• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Copyright
 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 Study area
 Methods
 Results and discussion
 Summary and conclusions
 Literature cited






Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Stations - no. 792
Title: Growth of slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. Elliottii) on drained flatwoods
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE PAGE TEXT
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027497/00001
 Material Information
Title: Growth of slash pine (Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. Elliottii) on drained flatwoods
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Stations
Physical Description: 30 p. : ill., map ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Kaufman, C. M
Pritchett, William L
Choate, R. E
Publisher: University of Florida, Agricultural Experiment Stations, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
Place of Publication: Gainesville
Publication Date: 1977
 Subjects
Subject: Slash pine   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Literature cited: p. 30.
Statement of Responsibility: C.M. Kaufman, W.L. Pritchett, and R.E. Choate.
General Note: Cover title.
Funding: Bulletin (University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station) ;
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027497
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001597033
oclc - 07224484
notis - AHM1163

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Introduction
        Page 1
    Study area
        Page 2
        Location and climate
            Page 2
        Soils
            Page 3
            Page 4
        Vegetation
            Page 5
    Methods
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Fertilization
            Page 7
        Soil samples
            Page 7
        Tissue samples
            Page 8
        Soil water table
            Page 8
        Tree loss and replacement
            Page 8
        Root depth and volume
            Page 8
            Page 9
    Results and discussion
        Page 10
        Tree growth
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
        Root depth and volume
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
        Soil analysis
            Page 18
            Organic matter
                Page 18
            Soil pH and extractable nutrients
                Page 19
                Page 20
        Foliar analysis
            Page 21
            Page 22
        Soil water table levels
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
    Summary and conclusions
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
    Literature cited
        Page 30
        Page 31
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





November 1977


Growth of Slash Pine
(Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. Elliottii)
On Drained Flatwoods


C. M. Kaufman, W. L. Pritchett, and
R. E. Choate

Agricultural Experiment Stations
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville


C x-


Bulletin 792











Growth of Slash Pine

(Pinus elliottii Engelm. var. Elliottii)

On Drained Flatwoods


C. M. Kaufman, W. L. Pritchett, and R. E. Choate





Dr. Kaufman is a professor of silviculture, retired, School of
Forest Resources and Conservation; Dr. Pritchett is a professor of
soil chemistry in the Soil Science Department; and Mr. Choate is a
professor of soil and water engineering in the Agricultural Engi-
neering Department, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences,
University of Florida, Gainesville.


First printing: November 1977
Second printing: January 1978


This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of
$484.83 or a cost of 481/20 per copy to present information
from a study of growth of slash pine on drained flatwoods.









CONTENTS

Page

Introduction ............................................... 1
Study Area ........................ ........................ 2
Location and Climate ...................................2 2
Soils .................................................... 3
Vegetation .................... ................. ........ 5
M ethods ................................ ............ 5
Fertilization ........................................**** 7
Soil Samples ....................................... .... 7
Tissue Sam ples ............................. ... ........* 8
Soil Water Table ...................... ............8...... 8
Tree Loss and Replacement .................. ............. ... 8
Root Depth and Volume ................................. 8
Results and Discussion ................................... 10
Tree Growth ............................................ 10
Root Depth and Volume ................................ 15
Soil Analysis ........................................... 18
Organic Matter ....................................... 18
Soil pH and Extractable Nutrients ...................... 19
Foliar Analysis ......................................... 21
Soil Water Table Levels ....................... ........2 23
Summary and Conclusions .................................. 27






Growth of Slash Pine


On Drained Flatwoods
INTRODUCTION
The flatwoods of northeastern Florida are characterized by a
rather level terrain in which natural drainage is poorly developed.
More than a third of the area may be in depressions (ponds) in
which surface water remains for much of the year and in which
cypress (Taxodium distichum var. nutans (Ait.) Sweet) is the
principal tree species. During years of high summer rainfall, sur-
face water may occur throughout the flatwoods from the begin-
ning of the rainy period in June until the end of the growing
season.
Soil saturation restricts effective depth of the soil and depth
of rooting, important in forest crop production because of the
limited soil volume from which moisture and nutrients can be
drawn.
Some attempts at surface drainage of lower coastal plain soils
for the production of forest crops have been made. Brightwell
(1973) reported for slash pine that shallow canals to remove sur-
face water from Bayboro, Bladen, and Coxville soils in Georgia
over the following eight years resulted in height growth of 4.5 to
4.9 m for distances up to 60 m from the drains compared to
growth of 2 m on undrained soil. Essentially non-productive soil
was improved to about SQ 6025, or production of 190 m3/ha in
25 years. Slash pine in the Apalachicola River Basin of Florida,
on Rains soil with a SI 50so, drained at age 19 benefited in
growth over the next 10 years to compare with SI 80- 85so.
Ditching was by 1.2-m deep canals at a spacing of 800 m and
0.5-m collection ditches about 200 m apart (Young and Brende-
muehl, 1973).
On Bladen, Portsmouth, and Pocomoke soils in a pocosin area
of eastern North Carolina, Maki (1959), Miller and Maki (1957),
and Pruitt (1947), found that ditching to 1.5-m and 1.8-m depths
had an appreciable effect on the soil water table for distances up
to 300 m, but drainage had a significant effect on height growth
of loblolly pine to only about 150 m from the canals. Within 60 m
of the ditch, average growth was about 10.5 mV/ha/yr, compared
with less than 1 m: in the undrained areas.
Drainage as a means of improving forest sites has been used
extensively in Europe. Stoeckler (1963) estimated the drained
areas in northern Europe at over 1.5 million hectares, with gen-
eral increases in wood production of 1 to 7 m"/ha/yr. However,

1






on some sites little or no improvement in tree growth may occur;
hence careful selection of areas for attempted improvement is
essential. Heikurainen (1961) estimated that 1.2 million hectares
of Finland's wet peat land had been drained and that another
3.8 million hectares of the country's total of 10.1 million would
be improved for forest growth by drainage. The net effect in 25
to 35 years could be about 9 million cubic meters of additional
wood, a 20 % increase in the total.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect on slash
pine growth of (a) several degrees of drainage, in the flatwoods
where the predominant soils have spodic horizons, and (b) cul-
tural practices such as bedding, fertilization, and the use of
planting stock from selected seed sources. Additional objectives
were to obtain a measure of the relationship between drainage
and soil water table levels in Florida flatwoods and to determine
changes in chemical properties of soil that accompany drainage
and intensive site preparation.

THE STUDY AREA
Location and Climate
The study was on an area of about 20 hectares in the Austin
Cary Forest of the School of Forest Resources and Conservation,
University of Florida. The latitude is approximately 290 45' N
and the longitude 820 10' W. Average rainfall is about 1295 mm,
and the range over the period 1962-1972 was 814 mm to 1,956
mm, a 100% variation. The seasonal pattern and the possibility
of a spring drought period are illustrated in Table 1. The record
shows that, during the initial five years of the study (1967-
1972), rainfall was average or below and that no unusually wet
years occurred.
The rainfall/evaporation ratio for 1962 through 1972, using a
standard U.S. Weather Bureau pan, was 0.871, with an average
rainfall of 1,423 mm and evaporation of 1,633 mm'. The average
monthly evaporation rates of 127 to 178 mm from March
through June often were not balanced by rainfall, and from
September through November there was also a shortfall of pre-
cipitation.
On the average, 97 days per year are clear (less than 30%
cloud cover), 142 are partly cloudy (40% to 70% cloud cover),
and 126 days are cloudy (over 80% cloud cover).

1Weather records available from the Department of Agronomy,
University of Florida, Gainesville.






on some sites little or no improvement in tree growth may occur;
hence careful selection of areas for attempted improvement is
essential. Heikurainen (1961) estimated that 1.2 million hectares
of Finland's wet peat land had been drained and that another
3.8 million hectares of the country's total of 10.1 million would
be improved for forest growth by drainage. The net effect in 25
to 35 years could be about 9 million cubic meters of additional
wood, a 20 % increase in the total.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect on slash
pine growth of (a) several degrees of drainage, in the flatwoods
where the predominant soils have spodic horizons, and (b) cul-
tural practices such as bedding, fertilization, and the use of
planting stock from selected seed sources. Additional objectives
were to obtain a measure of the relationship between drainage
and soil water table levels in Florida flatwoods and to determine
changes in chemical properties of soil that accompany drainage
and intensive site preparation.

THE STUDY AREA
Location and Climate
The study was on an area of about 20 hectares in the Austin
Cary Forest of the School of Forest Resources and Conservation,
University of Florida. The latitude is approximately 290 45' N
and the longitude 820 10' W. Average rainfall is about 1295 mm,
and the range over the period 1962-1972 was 814 mm to 1,956
mm, a 100% variation. The seasonal pattern and the possibility
of a spring drought period are illustrated in Table 1. The record
shows that, during the initial five years of the study (1967-
1972), rainfall was average or below and that no unusually wet
years occurred.
The rainfall/evaporation ratio for 1962 through 1972, using a
standard U.S. Weather Bureau pan, was 0.871, with an average
rainfall of 1,423 mm and evaporation of 1,633 mm'. The average
monthly evaporation rates of 127 to 178 mm from March
through June often were not balanced by rainfall, and from
September through November there was also a shortfall of pre-
cipitation.
On the average, 97 days per year are clear (less than 30%
cloud cover), 142 are partly cloudy (40% to 70% cloud cover),
and 126 days are cloudy (over 80% cloud cover).

1Weather records available from the Department of Agronomy,
University of Florida, Gainesville.







Average maximum temperature for January is 20.5 C and the
minimum 7.0 C. For July the average maximum is 32.7 C and
the average minimum 21.6 C. Frost in December through Feb-
"ruary is not unusual, but there are only about 150 hours per
year when the temperature is less than 0 C.
Thus, the climate is mild, and the season for wood growth of
slash pine is long, beginning in February and ending in October.
However, the first part of the growing season may be quite dry;
later, however, soil may be saturated for extended periods.
Soils
The study area is located on imperfectly drained sands of the
lower coastal plain flatwoods, a rather ill-defined, nearly level
area of sandy soils averaging about 15-20 m above sea level and
extending inland up to 120 km. The underlying limerock, at
varying depths, accounts for the numerous lakes, sinkholes, and
depressions common to the region.
The coastal lowlands are geologically young and consist of
marine deposits of Tertiary age and of more recent sands and
clays. However, most of the flatwoods have developed distinct,
genetically related horizons that reflect the dominating influence
of topography or parent material over that of climate or bio-
logical factors.
In the flatwoods, the Spodosols are the predominant order of
soils. They generally have a gray to dark gray surface 3 to 20 cm
thick, overlying a light gray sand (A2) horizon. The presence of
a prominent spodic horizon, usually beginning at 35 to 106 cm
depths, is often a distinguishing feature. The spodic horizon con-
sists primarily of light to dark brown sands, more or less ce-
mented by organic matter and commonly referred to as an or-
ganic pan. An argillic horizon was generally found below the
spodic horizon at depths of 1 to 2 m at the study area.
In the natural state, these soils have a pH of 3.8 to 5.2, are
composed largely of quartz, contain few primary minerals, and
are naturally low in nutrient reserves. Most of the reserves are
associated with the 3% to 10% organic matter found in the sur-
face layers.
The soil occupying a major portion of the study area and the
one possessing the best drainage is of the Pomona series, an Ultic
Haplaquod. Its dark gray surface is underlain to a depth of
about 57 cm by layers of light gray sand. Below this layer, to
about 90 cm, is a very dark gray, weakly cemented sand; to 145
cm are layers of brownish sand; and to over 180 cm are layers
of sandy loam or light sandy clay.















Table 1. Monthly rainfall, 1967 through 1973.
Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sept Oct Nov Dec Total

------------------ ---------------------- --------- mm ----------------------------------------------------
1967t 79 142 21 37 157 181 106 235 33 10 24 147 1172
1968 12 54 31 24 181 258 200 338 101 78 64 25 1366
1969 35 118 162 22 128 76 212 286 194 84 71 142 1530
1970 303 41 183 71 87 75 155 186 14 74 2 53 1244
1971 93 124 67 95 43 70 136 205 64 84 85 98 1164
1972 100 115 154 43 184 276 103 299 25 18 181 131 1629
1973 72 114 166 83 139 197 182 113 100 24 6 121 1317
tData for 1967 and 1968 were taken at the Beef Research Unit about three miles from the study area; but for 1969 through
1973 they were recorded on the area.






In the ponds and pond margins the series is Basinger, a
Spodic Psammaquent. The surface dark gray sand of about 10
cm overlies about 43 cm of gray and dark to light brownish gray
sand, followed by nearly 60 cm of light gray sand. Beneath, to a
depth of over 180 cm, is a subsoil of light brownish gray, mottled
sandy loam.

Vegetation
Characteristic of the flatwoods are the stands of slash and
longleaf pines (Pinus palustris Mill.) intermixed with cypress
ponds and strands. During the many years of annual spring
fires, longleaf pine predominated. With fire protection, slash
pine, with its much more vigorous initial height growth and the
resultant capacity for intensive early competition for dominance,
is now found in almost pure stands over large areas.
Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens Bartr. Small) and gallberry
(Ilex glabra (L.) Gray) are the prominent features of the un-
derstory, with palmetto dominant on the imperfectly drained
spodosols and gallberry more common in the somewhat lower,
wetter areas. Around pond margins, swamp cyrilla (Cyrilla
racemiflora L.) is quite common, and southern wax-myrtle
(Myrica cerifera L.) occurs throughout the flatwoods in varying
abundance. Common vines are yellow jassamine (Gelsemium
sempervirens (L.) Ait.f.), most noticeable in early spring when
the yellow trumpet-like flowers may occur in profusion, and
smilax (Smilax spp.). Most common of the ground cover plants
are wire grass (Aristida stricta Michaux.), broomsedge (An-
dropogon spp.), and bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum var.
pseudocaudatum (Clute) Heller).

METHODS
The 20 hectare study area has several large cypress strands
and a number of ponds (Fig. 1). The slope is from NE to SW
with about 2 m difference in elevation. The principal cypress
strands run across the slope. The study area was considered to
be typical of a large percentage of the flatwood areas of Florida.
Nine separate areas of about 1.2 hectares were laid out so
that drainage intensities would be confined and impose a mini-
mum effect on other areas (Fig. 1). Three replications of three
drainage intensities were installed in a completely randomized
design.
The site was logged in 1966 and the study area cleared in the
late fall. At that time ditches were dug along the ends of three






In the ponds and pond margins the series is Basinger, a
Spodic Psammaquent. The surface dark gray sand of about 10
cm overlies about 43 cm of gray and dark to light brownish gray
sand, followed by nearly 60 cm of light gray sand. Beneath, to a
depth of over 180 cm, is a subsoil of light brownish gray, mottled
sandy loam.

Vegetation
Characteristic of the flatwoods are the stands of slash and
longleaf pines (Pinus palustris Mill.) intermixed with cypress
ponds and strands. During the many years of annual spring
fires, longleaf pine predominated. With fire protection, slash
pine, with its much more vigorous initial height growth and the
resultant capacity for intensive early competition for dominance,
is now found in almost pure stands over large areas.
Saw palmetto (Serenoa repens Bartr. Small) and gallberry
(Ilex glabra (L.) Gray) are the prominent features of the un-
derstory, with palmetto dominant on the imperfectly drained
spodosols and gallberry more common in the somewhat lower,
wetter areas. Around pond margins, swamp cyrilla (Cyrilla
racemiflora L.) is quite common, and southern wax-myrtle
(Myrica cerifera L.) occurs throughout the flatwoods in varying
abundance. Common vines are yellow jassamine (Gelsemium
sempervirens (L.) Ait.f.), most noticeable in early spring when
the yellow trumpet-like flowers may occur in profusion, and
smilax (Smilax spp.). Most common of the ground cover plants
are wire grass (Aristida stricta Michaux.), broomsedge (An-
dropogon spp.), and bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum var.
pseudocaudatum (Clute) Heller).

METHODS
The 20 hectare study area has several large cypress strands
and a number of ponds (Fig. 1). The slope is from NE to SW
with about 2 m difference in elevation. The principal cypress
strands run across the slope. The study area was considered to
be typical of a large percentage of the flatwood areas of Florida.
Nine separate areas of about 1.2 hectares were laid out so
that drainage intensities would be confined and impose a mini-
mum effect on other areas (Fig. 1). Three replications of three
drainage intensities were installed in a completely randomized
design.
The site was logged in 1966 and the study area cleared in the
late fall. At that time ditches were dug along the ends of three








---, /




/ / J



l a -.: "i .ll...








Figure 1. Map of the study site showing the distribution of the
plots within the areas, the intensity of drainage for each
area, and the location of the water table wells. The
broken lines outline the boundaries of ponds.
areas to a depth of 1.5 m and along three others to a depth of
0.6 m. These depths approximated the depth of the clay layer
and the spodic horizon, respectively, of these flatwoods soils.
During the first year the deep ditches were partially filled by
erosion from the slopes and were cleaned to reestablish the ini-
tial depth.
There were 16 plots in each area, grouped in sets of four, with
two bedded and two not bedded. The effect of drainage was ex-
pected to diminish with distance from the drain; hence, the first
set of plots was 2.44 m from the drain, the second 22 m, and the
third and fourth 51 and 100 m, respectively. In a number of the
drained areas it was necessary to adjust the location of the plots
to avoid deeper ponds, even though the ponds were drained
(Fig. 1). Each plot had four rows of seven trees each, with a
spacing of 2.44 m between trees and rows.
The areas were disced several times during the spring and
summer of 1967 to level the soil, reduce trash, and suppress re-
growth of vegetation. In November two plots in each group of
four were bedded.
Following rainfall of about 50 mm in early December, two of
the four rows in each plot were planted with seedlings from






selected seed sources. The following week the other two rows
were planted with seedlings from randomly collected seed. A
one-row border was planted around each plot to reduce edge
effect2.
Tree heights were measured initially in March 1968. Remeas-
urements were made at the end of the first, second, and third
growing seasons. At the end of the fifth season both height and
dbh were measured.

Fertilization
Concentrated superphosphate at 90 kg phosphorus (P)/ha
was applied to the two inside rows of each plot in April 1969.
The P treatment was delayed for one year following initial
planting due to need for replanting plots with poor survival. In
May 1970, ammonium sulphate at a rate of 67 kg nitrogen
(N)/ha was applied to the same rows that received the P treat-
ments. The N application was delayed in accordance with cur-
rent recommendations, in order to reduce danger of leaching
losses. Thus, each test unit was composed of a maximum of
seven trees, either of improved or random seed source stock, and
either fertilized or not fertilized, in all drainage treatment plots.

Soil Samples
Soil samples were taken from the 0-20 cm depth at 15 random
locations of each plot immediately prior to the application of N
fertilizer treatments in May 1969, and they were collected again
in March 1973. The samples were taken within the row in both
bedded and unbedded plots with a 2.5 cm diameter soil tube, and
the 15 cores were combined to form a single sample from each
plot. The soils were analyzed for organic matter by the wet oxi-
dation method; pH was determined in a 1:5 soil-water suspen-
sion with a glass electrode. Calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), alu-
minum (Al), P and potassium (K) were extracted with ammo-
nium acetate (pH 4.8), and the first three elements were
determined with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Phos-
phorus was determined colorimetrically using the ammonium
molybdate-stannous chloride procedures, and K was determined
by flame spectrophotometry.

2Seedlings for the project were provided by the Container Corpora-
tion of America. Stock for the border plantings was obtained from
the Florida Division of Forestry.






selected seed sources. The following week the other two rows
were planted with seedlings from randomly collected seed. A
one-row border was planted around each plot to reduce edge
effect2.
Tree heights were measured initially in March 1968. Remeas-
urements were made at the end of the first, second, and third
growing seasons. At the end of the fifth season both height and
dbh were measured.

Fertilization
Concentrated superphosphate at 90 kg phosphorus (P)/ha
was applied to the two inside rows of each plot in April 1969.
The P treatment was delayed for one year following initial
planting due to need for replanting plots with poor survival. In
May 1970, ammonium sulphate at a rate of 67 kg nitrogen
(N)/ha was applied to the same rows that received the P treat-
ments. The N application was delayed in accordance with cur-
rent recommendations, in order to reduce danger of leaching
losses. Thus, each test unit was composed of a maximum of
seven trees, either of improved or random seed source stock, and
either fertilized or not fertilized, in all drainage treatment plots.

Soil Samples
Soil samples were taken from the 0-20 cm depth at 15 random
locations of each plot immediately prior to the application of N
fertilizer treatments in May 1969, and they were collected again
in March 1973. The samples were taken within the row in both
bedded and unbedded plots with a 2.5 cm diameter soil tube, and
the 15 cores were combined to form a single sample from each
plot. The soils were analyzed for organic matter by the wet oxi-
dation method; pH was determined in a 1:5 soil-water suspen-
sion with a glass electrode. Calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), alu-
minum (Al), P and potassium (K) were extracted with ammo-
nium acetate (pH 4.8), and the first three elements were
determined with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Phos-
phorus was determined colorimetrically using the ammonium
molybdate-stannous chloride procedures, and K was determined
by flame spectrophotometry.

2Seedlings for the project were provided by the Container Corpora-
tion of America. Stock for the border plantings was obtained from
the Florida Division of Forestry.






Tissue Samples
Samples of the last fully developed needle flush of the pre-
vious year were sampled in every test unit in March 1973. Some
25 to 50 needles were taken from the top whorl of branches from
the seven trees in each of the fertilized and unfertilized rows of
improved and unimproved trees. Needles from each row were
combined into unit samples. The needles were dried at 65 C and
ground in a stainless steel micro-Wiley mill. Portions of each
sample were ashed at 480 C. The ash was dissolved in dilute HC1
and the solution used for the determination of Ca, Mg, Al, P,
and K, as previously described. Copper (Cu), iron (Fe), man-
ganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) concentrations in the needles were
determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Nitrogen
was determined by a Kjeldahl procedure modified to include
nitrates.

Soil Water Table
Soil water table levels were measured in three observation
wells in each plot, except that in areas I, IV, and VII there were
only two wells and only one in area VIII (Fig. 1). The observa-
tion wells were located in a line beginning at the drain or the
margin of the plots, with wells at 3, 33.5, and 64 m from the
margin. The wells were cased with 5-cm perforated plastic pipe
to a depth of 198 cm. Measurements were made weekly for
March through September, 1970 through 1973.

Tree Loss and Replacement
Very little rain fell from January through April in 1968
(Table 1) resulting in high seedling loss. Following rains in
May, some replacements were made with seedlings reserved for
the purpose; but not all dead seedlings could be replaced.
With the use of improved and unimproved stock and bedding
and non-bedding evenly divided, 112 trees in each area were
used in each combination of improved-bed or unimproved-bed
and improved-no bed and unimproved-no bed. Survival for the
several combinations is shown in Table 2.

Root Depth and Volume
In the spring of 1974, after seven growing seasons, rooting
depth as influenced by the deep drains and by proximity to ponds
was measured. Soil cores were extracted with a 20-cm collapsible
bucket auger at distances of 35 to 45 cm from specific trees and
at soil levels of 0-15, 15-30, and 30-60 cm. The investigation was






Tissue Samples
Samples of the last fully developed needle flush of the pre-
vious year were sampled in every test unit in March 1973. Some
25 to 50 needles were taken from the top whorl of branches from
the seven trees in each of the fertilized and unfertilized rows of
improved and unimproved trees. Needles from each row were
combined into unit samples. The needles were dried at 65 C and
ground in a stainless steel micro-Wiley mill. Portions of each
sample were ashed at 480 C. The ash was dissolved in dilute HC1
and the solution used for the determination of Ca, Mg, Al, P,
and K, as previously described. Copper (Cu), iron (Fe), man-
ganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) concentrations in the needles were
determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Nitrogen
was determined by a Kjeldahl procedure modified to include
nitrates.

Soil Water Table
Soil water table levels were measured in three observation
wells in each plot, except that in areas I, IV, and VII there were
only two wells and only one in area VIII (Fig. 1). The observa-
tion wells were located in a line beginning at the drain or the
margin of the plots, with wells at 3, 33.5, and 64 m from the
margin. The wells were cased with 5-cm perforated plastic pipe
to a depth of 198 cm. Measurements were made weekly for
March through September, 1970 through 1973.

Tree Loss and Replacement
Very little rain fell from January through April in 1968
(Table 1) resulting in high seedling loss. Following rains in
May, some replacements were made with seedlings reserved for
the purpose; but not all dead seedlings could be replaced.
With the use of improved and unimproved stock and bedding
and non-bedding evenly divided, 112 trees in each area were
used in each combination of improved-bed or unimproved-bed
and improved-no bed and unimproved-no bed. Survival for the
several combinations is shown in Table 2.

Root Depth and Volume
In the spring of 1974, after seven growing seasons, rooting
depth as influenced by the deep drains and by proximity to ponds
was measured. Soil cores were extracted with a 20-cm collapsible
bucket auger at distances of 35 to 45 cm from specific trees and
at soil levels of 0-15, 15-30, and 30-60 cm. The investigation was






Tissue Samples
Samples of the last fully developed needle flush of the pre-
vious year were sampled in every test unit in March 1973. Some
25 to 50 needles were taken from the top whorl of branches from
the seven trees in each of the fertilized and unfertilized rows of
improved and unimproved trees. Needles from each row were
combined into unit samples. The needles were dried at 65 C and
ground in a stainless steel micro-Wiley mill. Portions of each
sample were ashed at 480 C. The ash was dissolved in dilute HC1
and the solution used for the determination of Ca, Mg, Al, P,
and K, as previously described. Copper (Cu), iron (Fe), man-
ganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) concentrations in the needles were
determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Nitrogen
was determined by a Kjeldahl procedure modified to include
nitrates.

Soil Water Table
Soil water table levels were measured in three observation
wells in each plot, except that in areas I, IV, and VII there were
only two wells and only one in area VIII (Fig. 1). The observa-
tion wells were located in a line beginning at the drain or the
margin of the plots, with wells at 3, 33.5, and 64 m from the
margin. The wells were cased with 5-cm perforated plastic pipe
to a depth of 198 cm. Measurements were made weekly for
March through September, 1970 through 1973.

Tree Loss and Replacement
Very little rain fell from January through April in 1968
(Table 1) resulting in high seedling loss. Following rains in
May, some replacements were made with seedlings reserved for
the purpose; but not all dead seedlings could be replaced.
With the use of improved and unimproved stock and bedding
and non-bedding evenly divided, 112 trees in each area were
used in each combination of improved-bed or unimproved-bed
and improved-no bed and unimproved-no bed. Survival for the
several combinations is shown in Table 2.

Root Depth and Volume
In the spring of 1974, after seven growing seasons, rooting
depth as influenced by the deep drains and by proximity to ponds
was measured. Soil cores were extracted with a 20-cm collapsible
bucket auger at distances of 35 to 45 cm from specific trees and
at soil levels of 0-15, 15-30, and 30-60 cm. The investigation was






Tissue Samples
Samples of the last fully developed needle flush of the pre-
vious year were sampled in every test unit in March 1973. Some
25 to 50 needles were taken from the top whorl of branches from
the seven trees in each of the fertilized and unfertilized rows of
improved and unimproved trees. Needles from each row were
combined into unit samples. The needles were dried at 65 C and
ground in a stainless steel micro-Wiley mill. Portions of each
sample were ashed at 480 C. The ash was dissolved in dilute HC1
and the solution used for the determination of Ca, Mg, Al, P,
and K, as previously described. Copper (Cu), iron (Fe), man-
ganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) concentrations in the needles were
determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Nitrogen
was determined by a Kjeldahl procedure modified to include
nitrates.

Soil Water Table
Soil water table levels were measured in three observation
wells in each plot, except that in areas I, IV, and VII there were
only two wells and only one in area VIII (Fig. 1). The observa-
tion wells were located in a line beginning at the drain or the
margin of the plots, with wells at 3, 33.5, and 64 m from the
margin. The wells were cased with 5-cm perforated plastic pipe
to a depth of 198 cm. Measurements were made weekly for
March through September, 1970 through 1973.

Tree Loss and Replacement
Very little rain fell from January through April in 1968
(Table 1) resulting in high seedling loss. Following rains in
May, some replacements were made with seedlings reserved for
the purpose; but not all dead seedlings could be replaced.
With the use of improved and unimproved stock and bedding
and non-bedding evenly divided, 112 trees in each area were
used in each combination of improved-bed or unimproved-bed
and improved-no bed and unimproved-no bed. Survival for the
several combinations is shown in Table 2.

Root Depth and Volume
In the spring of 1974, after seven growing seasons, rooting
depth as influenced by the deep drains and by proximity to ponds
was measured. Soil cores were extracted with a 20-cm collapsible
bucket auger at distances of 35 to 45 cm from specific trees and
at soil levels of 0-15, 15-30, and 30-60 cm. The investigation was




4 --*


Table 2. Tree survival percentages per treatment by drainage, source of stock, site preparation, and date of inven-
tory.

Average Tree Survival
Treatment and 1.5-m Drain 0.6-m Drain No Drain
Date of Inventory
III IV VII II VI IX I V VII

Improved stock -------------------------------- percent ---------------------------------
Bed March 1968 94f 90 96 93 86 88 91 96 65
December 1968 75 68 86 76 72 67 74 81 51
December 1972 73 69 93 74 71 62 72 78 58
No Bed March 1968 86 89 98 91 87 95 89 94 83
December 1968 60 70 77 82 78 77 78 80 65
December 1972 56 64 66 77 73 62 76 68 52

Unimproved stock
Bed March 1968 89 90 91 70 87 91 89 77 88
December 1968 65 79 80 54 66 78 69 52 72
December 1972 64 78 80 59 65 78 68 62 70
No Bed March 1968 90 84 93 83 86 90 83 82 88
December 1968 63 86 78 60 67 79 62 68 78
December 1972 65 84 71 56 66 78 59 70 73tt


tThe total possible number in each case is 112 trees.
ttAnalysis of variance showed no significance above the 0.10 probability
any of the three survival inventories.


level for any treatment or treatment interaction for


- r K


.( -K







limited to improved trees on bedded plots, with the sample site
located at the top of the bed. Five samples were taken from each
of plots 3B and 4B in area III and 3B and 4B in area IV and
from plots 5B and 8B in each of these areas (Fig. 1). To meas-
ure variation in rooting depth at pond margins, samples were
taken in plots II 7B, III 11B, IV 13B, VII 9B, and IX 12B to
compare with samples taken from I 9B, II 6B, III 9B, IV 13B,
VII 10B, and IX 12B.
The samples were placed on a 6-mm hardware cloth sieve, and
the soil was removed. Roots larger than 2 mm in diameter, all
non-pine roots, and other debris were removed. The roots were
dried at 60 C, cleansed on a 3-mm sieve to remove the sand and
soil that had adhered to the roots, and weighed.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Tree Growth
During the first year, trees on beds had good color and ap-
peared vigorous. Most of those not on beds showed much less
vigor and were yellowish in color. The effects of beds on height
growth during the first season are summarized in Table 3. Ad-
vantages of the beds were expressed early, and the extra re-
sponse of stock from improved seed was obvious.
An infestation of pine tip moth (Rhyacionia frustrana Com-
stock) varied widely from tree to tree in 1969, the second grow-
ing season, but few trees escaped entirely. During the following
winter 40 g of Thimate (phorate) were scattered about each
tree. During the third season growth increments of the trees
were normal.
Height measurement and inspection in December 1970 showed
that accumulated loss of trees over three years had taken a
heavy toll in some plots. Four of the seven-tree treatment units

Table 3. Average height growth for the first growing season.
Height Growth
Seed Source Bedded Not bedded

---------------- cm ---------------
Improved 27.86** 17.38
Unimproved 23.11 15.85
**Significant at the 0.011 probability level for bedding and at the 0.05 level
for seed source.







limited to improved trees on bedded plots, with the sample site
located at the top of the bed. Five samples were taken from each
of plots 3B and 4B in area III and 3B and 4B in area IV and
from plots 5B and 8B in each of these areas (Fig. 1). To meas-
ure variation in rooting depth at pond margins, samples were
taken in plots II 7B, III 11B, IV 13B, VII 9B, and IX 12B to
compare with samples taken from I 9B, II 6B, III 9B, IV 13B,
VII 10B, and IX 12B.
The samples were placed on a 6-mm hardware cloth sieve, and
the soil was removed. Roots larger than 2 mm in diameter, all
non-pine roots, and other debris were removed. The roots were
dried at 60 C, cleansed on a 3-mm sieve to remove the sand and
soil that had adhered to the roots, and weighed.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Tree Growth
During the first year, trees on beds had good color and ap-
peared vigorous. Most of those not on beds showed much less
vigor and were yellowish in color. The effects of beds on height
growth during the first season are summarized in Table 3. Ad-
vantages of the beds were expressed early, and the extra re-
sponse of stock from improved seed was obvious.
An infestation of pine tip moth (Rhyacionia frustrana Com-
stock) varied widely from tree to tree in 1969, the second grow-
ing season, but few trees escaped entirely. During the following
winter 40 g of Thimate (phorate) were scattered about each
tree. During the third season growth increments of the trees
were normal.
Height measurement and inspection in December 1970 showed
that accumulated loss of trees over three years had taken a
heavy toll in some plots. Four of the seven-tree treatment units

Table 3. Average height growth for the first growing season.
Height Growth
Seed Source Bedded Not bedded

---------------- cm ---------------
Improved 27.86** 17.38
Unimproved 23.11 15.85
**Significant at the 0.011 probability level for bedding and at the 0.05 level
for seed source.







had no surviving trees, in a few other units only one or two
trees survived. For the purposes of statistical analysis, values
for units without trees were obtained by using averages from
the other replicates. Mean tree heights for the several treatment
effects after three growing seasons are shown in Table 4. Mean
tree heights and diameters after five years are given in Tables
5 and 6, respectively.
The trees in bedded plots adjacent to shallow drains averaged
1.78 m in height, but those adjacent to deep drains averaged only
1.46 m. The undrained areas were included in the analysis for
distance from the drains, and the average tree height for the
first two bedded plots for the three undrained areas was 1.44 m.
Thus, the possibility of excessive soil moisture loss along the


Table 4. Average tree heights after three growing seasons as in-
fluenced by treatment.


Treatment


Average Tree Height


m------------ -----------------


Drainage (depth in m)


Distance from drain (m)


Beddingt


Seed source


Fertilization


(1.5)
1.48

(2.44)
1.45

(Bed)
1.69**


(Improved)
1.56**

(Fertilized)
1.64**


(0.6)
1.57


(22)
1.48


(51)
1.60


(0.0)
1.41

(100)
1.45


(No bed)
1.28


(Unimproved)
1.41

(Not Fertilized)
1.32


tAn interaction significant at the 0.0,5 probability level for bedding x dis-
tance from drain reflected these average tree heights:

Tree Height
Distance from drain (m)
2.44 22 51 100

-------------------- m -------------------
Bedded 1.54 1.74 1.80 1.68
Not bedded 1.37 1.22 1.31 1.22
**Significant at the 0.01 probability level.






Table 5. Average tree heights after five growing seasons as influ-
enced by treatment.
Treatment Average Tree Height
---------------- m ------------------------
Drainage (depth in m) (1.5) (0.6) (0.0)
3.58 3.63 3.42

Distance from drain (m) (2.44) (22) (51) (100)
3.67 3.58 3.68 3.49

Bedding (Bed) (No bed)
3.83** 3.25

Seed source (Improved) (Unimproved)
3.66** 3.43

Fertilization (Fertilization) (Not Fertilized)
3.87** 3.21
**Significant at the 0.01 probability level.

deep drains as a cause of height differences is not clearly defined.
The size advantage for the shallow-drain areas continued to the
fifth year and probably was caused by site variation not com-
pensated for in replication. However, as shown in Table 7, trees
from improved stock planted on beds in plots adjacent to the
deep drains in areas III and IV were noticeably smaller than
those of the plots at the next distance from the drains.
The pronounced effects of bedding, seed source, and fertiliza-
tion continued through the fifth growing season and were demon-
strated by both tree height and diameter (Tables 5 and 6).
Diameters for fertilized trees on shallow drainage were sig-
nificantly larger than for undrained areas, but diameters for
deep drainage did not differ significantly from the other two
drainage levels. Trees on the areas with shallow drains were
taller than for either of the other drainage treatments (Tables
4 and 5). The dbh for open grown slash pine is closely related to
tree height and crown size, and fertilization has been found to
have a highly significant effect on dbh growth (Kaufman 1968).
Hence, increased diameter growth with fertilization in the areas
with shallow drains could be anticipated.
The effects of beds and selected seed source were pronounced
by the end of the first year (Table 3), and these effects, with
those of fertilization, carried through at highly significant levels
for the third and fifth years. The high levels of organic matter







concentrated in the beds probably accounted for a large part of
the growth advantage (Haines and Pritchett 1965). But bedding
appeared less effective near the deep drains, particularly for im-
proved stock on beds (Table 7) ; for in all three areas with deep
drains height and diameter of improved stock in plots 2.44 m
from the drains were smaller than in plots at 22 m. For area III
the difference was significant at the 0.01 level.
For improved trees not on beds, those nearest the drains had a
slight growth advantage over those at 22 m. In area VII, the
non-bedded plots, 6 and 7, at 22 m were in wetter positions than
the bedded plots, 5 and 8; hence the chance location gave the
bedded plots better soil drainage conditions than that of the
unbedded.

Table 6. Average diameter at breast height after five growing
seasons as influenced by treatment.


Treatment


DBH


cm


Drainage (depth in m)


Distance from drain (m)


Bedding


(1.5)
5.26


(2.55)
5.38


(0.6)
5.30


(22)
5.15


(Bed)
5.80**,


(51)
5.41


(0.0)
5.00

(100)
5.18


(No bed)
4.58


Seed source


Fertilization


(Improved)
5.38**

(Fertilized)
5.83*-


(Unimproved)
4.99

(Not fertilized)
4.55


tAn interaction significant at the 0.05 probability level existed between
fertilization and drainage at the 0.6 m depth, reflected by three average
tree diameters:

Average Tree Diameter
Drainage depth (m)
1.5 0.6 0.0
_-------_--_-------------------m---------------
Fertilized 5.82. 5.99 5.59
Not fertilized 4.62 4.61 4.41
**Significant at the 0.01 probability level.






Table 7. Effects of deep drains (1.5 m) at age 5 on height and dbh
of trees in plots 2.44 m and 22 m from the drains.
Distance from Drain (m)
Seed Source and 2.44 22
Treatment
Treatment Height dbh Height dbh

m cm m cm
Improved bedded
3.08 4.37 4.17 6.58
3.61 5.69 3.90 5.83
4.40 6.56 4.51 6.95
Ave. 3.70 5.54 4.19 6.45
Improved not bedded
3.37 4.40 3.03 4.32
3.60 5.72 3.42 5.29
4.21 6.34 2.79 4.25
Ave. 3.72 5.49 3.08 4.62
Unimproved bedded
3.35 4.84 3.28 4.98
3.28 4.88 4.05 6.31
4.12 6.24 4.30 6.49
Ave. 3.58 5.32 3.88 5.93
Unimproved not bedded
2.89 4.01 2.85 4.04
3.48 5.44 3.36 4.95
3.24 4.78 2.81 3.52
Ave. 3.20 4.74 3.00 4.17


Unimproved trees, bedded and at 22 m in area IV, were about
75 cm taller than those in the plots at 2.44 m, but in areas III
and VII both heights and diameters were more comparable. Un-
improved trees not on beds made the best growth in plots nearest
the drains. These results indicate that the combination of beds
and intensive drainage can produce a condition sufficiently
drought to counteract any beneficial effect of bedding.
In wetter areas, however, the value of bedding was obvious.
In area VII, plots 6 and 7 (Table 7) were wet, and the growth
of both improved and unimproved trees was much less than in
plot 8, which also was on the edge or partially in the pond. The
third tier of plots in area III was almost entirely in a shallow
pond, which, even though drained, in large part still had surface
water during periods of high rainfall. The growth advantage of
the bedded plots over those on the flat was pronounced (Table
8) much more so than between bedded and unbedded plots in
the first and second tiers of plots in areas III, IV, and VII.






In the areas with shallow drains (II, VI, and IX), the growth
advantage for improved trees was with those nearest the drains.
Those on beds were 4.27 m tall and the unbedded 3.76 m, as con-
trasted with 4.14 m and 3.43 m, respectively, for those at 22 m.
For unimproved trees on beds, those at 22 m were 0.45 m taller
than those at 2.44 m; but of those not on beds, the tallest trees
were nearest the drains.

Table 8. Height and dbh of bedded and non-bedded trees in a
shallow pond (area III) at age 5 years.
Seed Source Bedded Not Bedded
Seed Source
Height Diameter Height Diameter
m cm m cm
Improved 3.67 5.55 2.64 3.99
Unimproved 3.35 5.09 2.62 3.68


Root Depth and Volume
The significantly larger trees in the plots 22 m from the drain
of area III (Table 7) could account for the more vigorous root-
ing at the lower depth (Table 9). As these trees increase in size,
continued rooting at the lower depths may be expected. Tree
roots tend to be more widespread and less branched in dry soil,
compared to moist soil, and in sands, compared to fine textured
soils. The 2.44 m and 22 m plots of area III were on the upland,
and increased soil moisture loss nearest the drains may have
suppressed the trees in the plots at 2.44 m to the degree that
rooting in total was less than that of the larger trees in the less
excessively drained plots at 22 m. In area VII, the differences in
tree size between the first and second tier plots were minor, only
0.1 m in height and 0.42 cm dbh.
Comparing the rooting of trees on the perimeter of the ponds
(Table 10) to those from areas III and IV (Table 9), it is ap-
parent that rooting was shallower in plots adjacent to wet areas.
Height of perimeter trees, at age 5, averaged 4.28 m, compared
with the 4.08 m for trees from areas III and IV, but those in
areas III and IV had more roots at the deeper levels. The perim-
eter trees had considerably more roots in the 0-15 cm level. Trees
in the ponds were 3.94 m tall.
Two trees (Fig. 2 and 3) from the same half-sib family were
excavated on May 20 of the sixth year in the field. At that date,
phenologically, elongation of the first flush of height growth was






Table 9. Average weight of roots in soil columns 20 cm in di-
ameter in plots at 2.44 m and 22 m from 1.5-m drains for
trees of improved stock on beds.
Distance from Soil Depth (cm)
Drain (m) 0-15 15-30 30-60
------------------- g -- ------------
2.44t 1.256 .7315 .3585
22 1.256 .9485* .4230
t20 samples at each distance from the drain.
*"t" test significant at the 0.1 probability level at this depth.


Table 10. Average weight of roots in soil columns 20 cm in di-
ameter in wet areas and on the perimeter of wet areas
for trees of improved stock on beds.
Sample Soil Depth (cm)
Locations 0-15 15-30 30-60
---------------------- g------------------
Wet 1.197 .036 .000
Perimeter 1.805* .420** .110
tTen samples for wet, 11 for perimeter
*"t" test significant at 0.1 probability level
**"t" test significant 'at 0.01 probability level



nearly complete; the second flush was growing at near peak
rate; and the bud for the third flush was being formed.
Tree A was on Lochlossa soil, an Aquic Arenic Paleudult,
drainage class 2-3. The soil has 30 to 45 cm of fine sand of
several layers overlying a dense, highly mottled sandy clay. It
had a dbh of 10.2 cm, and a height of 6.49 m (Fig. 2).
In the upper 15 cm of soil, the lateral root system included 11
roots of an average diameter of 2.58 cm, measured just beyond
the swell next to the stem; diameters varied from 0.87 to 7.47
cm. At 30-cm depth there was a lateral 5.17 cm in diameter and
at 48 cm another that was 6.37 cm. The diameter of the tree at
the soil surface was 16 cm; at 30 cm depth the taproot was 12.5
cm; at 46 cm below the surface and a diameter of 11.7 cm, the
taproot divided into a vertical root system that penetrated into
the clay subsoil. Sinker roots dropping from the underground
stem and along the laterals are a common feature of slash pine
root systems.





























Figure 2. Root system of a 6-year-old slash pine grown on a well
drained soil (Lochloosa fine sand).


Figure 3. Root system of a 6-year-old slash pine grown on an im-
perfectly drained soil (Basinger fine sand).






Tree B was on Basinger, a Spodic Psammaquent, drainage
class 1. This soil is described in the introductory section on soils.
The dbh was 10.9 cm and the height was 6.62 m (Fig. 5).
There were 12 lateral roots in the upper 15 cm of soil with an
average diameter of 3.39 cm, varying from 0.70 to 7.17 cm. At
depths of 15 to 30 cm there were three laterals 1.72 and 3.86
cm in diameter, and another at 38 cm was 1.41 cm. The stem
diameter at the soil surface was 18.5 cm. The taproot began to
separate within 30 cm of the surface, and sinker roots from the
lateral system feathered into the finer roots below 70 cm.
The two trees illustrate a general variation between root sys,
teams in upland soils and in less well-drained soils. In the former,
the roots usually have fewer branches and extend farther in a
horizontal direction from the tree. In more poorly drained soils,
there is more intensive branching of the lateral roots; total hori-
zontal length is usually less than in the better drained soils; and
the system generally does not penetrate as deeply into the soil.

Soil Analysis
Organic matter
The organic matter concentration in the surface (0-20 cm)
soil of the non-bedded plots averaged 2.34% in 1969 2 years
after discing and bedding. Much of the surface soil was concen-
trated in the mounds during the bedding operation. As a result,
the organic matter concentration of samples (0-20 cm) taken
from the mounds averaged 3.52%, a 50% increase over that of
samples taken to the same depth in non-bedded plots. In 1973,
the organic matter concentrations in mounds still averaged 21%
higher than in non-bedded plots. The transport of surface soil
and organic debris into mounds during the bedding operation
has been previously reported (Haines and Pritchett 1965), and
it was expected in this study; however, it is more difficult to ex-
plain the apparent increase of 24% organic matter in the un-
bedded soil between the 1969 and 1973 sampling dates. This
organic matter increase may have resulted from the luxurious
cover of grasses and other invasion plants which occupied the
plots after the trees were planted. The roots of annual grasses
are known to contribute considerable organic matter to soils.
However, in view of significant increases in soil organic matter
in disced only (non-bedded) plots, it is not easy to explain why
organic matter concentrations in bedded soils did not change an
equal amount during the four years (Table 11). Perhaps an in-
crease in the rate of organic matter decomposition in the beds






Tree B was on Basinger, a Spodic Psammaquent, drainage
class 1. This soil is described in the introductory section on soils.
The dbh was 10.9 cm and the height was 6.62 m (Fig. 5).
There were 12 lateral roots in the upper 15 cm of soil with an
average diameter of 3.39 cm, varying from 0.70 to 7.17 cm. At
depths of 15 to 30 cm there were three laterals 1.72 and 3.86
cm in diameter, and another at 38 cm was 1.41 cm. The stem
diameter at the soil surface was 18.5 cm. The taproot began to
separate within 30 cm of the surface, and sinker roots from the
lateral system feathered into the finer roots below 70 cm.
The two trees illustrate a general variation between root sys,
teams in upland soils and in less well-drained soils. In the former,
the roots usually have fewer branches and extend farther in a
horizontal direction from the tree. In more poorly drained soils,
there is more intensive branching of the lateral roots; total hori-
zontal length is usually less than in the better drained soils; and
the system generally does not penetrate as deeply into the soil.

Soil Analysis
Organic matter
The organic matter concentration in the surface (0-20 cm)
soil of the non-bedded plots averaged 2.34% in 1969 2 years
after discing and bedding. Much of the surface soil was concen-
trated in the mounds during the bedding operation. As a result,
the organic matter concentration of samples (0-20 cm) taken
from the mounds averaged 3.52%, a 50% increase over that of
samples taken to the same depth in non-bedded plots. In 1973,
the organic matter concentrations in mounds still averaged 21%
higher than in non-bedded plots. The transport of surface soil
and organic debris into mounds during the bedding operation
has been previously reported (Haines and Pritchett 1965), and
it was expected in this study; however, it is more difficult to ex-
plain the apparent increase of 24% organic matter in the un-
bedded soil between the 1969 and 1973 sampling dates. This
organic matter increase may have resulted from the luxurious
cover of grasses and other invasion plants which occupied the
plots after the trees were planted. The roots of annual grasses
are known to contribute considerable organic matter to soils.
However, in view of significant increases in soil organic matter
in disced only (non-bedded) plots, it is not easy to explain why
organic matter concentrations in bedded soils did not change an
equal amount during the four years (Table 11). Perhaps an in-
crease in the rate of organic matter decomposition in the beds






cancelled out any additions to organic matter reserves by ground
cover vegetation in these bedded plots.
The degree of drainage appeared to be related to the amount
of organic matter in the soil after 5 years. For example, soil
organic matter content in plots without ditches averaged 2.96%,
but the contents in plots drained by ditches approximately 0.6 m
and 1.5 m deep averaged 3.12% and 3.44% in 1973. Samples
taken an average of 10, 29, 58, and 107 m from the drains con-
tained an average of 2.71%, 3.12%, 3.42%, and 3.42% organic
matter.

Soil pH and extractable nutrients
The pH of soil samples collected in 1969 ranged from 4.3 to
4.7 and the average was 4.4, while the pH of samples collected
4 years later had dropped to an average of 4.1 (Table 11). How-
ever, none of the site preparation or ditching treatments had
any apparent effect on soil pH, nor was distance from the drains
significantly related to soil pH.
Extractable Ca levels were low in all surface soils. They aver-
aged slightly more than 100 ppm for all soils before fertilization
in 1969. The levels had increased to an average of 125 ppm in
samples from unfertilized plots by 1973. This significant increase
in extractable Ca apparently resulted from the mineralization
of Ca from the decomposing organic matter following site prep-
aration. The Ca content in plots that received an application of
90 kg P/ha from concentrated superphosphate in 1969 averaged
141 ppm in 1973- or 16 ppm more than the unfertilized plots.
Since 63 kg Ca/ha were added as a component of the fertilizer,
this implies that about half of the Ca added had been removed
by plants, converted to non-extractable form, or lost by leaching.
It could also suggest that larger quantities of Ca had been made
available from the organic fraction of the soil than is presently
accounted for in the extracting solution.
The concentration of extractable Ca in samples from bedded
areas averaged about 13 ppm higher than in samples from non-
bedded plots. This difference was apparently due to the release
of Ca from organic matter incorporated in beds. However,
neither depth of ditching nor the distance from ditches at which
the samples were collected had any significant effect on the ex-
tractable Ca levels.
Magnesium levels in the surface soil apparently decreased
from an average of 42 ppm to an average 36 ppm from 1969 to
1973. The slight increase in extractable Mg concentrations of










Table 11. Some soil properties two and six years after site preparations.
Treatment Organic
Ditching Site Prep Matter pH Cat Mgt Kt Pt Alt

% ------------------------ ppm -----------------
1969-Two years after site preparation
0.0-m drain Disced 2.47 4.6 101 40 13 1.6 18
Bedded 3.30 4.4 112 48 14 1.5 27
0.6-m drain Disced 2.25 4.4 116 42 16 1.8 19
Bedded 3.42 4.3 123 46 13 1.3 22
1.5-m drain Disced 2.30 4.5 86 34 14 1.2 32
Bedded 3.83 4.4 87 40 13 1.1 39
1969 Average- 2.93 108 42 14 1.4 26

1973-Six years after site preparation
0.0-m drain Disced 2.63 4.2 122 28 7 0.4 10
Bedded 3.28 4.1 136 35 9 0.4 19
0.6-m drain Disced 2.96 4.1 137 36 8 0.7 14
Bedded 3.29 4.0 150 34 7 0.6 14
1.5-m drain Disced 3.02 4.1 97 30 5 0.8 20
Bedded 3.86 4.0 102 32 6 0.4 39
1973 Average- 3.17 4.1 125 36 7 0.6 19
tAmmonium acetate (pH 4.8) extractable


- r


A T






about 6 ppm associated with bedding in the 1969 samples had
largely disappeared by 1973. There was also a reduction in the
concentration of extractable K during the same period. In fact,
the K levels were very low (an average of 14 ppm) in 1969, and
those levels were reduced to about half this amount by 1973.
Phosphorus concentrations were low in all soil samples at both
sampling dates. They averaged 1.4 ppm of P in 1969 and 0.6 ppm
in unfertilized plots in 1973. There were no significant differ-
ences in extractable P between bedded and non-bedded plots, and
apparently drainage had no significant effect on P concentra-
tions. Where 90 kg P/ha had been surface applied in 1969, there
was little to be found in the 0-20 cm soil layer by 1973. In fact,
the average concentration of extractable P in the latter plots was
only 0.8 ppm in 1973, or 0.2 ppm more than in the non-fertilized
plots. Apparently much of the P had leached from the surface
soil by the fourth year or else converted to an non-extractable
form. A small portion would have been immobilized in the plant
biomass. The extractable Al concentrations in the soil averaged
26 ppm in 1969 and 19 ppm in 1973. The Al levels were slightly
higher in samples from bedded plots than in non-bedded plots,
but none of the levels appeared sufficiently high to effectively
retain the applied phosphates. Fertilization had no significant
effect on extractable Al levels.

Foliar Analysis
Foliar concentrations of 10 elements, determined after six
growing seasons, are summarized by treatments in Table 12.
Foliar nutrient concentrations are generally influenced by the
fertility status of the soil, and one would expect that those treat-
ments which influence soil nutrient conditions would also affect
foliar nutrient concentrations. However, there appeared to be
less effect of treatment on foliar concentrations than on soil nu-
trient status. In fact, there were no significant effects of any
treatments on foliar nutrient concentrations, although several
treatments affected soil properties. Since neither drain-depth nor
distance from drains significantly influenced soil properties, in-
fluence on foliage concentration was not expected. Foliar con-
centrations of genetically selected trees were not different from
those of non-selected seedlings, except that P and Mg concentra-
tions of the former trees averaged somewhat higher and Ca
averaged lower than in the latter trees. The effects of fertilizers
applied 5 years previously appeared to have dissipated, with the
exception that foliar P was slightly higher in the fertilized plots.












Table 12. Average foliar concentrations after five growing seasons as influenced by treatment.
Treatment N P K Ca Mg Al Cu Fe Mn Zn

% --------- -------- --- ppm ---_ -
Drain depths:
Deep 1.5 m 0.90 .080 0.24 0.24 1064 457 2 39 126 34
Shallow 0.6 m .88 .078 .26 .24 1075 413 2 38 154 35
None 0.0 m .90 .081 .28 .26 1097 418 2 38 178 38
Distances from drains:
Tier 1 0.92 .082 0.28 0.25 1056 438 2 38 158 36
Tier 2 .88 .079 .26 .24 1083 412 2 37 156 37
Tier 3 .88 .080 .24 .24 1100 441 2 38 138 34
Tier 4 .90 .078 .26 .25 1075 429 2 39 160 37

Site preparation:
Bedded 0.89 .080 0.26 0.24 1088 454 2 38 141 34
Unbedded .90 .079 .26 .25 1070 405 2 38 164 37
Fertilization:
Fertilized 0.89 .081 0.26 0.24 1074 436 2 39 144 36
Unfertilized .90 .078 .27 .25 1084 418 2 38 162 36
Seed source:
Selected 0.89 .081 0.26 0.24 1104 421 2 39 150 36
Non-selected .90 .078 .26 .25 1053 438 2 38 155 35


_ 4- f


Jj-r






The average concentrations of N, P, and K for all treatments
combined were 0.90%, 0.08%, and 0.26%, respectively. These
values are moderately low, and a response to the application of
fertilizers would be expected.

Soil Water Table Levels
In 1971, the water table at 3 m from the 1.5-m drain of area
III remained near or below the 1.5-m level for most of the grow-
ing season (Fig. 4). At 33.5 m the water table varied in a man-
ner similar to that of undrained area V, in response to the rain-
fall pattern. Even in the wet growing season of 1972 (Fig. 5),
the water table hovered near the 1.5-m level near the 1.5-m
drain; but at the 33.5 m distance and in the undrained area the
levels averaged about 0.5 m.
The influence of drainage on the wells near the deeper drains
is further illustrated by a continually deeper water table than
in the other areas over the 1970 to 1973 period (Table 13). This
effect is not obvious near the shallow drains, where the water
table stayed at about the depth of the drain or slightly above.
The number and location of wells in the undrained areas present
a skewed result, as discussed under Soil Water Table in Methods.
A significant difference between the water levels at 33.5 m
distance of the 0.6-m and 1.5-m drains in 1970 and 1973 indi-
cated that the deep drains apparently influenced soil water for
considerable distances. For the areas with the deep drains, these
wells fell in the upland portions of areas III and IV; for VII,
however, the well at 33.5 m was at the very edge of a pond. Even
though the pond was drained into the ditch at the end of the
area, some surface water was noted during the wet summer
periods. In the shallow drainage areas, all of the wells at 35.5-m
distance were on upland locations. There appeared to be only
minor differences between the wells in the shallow drainage
areas and those with no drains.
The deep drains definitely influenced the water table level in
the nearby wells, and there is evidence that deep drains had
some influence on wells at 33.5 m. Other variations in water
table levels appeared to be related to variation in the terrain and
proximity to pond areas.
Differences in size between trees in the plots adjacent to the
deep drains and those at 22 m indicate the possibility of over-
drainage in the uplands of the flatwoods. Maki (1959) suggested
that a water table above 46 cm during the peak of the growing
season was most suitable for loblolly and slash pines in poorly









MARCH SEPTEMBER, 1971


100-

80-

60-

40-

20-
0
0


L -I I I I I I I I


|ia lii i l1 i I


AREA III
WELL a -


i\ WELL D ---
I '


S'I \
N\


I I a I I I I I t I I I lJ.L L 4l I o. l 1 -


I I I i %rT I I I 1 T-


AREA V
WELL a -
WELL b --


T= T j----T -V I I Ii U I I a
2345 10 15 20
TIME WEEKS


25 30


Figure 4. Weekly rainfall for March through September 1971 and
the accompanying water table variation in the wells
nearest the drain or plot margin and the wells next in
line for area III (1.5-m drain) and area V (no drain).
1971 was the driest of the four years during which water
table levels were measured.


I I I


'I I I


III


A


-+-+-i-


~,' L


I


--I


I


"il ""~


5ko I


,.I


'g'''"








MARCH- SEPTEMBER,


1190.6





I II


AREA III
WELL o ---
WELL b ---



NJA


\J\/ \\


E
w
j 0.5



S1.0-




0.
4-

a-





E
0.5-

w

0.5-
rU


o 1.5-
I
i, -

Q


012345


10 15 20 25
TIME WEEKS


Figure 5. Weekly rainfall for March through September 1972 and
the accompanying water table variations in the wells
nearest to the drain or plot margin and the wells next in
line for area III and area V. Rainfall in 1972 was the
highest of the four years in which water table levels were
measured.


209.7


E
E 80-
60
4o-
L 40-
z -
4 20-
cr -


I I


AREA V
WELL a ---
WELL b


i J J | i| I II i u II. 1; iJ I I Il .


1972


I I




















Table 13. Mean water table depth during the March through September growing season by drainage depth and dis-
tance from drainage for 1970-1973.

1970 1971 1972 1973
Depth of
Drain (m) At B C A B C A B C A B C

___-__-- ---------------------------------------- m ------------------------------------------------
0.0 1.00 .76 .52 1.27 1.03 .75 .88 .55 .40 .65 .45 .25

0.6 .73 .76 .82 1.02 .98 1.02 .58 .61 .64 .48 .48 .54

1.5 1.06 .92 .77 1.53 1.10 .75 1.19 .79 .30 1.10 .63 .26

tA, B, and C, indicate the distance from the drain to the water table observation wells, 3 m, 33.5 m, and 64 m, respectively.


4'


t ~ :






drained soils of eastern North Carolina. He thought such a depth
a reasonable target when manipulating the water table. White
and Pritchett (1970) found a water table maintained at 46 cm
much more suited for growth of 5-year-old slash pine than a
water table maintained at 92 cm or one that fluctuated with sea-
sonal rainfall. The best sites for slash pine, according to. Barnes
and Ralston (1952), were those with a fine textured layer at
about 50 cm and the depth to mottling at not over 100 cm. In
the poorly drained soils of central Louisiana, McKee and
Shoulders (1970) found a water table depth of 50 cm during the
winter season produced trees 6 m in height after six years, but
at a winter water table depth of 20 cm the trees were only 5 m
tall. During the growing season, waterlogging seldom occurred
on these soils.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS
Tree survival averaged 77% after 5 years, and neither drain-
age nor bedding had significant effects on survival of improved
or unimproved stock during that period.
Within 3 m of drains 1.5 m deep, throughout the four years of
water table monitoring, the water table was as much as a meter
lower than for areas drained to a depth of 0.6 m, or without
drains. In some years there were significant differences to 33.5
m from the drains.
Differences between the water table levels of areas with 0.6-m
drainage and no drainage were not pronounced and probably
were influenced by both variation in topography and proximity
to ponds. Even within 3 m of these shallow drains, the water
table remained at levels very comparable to those in wells 33.5 m
away.
Bedding significantly increased the heights of the seedlings
by the end of the first year, and the effects carried through at
highly significant levels for the five years of the test. Trees on
beds averaged 3.83 m at age five, 0.58 m taller than those not on
beds. The higher levels of organic matter concentrated in the
beds and the nutrients released by the decomposition of this
material probably accounted for much of the growth advantage;
however, the better growth of trees on beds near the margin of
and in shallow ponds probably resulted from better aeration in
beds than was provided in non-bedded plots.
After five growing seasons, fertilized trees averaged 20%
taller than those not fertilized; however, at that time there were
no significant variations in foliar nutrient content between trees
in the two treatments. The level at which the induced growth ad-






vantage can be maintained will be determined in periodic re-
measurement of the trees. At five years, the average length of
the horizontal roots of these trees will be at least 5 to 6 m; and
with less than 2.44 m separating the fertilized trees from those
not fertilized, an equalization of utilization of any added nu-
trients that may still be in the soil can be expected.
Fertilization with N and P significantly increased tree heights
under all drainage conditions. Fertilized trees, with an average
height of 3.87 m after five years, were 0.66 m, or 20%, taller
than those not fertilized. There were no significant interactions
in tree height growth between drainage or bedding and fertili-
zation treatments, although it was anticipated that improved
nutrition in bedded plots might reduce the response to added
fertilizers.
Increased growth of improved stock over unimproved was
highly significant. After five years the trees from selected seed,
3.66 m tall and 5.38 cm dbh, were 7% taller and 8% larger at
dbh.
Improved trees on beds in plots 2.44 m from drain 1.5 m deep
were only 3.70 m tall after five growing seasons, but those in
plots 22 m away were 4.19 m tall. In plots 2.44 m from drains
0.6 m deep, the trees were 4.27 m tall, but in plots 22 m away,
the trees were only 4.14 m tall. Improved trees not on beds in
plots 2.44 m from drain 1.5 m deep were 3.72 m tall, compared
to 3.08 m in plots at 22 m from the drain.
Unimproved trees on beds were not as tall near the deeper
drains as were those in plots at 22 m; but when not bedded, the
taller trees were nearest the drains.
These tree size variations indicate that bedding provides the
basic soil aeration required in the flatwoods and that the addi-
tion of deep drains may cause excessive soil moisture loss for
10 m or more on either side of the drain. On unbedded sites,
however, the deeper drains do offer modest growth advantages
for both improved and unimproved slash pine.
The combination of removal or surface water and bedding can
make ponds in the flatwoods productive for pine trees. However,
unbedded trees in drained ponds after five years were about a
meter shorter in height and 1.5 cm smaller at dbh than trees on
beds.
After seven years, improved trees on beds on the perimeter
of drained ponds had significantly more roots at both the 0 to
15 and the 15 to 30 cm depths of the soil than did trees on beds
in the ponds. At the 30 to 60 cm depth, trees in the ponds had no
measurable root volume.






Rooting of improved trees on beds varied among those adja-
cent to 1.5-m drains and those in plots 22 m away. In the surface
0 to 15 cm the root volume was the same, but at depths of 15 to
30 cm and 30 to 60 cm, the more distant trees had larger root
volumes. The differences may have been related to, tree size; for
improved trees on beds near the drains were 0.5 m shorter in
height and almost a cm smaller at dbh.
In the flatwoods of northeastern Florida, general drainage to
depth exceeding about 0.5 m serves no useful purpose and when
combined with bedding can lead to excessive drying of the soil.
The efficiency of drainage is highly questionable beyond that re-
quired to remove surface water during season of high rainfall
or to remove water from shallow ponds. Bedding appears to
provide adequate surface drainage and removal of excess water
from the root zone. Bedding also concentrates organic matter
and increases release of nutrients in the area of greatest root
development, resulting in productive pine sites.






LITERATURE CITED

Barnes, R. L., and C. W. Ralston. 1952. Soil factors influencing
the growth of slash pine in Northeast Florida. Univ. Fla.,
Sch. Forestry Res. Rep. No. 1. 11 p.
Haines, L. W., and W. L. Pritchett. 1965. The effects of site prep-
aration on the availability of soil nutrients and on slash pine
growth. Soil Crop Sci. Soc. Fla. Proc. 25:356-363.
Heikurainen, L. 1961. (The influence of forest drainage on growth
and removal in Finland.) Acta Forest. Fennica 7:1-71.
Kaufman, C. M. 1968. Growth of horizontal roots, height, and
diameter of planted slash pine. Forest Sci. 14:265-274.
Maki, T. E. 1959. Improving site quality by wet-land drainage.
p. 106-114. In P. V. Burns (ed) Southern Forest Soils. La.
State Univ. Press, Baton Rouge.
McKee, W. H., and E. Shoulders. 1970. Depth of water table and
redox potential of soil affect slash pine growth. Forest Sci.
16:399-402.
Miller, W. D., and T. E. Maki. 1957. Planting pines in pocosins.
J. Forestry 55:659-663.
Pruitt, A. A. 1947. A study of the effect of soils, water table, and
drainage on the height growth of slash and loblolly pine
plantations of the Hofmann Forest. J. Forestry 45:836.
Stoeckler, J. E. 1963. A review of forest swamp drainage methods
in Northern Europe. J. Forestry 61:99-104.
White, E. H., and W. L. Pritchett. 1970. Water table control and
fertilization for pine production in the flatwoods. Fla. Agric.
Exp. Sta. Tech. Bull. 743. 41 p.
Young, C. E., Jr. and R. H. Brendemuehl. 1973.. Response of slash
pine to drainage and rainfall. USDA Forest Ser. Res. Note
SE-186. 7 p.
























Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences



TEACHING I FAS
RESEARCH
EXTENSION

7 .^




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