;
20-20-20 3 gal.
Weed control chemicals ........ Dinitros 1 gal.
Spray .....-------...----------... Organic fungicides; chlori-
nated hydrocarbon and
organic phosphate insecti-
cides 800 gal.
Containers ................................ 100-lb. burlap bags 150








28 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

TABLE 15.-SWEET CORN: LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN HOURS
PER ACRE, BY AREAS.


Everglades Zellwood
Operation 10 growers 6 growers
Man Tractor Man Tractor
Hours hours hours hours

Pre-harvest labor:
Field:
Ditching and draining ..........--.... 0.2 0.2 0.5 0.5
Preparing land --...............-- ....... 1.9 1.9 2.5 2.5
Planting .............----................... ..... 1.3 0.5 0.5 0.5
Cultivating and fertilizing ....... 1.4 1.4 3.0 3.0
Insect and disease control ........ 3.0 2.5 1.8 1.3
Hoeing, raking, weeding ............ 6.7 6.7


Total pre-harvest labor .................. 14.5 6.5 15.0 7.8


Harvest labor:
Pulling and packing .........-......... 28.6 1.8 44.8 2.5
Hauling to packinghouse
or precooler ................--....--- ..... .. 2.4 3.2


Total harvest labor ............. ......... 31.0 1.8 48.0 2.5


Other labor ............... -... .................. 0.9 0.9


Total-all operations ....-........... ... 45.5 8.3 63.9 11.2


Estimated yield, 4-5 doz.
wirebound crates ..--.........----..... 180 260




TABLE 16.-SWEET CORN: USUAL SEASON OF OPERATIONS, BY AREAS.


Operation Everglades Zellwood


Ditching and draining ...... Sept. 1- June 1 Jan. 1 Feb. 28
Preparing land .............--- --.. Sept. 1- Mar. 15 Jan. 1 Mar. 31
Planting and fertilizing .---.. Sept. 1 Mar. 15 Feb. 20 Apr. 20
Cultivating and fertilizing.. Sept. 15- Apr. 30 Mar. 1 June 1
Insect and disease control.... Sept. 10 June 1 Mar. 1- June 25
Hoeing, raking, weeding .... Oct. 1- Apr. 15 Mar. 10 May 20


Harvesting ..------.....----......- Dec. 1 June 5 May 15 June 30







Labor and Material for Vegetable Crops


and more time for insect and disease control in the Everglades
area. Harvesting operations are highly mechanized and vary
little among areas on a man hours per crate basis. Yields are
higher in the Zellwood area.
Everglades production is for late fall, winter, and spring
harvest, while Zellwood produces for late spring harvest only
(Table 16). Everglades growers plant from September to mid-
March and harvest from about December 1 to June 5. Planting
in Zellwood is from late February to April with harvesting from
May 15 to June 30.
Golden Security, Gold Rush, Gold Cup, and White Cup were
the most popular varieties planted (Table 17). From 1,000 to
1,500 pounds of fertilizer were applied at planting time in the
areas. Zellwood growers also used 300 pounds per acre of a
supplemental fertilizer during crop growth.
Insect and disease control is one of the main problems in the
production of sweet corn. Growers dust and spray frequently
-at times, daily-to combat diseases and insects. Organic fun-
gicides and chlorinated hydrocarbon and organic phosphate in-
secticides were used as sprays and dusts in both areas.

Celery

Few crops in Florida, other than vine-ripe tomatoes and
strawberries, required more hand labor for production than was
required for celery (Table 18). The Everglades, Zellwood, and
Sanford-Oviedo areas are the principal celery-producing areas
of the state. Sanford celery is produced on sand land, while all
other areas use muck soils. Celery growers use machinery to
as great an extent as presently possible in producing the crop,
but still must use considerable hand labor. From 100 to 159
man hours per acre were required. Of this amount, from 38 to
50 percent was required for the setting of plants in the field
with setting machines, and from 10 to 24 percent for hoeing,
raking, and weeding.
Harvesting required from 0.36 to 0.45 man hours per crate
for cutting, packing, and hauling to the precooler. The use of
a mobile packing plant (mule-train) has reduced the harvesting
and packing labor requirements about 35 percent as compared
with the older washhouse method.
Preparation of celery seedbeds begins in March in the Ever-
glades, April in Zellwood, May in Sanford, June in Oviedo, and








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


TABLE 17.-SWEET CORN: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
PER ACRE, BY AREAS.


Area: Everglades


Item Kind Amount


Seed .....----...... ......................... Golden Security, Gold Rush,
Winter Garden, R-8, Iobelle,
Florigold 106, Florigold 107,
Silverliner 12.5 lb.
Fertilizer .------................ 0-8-24; 0-10-15; 0-10-20;
0-16-20; 0-16-24; 4-12-12;
4-16-16 1,000 lb.
Weed control chemicals ....... CDEC, CDAA 1 gal.
2, 4-D 0.3-1.8 lb.
Spray ....................................... Organic fungicides; chlori-
nated hydrocarbon and
organic phosphate insecti-
cides 1,925 gal.
Dust ............--................... ... Organic fungicides; chlori-
nated hydrocarbon and
organic phosphate insecti-
cides 285 lb.
Containers .-....................----- .... 4-5 doz. wirebound crates 180



Area: Zellwood


Item Kind Amount


Seed ............................-.......- .... Golden Security, Gold Cup,
White Cup 14 lb.
Fertilizer .................................. 5-10-15; 4-8-12; 6-8-10 1,500 lb.
Supplemental fertilizer ........ Nitrate of potash 300 lb.
Weed control chemicals ........ CDAA, CDEC 1 gal.
2, 4-D 0.3-1.8 lb.
Spray .......--..--....................- .... Organic fungicides; chlori-
nated hydrocarbon and
organic phosphate insecti-
cides 600 gal.
Dust ............-.....--.................. Organic fungicides; chlori-
nated hydrocarbon and
organic phosphate insecti-
cides 480 Ib.
Containers ............................... 4-5 doz. wirebound crates 260






TABLE 18.-CELERY: LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN HOURS PER ACRE, BY AREAS.

Everglades Oviedo Sanford Sarasota Zellwood
Operation 9 growers 6 growers 5 growers 5 growers 2 growers
Man Tractor Man Tractor Man Tractor Man Tractor Man Tractor
hours hours hours hours hours hours hours hours hours hours

Pre-harvest labor:

Seedbed* .................... ..............- 26.0 1.0 13.8 1.2 22.1 1.6 19.0 0.2 19.2 1.1

Field:
Ditching and draining ................. 0.3 0.3 6.3 1.3 11.3 2.0 0.7 0.7
Preparing land ....... ................... f 3.4 3.4 6.8 6.2 6.2 6.2 2.9 2.7
3.5 3.5
Preparing rows and fertilizing I... 0.4 0.4 3.0 2.7 2.9 1.0 0.6 0.6
Planting or setting ..................... 50.0 1.7 62.0 2.3 57.9 3.5 60.3 2.5 53.9 1.8
Cultivating and fertilizing ............ 5.9 4.4 6.9 6.3 12.0 8.6 10.0 7.8 5.5 3.5
Insect and disease control ................ 4.5 3.5 4.8 4.5 9.8 9.8 11.9 9.5 4.4 4.4
Hoeing, raking, weeding ..-.... 10.0 20.0 24.0 30.0 31.0
Irrigating .. ..........- .. ....... 12.5 20.0 7.4 10.0

Total pre-harvest labor ....................... 100.2 14.4 130.1 19.4 155.6 32.4 159.0 29.2 128.2 14.8

Harvest labor:
Cutting and packing ................... 220.0 3.3 260.3 4.3 252.0 4.0 308.0 4.5 220.8 4.8
Hauling to precooler ....... ............ 10.0 8.9 12.0 9.9 14.3


Total harvest labor ..............................

Other labor ......................-..--- ..------

Total-all operations ................-..............

Estimated yield, Howard crates ................
Per acre of field-set plants.


230.0



330.2


269.2 4.3

1.5 1.5

400.8 25.2


264.0


4.0 317.9


3.3 2.7 3.2 3.2


422.9 39.1


480.1 36.9


600


235.1


4.8


0.9 0.9


364.2 20.5


0





0

a


C-
cs


-^


,


--






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


July in Sarasota. For the spring crop in Oviedo and Zellwood,
seedbed preparation begins in September and October, respec-
tively (Table 19). Land is prepared in July and August for the
first planting of the fall crop. Successive plantings are made
until October 15 for the winter crop in Oviedo, to November 15
in Sanford, and to about January 7 in the Sarasota area. Ever-
glades growers plant on a scheduled basis until about March 10
of each year. Harvesting begins in late October and mid-Novem-
ber in the Zellwood and Everglades areas and is completed in
early June. Harvesting in the Island Grove area, not included
in this report, may continue until mid-or late June depending
upon crop condition and prices.
Pascal (Utah types) and Golden are the two types of celery
grown in Florida. From 0.1 to 0.25 pound of seed produces suf-
ficient plants in a seedbed to set one acre of celery in the field
(Table 20). Celery plants require protection from the sun and
heavy rain during the young stages. To this end they are grown
under cloth covers. The cloth is turned back in good weather
to allow some exposure to the sun and to promote hardening.
Fertilizer requirements in the field ranged from 2,800 pounds
in the Everglades to 6,200 pounds in the Sanford area. These
materials are applied in several applications during the growth
of the crop. Vegedex or some other material for weed control
is usually applied after setting.
Spray mixtures ranging from 1,225 to 2,500 gallons per acre
were applied for the control of insects and diseases. Inorganic
coppers, antibiotics, organic fungicides, and chlorinated hy-
drocarbon and organic phosphate insecticides were all used. For
specific recommendation of mixtures and amounts to be applied
for disease and insect control, the agricultural agent or other
qualified persons should be consulted.

Green Peppers
Labor requirements per acre for the production of green pep-
pers vary widely among producing areas (Table 21). Green pep-
pers in the Pompano area were planted in double rows on high
beds, required for proper drainage. This method required more
man hours for cultivating and for hoeing, raking, and weeding
than in other areas where plantings were on smaller beds or
in single rows. In the Sumter County and Plant City areas,
acreages per farm were small, and much of the labor required






TABLE 19.-CELERY: USUAL SEASON OF OPERATIONS, BY AREAS.


Operation


Seedbed .----- ----..... ..--------..-.....------

Field:
Ditching and draining ........... ........
Preparing land ..... ........... ................
Planting or setting .-.............. ......-
Cultivating and fertilizing .....................
Insect and disease control .............. .
Hoeing, raking, weeding ..............-..
Irrigating ............- ....-..... .. ... ... .. ....


Harvpetine .....................................


Everglades


SWinter

Mar. 15 Mar. 10 1 June 1 Oct. 15


Aug. 1 Sept. 30
July 1 Mar. 1
Aug. 20 Mar. 10
Sept. 4-May 10
Aug. 27 May 25
Oct. 15 -May 10
July 1 June 5


Nov. 15- June 5


July 1- Sept. 15
Sept. 15 Oct. 15
Oct. 8-Dec. 31
Sept. 25 Jan. 31

July 1- Feb. 1


IDec.
I Dec.


20-Feb. 10


Oviedo


Sanford


Spring I

Sept. 1- Feb. 28 May 1- Nov. 15

Aug. 10 -Sept. 30 Q
Sept. 1 Jan. 1 Aug. 10 -Sept. 30
Dec. 15 Feb. 28 Sept. 1- Nov. 15 S
Dec. 20 May 10 Sept. 10 Mar. 10
Jan. 1 -May 20 Sept. 10 Mar. 20
Oct. 15 Dec. 15 S
Sept. 1 -May 20 Sept. 1 -Mar. 15 g


Apr. 20- June 1 Feb. 1 Mar. 30


Operation Sarasota Zellwood
Fall Spring

Seedbed ............-........ ... .............. ... ... ............. July 1 -Jan. 7 Apr. 1 Aug. 25 Oct. 1 -Feb. 15

Field:
Ditching and draining ............... ...- .. ... .. .................... Aug. 1- Oct. 1
Preparing land ...................-..-. ............ ..... ................ Aug. 1 -Jan. 1 July 1 July 31 Nov. 1 Jan. 10
Planting or setting ................-......-......................... Sept. 15- Jan. 7 July 25 Aug. 25 Jan. 15 Feb. 15
Cultivating and fertilizing ....-........-........................... Oct. 1 Apr. 5 Aug. 10- Nov. 1 Feb. 1 Apr. 30
Insect and disease control ............-..... ...................... Oct. 7 Apr. 30 July 25- Nov. 10 I Jan. 15- June 1
Hoeing, raking, weeding .......................................... Oct. 10 Apr. 1
Irrigating .....------- ----... ....- .. ...... .... ...................... Aug. 1 Apr. 30 July 1 Nov. 10 Nov. 1 June 10

Harvesting .................................. Ja -n. Anr. 30 Oct. 25- Nov. 20 May 1-June 30








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


TABLE 20.-CELERY:


USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS PER ACRE,
BY AREAS.


Area: Everglades


Item


Seedbed:*

Seed ............................ .....

Soil fumigant ...................

Fertilizer ...............
Supplemental fertilizer ......
Spray .....---- ..-- ....................



A-fram es ........ ..............
W ire ....- ..- ......
Covers .................. ................
Posts .............. .... ..... ....
Staples ..... ...............

Field:

Plants .--..- ......
Weed control chemicals ...
Fertilizer ................... ......

Supplemental fertilizer ..-.

Spray ........- ....... ...... ......



Containers ...................


Per acre of field-set plants.


Kind


Utah 52-70, D-5, Emerald 148,
Golden Supreme, Pascal
Chloropicrin, methyl bromide
SMDC
Mineral spirits, DD
0-8-16; 0-8-24; 0-12-16
Nitrate of soda
Sulfur; inorganic coppers;
organic fungicides; chlori-
nated hydrocarbon and
organic phosphate insecti-
cides
Wooden (1" x 2")
Galvanized, 12-14 gauge
Muslin
Wooden, 3 in.



From seedbed
CDEC, CDAA
0-8-24; 0-12-16; 2-18-24;
2-12-16; 3-8-24; 4-6-10
0-8-24; 4-6-10; 4-8-24; 6-8-8;
6-12-12; 9-0-29; 10-0-29;
15-0-14
Sulfur; inorganic coppers; an-
tibiotics; organic fungicides;
chlorinated hydrocarbon and
organic phosphate insecti-
cides
Howard crates


Amount




0.1 oz.
14 lb.
2 gal.
1 gal.
33 lb.
6 lb.



145 gal.
15
620 ft.
8 x 150 ft.
2
34



33,000
1 gal.

2,000 lb.


800 lb.



2,300 gal.
600








Labor and Material for Vegetable Crops 35






TABLE 20.-CELERY: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS PER ACRE,
BY AREAS.- (CONTINUED).


Area: Oviedo


Item Kind Amount


Seedbed:*

Seed .....- ........................... ..

Soil fumigant ....... ....
Fertilizer ..-.............


Spray -........................-.. ..


Covers or ......-. .................-
Sacks .....................---------
W ire .----........ ~.. -..-..... -------
Nails and Staples --....--......
Clothespins ..................
Posts .............................
Stakes for A-frames .....-...
A -fram es ........................

Field:

Cover crop seed ..............
Plants ............ .. ...........
Weed control chemicals ...
Fertilizer .................--
Spray .................. ............


Containers ......--........


D-5, 252-19, Summer Pascal,
Golden
SMDC, DD, mineral spirits
4-7-5; 5-7-5; 5-5-4;
5-5-8; 5-5-10
Sludge, tankage, milorganite
Inorganic coppers; organic
fungicides; chlorinated hy-
drocarbon and organic
phosphate insecticides
Muslin
Burlap (100 lb. capacity)
Galvanized No. 9 or 10

Wooden or plastic
Wooden
Wooden
Wooden (1" x 2")


Sesbania
From seedbed
CDEC
5-5-8; 5-5-10; 5-6-10
Inorganic coppers; organic
fungicides; chlorinated hy-
drocarbon and organic
phosphate fungicides
Howard crates


* Per acre of field-set plants.


0.2 lb.
1.5 gal.

55 lb.
60 lb.


37
3 x 150
64
900
1
300
2
64
32


20 lb.
40,000
1 gal.
5,500 lb.


1,225 gal.
650








36 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations






TABLE 20.-CELERY: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS PER ACRE,
BY AREAS.- (CONTINUED).


Area: Sanford


Item Kind Amount


Seedbed:*

Seed ............------.......................
Soil fumigant ...--.......

Fertilizer .........................

Supplemental fertilizer ...

Spray ...... ......- ........


Covers .................................---
A-frames .....................---
W ire ......... .... ............
Posts ..... ................-- -- .....
Stakes ..............................
Clothespins ..........................
Nails and staples ................

Field:

Plants ...........................
Soil amendments ................
Soil fumigant ...................

Fertilizer .........................

Supplemental fertilizer ...

Spray ...................................


Containers .......... .............


Golden, Pascal
Cyanamid
Nematicide
4-6-5; 4-7-5; 5-5-7
Castor pomace
Nitrate of potash, calcium
nitrate
Inorganic coppers; organic
fungicides; chlorinated hy-
drocarbon and organic phos-
phate insecticides
Muslin
Wooden (1" x 2")
Galvanized No. 9
Wooden 3-inch
Wooden
Wooden, plastic



From seedbed
Dolomite
Nematicide
Cyanamid
4-6-5; 4-7-5; 4-6-10;
5-5-7; 5-7-7; 6-7-8
Nitrate of potash; calcium
nitrate
Inorganic coppers; organic
fungicides; chlorinated hy-
drocarbon and organic phos-
phate insecticides
Howard crates


0.25 lb.
27 lb.
0.4 gal.
35 lb.
20 lb.

5 lb.


52 gal.
3 x 150 ft.
16
420 ft.
2
27
200
1 lb.


37,000
2,000
18
1,000

4,800

400


1,500 gal.
800


* Per acre of field-set plants.








Labor and Material for Vegetable Crops 37








TABLE 20.-CELERY: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS PER ACRE,
BY AREAS.-(CONTINUED).


Area: Sarasota


Item Kind Amount


Seedbed:*

Seed ..--................-- ... ..--...-.. ...
Weed control chemicals -..
Fertilizer ................. .....
Supplemental fertilizer .....
Spray -............- .......


A -fram es ..........................
W ire ........... ...... ..........
Nails and staples ..--......--
Posts for wires .....--...--.....
Stakes for frames ...........-
Covers .-..-- ...---. ....-..-....--

Field:

Plants ............... ........ .....
Weed control chemicals ....
Fertilizer -------
Supplemental fertilizers

Spray ...- ---- ......



Cover crop seed .....-....-...-....
Containers ..............--- ...


Utah 52-70
Mineral spirits, DD, SMDC
4-9-3, castor pomace
Nitrate of potash
Chlorinated hydrocarbon and
organic phosphate insecti-
cides
Wooden (1" x 2")
Galvanized No. 9 or 10

Wooden
Wooden
Muslin



From seedbed
CDEC
Cyanamid
5-5-8; 5-5-10
Nitrate of potash
Inorganic coppers; organic
fungicides; chlorinated hy-
drocarbon and organic
phosphate insecticides
Sesbania
Howard crates


0.17 lb.
2 gal.
65 lb.
4 lb.


25 gal.
17
900 ft.
1 Ib.
2
34
6 x 150 ft.


45,000
1
800
4,000
400


2,500 gal.
25 lb.
839


* Per acre of field-set plants.








Florida Agricultural Experiment .Stations


TABLE 20.-CELERY: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS PER ACRE,
BY AREAS.- (CONCLUDED).


Area: Zellwood


Item Kind Amount


Seedbed:*

Seed ....-..............-------..........

Soil fumigant ......................
Fertilizer ......................

Spray ...........- ...................


Covers ------------------------------------
Wire ......................--------
Nails and staples ................
Clothespins ......--....................
P osts .....................................
Stakes for A-frames ........
A-frames --------------

Field:

Cover crop seed ...................
Plants .............................
Weed control chemicals .-.
Fertilizer .............................
Supplemental fertilizer .....

Spray .....................


Containers ..........................


D-5, 252-19, Summer Pascal,
Golden
SMDC, DD, mineral spirits
5-5-8; 5-6-10; 2-6-24
Sludge, tankage, milorganite
Inorganic coppers; organic
fungicides; chlorinated hy-
drocarbon and organic phos-
phate insecticides
Muslin
Galvanized No. 9 or 10

Wooden or plastic
Wooden
Wooden
Wooden (1" x 2")


Sesbania
From seedbed
CDEC
2-8-16; 5-6-10
Nitrate of soda; calcium
nitrate
Inorganic coppers; organic
fungicides; chlorinated hy-
drocarbon and organic
phosphate insecticides
Howard crates


0.2 lb.
1.5 gal.
55 lb.
60 lb.


37 gal.
6x150 ft.
900 ft.
1 lb.
300
2
64
32


20 lb.
40,000
1 gal.
4,250 lb.

275 lb.


1,640 gal.
525


* Per acre of field-set plants.






TABLE 21.-GREEN PEPPERS: LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN HOURS PER ACRE, BY AREAS.


Operation


Pre-harvest labor:

Seedbed* ..... .... ... ...................

Field:
Ditching and draining ......................
Preparing land ....................................
Preparing rows and fertilizing .....

Planting or setting --.. ...... ..
Cultivating and fertilizing ..............
Insect and disease control ................
Hoeing, raking, weeding ...............
Irrigating ......................... ...........


Everglades
8 growers


Man Tractor
hours hours


Immokalee-Lee
5 growers


Man Tractor
hours hours


40.8**
3.8
2.7

1.8
17.3
11.5
35.0
13.1


4.3**
2.7
1.8

0.9
8.0
11.5


Pompano
11 growers


Man Tractor
hours hours


25.4
4.5
1.3

1.1
34.1
10.1
144.0
10.0


Plant City
9 growers


Sumter
9 growers


Man Tractor Man Tractor
hours hours hours hours


6.1 0.5


8.8 0.7


6.0
6.3 6.3
3.0 3.0

15.0 4.0
15.3 15.3 .
8.0 8.0
40.0
33.0


Total pre-harvest labor ............................ 112.2 20.4 126.0 29.2 230.5 28.5 106.0 33.0 135.4 37.3

Harvest labor:
Picking and lugging -.. ......... 86.0 9.2 128.6 114.1 8.2 82.0 100.8 12.8
Washing and packing --------........--- ...- 61.0 46.0
Hauling to packinghouse or market.. 2.8 16.0 7.3 10.0 15.4

Total harvest labor .................................... 88.8 9.2 144.6 182.4 8.2 138.0 116.2 12.8

Other labor ....................... .............. -----0.9 0.9 2.1 2.1 3.9 3.9 3.6 3.6

Total-all operations ................................. 201.0 29.6 271.5 30.1 415.0 38.8 247.9 36.9 255.2 53.7

Estimated yield, bushels ...........1.. ... 300 450 1 400 300 400

Per acre of field-set plants.
** Where second crop land is used, deduct 34.6 man and 3.1 tractor hours for clearing land, fencing, and initial field and road layout.


00
Co
^^


-------


,







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


was still performed by the farm family. The harvesting of green
peppers required from 0.29 to 0.46 man hours per bushel, depend-
ing upon whether the peppers were washed and packed at the
farm as in the Pompano area or at a packinghouse as in the Im-
mokalee-Lee area.
The Immokalee-Lee, Pompano, and Everglades areas produce
for fall, winter, and spring harvest, and the Plant City and
Sumter County areas for spring harvest (Table 22). Land prep-
aration begins in July and continues until December. Planting
of the fall and winter crop begins in August or September, with
the spring crop being planted in January and February. Given
favorable weather and prices, peppers may be picked over a
period of three or more months; hence, some plantings intended
for fall and winter harvest may be picked into the winter or
spring marketing periods.
California Wonder, Wonder Giant, Yolo Wonder, and Florida
Giant were the most popular varieties of green peppers planted.
Some areas also plant Anaheim and Hungarian Wax peppers of
the "hot" varieties (Table 23). Where seed are sown directly in
the row, from 1.5 to 3.0 pounds per acre are required. In areas
using seedbeds, from 0.6 to 0.8 pound of seed produce sufficient
plants for setting an acre in the field. From 9,000 to 20,000
plants were required, depending upon whether plantings were
in single or double rows. Soil amendments in the form of dolo-
mite or high calcium lime, in amounts ranging from 1,000 to
2,000 pounds per acre, are applied annually in all areas except
the Everglades. Fertilizer requirements range from 800 pounds
per acre of an 0-8-12 to 0-14-5 mixture in the Everglades area
to as much as 6,000 pounds of a 4-7-5 to 6-6-6 mixture in the
Pompano areas. In addition, from 250 to 400 pounds of nitrate
of soda, nitrate of potash, or other high-nitrogen-content mix-
ture is applied as supplemental fertilizer. From 400 to 3,000
gallons of spray and from 95 to 400 pounds of dust were used
in the various areas for insect and disease control.

Watermelons
Watermelons are produced in a greater number of counties
in Florida than any other truck crop. Labor requirements for
their production are highest in south Florida, where it is the
general practice to clear new land each year and where the most
time is spent in hoeing, raking, and weeding of melons and on





TABLE 22.-GREEN PEPPERS: USUAL SEASON OF OPERATIONS, BY AREAS.

Operation Everglades Immokalee-Lee Pompano

Seedbed:

Field:
Ditching and draining .......... ..................... ........... Aug. 1 Sept. 30 Jan. 1 Aug. 31 Sept. 1 Apr. 15
Preparing land .-------... .--------.....- ..-.. ................... July 15 Sept. 30 Aug. 1 Sept. 30 Aug. 1 Dec. 15
Preparing rows and fertilizing -.................. ....................... Aug. 1 Nov. 15 Sept. 1- Dec. 15
Planting or setting .. ~..... ----- ........................... .. ...... Sept. 1 Dec. 1 Aug. 1 Nov. 15 Sept. .1 Dec. 15
Cultivating and fertilizing .. ..-- ....- .. Sept. 20- Apr. 10 Sept. 1- Apr. 1 Sent. 15- Mar. 31
Insect and disease control ..........-..--.-...-....-................ Sept. 15 Apr. 15 Sept. 1 May 1 Sept. 10 Apr. 25
Hoeing, raking, weeding ........................................ ...... Oct. 1 -Apr. 1 Sept. 1-Dec. 15 Sept. 15 -Feb. 15
Irrigating .......................................... ...... ........ .. Sept. 1 Apr. 25 Sept. 1 Apr. 20

Harvesting ..................................... .......... ........................ De 5 Anr. Nov. 15 M a 1 Dec. 1 M ay 1


Operation I Plant City Sumter

Seedbed:
Preparation ........ .................................................. Sept. 1 Nov. 1 ISept. 1- Nov. 1
Planting --------............................................... ... ....................... Nov. 1 Nov. 30 Nov. 1 Dec. 1
Care -----------....................................... .... .. .......... ............. N ov. 1 Feb. 28 N ov. 1 Feb. 1

Field:
Ditching and draining ... ............................. ................................ Oct. 1- Jan. 15
Preparing land ...................... ... ...................................... Sept. I Dec. 31 Oct. 1- Dec. 31
Preparing rows and fertilizing ................................... Dec. 1 Feb. 15 Dec. 15 Jan. 31
Planting or setting ............ ...................................... ........................ Jan. 1 Feb. 28 Jan. 15 -Mar. 1
Cultivating and fertilizing ......... ....................... .................... Jan. 25 May 10 Feb. 1 Apr. 30
Insect and disease control ............ .................. Jan. 15 May 15 Feb. 1 May 31
Hoeing, raking, weeding ---------.............. ................... ................. Feb. 1- Apr. 1 Feb. 15 Mar. 15
Irrigating --------- ..................................................- ............... Jan. 1- M ay 15 Jan. 15 M ay 31

Harvesting -----------....................... ....... .................... ...... .... Anr. 10 -June 15 Anr. 1 June 15








42 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

TABLE 23.-GREEN PEPPERS: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
PER ACRE, BY AREAS.

Area: Everglades

Item I Kind Amount

Seed -....................................... California W onder, Yolo
Wonder 1.5 lb.
Fertilizer .................................. 0-8-12; 0-8-24; 0-10-10;
0-12-16; 0-14-5 800 lb.
Spray ............................ Antibiotics; inorganic coppers;
organic fungicides; chlori-
nated hydrocarbon and
organic phosphate insecticides 2,250 gal.
Containers ................................ Bushel hampers 300

Area: Immokalee-Lee

Item Kind Amount

Cover crop seed ..............----.. Sesbania 20 lb.
Seed .........-......- ............ Florida Giant, California
Wonder, World Beater 2.5 lb.
Soil amendments ----......---...... .. Dolomite 2,000 lb.
Fertilizer ...............................--- 4-7-5; 4-8-8; 6-6-6 5,300 lb.
Supplemental fertilizer .. 15-0-15 300 lb.
Poison bait ........- Chlorinated hydrocarbon 30 lb.
Spray ........................................ Organic fungicides; hexachloro-
phene; chlorinated hydrocar-
bon and organic phosphate
insecticides; inorganic coppers 3,000 gal.
Containers .----......................... Bushel hampers 450

Area: Pompano

Item Kind Amount

Seed .......-- .-..............-.....---. Florida Giant, California
Wonder, World Beater, Ana-
heim, Hungarian Wax 3.0 lb.
Soil amendments .............---. Dolomite, high calcium lime 1,000 lb.
Fertilizer ....... ------ ..... 4-7-5; 4-8-6 6,000 lb.
Supplemental fertilizer .... Nitrate of potash; 8-0-8;
15-0-15; 20-20-20 300 lb.
Poison bait ......................------ Chlorinated hydrocarbon 30 lb.
Zinc oxide and scratch feed
mixture 10 lb.
Warfarin 3 lb.
Spray .-------............. Antibiotics; sulfur; inorganic
coppers; organic fungicides;
chlorinated hydrocarbon & in-
organic phosphate insecticides 860 gal.
Dust ...... ............................ Inorganic copper; sulfur; botan-
icals; chlorinated hydrocarbon
and organic phosphate insecti-
cides 180 lb.
Containers ............................. Bushel hampers 400








Labor and Material for Vegetable Crops 43









TABLE 23.-GREEN PEPPERS: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
PER ACRE, BY AREAS.--(CONTINUED).


Area: Plant City

Item Kind Amount
Item Kind Amount


Seedbed:*

Seed ......................................

Soil amendments .............-.
Fertilizer .........................
Spray ..................................


D ust ........... ......... .....


Field:

Plants ................................

Soil amendments ....--........--
Fertilizer .......... .....
Supplemental fertilizer ....

Poison bait .....................-..
Spray ...................................

D ust ......................................



Containers ........ .............


Yolo Wonder, Florida Giant,
Keystone Resistant Giant
Lime, dolomite, calcite
4-7-5
Inorganic coppers; organic
fungicides; inorganic phos-
phate insecticides
Inorganic coppers; organic
phosphate insecticides



Yolo Wonder, Florida Giant,
Keystone Resistant Giant
Dolomite
4-7-5; 4-8-8
Calcium nitrate; nitrate of
potash; 12-0-10; 15-0-15
Chlorinated hydrocarbon
Inorganic copper; organic
phosphate insecticides
Sulfur; inorganic coppers;
chlorinated hydrocarbon and
organic phosphate insecti-
cides
Bushel hampers


0.6 lb.
20 lb.
19 lb.


12-20,000
1,000 lb.
2,000 lb.

400 lb.
50 lb.

400 gal.



95 lb.
300


* Per acre of field-set plants.








44 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


TABLE 23.-GREEN PEPPERS: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
PER ACRE, BY AREAS.--(CONCLUDED).


Area: Sumter


Item


Seedbed:*

Seed ....-.......................-.....

Fertilizer .......................

Spray ..........................



Dust .--......................-......- ...


Poison bait .....................

Field:

Plants .....- ................ .....
Soil amendments ...............
Fertilizer .........................
Supplemental fertilizer ...


Poison
Spray


bait ...........................


or

Dust ....... .........................


Containers ..........................


Kind


Florida Giant, California
Wonder, Yolo Wonder
4-7-5; 4-6-8
Manure
Organic fungicides; chlorinat-
ed hydrocarbon and organic
phosphate insecticides; in-
organic coppers; antibiotics
Organic fungicides; inorganic
coppers; chlorinated hy-
drocarbon insecticides
Chlorinated hydrocarbon



From seedbed
Dolomite
4-7-5; 4-6-8
Nitrate of soda; nitrate of
potash
Chlorinated hydrocarbon
Antibiotics; organic coppers;
sulfur; organic fungicides;
chlorinated hydrocarbon and
organic phosphate insecti-
cides
Organic coppers; chlorinated
hydrocarbon and organic
phosphate insecticides
Bushel hampers


* Per acre of field-set plants.


Amount





0.8 lb.
156 lb.
375 lb.



20 gal.


20 Ib.
4.5 lb.



9.500
1.000 lb.
3,000 lb.

250 lb.
30 lb.




1,200 gal.


400 lb.
400








Labor and Material for Vegetable Crops


Gainesville


Fig. 2-Location of watermelon areas studied.


ooO`








TABLE 24.-WATERMELONS: LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN HOURS PER ACRE, BY AREAS.

South Florida Central Florida Gainesville
Operation 10 growers 16 growers 25 growers
Man Tractor Man Tractor Man Tractor
hours hours hours hours hours hours

Pre-harvest labor:

Field:
Ditching and draining, roads, pumps ................... 40.8* 4.3*
Preparing land ........................-............. ................. 1.6 1.5 2.6** 2.1** 1.3 1.3
Preparing rows and fertilizing ........-.....-................. 1.4 0.9 1.9 1.6 1.2 0.9
Planting and replanting .--.........--...--- ....--........----...... 6.9 0.8 1.9 0.8 0.5 0.5
Cultivating and fertilizing ................... -...- 2.5 1.4 4.1 2.6 2.5 1.9
Insect and disease control ........................ ..... 5.3 5.3 1.3t 1.3t 0.4 0.4
Hoeing, raking, weeding ..................................---- 12.2 5.0 4.0
Irrigating .....................- ............................. ...... 4.5 4.0
Pruning and turning vines ...................................... 7.2 2.7 3.2
Cold protection ..................... ...............--_.................. 8.0

Total pre-harvest labor -..- ................... ...... ........- 90.4 14.2 23.5 8.4 13.1 5.0

Harvest labor:
Cutting ..........-- ................. ....- .. ...---- .......... .-- 4.0 2.2 3.2
Carrying to drive row .........................-..... ......... 8.0 4.8 6.4
Hauling to loading point ................. --...... .............. 8.1 6.5 5.2
Loading in car or truck ...........-- ............................ 6.0 3.8 4.8

Total harvest labor .................. ... 26.1 17.3 19.6

Other labor .......--......... .... ................ ..-........1.6 1.6

Total-all operations .........-.. ....--- ............ 118.1 15.8 40.8 8.4 32.7 5.0

Estimated yield, melons ..........----..-----............----... 625 420 450
Where second crop land is used, deduct 34.6 man and 3.1 tractor hours for clearing land, and initial field and road layout.
** Growers using new land required an additional 5.5 man and 1.9 tractor hours.
t When required. Not a general practice.







Labor and Material for Vegetable Crops


insect and disease control (Table 24). In the central Florida
area some land is cleared each year for watermelons, but not
as much land clearing time is required as in south Florida. In
the Gainesville area watermelons are rotated on the land every
five to seven years. Harvest requirements per 100 melons varied
little among areas.
In the areas studied watermelons are planted from December
1 in south Florida to about March 10 in the Gainesville area
(Table 25). Harvesting begins in late March in south Florida
and is usually completed by June 30 in the Gainesville area.
North and west Florida areas, not studied, may harvest until
mid-July.
Charleston Gray was the principal variety of watermelons
reported by growers, along with Congo, Blackstone, and Cannon-
ball (Table 26). From 1.3 to 3.0 pounds of seed were required
to plant an acre. South Florida growers using new land applied
1 ton of dolomite or high calcium lime to new land. Complete
fertilizer requirements ranged from 800 pounds in the Gaines-
ville area to 2,000 pounds in south Florida. In addition, from
100 to 300 pounds of a high-nitrogen-content supplemental fer-
tilizer was applied during crop growth. Dust in the amount of
50 pounds per acre was used for insect and disease control in
the Gainesville area, while growers in other areas preferred
spray for the same purposes, using 300 to 1,500 gallons per acre.

Cucumbers
The usual labor requirements per acre for producing cucum-
bers in five major areas are shown in Table 27. Hoeing, raking,
and weeding required the largest proportion of the man hour
requirements in all areas except Immokalee-Lee, where the
normal practice has been to clear new land for this crop. Ditch-
ing and draining, insect and disease control, and cultivating and
fertilizing also are expensive in terms of man hour requirements
in spite of the fact that machinery is used as much as possible
in place of hand labor. Total pre-harvest labor, excluding land
clearing, ranged from 21 man hours in Dade County to 56 man
hours in the Pompano area.
Harvest labor requirements ranged from 0.39 man hours per
bushel in the Immokalee-Lee area to 0.56 man hours in Alachua
County. Average yields per acre ranged from 125 bushels per
















TABLE 25.-WATERMELONS: USUAL SEASON OF OPERATIONS, BY AREAS.


Operation South Florida Central Florida Gainesville


Ditching, diking, roads,
clearing* ..... ------...... -- ................. ..-................ M ar. 1 Dec. 15
Preparing land ................. ....... ------ ..................... Oct. 15- Dec. 31 Oct. 20- Dec. 31 Nov. 1 Jan. 31
Preparing rows and fertilizing .............-....- ................... Nov. 15- Jan. 15 Dec. 1- Jan. 10 Jan. 10 Feb. 15
Planting and replanting ...............--..............-........... Dec. 1 Feb. 15 Jan. 10 Mar. 1 Feb. 10 Mar. 10
Cultivating and fertilizing ............. --- -- ......................... Jan. 15 Mar. 31 Feb. 1 May 10 Mar. 10 May 15
Insect and disease control ................. ....................... Jan. 1 May 15 Mar. 15 May 30 Apr. 5 June 15
Hoeing, raking, weeding -............... .. .......................- Jan. 1- Feb. 28 Mar. 1- Mar. 31 Mar. 15- Apr. 15
Pruning and turning vines ........................ ................ Feb. 20- Apr. 15 Apr. 20 May 15 May 1 May 31
Irrigating ---..-- ..- .------- .--- --................. ........... Jan. 1 Apr. 30 Apr. 1 May 15


Harvesting .........--.- ...-..... ----.--............. .........a Mar. 25 May 31 May 15 June 20 June 1 June 30


* May be done at any time in advance of preparing land.








Labor and Material for Vegetable Crops


TABLE 26.-WATERMELONS: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
PER ACRE, BY AREAS.

Area: South Florida


Item


Kind


Amount


Seed ...................................... Charleston Gray 2.0 lb.
Soil amendments ................ Dolomite, high calcium lime 2,000 lb.
Fertilizer ............-.............. 4-8-8; 5-7-5; 6-6-6; 8-8-8 2,000 Ib.
Supplemental fertilizer .... Nitrate of potash or liquid
equivalent 300 lb.
Poison bait ........................ Chlorinated hydrocarbon, oats 40 lb.
Spray ................----......-- Organic fungicides; inorganic
coppers; chlorinated hydro-
carbon and organic phosphate
insecticides 1,500 gal.
Cover crop seed ................ Sesbania 20 lb.


Area: Central Florida

Item Kind Amount


Seed ................................... Charleston Gray, Blackstone,
Congo, Cannonball 3.0 lb.
Soil amendments .............. Dolomite, high calcium lime 1,000 lb.
Fertilizer ............................ 4-7-5; 4-8-8; 6-8-8 1,200 lb.
Supplemental fertilizer .... Nitrate of potash; nitrate of
soda 230 Ib.
Poison bait ........................ Chlorinated hydrocarbon 30 lb.
Spray .................................. Organic fungicides; chlorinated
hydrocarbon and organic
phosphate insecticides 300 gal.


Area: Gainesville

Item Kind Amount


Seed ................................... Charleston Gray, Blackstone 1.3 lb.
Fertilizer ............................ 4-7-5; 4-8-6; 4-8-8; 5-7-5;
6-8-8; 8-10-16; 8-12-12;
8-14-10 800 lb.
Supplemental fertilizer .... Nitrate of potash; nitrate of
soda; 8-0-12; 12-0-14; 15-0-15 100 lb.
Poison bait ........................ Chlorinated hydrocarbon 30 lb.
Dust ...................................... Inorganic coppers; organic
fungicides; chlorinated hydro-
carbon and organic phosphate
insecticides 50 lb.









TABLE 27.-CUCUMBERS: LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN HOURS PER ACRE, BY AREAS.


Operation



Pre-harvest labor:

Field:
Ditching and draining ..............
Preparing land ...............-.......---
Preparing rows and
fertilizing ........-.....................
Planting ....................-.........-...
Cultivating and
fertilizing ..............................
Insect and disease control ..........
Hoeing, raking, weeding ............
Irrigating ............................


Alachua
14 growers
Man Tractor
Hours Hours


Dade
2 growers
Man Tractor
hours hours


Immokalee-Lee
11 growers


Man
hours


Tractor
hours


40.8*
3.3

1.4
4.0

5.6
4.0
10.0
5.0


Pompano
5 growers


Man Tractor
hours hours


Wauchula
12 growers


Man Tractor
hours hours


1.0
3.5

1.9
1.0

4.5
9.0
10.0
1.5


Total pre-harvest labor ..................... 27.5 9.9 20.6 13.1 74.1 17.8 52.3 17.1 32.4 21.3

Harvest labor:
Picking and lugging .................... 84.0 51.3 86.4 61.7 95.6
Hauling to packinghouse ..-......... 3.5 2.7 10.5 6.4 13.7

Total harvest labor ............................ 87.5 54.0 96.9 j 68.1 1109.3

Other labor ...........................................------------------- 1.7 1.7 0.6 0.6 1.4 1.4 0.6 0.6 1.0 1.0

Total-all operations ......................... 116.7 11.6 75.2 13.7 172.4 19.2 121.0 17.7 142.7 22.3

Estimated yield, bushels .................... 155 125 250 3 150 250
Where second crop land is used, deduct 34.6 man and 3.1 tractor hours for clearing land, fencing, and initial field and road layout.







TABLE 28.-CUCUMBERS: USUAL SEASON OF OPERATIONS, BY AREAS.

Operation Alachua Dade Immokalee-Lee


Ditching and draining ....................................... ............ Jan. 15 Feb. 15 Jan. 1 Aug. 31
Preparing land .................................................................... Dec. 1 Jan. 31 Aug. 15 Oct. 15 July 15 Dec. 31
Preparing rows and fertilizing ........................................ Jan. 15 Feb. 28 Sept. 20 Oct. 25 Sept. 15 -Jan. 31
Planting ..................................... ......................................... Feb. 20 Mar. 10 Sept. 25 Oct. 31 Sept. 1 Jan. 31
Cultivating and fertilizing ................ ............................. Mar. 15 Apr. 20 Oct. 5 Dec. 1 Sept. 20 Apr. 1
Insect and disease control .................................. ..................... Mar. 10- Mar. 31 Oct. 15- Jan. 10 Sept. 10- May 5
Hoeing, raking, weeding ................................ ................ Apr. 1 May 10 Oct. 15 Dec. 1 Sept. 15 Mar. 1
Irrigating ........................... ............................................. Sept. 10 May 1


Harvesting .......................................... ............... May 1- May 31 Nov. 15- Jan. 15 Oct. 25- May 10



Operation Pompano Wauchula
Fall | Spring

Ditching and draining .......... ............................................... Oct. 1 Mar. 20 Sept. 1 Nov. 20 Dec. 1 Feb. 28
Preparing land ................. ... ........................................ Aug. 15- Jan. 15 June 1 Aug. 15 Nov. 1 Jan. 10
Preparing rows and fertilizing ...................................................... Sept. 15- Feb. 1 Aug. 10 Sept. 1 Dec. 20 Jan. 20
Planting .............................................................. ........ Sept. 15 Feb. 1 Aug. 15 Sept. 15 Jan. 20 Feb. 15
Cultivating and fertilizing ...................................... .......... Oct. 1 Mar. 20 Sept. 1 Nov. 10 Feb. 10 Apr. 15
Insect and disease control ................................ ............ Oct. 1 Apr. 1 Sept. 1 Dec. 1 Feb. 1 May 10
Hoeing, raking, weeding ............................................................. Oct. 5 Feb. 15 Sept. 10 -Sept. 30 Feb. 10 Mar. 10
Irrigating ............................................................... ................. Sept. 15 Apr. 1 Sept. 1 Nov. 30 Feb. 15 M ay 10


Harvesting ............ ......................... ........................................... Nov. 10 Apr. 10 Oct. 10 Dec. 10 Apr. 15 May 25








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


TABLE 29.-CUCUMBERS: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
PER ACRE, BY AREAS.

Area: Alachua


Item Kind Amount


Seed ...................................... Ashley, Marketer, P-51 3 lb.
Fertilizer ............................ 4-8-6; 4-8-8; 5-7-5; 6-8-8 1,200 lb.
Supplemental fertilizer .... Nitrate of potash; 12-0-10 300 lb.
Poison bait ................... Chlorinated hydrocarbon 30 lb.
Dust .................................... Inorganic copper; organic
fungicides 45 lb.

Containers ........................ Bushel baskets 155



Area: Dade


Item Kind Amount


Seed .................................... Ashley, Marketer 1.5 lb.
Fertilizer ............................ 4-7-5; 4-8-8; 4-8-10 2,200 lb.
Supplemental fertilizer .... Nitrate of potash 100 lb.
Spray .................................. Organic fungicides; chlorinated
hydrocarbon and organic
phosphate insecticides 1,500 gal.
Containers .......................... Bushel baskets 125



Area: Immokalee-Lee

Item Kind Amount


Cover crop seed ................ Sesbania 20 lb.
Seed ..................................... Ashley, Marketer 2.0 lb.
Soil amendments .............. Dolomite 2,000 lb.
Fertilizer ............................ 4-7-5; 4-8-8; 4-9-3 4,000 lb.
Supplemental fertilizer ... Nitrate of potash 100 lb.
Poison bait ........................ Chlorinated hydrocarbon 30 lb.
Spray .................................. Organic fungicides; chlorinated
hydrocarbon and organic
phosphate insecticides;
inorganic coppers 1,600 gal.
Containers .......................... Bushel baskets or 250
cardboard boxes 750








Labor and Material for Vegetable Crops







TABLE 29.-CUCUMBERS: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
PER ACRE, BY AREAS.--(CONCLUDED).


Area: Pompano


Item


Seed ....................................
Soil amendments ..............
Fertilizer .......................
Supplemental fertilizer ....
Poison bait .......................
Spray ....................................



Containers ..........................


Kind


Ashley, Marketer, P-51
Dolomite
4-7-5; 6-8-8; 6-6-9; 6-10-10
Nitrate of potash; 8-0-8
Chlorinated hydrocarbon
Organic fungicides; chlorinated
hydrocarbon and organic
phosphate insecticides;
antibiotics; hexachlorophene

Bushel baskets or
cardboard boxes


Area: Wauchula


Item Kind Amount


Seed .................................... Ashley, Marketer, P-51 2 lb.
Soil amendments .............. High calcium lime, dolomite 4,000 lb.
Fertilizer ............................ 4-7-5; 4-8-8; 5-7-5 3,000 lb.
Supplemental fertilizer .... Nitrate of potash; calcium
nitrate 300 lb.
Poison bait ........................ Chlorinated hydrocarbon 30 lb.
Spray .................................. Antibiotics; organic fungicides;
chlorinated hydrocarbon and
organic phosphate insecticides 2,000 gal.
Containers ......--................. Bushel baskets or 250
cardboard boxes 750


Amount


2.5
1,500
2,000
300
30


2,500 gal.

150
450







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


acre in Dade County to 250 bushels in the Immokalee-Lee and
Wauchula areas.
The Wauchula area produces a fall and a spring crop, Dade
County a fall and early winter crop; Immokalee-Lee and Pompano
produce for fall, winter, and spring harvest; and Alachua Coun-
ty has a spring crop (Table 28). Land preparation begins in
June and July for the fall crop and continues into January for
spring crop production. Planting begins in August for the
Wauchula fall crop and ends in March for the Alachua County
spring production. Cucumbers are harvested somewhere in Flor-
ida from early October to late May of each crop season.
Ashley, Marketer, and P-51 were the varieties most often
named by growers. From 1.5 to 3.0 pounds of seed per acre
were required, depending upon width of rows, spacing, and the
amount of replanting necessary. From 1,500 to 4,000 pounds per
acre of dolomite or high calcium lime were applied prior to plant-
ing in all south Florida areas except Dade County (Table 29).
Complete fertilizer requirements ranged from 1,200 pounds of
4-8-6 to 6-8-8 in Alachua County to 4,000 pounds of a 4-7-5 to
4-9-3 mixture in the Immokalee-Lee area. Nitrate of potash was
used as a supplemental fertilizer for cucumbers in all areas at
rates varying from 100 to 300 pounds per acre. Alachua Coun-
ty growers used 45 pounds per acre of an inorganic copper and
organic fungicide dust for disease control. Growers in other
areas used the same and other materials in spray solutions at
the rate of 1,500 to 2,500 gallons per acre for the same purposes.

Cabbage

Field setting was the largest single user of man labor in the
production of cabbage in all areas studied except the Everglades
(Table 30). There, the seed is drilled in the row, and hand labor
is used to hoe it out to a stand. In the Hastings area, where
planting on beds is the normal practice, the cleaning of cross
ditches required nearly 7 man hours per acre. Less multiple
row equipment is used in the Sanford and Plant City areas,
where the largest amount of tractor hours was used.
In harvesting, cabbage may be cut and packed in the field or
loaded into carts and packed in a packing area adjacent to the
field. From 5.2 to 6.0 man hours and from 0.5 to 0.7 tractor
hours per ton were required for the harvesting operation.







TABLE 30.-CABBAGE: LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN HOURS PER ACRE, BY AREAS.


Operation



Pre-harvest labor:
Seedbed* ............................................

Field:
Ditching and draining ............
Preparing land ...........................
Preparing rows and
fertilizing ..............................
Planting or setting .................-..
Cultivating and fertilizing ........
Insect and disease control ........
Hoeing, raking, weeding ...........
Irrigating ..................................

Total pre-harvest labor ......................


Harvest labor:
Cutting and packing ..................
Hauling to market ......................


Dade
4 growers
Man Tractor
hours hours


48.5 14.6


Everglades
9 growers
Man Tractor
hours hours


0.4 0.4
2.8 2.8


41.6 9.9


Hastings
17 growers
Man Tractor
hours hours


51.7


51.3
5.1


Plant City
5 growers


Man Tractor
hours hours


2.0 1.3


Sanford
10 growers


10gowr


SMan Tractor
hours hours


2.1 0.4


5.5 5.5

1.3 1.3
26.5 4.0
6.2 5.2
3.4 3.4

0.8

45.8 19.8


64.9 7.6
TO


Total harvest labor ........................... 53.5 5.8 60.0 4.5 56.4 4.8 68.0 7.0 64.9 7.6

Other labor ................. ................... 1.5 1.5 3.6 3.3 2.0 2.0 5.5 5.5

Total-all operations .......................... 103.5 21.9 101.6 14.4 111.7 19.0 124.8 30.1 116.2 32.9

Estimated yield, tons ....................... 10.25 10.0 10.0 11.0 11.5
Per acre of field-set plants.


0
Co


--~----







TABLE 31.-CABBAGE: USUAL SEASON OF OPERATIONS, BY AREAS.


Operation

Seedbed:
Preparation ..... ........... .... .................................
Planting ...... ---......-- -- --- -......- ........ .....-
Care ..................--...---.. ..- ............... .................-.............

Field:
Ditching and draining -..... ........ ...............
Preparing land ..-....-----.......---.. .......-------...... .......
Preparing rows and fertilizing --.......... .....-- .................
Planting or setting .......--------.......-......... ................
Cultivating and fertilizing --.... ...--- .. ...... ... -....................
Insect and disease control .- ......... ..................
Hoeing, raking, weeding --..-. -- ---. ..-... ---.. ....................
Irrigating ................. ........ .......................

Harvesting ----............


Dade


Everglades


Sept. 1 Nov. 30
Sept. 10 Nov. 30
Sept. 10 Dec. 31


Oct. 1- Dec. 15
Oct. 10 Dec. 25
Oct. 15- Jan. 5
Nov. 1- Apr. 1
Nov. 1- Apr. 1



Dec. 20 Apr. 30


Aug. 1- Sept. 30
Aug. 1 -Jan. 15
Sept. 1 Feb. 1
Sept. 1-Feb. 1
Sept. 20- Apr. 15
Sept. 20 Apr. 15
Oct. 10 Mar. 1


Dec. 1 -May 1


Hastings


Aug. 10 Nov. 1
Aug. 15 Oct. 15
Sept. 1- Dec. 31


Sept. 15 Mar. 31
Sept. 1- Dec. 15
Sept. 15 Dec. 15
Oct. 1- Dec. 31
Oct. 15 Mar. 15
Oct. 15 Mar. 31

Dec. 1- Mar. 15

Dec. 20 Apr. 20


Operation

Seedbed:
Preparation -................ ............................
Planting -. -...... -- .................... ........ ........ ....
Care -..............................- .... ............ ......

Field:
Ditching and draining .. ................. ..............................
Preparing land ....- .... .... ......-- .......- .........................
Preparing rows and fertilizing .........-.............. .. .. .
Planting or setting .....-- ........-- ..-....... ..........................
Cultivating and fertilizing .................... .............
Insect and disease control --- ... .. .. ........... ........................
Hoeing, raking, weeding ............. .... ..... ........................
Irrigating -------.... -----------------...-.............


Harvesting .------..--.---....


Plant City


Aug. 1 -Nov. 1
Sept. 1- Nov. 1
Sept. 1- Dec. 31



Aug. 1 Dec. 1
Sept. 1- Dec. 20
Sept. 15 Dec. 31
Oct. 1 Mar. 10
Oct. 1- Apr. 10

Sept. 15 Apr. 15

Dec 10 A 1


Sanford


-
........................ .
p
ec. a
y


July 1 Nov. 1
July 15 Nov. 1
July 15- Feb. 1



July 15 Feb. 1
Aug. 1 Feb. 1
Sept. 1- Feb. 1
Sept. 10-Apr. 30
Sept. 15- Apr. 30

Sept. 1 Apr. 30

inD 1 K n .in


,


I
Dee. 20 Apr.10


I


- - - - -








Labor and Material for Vegetable Crops


Seedbed preparation and care start in July, August, or early
September in all areas and continue until planting time is nearly
completed (Table 31). Land is prepared for field planting from
August to about February 1. First plantings are made in early
September in the Sanford and Everglades areas and continue
until about February 1 in the same areas. Harvesting begins
in December in all areas and is usually completed by May 10 in
the Sanford area. It is continuous in all areas from January
to mid-April. The period of performance of the various opera-
tions does not apply to a given crop but to a series of plantings.
Marion Market, Midseason Market, and Glory of Enkhuizen
were the most often named varieties planted (Table 32). Where
seed were drilled in the row, 1.5 pounds per acre were required.
For field setting, 15,000 to 18,000 plants per acre were used.
Fertilizer requirements ranged from 700 pounds in the Ever-
glades to 2,900 pounds per acre in the Sanford area. In the
latter area and in Hastings from 200 to 400 pounds of a nitrate
fertilizer were applied during crop growth. Where dust was
used for insect and disease control, from 100 to 200 pounds were
required. Growers using spray reported the use of 600 to 1,200
gallons per acre.

TABLE 32.-CABBAGE: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
PER ACRE, BY AREAS.
Area: Dade

Item Kind Amount

Seedbed:*
Seed ............................... Copenhagen Market, Danish
Baldhead 0.6 lb.
Fertilizer ----... .......... 4-7-5 125 lb.
Spray ...... ...... ........... Organic fungicides; chlorinated
hydrocarbon and organic
phosphate insecticides 33 gal.
Field:
Plants .......................... From seedbed 15-16,000
Fertilizer -.............. 4-7-5; 4-8-8 1,750 lb.
Spray ...................... Organic fungicides; chlorinated
hydrocarbon and organic
phosphate insecticides 800 gal.
Wireworm ................... Chlorinated hydrocarbon
insecticides 100 gal.
Containers ................... Mesh bags or wirebound crates
(50 lb. capacity) 410
Per acre of field-set plants.








58 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

TABLE 32.-CABBAGE: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
PER ACRE, BY AREAS.-(CONTINUED).

Area: Everglades

Item Kind Amount


Seed ............--..-----. Copenhagen Market, Badger
Market, Greenback 1.5 lb.
Fertilizer ...-----.................. 0-8-12; 0-8-24; 0-10-20; 0-12-16 700 lb.
Spray ........................... Sulfur; inorganic coppers;
organic fungicides; chlorinated
hydrocarbon and organic
phosphate insecticides 1,200 gal.
Dust ............--...............--- Inorganic coppers; chlorinated
hydrocarbon and organic
phosphate insecticides 100 lb.
Containers ......---.--. Mesh bags or wirebound crates
(50 lb. capacity) 400

Area: Hastings


Item


Seedbed:*

Seed ........ ---.................---


Fertilizer ...--......---..
Supplemental fertilizer

Poison bait ....--.....----
Spray ..........--........----

Dust ....------........--..---

Field:

Cover crop seed .........

Plants ........ .............
Fertilizer .........------
Supplemental fertilizer

Poison bait ...............
Spray ............... ......

D ust ..............................
Containers ...................


Kind


Midseason Market, Marion Mar-
ket, Greenback, Glory of
Enkhuizen
6-8-8; 7-9-9
Nitrate of soda; nitrate of
potash
Chlorinated hydrocarbon
Organic fungicides; chlorinated
hydrocarbon and organic
phosphate insecticides
Same as above


Sart, Star Millet, FS-1, Hegari,
Sesbania, Sorghum
From seedbed
5-7-5; 6-8-8; 7-9-9
Nitrate of potash; nitrate of
soda
Chlorinated hydrocarbon
Organic fungicides; chlorinated
hydrocarbon and organic
phosphate insecticides
Same as above
Mesh bags, wirebound crates,
or paperboard
(50 lb. capacity)


* Per acre of field-set plants.


Amount


10 gal.
8 lb.


12 lb.
20 lb.
15,000
2,000 lb.

400 lb.
20 lb.


600 gal.
195 lb.

400








Labor and Material for Vegetable Crops

TABLE 32.-CABBAGE: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
PER ACRE, BY AREAS.-(CONCLUDED).

Area: Plant City


Item


Seedbed:*

Seed ...........................

Fertilizer .....................
Dust ...........................

Field:

Plants ..............................
Fertilizer .....................
Dust .....................


Containers ....................


Kind




Marion Market, Midseason, Mar-
ket, Glory of Enkhuizen
4-8-6; 6-8-8; 6-2-8
Organic fungicides; chlorinated
hydrocarbon and organic
phosphate insecticides

From seedbed
4-7-5; 4-8-8
Chlorinated hydrocarbon and
organic phosphate
insecticides
Mesh bags or wirebound crates
(50 lb. capacity)


Area: Sanford


Kind


Seedbed:*

Seed .................................


Fertilizer ..... ...........
Supplemental fertilizer
Poison bait ..................
Spray ..........................

Field:

Plants .........................
Fertilizer ........................
Supplemental fertilizer

Poison bait ...................
Spray .........................


Containers ......................


Marion Market, Midseason Mar-
ket, Glory of Enkhuizen,
Wisconsin Globe, Round Dutch
4-6-5; 4-7-5; 5-5-8; 5-8-5
Nitrate of soda
Chlorinated hydrocarbon
Organic fungicides; chlorinated
hydrocarbon and organic
phosphate insecticides

From seedbed
4-6-8; 4-7-5; 5-5-8; 5-8-5; 6-4-8
Nitrate of potash; nitrate of
soda
Chlorinated hydrocarbon
Organic fungicides; chlorinated
hydrocarbon and organic
phosphate insecticides
Mesh bags or wirebound crates
(50 lb. capacity)


* Per acre of field-set plants.


Amount





0.4 lb.
78 lb.


4 lb.

18,000
1,800 lb.

200 lb.

440


Item


Amount


1 lb.
55 lb.
4 lb.
3 lb.

16.7 gal.


16,000
2,900

325
30


600 gal.

460







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Squash

From 22 to 37 man hours per acre were required for the
production of squash in the areas studied (Table 33). Principal
differences among areas were in the amount of hoeing labor
used, and in land preparation, cultivating, and fertilizing, and
ditching and draining. Harvesting required from 0.56 to 0.86
hours per bushel.
The Plant City area produces a fall and a spring crop. In
the other areas shown, planting may be done for production dur-
ing any or all of the Florida crop year. Land preparation is done
from August to February. Planting starts in September and
ends in February in all areas (Table 34). The Plant City fall
crop is harvested from October 20 to December 10 and the spring
crop from March 15 to May 1. The other areas harvest con-
tinuously from about November 1 to April or May.
Seed requirements for squash ranged from 2.5 to 4.0 pounds
depending upon seed size and amount of replanting required
(Table 35). Early Yellow Summer Crookneck, Early Prolific
Straightneck, Cocozelle, Zucchini, Butternut, and Acorn varieties
were named by growers. The first three named varieties were
most important. Squash received 1,500 to 2,400 pounds of a
4-7-5 to 6-6-9 fertilizer and 200 to 300 pounds of a high-nitrate-
content supplement. Growers in the Plant City area used dust
at the rate of about 60 pounds per acre, while other growers
used spray at the rate of 700 to 1,060 gallons per acre to combat
and control insects and diseases. Squash are packed in bushel
and half-bushel hampers or crates.

Lettuce and Escarole

From 27 to 141 man hours of labor were required for the
production of the leaf crops in the areas shown in Table 36.
Much of the difference among areas is accounted for by the plant-
ing methods used and the amount of hoeing necessary. In the
Sanford and Sumter areas plants are raised in a seedbed and
transplanted in the field. Field planting required 50 hours per
acre (20,000 plants) in the Sanford area as compared with 35
hours (13,000 to 15,000 plants) in the Sumter area. Farms and
acreages are small in the Sumter area, and some of the labor is
provided by the family members. Too, lettuce is planted on beds
in Sumter County as compared to level planting in other areas.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Squash

From 22 to 37 man hours per acre were required for the
production of squash in the areas studied (Table 33). Principal
differences among areas were in the amount of hoeing labor
used, and in land preparation, cultivating, and fertilizing, and
ditching and draining. Harvesting required from 0.56 to 0.86
hours per bushel.
The Plant City area produces a fall and a spring crop. In
the other areas shown, planting may be done for production dur-
ing any or all of the Florida crop year. Land preparation is done
from August to February. Planting starts in September and
ends in February in all areas (Table 34). The Plant City fall
crop is harvested from October 20 to December 10 and the spring
crop from March 15 to May 1. The other areas harvest con-
tinuously from about November 1 to April or May.
Seed requirements for squash ranged from 2.5 to 4.0 pounds
depending upon seed size and amount of replanting required
(Table 35). Early Yellow Summer Crookneck, Early Prolific
Straightneck, Cocozelle, Zucchini, Butternut, and Acorn varieties
were named by growers. The first three named varieties were
most important. Squash received 1,500 to 2,400 pounds of a
4-7-5 to 6-6-9 fertilizer and 200 to 300 pounds of a high-nitrate-
content supplement. Growers in the Plant City area used dust
at the rate of about 60 pounds per acre, while other growers
used spray at the rate of 700 to 1,060 gallons per acre to combat
and control insects and diseases. Squash are packed in bushel
and half-bushel hampers or crates.

Lettuce and Escarole

From 27 to 141 man hours of labor were required for the
production of the leaf crops in the areas shown in Table 36.
Much of the difference among areas is accounted for by the plant-
ing methods used and the amount of hoeing necessary. In the
Sanford and Sumter areas plants are raised in a seedbed and
transplanted in the field. Field planting required 50 hours per
acre (20,000 plants) in the Sanford area as compared with 35
hours (13,000 to 15,000 plants) in the Sumter area. Farms and
acreages are small in the Sumter area, and some of the labor is
provided by the family members. Too, lettuce is planted on beds
in Sumter County as compared to level planting in other areas.







TABLE 33.-SQUASH: LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN HOURS PER ACRE, BY AREAS.


Operation


Pre-harvest labor:
Field:
Ditching and draining ................
Preparing land ...... ...............
Preparing rows and fertilizing ..
Planting ........... .......... .
Cultivating and fertilizing ........
Insect and disease control ..........
Hoeing, raking, and weeding ....
Irrigating .................. ...............

Total pre-harvest labor ................

Harvest labor:
Picking and lugging ....................

Washing and packing .................
H auling ..................... .................

Total harvest labor ........................

Other labor* ........................ ............

Total-all operations ........................

Estimated yield, bushels ................


Dade
10 growers
Man Tractor
hours hours


21.8 14.8


66.3

21.4
2.2


1.0

112.7


Immokalee-Lee
7 growers
Man Tractor
hours hours


38.0 15.1


52.5

34.5
8.5


1.2

134.7


150 170


Pompano
10 growers
Man Tractor
hours hours


Plant City
10 growers
Man Tractor
hours hours


4.2 4.2 1.8 1.4
10.8 7.0
4.0

39.3 14.9 29.1 18.8



67.5 5.0 90.0

2.1 4.4

69.6 5.0 94.4

4.6 4.6

108.9 19.9 128.1 23.4

125 110


* Following spring crop only.









TABLE 34.-SQUASH: USUAL SEASON OF OPERATIONS, BY AREAS.

Operation Dade Immokalee-Lee Pompano


Ditching and draining .. ------------........................... ............... -- July 1 -Feb. 1 Sept. 1- Feb. 15
Preparing land ......................................... ----- ------ Aug. 15- Jan. 15 July 15- Dec. 15 Aug. 1 Feb. 1
Preparing rows and fertilizing ..........-----------..............---..... Aug. 25 -Feb. 1 Sept. 1 -Feb. 1 Sept. 1- Feb. 1
Planting .........------ -----.......------ .---------- -------- Sept. 1 Feb. 1 Sept. 10 Feb. 1 Sept. 1 Feb. 1
Cultivating and fertilizing ............--.............--..--..----.-- Sept. 15 Mar. 10 Oct. 1 Apr. 15 Oct. 1- Mar. 20
Insect and disease control ............................................................ Oct. 1- Mar. 31 Oct. 1 May 1 Oct. 1 Apr. 25
Hoeing, raking, weeding ......------.-.... ----------- ------.- Sept. 15 Mar. 1 Sept. 25 Mar. 1 Oct. 1 Feb. 20
Irrigating ..-----------..............................................Sept. 15 Mar. 31 Sept. 10 May 1 Sept. 1 Apr. 15


Harvesting ........................................................... .. ... Nov. 1- Apr. 1 Nov. 1- May 15 Oct. 25- Apr. 25



Operation Plant City
Fall Spring

Ditching and draining ..................... .....---------------
Preparing land ........................................ -------- ---- Aug. 1 Sept. 15 Dec. 1- Jan. 15
Preparing rows and fertilizing ..................... .............. Sept. 1 Oct. 1 Jan. 15 Feb. 15
Planting ............................................. -Sept. 1 Oct. 1 Feb. 1 Feb. 28
Cultivating and fertilizing ..-.................-..--------- -..........-- Sept. 15- Nov. 1 Feb. 10- Apr. 1
Insect and disease control ................................ ............. Oct. 1 Nov. 15 Feb. 15 Apr. 15
Hoeing, raking, weeding ...................................... ............. .......... Sept. 15 Oct. 15 Feb. 20 Apr. 1
Irrigating .................................................---------....


Harvesting ...................................... Oct. 20 Dec. 10 Mar. 15 May 1








Labor and Material for Vegetable Crops


TABLE 35.-SQUASH: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
PER ACRE, BY AREAS.

Area: Dade

Item Kind Amount


Seed ..................................... Early Yellow Summer Crookneck 3.5 lb.
Fertilizer ........................... 4-7-5; 4-8-8 2,000 lb.
Supplemental fertilizer ... Nitrate of potash; nitrate of
soda 200 lb.
Spray .................................... Sulfur; inorganic coppers;
organic fungicides; chlorinated
hydrocarbon and organic
phosphate insecticides 1,060 gal.
Containers .......................... Bushel hampers 150

Area: Immokalee-Lee

Item Kind Amount


Cover crop seed .................. Sesbania 20 lb.
Seed .................................... Acorn, Cocozelle, Early Yellow
Summer Crookneck, Butternut 2.5 lb.
Soil amendments .............. Dolomite 2,000 lb.
Fertilizer ............................ 4-7-5; 4-8-8; 5-8-8 2,400 lb.
Supplemental fertilizer .... Nitrate of potash 200 lb.
Poison bait .......................... Chlorinated hydrocarbon 30 lb.
Spray .................................. Organic fungicides; organic
phosphate insecticides;
hexachlorophene 800 gal.
Containers .......................... Bushel or 170
half-bushel hampers 340
Area: Pompano

Item Kind Amount


Seed ...................................... Early Yellow Summer Crookneck,
Early Prolific Straightneck,
Cocozelle, Zucchini, Butter-
nut, White Bush Scallop 3.0 lb.
Soil amendments ................ Dolomite 1,000 lb.
Fertilizer ............................ 4-7-5; 6-6-6; 6-6-9 1,500 lb.
Supplemental fertilizer .... Nitrate of potash; 300 lb.
Urea and 20-20-20 30 lb.
Poison bait ........................ Chlorinated hydrocarbon 30 lb.
Spray .................................. Sulfur; inorganic coppers;
organic fungicides; organic
phosphate insecticides 700 gal.
Dust .................................... Sulfur; organic fungicides;
organic phosphate
insecticides 180 lb.
Containers .......................... Bushel or 125
S half-bushel hampers 250







64 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

TABLE 35.-SQUASH: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
PER ACRE, BY AREAS.-(CONCLUDED).

Area: Plant City


Item Kind Amount

Seed .-................................... Early Yellow Summer Crookneck 4 lb.
Soil amendments ................ Dolomite 1,000 lb.
Fertilizer ............................ 4-7-5; 4-8-8 1,500 lb.
Supplemental fertilizer .... Calcium nitrate; nitrate of
soda; nitrate of potash;
12-0-10 300 lb.
Poison bait ........................ Chlorinated hydrocarbon 30 lb.
Dust .................................... Sulfur; organic phosphate
insecticides 60 lb.
Containers ......................... Bushel hampers 110



Cutting and packing was done in or adjacent to the field in
all areas. This required from 0.49 to 0.59 man hours per hun-
dredweight. Hauling to market in the Sumter area includes a
trip to Tampa and the waiting time associated with selling, not
necessary in the other areas.
Sumter County produces lettuce and escarole for fall harvest;
Sanford aims primarily for late fall and early winter harvest
but may also produce for harvest until early May. The Ever-
glades area produces for harvest from November 1 to May 15
of each season (Table 37).
Great Lakes, Big Boston, and Iceberg were the lettuce varie-
ties reported. Escarole, romaine, endive, and parsley are also
grown in the Everglades (Table 38). When drilled in the row,
about 2 pounds of seed are required per acre. In seedbeds, 0.3
to 0.5 pound of seed produces sufficient plants to set an acre of
lettuce in the field. Everglades growers use about 700 pounds
of fertilizer per acre and 520 gallons of spray. Sanford and
Sumter area growers use 2,000 to 2,300 pounds of a 4-7-5 to 5-5-8
fertilizer and from 200 to 300 pounds per acre of a high-nitrate-
content supplement. Dust is usually used in the Sumter area
but is not always necessary in Sanford for leaf crops.








TABLE 36.-LETTUCE AND ESCAROLE: LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN HOURS PER ACRE, BY AREAS.


Operation


Pre-harvest:
Seedbed* ............................ ...................................

Field:
Ditching and draining ...........................................
Preparing land ............................ ......... ....
Preparing rows and fertilizing .....--........------............
Planting or setting ................................--....
Cultivating and fertilizing .........................-........
Insect and disease control ........................................ ..
Hoeing, raking, weeding ...................... ...............
Irrigating .................... ......... .. ... .................


Everglades
8 growers
Man Tractor
hours hours


Sanford
6 growers


Man
hours


Sumter
6 growers


Tractor Man Tractor
'houlr hours hnnrs


1.3 0.1


0
7.8 0.5


5.0
6.9 6.9
3.3 3.3
35.0
19.2 19.2
2.9 2.0
40.0
20.9


Total pre-harvest labor ............................ ..................... | 36.3 9.1 79.8 16.6 141.0 31.9

Harvest labor:
Cutting and packing ............................................................ 46.9 4.2 55.0 6.2 45.0 7.5
Hauling to market or precooler .................................. 2.2 10.3 15.9

Total harvest labor ............... .......... ........ .............. ...... 49.1 4.2 65.3 6.2 60.9 7.5

Other labor ....... ...................................................... .. 1.8 1.8 2.9 2.9

Total-all operations ..---.......................... ......... 85.4 13.3 146.9 24.6 204.8 42.3

Estimated yield (cwt.) -... .... .......... ......... 100 118 103

Per acre of field-set plants.


d
m
ee

re
C'

~i
0o














TABLE 37.-LETTUCE AND ESCAROLE: USUAL SEASON OF OPERATIONS, BY AREAS.


Everglades


Sanford


Sumter


Seedbed:


Preparation .........
Planting .............
Care ..............


Field:

Ditching and draining .................
Preparing land ............................
Preparing rows and fertilizing
Planting or setting .....................
Cultivating and fertilizing ......
Insect and disease control .........
Hoeing, raking, weeding ........
Irrigating --......-------. ...........-..


Aug. 1- Sept. 30
Aug. 1 -Feb. 15

Sept. 1- Feb. 25
Sept. 15-Apr. 25
Sept. 10-May 1
Sept. 20 -Mar. 15



Nov. 1 -May 15


Harvesting .---....-


Aug. 1 Oct. 1
Aug. 20-Oct. 1
Aug. 20- Nov. 15




Sept. 1 -Oct. 15
Oct. 1- Nov. 15
Oct. 10 Nov. 15
Oct. 15-Jan. 1
Oct. 20 Dec. 15
Oct. 15-Jan. 1
Oct. 5-Jan. 10


Dec. 15- Jan. 15


Aug.
Aug.
Aug.


1 Sept. 10
20- Sept. 15
20 Oct. 15


Sept. 1- Dec. 20
Aug. 15-Sept. 15
Sept. 10-Oct. 1
Oct. 1 -Oct. 15
Oct. 1 -Nov. 30
Oct. 1- Nov. 30
Oct. 15-Nov. 1
Oct. 1 -Nov. 30


Nov. 20- Dec. 20


Operation


I I


........... (



---.........-. I

...::::.:....


~....... I .
--------------
.....-.......-








Labor and Material for Vegetable Crops


TABLE 38.-LETTUCE AND ESCAROLE: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
PER ACRE, BY AREAS.


Area: Everglades


Item Kind Amount


Seed ...................................... Big Boston and Iceberg Lettuce,
Escarole, Romaine, Endive,
Parsley 2 lb.
Weed control chemicals .... CDEC 1 gal.
Fertilizer ............................ 0-8-16; 0-8-24; 0-9-33;
2-6-12; 2-8-16 700 Ib.
Spray .......-- -........................ Inorganic coppers; organic
fungicides; chlorinated
hydrocarbon and organic
phosphate insecticides 520 gal.
Containers .......................... 1-1/9 bushel 400



Area: Sanford


Item Kind Amount


Seedbed:*

Seed .................................. Great Lakes, Iceberg, Big
Boston 0.3 lb.
Fertilizer ........................ 4-7-5; 5-5-8 37 lb.
Supplemental fertilizer Nitrate of potash 4 Ib.
Dust .................................. Chlorinated hydrocarbon and
organic phosphate insecticides 2 Ib.

Field:

Plants ..--........................... Great Lakes, Iceberg, Big Boston 20,000
Soil amendments .......... Calcite 1,000 lb.
Fertilizer ........................ 4-7-5; 5-7-7; 5-5-8 2,300 lb.
Supplemental fertilizer Nitrate of potash 200 lb.
Dust** .............................. Chlorinated hydrocarbon and
organic phosphate insecticides 100 lb.
Spray** -......................... Organic fungicides; chlorinated
hydrocarbon and organic
phosphate insecticides 800 gal.
Containers ...................... L. A. crates 168


* Per acre of field-set plants.
** Used interchangeably. Not always necessary.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


TABLE 38.-LETTUCE AND ESCAROLE: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
PER ACRE, BY AREAS.-(CONCLUDED).
Area: Sumter

Item Kind Amount

Seedbed:*
Seed ....- ......................- Great Lakes, Iceberg 0.5 lb.
Fertilizer ........................ 4-7-5; 4-8-8 100 lb.
Poison bait .................... Chlorinated hydrocarbon 3.3 lb.
Dust .................................. Sulfur; organic fungicides;
chlorinated hydrocarbon and
organic phosphate insecticides 9 lb.
Field:
Plants .............................. From seedbed 13-15,000
Soil amendments .......... Dolomite, high calcium lime 1,000 lb.
Fertilizer ........................ 4-7-5; 4-8-8 2,000 lb.
Supplemental fertilizer Nitrate of potash; nitrate
of soda 300 lb.
Poison bait .................... Chlorinated hydrocarbon 30 lb.
Dust .................................. Sulfur; organic fungicides;
chlorinated hydrocarbon and
organic phosphate insecticides 150 lb.
Containers ...................... 40 lb. paperboard 258
Per acre of field-set plants.


Eggplant

Eggplant were studied in only two areas, although they are
produced in several areas of the state, but not in great quantity.
Principal differences in man hour requirements for the areas
shown are in time spent ditching and draining, cultivating and
fertilizing, and hoeing (Table 39). The length of time during
which harvesting is possible has a considerable effect on produc-
tion labor requirements. The spring crop in the Plant City area
is picked over a period of six to eight weeks, whereas the Pom-
pano fall or winter crop may be picked over a period of 10 to 14
weeks, weather permitting. About 0.5 man hour per bushel was
required in the harvesting and packing of eggplant.
Preparation of seedbeds begins in July and August for plant-
ings to be made during the crop year. Fall transplanting begins
in September and spring crop planting ends in mid-December in
the Pompano area. Plant City's spring crop is set in the field
in January and early February (Table 40). The Pompano area
harvests from November 15 through April, while Plant City
harvests in late April, May, and early June.









Labor and Material for Vegetable Crops


TABLE 39.-EGGPLANT: LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN HOURS
PER ACRE, BY AREAS.


Operation



Pre-harvest labor:
Seedbed:* ...... ..........

Field:

Ditching and draining ...............
Preparing land ....-..................
Preparing rows and fertilizing ....
Planting or setting ..................
Cultivating and fertilizing ..........
Insect and disease control .........
Hoeing, raking, weeding .........--
Irrigating .............. ..................


Total pre-harvest labor .............


Harvest labor:

Picking and lugging ...........
Washing and packing ...........
Hauling to market ...........


Total harvest labor


Other labor ..............


Total-all operations ........


ho


1



2:




1




2:





4!


Pompano
10 growers
ran Tractor
urs hours


3.2 0.3



18.6 1.4
5.0 5.0
1.0 1.0
20.0 1.2
35.9 16.1
11.5 7.4
21.0
8.0


24.2 32.4




50.0 8.0
75.0
8.9


33.9 8.0


1.8 1.8


59.9 42.2


Plant City
8 growers
Man Tractor
hours hours


3.5 0.2



6.0 6.0
3.4 3.4
24.2 5.0
15.5 14.5
4.6 4.0
32.5
11.7


101.4 33.1




83.0
39.2
4.5


126.7


3.0 3.0


231.1 36.1


* Per acre of field-set plants.


Estimated yield, bushels ..................... 450 250


.........


I








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


TABLE 40.-EGGPLANT: USUAL SEASON OF OPERATIONS, BY AREAS.

Operation Pompano Plant City

Seedbed:
Preparation .................................. July 1 Nov. 1 Aug. 15 Oct. 31
Planting ...-- -............---....... ---- July 15 Nov. 1 Oct. 20- Nov. 30
Care ........-----...............--- .... ---July 15- Dec. 15 Oct. 20- Jan. 31
Field:
Ditching and draining ................ Sept. 1- Apr. 15
Preparing land ............................ Aug. 1 Nov. 1 Sept. 1- Dec. 31
Preparing rows and fertilizing.. Aug. 15 Dec. 1 Dec. 15 Jan. 31
Planting or setting ...................... Sept. 1- Dec. 15 Jan. 1 Feb. 10
Cultivating and fertilizing ...... Sept. 10 Apr. 15 Feb. 1 May 10
Insect and disease control ........ Sept. 10 Apr. 30 Jan. 25 May 15
Hoeing, raking, weeding .......... Sept. 10 Mar. 1 Jan. 25- May 1
Irrigating ...................................... Sept. 1 Apr. 15 Jan. 1- May 31

Harvesting ........................................ Nov. 15 Apr. 30 Apr. 20 June 10



Fort Myers Market and Florida Market were the varieties
named by growers. From 0.20 to 0.25 pound of seed in a seed-
bed produce the 2,800 to 3,500 plants needed for field setting
(Table 41). From 1,000 to 1,500 pounds per acre of a soil amend-
ment are applied each year. Fertilizer requirements range from
2,000 to 7,500 pounds of a complete mixture and from 600 to
1,000 pounds of a high-nitrate supplement. The length of time
over which eggplant are harvested partially determines the
amount of fertilizer materials used. From 400 to 900 gallons
of spray materials and from 150 to 210 pounds of dust were re-
quired for insect and disease control in the field.

Lima Beans

The usual labor requirements for growing and harvesting
lima beans are given in Table 42. In the Pompano area lima
beans are planted on a high bed and the fields ditched for drain-
age. After each cultivation drains are opened with a hand
shovel, requiring 10 hours per acre. Lima beans required a
larger amount of hand work for hoeing than snap beans, and
more cultivation. Harvesting, a hand picking operation, re-
quired more than twice as many man hours as production.









Labor and Material for Vegetable Crops








TABLE 41.-EGGPLANT: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
PER ACRE, BY AREAS.


Area: Pompano


Item Kind Amount


Seedbed:*

Seed ...............................

Fertilizer ..................
Spray ........................


Field:

Plants ...........................
Soil amendments ........
Fertilizer ...................
Supplemental fertilizer

Poison bait ......................



Spray .............................


Dust ..........................


Containers ................


Fort Myers Market, Florida
Market
4-7-5; 4-9-3; 6-6-6; 6-6-9
Inorganic coppers; antibiotics;
organic fungicides; chlorinated
hydrocarbon and organic
phosphate insecticides


From seedbed
Dolomite
4-7-5; 4-8-6; 6-6-6; 6-4-8
Nitrate of potash; 14-0-15;
15-0-15
Chlorinated hydrocarbon
Zinc oxide and scratch feed
mixture
Warfarin
Sulfur; antibiotics; inorganic
coppers; organic fungicides;
chlorinated hydrocarbon and
organic phosphate insecticides
Sulfur; inorganic coppers;
organic fungicides; chlorinated
hydrocarbon and organic
phosphate insecticides
Bushel baskets


* Per acre of field-set plants.


0.25 lb.
27 lb.



5 lb.


2,800
1,500 lb.
7,500 lb.

1,000 lb.
30 lb.

10 lb.
3 lb.



900 gal.


210 lb.
450








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


TABLE 41.-EGGPLANT: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
PER ACRE, BY AREAS.-(CONCLUDED).

Area: Plant City


Item


Seedbed:*
Seed .............................---

Soil fumigant ............
Fertilizer ...........---
Spray ...... .......

Dust ............................

Field:

Cover crop seed .....-...
Plants ..........-............--
Soil amendments ..........
Soil fumigant ...............---
Fertilizer ........................
Supplemental fertilizer

Poison bait ..................
Spray ...-- --..... ..----

Dust ................................

Containers ......................


Kind



Florida Market, Fort Myers
Market
DD
4-7-5; 4-8-8; 6-6-6
Inorganic coppers; organic
fungicides; organic phosphate
insecticides
Sulfur; inorganic coppers;
organic phosphate insecticides


Sesbania, Velvet Beans,
Crotalaria
From seedbed
Dolomite
DD
4-7-5; 4-8-8; 6-6-6
Nitrate of potash; nitrate of
soda; 12-0-10; 15-0-15;
17-0-5
Chlorinated hydrocarbon
Inorganic coppers; organic
fungicides; organic phosphate
insecticides
Sulfur; inorganic coppers;
organic phosphate insecticides
Bushel baskets


Per acre of field-set plants.


Lima beans may be planted from October to February in
the Pompano area and are harvested from late November to
April. The volume of lima beans grown in Florida for fresh
market has been declining because of increasing competition
from the frozen product.
Fordhook 242 was the only variety reported by the growers
interviewed (Table 43). About 60 pounds of seed were planted
per acre. Growers used 1,000 pounds of a soil amendment and
1,200 pounds of fertilizer prior to planting. About 400 pounds
of a high-nitrate supplemental fertilizer were applied during
growth. Spray and dust in the amount of 200 gallons and 150
pounds, respectively, were used for insect and disease control.


Amount



0.2 lb.
0.1 gal.
17 Ib.

10 gal.

2 lb.


25
3,500
1,000
8
2,000


600 lb.
50 lb.

400 gal.
150 lb.
250








Labor and Material for Vegetable Crops


TABLE 42.-LIMA BEANS: LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN HOURS PER ACRE,
AND USUAL SEASON OF OPERATIONS, POMPANO (THREE GROWERS).


P


Operation



re-harvest labor:

Field:
Ditching and draining ................
Preparing land ..................
Preparing rows and fertilizing ..
Planting ........................... ........
Cultivating and fertilizing ........
Hoeing, raking, weeding ............
Insect and disease control ..........


Labor
Requirements
Man Tractor
Hours hours


Total pre-harvest labor ................... 31.9 11.8

Harvest labor:
Picking and lugging ......--.......... 86.4
Packing and lidding .................... 7.0
Hauling to market .................... 1.6

Total harvest labor ............-........... 95.0

Other labor .......................................... 1.7 1.1

Total-all operations ......................... 128.6 12.9


Estimated yield, bushels


80


TABLE 43.-LIMA BEANS: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
PER ACRE, POMPANO.


Item Kind Amount


Seed ..................................... Fordhook 242 60 lb.
Soil amendments ...-.....-.... Dolomite 1,000 lb.
Fertilizer ........-.................... 4-7-5 1,200 lb.
Supplemental fertilizer .... Nitrate of potash; 8-0-8 400 lb.
Spray ................................... Copper; sulfur; chlorinated
hydrocarbon and organic
phosphate insecticides 200 gal.
Dust ............--...................... Sulfur; organic fungicides;
chlorinated hydrocarbon and
organic phosphate insecticides 150 lb.
Containers .......................... Bushel hampers 80


Season of
Performance





Sept. 1- Mar. 1
Aug. 1 Nov. 15
Oct. 1 Feb. 1
Oct. 1 Feb. 1
Oct. 15 Mar. 10
Nov. 1 Mar. 1
Oct. 10 Apr. 1









Nov. 25 Apr. 1








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Pole Beans
Dade County is the principal area engaged in the production
of pole beans. Some are also grown in the Plant City and Ever-
glades areas. The latter area's production is primarily for pro-
cessing, either canned or frozen.
Of the 110 man hours of pre-harvest labor required in Dade
County, 87 percent is used for staking and training vines and
removing stakes or wire (Table 44). The time required for in-
sect and disease control refers only to what is accomplished prior
to staking of the plants. Airplanes are used to apply insecticides
and fungicides during most of the growing period. Harvesting,
by hand, required 0.61 man hours per bushel.

TABLE 44.-POLE BEANS: LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN HOURS PER ACRE,
AND USUAL SEASON OF OPERATIONS, DADE COUNTY (10 GROWERS).


Operation


Labor
Requirements
Man Tractor
hours hours


Season of
Performance


Pre-harvest labor:
Preparing land ....................... 2.1 2.1 Aug. 1 -Feb. 1
Planting ............. .. ...... 1.9 1.0 Sept. 1 Feb. 10
Cultivating and fertilizing ..-..- .. 3.5 2.3 Sept. 10 Mar. 31
Insect and disease control ... ........ 0.6 0.5 Sept. 10- Apr. 30
Irrigating ----- --------..... .......--- 6.0 Sept. 10- Apr. 30
Staking and training ..----........... 66.7 2.0 Sept. 25 Mar. 10
Remove stakes and wire ........... 29.4 Dec. 1 May 15

Total pre-harvest labor .......... 110.2 7.9

Harvest labor:
Picking and lugging ----........... .. 180.0
Hauling to market .. ...-.---.-- 2.8

Total harvest labor .........-------..... 182.8 Nov. 1 Apr. 30

Other labor ........ ....... ...... ...... 0.7 0.7

Total-all operations .....------- 293.7 8.6

Estimated yield, bushels ................. 300







Labor and Material for Vegetable Crops


Pole beans may be grown during the fall, winter, and spring
seasons in Dade County. Most growers make successive plant-
ings and try to harvest on a fairly regular basis. Land prepara-
tion may be done from August to early February for plantings
made from September 1 to about February 10. Harvesting may
be continuous from November through April.
Growers were planting the McCaslan variety of pole beans at
the rate of 60 pounds of seed per acre (Table 45). About 1,500
pounds of a complete fertilizer and 150 pounds of a supplement
were used on the crop. If Sesbania stakes were used, about
12,000 stakes were required per acre. Growers trellising the
vines used about 225 wooden posts and 140 pounds of galvanized
wire per acre.

TABLE 45.-POLE BEANS: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
PER ACRE, DADE COUNTY.

Item Kind Amount

Cover crop seed .............. Sesbania 20 lb.
Seed ............. ........... .......... McCaslan 60 lb.
Fertilizer .......................... 4-7-5; 4-8-8; 4-8-10; 6-8-8 1,500 lb.
Supplemental fertilizer .... 10-20-10; 15-0-15; nugreen 150 lb.
Weed control chemicals .... EPTC 0.8 gal.
Spray ................................... Sulfur; organic fungicides;
chlorinated hydrocarbon and
organic phosphate insecticides 200 gal.
Dust ............................. ....... Same 155 lb.
Stakes ................................. Sesbania 12,000
Poles ...............-..... .......... W ooden, 3 in. diameter 225
Wire ................................... No. 12 or 14, galvanized 140 lb.
Containers .......................... Bushel hampers 300


Chinese Cabbage
Chinese cabbage (Chihilli) is one of the salad crops produced
on the muck soils of the Everglades. Production labor require-
ments are quite similar to those for cabbage, except that grow-
ers reported the use of less hand labor for hoeing and weeding
(Table 46). Planting starts in September and may be done at
any time from then until about March 1. Harvesting starts as
early as November 1 and may be continued until mid-May.
Growers reported the use of 2 pounds of seed per acre, drilled
in the field (Table 47). About 1,000 pounds per acre of fertilizer
and 520 gallons of spray materials were used.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


TABLE 46.-CHINESE CABBAGE: LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN HOURS PER ACRE,
AND USUAL SEASON OF OPERATIONS, EVERGLADES (Six GROWERS).

Labor
Operation Requirements Season of
Man Tractor Performance
hours hours

Pre-harvest labor:
Field:
Ditching and draining ................ 0.4 0.4 Aug. 1- Sept. 30
Preparing land .............................. 2.9 2.9 Aug. 1- Mar. 1
Planting and fertilizing .............. 1.6 1.0 Sept. 1 Mar. 1
Cultivating and fertilizing ....... 3.0 3.0 Sept. 15- Apr. 15
Insect and disease control ....... 1.9 1.9 Sept. 15 May 1
Hoeing, raking, weeding ........... 26.0 Sept. 20- Apr. 5

Total pre-harvest labor .................... 35.8 9.2

Harvest labor:
Cutting and packing ..-....----....... 45.0 4.8
Hauling to precooler .................... 3.9

Total harvest labor .......................... 48.9 4.8 Nov. 1 May 15

Total-all operations ........................ 84.7 14.0

Estimated yield, 1-1/9 bushel ........ 525 _


TABLE 47.-CHINESE CABBAGE: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS
PER ACRE, EVERGLADES.


Item Kind Amount


Seed ...-....................-..-..... .. Chinese cabbage 2 lb.
Fertilizer ............................ 0-8-24; 0-9-33; 0-12-16;
2-6-12; 2-8-16 1,000 lb.
Spray .................................. Inorganic coppers; organic
fungicides; organic phosphate
insecticides; manganese oxide 520 gal.
Containers .......................... 1-1/9 bushel 525



Southern Peas

Southern peas or field peas are a good soil-building legume
and a possible source of supplemental income on vegetable farms
in Florida. Major production, at present, is confined to the many
small farms in the Plant City area. Pre-harvest labor require-
ments are not great (Table 48), and the family supplies much










TABLE 48.-SOUTHERN PEAS: LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN HOURS PER ACRE, AND USUAL SEASON OF OPERATIONS, PLANT CITY
(SIX GROWERS).


Operation


Pre-harvest labor:

Field:
Preparing land ................................. ....... ......
Preparing rows and fertilizing ..................-..... ...-....
Planting ... ....... ............................ .......... ...
Cultivating and fertilizing ... --------.. ... ...
Insect and disease control .-..---- ....... ....

Total pre-harvest labor ....... ............... .............

Harvest labor:
Picking, lugging, lidding ................... ........... ..........
H auling to m market ......................- ...... ..... ...

Total harvest labor .........................................

Total- all operations ............... ..........................................

Estimated vield. bushels ............ ............... .. ...... .......


Labor Requirements
Man Tractor
hours hours




7.9 7.8
1.6 1.6
1.3 1.3
6.9 6.9
0.5 0.4

18.2 18.0


81.8
2.9

84.7

102.9 18.0

100


Season of Performance

Fall I Spring


Aug. 1 Aug. 31
Sept. 1 Sept. 30
Sept. 1 Sept. 30
Sept. 10- Oct. 31
Oct. 1 Nov. 15







Nov. 1 -Dec. 1


Dec. 1 -Feb. 1
Jan. 1- Feb. 15
Jan. 15-Feb. 28
Feb. 15 Apr. 15
Feb. 25- Apr. 30







Apr. 15 May 31







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


of the harvest labor. The peas may be planted in September for
a fall crop or in January and February to produce a spring crop.
Given sufficient market demand, some varieties may be harvested
well into the summer months.
California No. 5 Blackeye and Short Purple Hull Crowder
were the varieties growers planted (Table 49). Growers used
an average of 700 pounds of 4-7-5 fertilizer and 200 pounds of
a supplement per acre. Peas are picked in bushel hampers and
a normal yield of 100 bushels was estimated.

TABLE 49.-SOUTHERN PEAS: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS,
PLANT CITY.

Item Kind Amount

Seed ..--............................... California No. 5 Blackeye,
Short Purple Hull Crowder 20 lb.
Fertilizer -.......... .............. 4-7-5 700 lb.
Supplemental fertilizer .... Nitrate of soda; 8-0-8; 8-0-10;
12-0-10 200 lb.
Dust .........-.......................... Sulfur; inorganic copper; chlori-
nated hydrocarbon and organic
phosphate insecticides 75 lb.
Containers ......................... Bushel hampers 100


Radishes

Radish production in Florida is confined primarily to the
muck soils of the Everglades and Zellwood. All operations, from
land preparation through harvesting, are fully mechanized;
hence, labor requirements are low (Table 50). It is possible for
radishes to reach the housewife before they are touched by the
human hand. From 21 to 32 days are required for the maturity
of radishes. Growers in Florida make successive plantings from
September to May and harvest from late September to about
June 10 (Table 51).
Short Top Scarlet Globe, Early Scarlet Globe, Cherry Belle,
and Comet were the principal varieties grown (Table 52). From
12 to 13 pounds of seed are needed to plant an acre. Land on
which radishes are grown in Zellwood received one application
per year of 800 pounds of a 4-8-8 to 5-10-10 fertilizer. This
produces four crops. In the Everglades, one application of 700
pounds per acre of a 0-10-12, 2-8-16 or similar mixtures produce








Labor and Material for Vegetable Crops


four crops with the addition of 8 pounds of nutritional spray
on each crop. From one to three applications of insecticides and
fungicides were required.


TABLE 50.-RADISHES: LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN
BY AREAS.


Operation



Pre-harvest labor:

Field:

Ditching and draining ............
Preparing land ....................
Preparing rows and planting
Cultivating and fertilizing ..
Insect and disease control ....

Total pre-harvest labor ..........


Harvest labor:
Harvesting ................. .............
Hauling to packinghouse ......



Total harvest labor ..................


Total-all operations ..................


Estimated yield, tons .................


Everglades
6 growers


Tractor
hours


Man
hours


0.2 0.2
2.4 2.4
0.4 0.4
0.6 0.4
0.4 0.3

4.0 3.7




3.6 1.1



3.6 1.1


7.6 4.8


2.0


HOURS PER ACRE,



Zellwood
3 growers
Man Tractor
hours hours




0.5 0.5
2.5 2.5
0.3 0.3
0.6 0.6
0.1

4.0 3.9


3.8 2.6


7.8 6.5


2.0


TABLE 51.-RADISHES: USUAL SEASON OF OPERATIONS, BY AREAS.


Operation Everglades Zellwood


Ditching and draining ............... Sept. 1- June 1 Aug. 1- Sept. 1
Preparing land ............................ Aug. 1 May 10 Aug. 1 May 5
Planting .....----.... ..........----.-- .--- Sept. 1 May 10 Sept. 1 May 5
Cultivating and fertilizing ............ Sept. 20 May 25 Sept. 15 May 15
Insect and disease control ....... Sept. 15- June 1 Sept. 15 May 15
Harvesting ..................................... Sept. 25 June 1 Oct. 5 June 10








80 Florida Agr


TABLE 52.-RADISHES:


cultural Experiment Stations


USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS PER ACRE,
BY AREAS.

Area: Everglades


Item Kind Amount

Seed ..................................... Short Top Scarlet Globe 12 lb.
Fertilizer* .......................... 2-8-16; 2-6-12; 0-9-33;
0-10-12; 0-12-16 175 lb.
Supplemental fertilizer ... Various nutritional sprays 8 lb.
Spray ---- ---------- Inorganic coppers; organic fungi-
cides; chlorinated hydrocarbon
and organic phosphate
insecticides 150 gal.
Containers .......................... Various



Area: Zellwood


Item Kind Amount

Seed ......--..........-..----Cherry Belle, Early Scarlet
Globe, Comet 13 lb.
Fertilizer* .......................... 4-8-8; 5-10-10 200 lb.
Spray ................................. Organic fungicides; chlorinated
hydrocarbon and organic
phosphate insecticides 10 gal.
Containers .......................... Various

Applied every fourth crop at rate of 700 and 800 pounds per acre, respectively.


Spinach

Spinach for processing is grown in the Zellwood area. The
production and harvesting are highly mechanized, resulting in
nominal labor and machine hour requirements (Table 53). The
crop is planted in November for harvest in January and Feb-
ruary.
Twenty pounds of seed, 300 pounds of fertilizer, and 200
pounds of a supplemental fertilizer per acre were used by grow-
ers (Table 54). In addition, 200 gallons of spray materials were
required for insect and disease control.








Labor and Material for Vegetable Crops


TABLE 53.-SPINACH: LABOR REQUIREMENTS IN HOURS PER ACRE, AND
USUAL SEASON OF OPERATIONS, ZELLWOOD (Two GROWERS).

Labor
Operation Requirements Season of
Man Tractor Performance
hours hours

Pre-harvest labor:
Field:
Ditching and draining ................ 0.5 0.5 Oct. 1 -Nov. 1
Preparing land ........ ------..................... 2.4 2.4 Aug. 1- Nov. 1
Planting ....................................-.... 1.0 1.0 Nov. 1 Dec. 1
Cultivating and fertilizing ........ 3.5 3.5 Nov. 20- Jan. 10
Insect and disease control........ 0.5 0.5 Dec. 1 -Jan. 20

Total pre-harvest labor .................... 7.9 7.9

Harvest labor:
Harvesting, hauling, loading .... 13.0 4.0 Jan. 15 Feb. 28

Total- all operations .......................... 20.9 11.9

Estimated yield, tons ........................ 4


TABLE 54.-SPINACH: USUAL MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS PER ACRE,
ZELLWOOD.

Item Kind Amount

Seed ........- ........................... Hybrid No. 7, Viroflay 20 lb.
Fertilizer ............................ 9-8-7 300 lb.
Supplemental fertilizer .. Ammonium nitrate 200 lb.
Spray .................................. Organic fungicides; chlorinated
hydrocarbon and organic
phosphate insecticides 200 gal.
Containers .---................ None



SUMMARY

Man hours required for producing the truck crops studied
in the various areas of the state are summarized in Table 55.
Data are given only for pre-harvest labor, harvest labor, and
total labor per acre for the yield shown. Should a different yield
be obtained, the harvest labor requirement would be changed.
For more complete details on man-hour and tractor-hour require-
ments, materials used, and season of operations, reference should
be made to the various crop tables.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


TABLE 55.-SUMMARY OF MAN HOURS REQUIRED PER ACRE FOR
VARIOUS CROPS, BY AREAS.


Area and Crop


Alachua County:
Cucumbers .....
Watermelons
(Gainesville) ..............
Dade County:
Tom atoes ........................
Potatoes, Irish ...............
Cucumbers ..............-- ......
Cabbage ..........................
Squash ......................... ..
Beans, pole ..-------.............
Everglades: |
Beans, snap .......-.......
Potatoes, Irish ..........
Corn, sweet ........-..........
Celery ...............................
Peppers, green ...............
Cabbage .................--......----
Lettuce-Escarole .........
Cabbage, Chinese .....-..
Radishes .........................
Fort Pierce:
Tom atoes .........................
Immokalee-Lee:
Tomatoes, ground .........
Tomatoes, staked ...........
Potatoes, Irish ..............
Peppers, green ..............
Watermelons (So. Fla.)
Cucumbers .............-......
Squash .........................
Hastings:
Potatoes, Irish .............
Cabbage ..........................
Manatee-Ruskin:
Tomatoes, staked ..........
Marion-Sumter:
Tomatoes, ground .........
Peppers, green ..............
Watermelons (Central
Florida) ............
Lettuce ............. .......... .
Oviedo:
Celery ............................
Plant City:
Peppers, green ..........
Cabbage ........ ........ .......
Squash ...........................
Eggplant .....................
Peas, southern ................


Man
Pre-
harvest


27.5

13.1

55.2
21.3
20.6
48.5
21.8
110.2

6.6
29.9
14.5
100.2
112.2
41.6
36.3
35.8
4.0

84.3

83.3
243.6
36.0
126.0
90.4
74.1
38.0

24.3
51.7

148.4

50.6
135.4

23.5
141.0

130.1

106.0
54.8
29.1
101.4
18.2


Hours per Acre


Harvest


87.5

19.6

103.8
39.0
54.0
53.5
89.9
182.8

96.4
35.8
31.0
230.0
88.8
60.0
49.1
48.9
3.6

109.0

117.9
199.8
32.8
144.6
26.1
96.9
95.5

32.6
56.4

170.6

74.0
116.2

17.3
60.9

269.2

138.0
68.0
94.4
126.7
84.7


Tot


116.7

32.7

159.3
60.9
75.2
103.5
112.7
293.7

104.0
65.7
45.5
330.2
201.0
101.6
85.4
84.7
7.6

197.1

202.2
445.4
69.6
271.5
118.1
172.4
134.7

60.3
111.7

320.6

124.6
255.2

40.8
204.8

400.8

247.9
124.8
128.1
231.1
102.9


* Includes other labor not shown in some cases.


al*


S Estimated
Yield



155 bu.

450 melons

200 crts.
162.5 cwt.
125 bu.
10.25 tons
150 bu.
300 bu.

100 bu.
150 cwt.
180 crts.
600 crts.
300 bu.
10.0 tons
100 cwt.
525 crts.
2.0 tons

200 crts.

225 crts.
333 crts.
175 cwt.
450 bu.
625 melons
250 bu.
170 bu.

150 cwt.
10.0 tons

300 crts.

160 crts.
400 bu.

420 melons
103 cwt.

750 crts.

300 bu.
11.0 tons
110 bu.
250 bu.
100 bu.








Labor and Material for Vegetable Crops


TABLE 55.-SUMMARY OF MAN HOURS REQUIRED PER ACRE FOR
VARIOUS CROPS, BY AREAS.-(CONCLUDED).
r -'


Area and Crop


Pompano:
Tomatoes, vine-ripe
(Lower East Coast) ..
Beans, snap -.................
S Peppers, green ..............
Cucumbers ...............
Squash .......................
Eggplant ...-.............
Beans, lima ................
Sanford:
Beans, snap ..............
Celery ........................
Cabbage .................
Lettuce-Escarole ............
Sarasota:
Celery ............................
Wauchula:
Tomatoes, ground ........
Cucumbers ....................
Zellwood:
Corn, sweet ...................
Celery .........-.................
Radishes ....... ...............
Spinach .................-.. ....


Man Hours per Acre


Pre- I
harvest Harvest


672.8
15.0
230.5
52.3
39.3
224.2
31.9

12.1
155.6
45.8
79.8

159.0

80.6
32.4

15.0
128.2
4.0
7.9


212.6
96.5
182.4
68.1
69.6
233.9
95.0

126.2
264.0
64.9
65.3

317.9

134.2
109.3

48.0
235.1
3.8
13.0


Total*



888.1
112.5
415.0
121.0
108.9
459.9
128.6

138.8
422.9
116.2
146.9

480.1

216.7
142.7

63.9
364.2
7.8
20.9


Estimated
Yield



560 crts.
100 bu.
400 bu.
150 bu.
125 bu.
450 bu.
80 bu.

175 bu.
600 crts.
11.5 tons
118 cwt.

839 crts.

210 crts.
250 bu.

260 crts.
525 crts.
2.0 tons
4.0 tons


Includes other labor not shown in some cas s.

The data on labor and materials required represent the most
common practices at the time the study was made. Yields of
most truck crops vary widely from year to year because of dif-
ferences in weather; harvested yield may also vary because of
price. Labor and materials used may vary with weather condi-
tions, and increasing mechanization is lowering man hours and
increasing machine time on many crops; new insect and disease
control materials and new varieties may increase yields. Most
changes in practices, however, occur gradually.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The author is grateful for the willing cooperation of the
many vegetable growers who supplied the data which made this
study possible. Appreciation is expressed also to A. B. Irving,
former Interim Assistant, M. D. Perry, former Field Technician,
and S. A. Poole, Jr., former Assistant in Agricultural Economics,
for assistance with field interviews.




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