• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Copyright
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Acknowledgement
 List of Tables
 Method of study
 Introduction
 Labor requirements and cost of...
 Cost of operating selected items...
 Cost of operating equipment
 Summary






Group Title: Agricultural Economics report 22
Title: Cost of producing principal field crops and cost of operating selected types of farm equipment, north and west Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027477/00001
 Material Information
Title: Cost of producing principal field crops and cost of operating selected types of farm equipment, north and west Florida
Physical Description: iv, 34 leaves : ; 28 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Greene, R. E. L ( Robert Edward Lee ), 1910-
Publisher: Dept. of Agricultural Economics, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1971
 Subjects
Subject: Farms -- Cost of operation -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Farm equipment -- Cost of operation -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Crop yields -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Agriculture -- Economic aspects -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: bibliography   ( marcgt )
government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: R.E.L. Greene.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "May 1971."
Funding: Florida Historical Agriculture and Rural Life
Additional Physical Form: Agricultural economics report - University of Florida Dept. of Agricultural Economics ; no. 22
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027477
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 001615903
oclc - 21028340
notis - AHP0348

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Title Page
        Title
    Table of Contents
        Page i
    Acknowledgement
        Page ii
    List of Tables
        Page iii
        Page iv
    Method of study
        Page 1
    Introduction
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Labor requirements and cost of producing field crops
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Cost of operating selected items of equipment
        Page 14
    Cost of operating equipment
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
    Summary
        Page 33
        Page 34
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida





May1971
V"** '


Ag. Econ. Report 22


Cost of Producing Principal Field

Crops and Cost of Operating

Selected Types of Farm Equipment,

North and West Florida


HUMS LIBRARY

JUN 8 1371

I.F.A.S. Univ. of Foricd


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* 4


Department of Agricultural Economics
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville


R. E. L. Greene


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TABLE OF CONTENTS


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . .


LIST OF TABLES . .


INTRODUCTION . . .


METHOD OF STUDY .....


Definitions . .

Yield per acre . .
Price or cost per unit .
Seed and plantbed .
Fertilizer and side or top
Lime . . .
Poison materials . .
Man labor . .
Tractor work . .
Other equipment . .
Pick-up truck . .
Land rent . .


LABOR REQUIREMENTS AND COST OF


Corn . . .


Peanuts . . .


Soybeans . . .


Flue-Cured Tobacco . .


Wheat . . .


COST OF OPERATING SELECTED ITEM


Method of Calculating Costs

Depreciation . .
Interest . . .
Insurance, taxes and housing
Repair and maintenance .
Cost per unit of annual use


Costs of Operating Equipment


dressing .












PRODUCING FIELD

















IS OF EQUIPMENT







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Page

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CROPS


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TABLE OF CONTENTS--Continued


Page


.. 15


Tractors . . . .
Rotary mowers . . .. .
Disks . . . .
Breaking plows . . .
Chisel plows . . .. ..
Fertilizer distributors and spreaders
Planters . . . .
Transplanters . . .
Drills . . . .
Rotary hoes . . .
Cultivators . .
Cultivatorfertilizer distributors .
Dusters . . .
Sprayers . . . .
Combines . . . .
Peanut plows and shakers . .
Peanut combines . ..
Tobacco trailers . . .


SUMMARY . . . . . .


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS



The writer wishes to express his appreciation to farmers surveyed

for their excellent cooperation. Appreciation is also due Cooperative

Extension Service personnel in counties from which records were obtained

for their help in selecting farmers to be interviewed and locating their

farms on county maps.


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LIST OF TABLES


Page

TABLE

1 Number of farms for which records were obtained by
counties and crops, North and West Florida . .. 2

2 Corn: Estimated labor and power inputs per acre,
North and West Florida . . . . 4

3 Corn: Average acres per farm and percent of total
acres in selected varieties, North and West Florida .. 5

4 Corn: Estimated revenue and cost per acre for growing,
North and West Florida . . . .. 5

5 Peanuts: Estimated labor and power inputs-per acre,
North and West Florida . . . . 6

6 Peanuts: Estimated revenue and cost per acre for
growing, North and West Florida . . . 7

7 Soybeans: Estimated labor and power inputs per acre,
North and West Florida . . . 8

8 Soybeans: Estimated revenue and cost per acre for
growing, North and West Florida . . . 9

9 Flue-Cured Tobacco: Estimated labor and power inputs
per acre, North and West Florida . . 10

10 Flue-Cured Tobacco: Estimated revenue and cost per
acre for growing, North and West Florida . 11

11 Wheat: Estimated labor and power inputs per acre,
North and West Florida . . . .. 13

12 Wheat: Estimated revenue and cost per acre for
growing, North and West Florida . . .. 13

13 Cost of operating tractors, by size of tractor, North
and West Florida . . . .... .16

14 Cost of operating rotary mowers, North and West Florida 17

15 Cost of operating disks, by width of disk, North and
West Florida . . . . ... .. 18










LIST OF TABLES--Continued


Page

TABLE

16 Cost of operating breaking plows, by size of plow,
North and West Florida . . . ... 19

17 Cost of operating chisel plows, North and West Florida 20

18 Cost of operating fertilizer distributors and
spreaders, by type of equipment, North and West Florida 21

19 Cost of operating planters, by size of planter, North
and West Florida .. . . .. 22

20 Cost of operating transplanters, by size of
transplanter, North and West Florida ........ 23

21 Cost of operating drills, North and West Florida 24

22 Cost of operating rotary hoes, North and West Florida 25

23 Cost of operating cultivators, by size of cultivator,
North and West Florida . . . ... 26

24 Cost of operating cultivator-fertilizer distributors,
by size of equipment, North and West Florida .... 27

25 Cost of operating dusters, North and West Florida 28

26 Cost of operating sprayers, by number of acres sprayed,
North and West Florida . . . ... .. 29

27 Cost of operating combines, by size of combine, North
and West Florida . . . . ... 30

28 Cost of operating 2-row peanut plows and shakers,
North and West Florida . . . 31

29 Cost of operating peanut combines, North and West
Florida . . . .. .. ....... 32

30 Cost of operating tobacco trailers, North and West
Florida ... . . . . .. .. .33


. iv














COST OF PRODUCING PRINCIPAL FIELD CROPS
AND COST OF OPERATING SELECTED TYPES OF FARM
EQUIPMENT, NORTH AND WEST FLORIDA


R. E. L. Greene



INTRODUCTION

This publication provides information on the costs of producing
corn, peanuts, soybeans, flue-cured tobacco and wheat in North and West
Florida. Estimates are also presented on the cost of operating 18 dif-
ferent kinds of farm equipment used in producing these crops. These
data should be useful to farmers in comparing their costs with those
shown. They should also be useful to agricultural workers and others
as guides in preparing enterprise budgets for different areas of North
and West Florida. Yields, prices and costs of inputs should be changed
to suit the individual situation.



METHOD OF STUDY

Data in this report were gathered by personal interview with
growers of the various crops. For each crop except wheat, 10 growers
were surveyed in each of three counties (Table 1). In the case of wheat
10 growers were surveyed in each of two counties and one grower in one
county. In each county, growers to be surveyed were selected in consul-
tation with the county extension personnel. An effort was made to get a
representative sample of growers but those surveyed were somewhat -above
average for the various crops.
The records were taken during the summer and fall of 1970. Infor-
mation for corn, peanuts and soybeans covered practices and prices that
existed for the 1969 crop. Calculations for tobacco and wheat covered


R. E. L. Greene is professor of agricultural economics.














COST OF PRODUCING PRINCIPAL FIELD CROPS
AND COST OF OPERATING SELECTED TYPES OF FARM
EQUIPMENT, NORTH AND WEST FLORIDA


R. E. L. Greene



INTRODUCTION

This publication provides information on the costs of producing
corn, peanuts, soybeans, flue-cured tobacco and wheat in North and West
Florida. Estimates are also presented on the cost of operating 18 dif-
ferent kinds of farm equipment used in producing these crops. These
data should be useful to farmers in comparing their costs with those
shown. They should also be useful to agricultural workers and others
as guides in preparing enterprise budgets for different areas of North
and West Florida. Yields, prices and costs of inputs should be changed
to suit the individual situation.



METHOD OF STUDY

Data in this report were gathered by personal interview with
growers of the various crops. For each crop except wheat, 10 growers
were surveyed in each of three counties (Table 1). In the case of wheat
10 growers were surveyed in each of two counties and one grower in one
county. In each county, growers to be surveyed were selected in consul-
tation with the county extension personnel. An effort was made to get a
representative sample of growers but those surveyed were somewhat -above
average for the various crops.
The records were taken during the summer and fall of 1970. Infor-
mation for corn, peanuts and soybeans covered practices and prices that
existed for the 1969 crop. Calculations for tobacco and wheat covered


R. E. L. Greene is professor of agricultural economics.









Table 1.--Number of farms for which records were obtained by counties
and crops, North and West Florida


County Corn Peanuts Soybeans Tobacco Wheat

Alachua 10 10 10
Calhoun 10
Escambia 10 10
Hamilton 10
Jackson 10 10 1
Santa Rosa 10 10 10
Suwannee 10 10
Total 30 30 30 30 21



the 1970 crop. Farmers were asked to give their estimated normal yield
per acre as well as their actual yield for the year covered. Value of
the various crops per acre was based on the normal yield times.the state
average price for the year covered as reported by the Federal-State Crop
Reporting Service.
Information for each crop included a record of practices used, man
labor and tractor work per acre., types of equipment and hours used and
the estimated land rent per acre.
The data were summarized to show the man labor and tractor work
requirements per acre by operations and the cost per acre of the various
items used in production. In summarizing the figures, only those prac-
tices and items of costs used by the majority of.farmers were included.

Definitions

Given below is an explanation of how individual items were handled.
Yield per acre.--Data were obtained on the estimated yield per acre
for the year covered in the survey and also the farmer's estimate of his
normal yield. Normal yield was used in calculating value per acre and
cost per unit.
Price or cost per unit.--The state average price for the year sur-
veyed was used in calculating value per acre. The cost per unit for
seed, fertilizer, lime and other items was the average of prices reported
by growers. Man labor was charged at $1.25 per hour. The charge for
tractor and equipment was calculated for each farm. Pick-up trucks were
charged at 10 cents per mile.










Seed and plantbed.--This item included the cost of seed or plants
for planting the crop. When a plantbed was used, as in'the case of
tobacco, the figure included costs of labor and material for growing
plants as well as seed cost.
Fertilizer and side or top dressing.--This represents the actual
cost of nutrient materials applied to produce the crop. Labor or machine
costs of application are not included unless they were included in the
price of the materials. The analysis of fertilizer materials varied from
farm to farm. The average N, P and K for all farms was calculated for
fertilizer put under the crop and also for side or top dressing.
Lime.--This cost covered the pro rata annual share of the lime
applied. The cost per ton included the cost of spreading on the land.
Poison materials.--Spray and dust includes the cost of materials
only unless application labor is specified, in which case, labor and ma-
chine costs may also be present. If weed control chemical or soil fumi-
gants were used, their costs are included as separate items.
Man labor.--Man labor includes all labor costs for producing and
harvesting the crop. Information was obtained from each farmer on the
hours of labor used in various operations in growing and harvesting the
crop to give total hours per acre. This figure was multiplied by $1.25
per hour to get labor cost. No hours were added for supervisory labor
if the operator did not perform the work.
Tractor work.--Data were obtained on the amount of tractor work used
in various operations to give tractor labor requirements per acre. Infor-
mation was obtained from the farmers to calculate total cost per year and
cost per hour for operating tractors. The per hour cost was multiplied
by hours per acre for tractor work to get tractor cost per acre. In the
case where the same tractor was not used for all operations, cost was cal-
culated for the tractor used the largest number of hours and this rate
was used in calculating cost of tractor work.
Other equipment.--Total annual costs and cost per acre and per hour
were calculated for each item of equipment. The machines were charged
to the crops based on number of hours used per acre. Hours and cost for
specialized equipment such as combines are shown for each machine. The
rest of the equipment is grouped as other equipment and charged on the
basis of total hours used per acre. (See pages 14-15 for a detailed ex-
planation of calculating cost of equipment.)
Pick-up truck.--Pick-up trucks are used directly in the production
of a crop and they are also used in the overall operation of the farm.
An effort was made to get an estimate of the total miles per year for
both direct and indirect use. This figure was divided by the total acres
in a crop to get miles per acre. The cost of the truck was charged at
10 cents per mile.
Land rent.--Land rent was charged for all crops at the prevailing
rate reported by growers in the various counties. In the case of crops
such as peanuts and tobacco with allotted acres or pounds, the land rent
figure reflected the value of the allotments. Land rent was charged to
avoid difficulties in the determination of normal valuation, interest
charge for the use of the land and capitalization of land value. Taxes
on farm real estate are excluded since land rent is charged.












LABOR REQUIREMENTS AND COSTS OF PRODUCING
FIELD CROPS



Corn

Excluding hauling, farmers used only 3.17 hours of man labor and
2.59 hours of tractor work to produce and harvest an acre of corn
(Table 2). The two operations requiring the most labor were cultivating
and disking.


Table 2.--Corn: Estimated labor and power inputs per acre, North and
West Florida


Period Hours per acre
Times
Operation
From Toover Man Tractor

No. No. No.
Disking Dec. 1 March 15 2 .62 .62
Fertilizing Feb. 16 March 15 1 .23 .23
Breaking Jan. 16 March 15 1 .54 .54
Planting March 1 April 15 1 .37 .37
Cultivating April 1 May 15 2 .64 .64
Side dressing April 1 April 25 1 .19 .19
Harvesting Aug. 22 Oct. 15 1 .58 .58a
Total 3.17 3.17

aSelf-propelled combine.

Does not include labor and equipment for hauling--often done on a
custom basis.


Farmers planted adapted hybrids of which Florida 200A and several
Coker hybrids were most important (Table 3). Rate of seeding was 7.3
pounds per acre.
The normal yield for corn was 62 bushels per acre (Table 4). In
1969 the state average price was $1.28 per bushel to give a gross value








Table 3.--Corn: Average acres per farm and percent of total
acres in selected corn hybrids, North and West Florida


Hybrid or Acres per farm
variety
v y Number Percent of total

Florida 78 41.6
Coker 41 21.7
Funks 26 13.9
Pioneer 15 8.0
McNair 11 5.7
Greenwood 9 4.8
Dixie 8 4.3
Total 188 100.0


Table 4.--Corn: Estimated revenue
and West Florida


and cost per acre for growing, North


Item Description Unit Quantity Price Amount

No. Dollars Dollars
Total revenue
Yield shelled corn bu. 62 1.28 79.36
Expenses
Seed hybrid lb. 7.3' .236 1.73
Fertilizer 5-12-18 lb. 460 .025 11.70
Side dressing Ibs. of N lb. 89 .065 5.77
Lime dolomite lb. 550 .004 2.25
Man labor hr. 3.17. 1.25 3.96
Tractor work hr. 2.59 2.08 5.39
Corn combine hr. .58 10.46 6.06
Hauling ton 1.74 2.00 3.48
Truck pick-up mi. 20 .10 2.00
Miscellaneous
custom work or
machine rental 1.25
Other equipment hr. 2.59 1.66 4.30
Land rent acre 1.0 9.53 9.53
Total cost 57.42
Cost per bushel .93







per acre of $79.36. The estimated cost of producing corn was $57.42 per
acre or 93 cents per bushel. The most important expense items were fer-
tilizer and side dressing which together amounted to $17.47 per acre or
30 percent of the total cost of producing corn. Farmers used 460 pounds
of fertilizer with an average analysis of 5-12-18. They side dressed
with 89 pounds of N. Total equipment cost amounted to $17.75 per acre.



Peanuts

To produce an acre of peanuts, excluding hauling and drying,
farmers used only 8.92 hours of man labor and 6.26 hours of tractor
work (Table 5). The largest single item of man labor was 2.66 hours per


Table 5.--Peanuts: Estimated labor and power inputs per acre, North and
West Florida


Disking
Fertilizing
Breaking
Applying herbicide
Planting
Cultivating
Side dressing

Applying fungicides
and insecticides

Pulling weeds
Digging and shaking
Combining
Total


Jan. 1
Feb. 1
March 1
April 1
April 1
April 2
June 1


June 1
June 15
Aug. 16
Aug. 16


April 25
April 15
March 30
April 30
April 30
June 30
June 30


Aug. 15
July 15
Sept. 15
Sept. 15


No. No. No.
3 .84 .84
1 .28- .28
1 .56- .56
1 .44- .44
1 .56- .56
3 1.16 1.16
1 .37 .37


b

2.66
.88
1.17 -
8.92


b

--

.88
1.17
6.26


aMany farmers applied fungicides and insecticides with their own
equipment. Requirements were about .95 hour of man labor and .95 hour
of tractor work per acre.

Custom operation.

c
Does not include labor and equipment for hauling and drying--often
done on a custom basis.


---






acre for pulling weeds. However, weeds were not pulled on many farms.
Although many farmers used their own equipment, insecticides were usually
custom applied.
The normal yield for peanuts was 2,391 pounds per acre (Table 6).
The state average price was 12 cents per pound to give a gross value of
$286.92 per acre.


Table 6.--Peanuts: Estimated revenue
North and West Florida


and cost per acre for growing,


Item Description Unit Quantity Price Amount

No. Dollars Dollars

Total revenue
Yield nuts lb. 2,391 .120 286.92
Expenses
Seed lb. 94 .306 28.80
Fertilizer 3-12-17 lb. 531 .025 13.29
Side dressing gypsum lb. 654 .011 7.02
Lime dolomite lb. 632 .0043 2.71
Herbicide 10.03
Fungicides and
insecticides 11.50
Man labor hr. 8.92 1.25 11.15
Tractor work hr. 6.26 2.07 12.96
Custom application of
fungicides and
insecticides acre 1.0 5.60 5.60
Peanut plow and shaker hr. .88 4.88 4.29
Peanut combine hr. 1.17 13.27 15.53
Hauling ton 1.20 2.00 2.40
Drying ton 1.20 10.00 12.00
Truck pick-up mi. 54 .10 5.40
Other equipment hr. 3.93 1.62 6.37
/Land rent acre 1.0 40.83 40.83
Total cost 189.88
Cost per pound .079


aMany
equipment.
of tractor


farmers apply fungicides
Requirements were about
work per acre.


and insecticides with their own
.95 hour of man labor and .95 hour


The most important variety planted was Early Runner followed by Star
and Florigiant. The average rate of seeding was 94 pounds per acre. Seed
cost 30.6 cents per pound. To produce an acre of peanuts cost $189,88 or
7.9 cents per pound.







Farmers used 531 pounds of fertilizer per acre that had an average
analysis of 3-12-17. They side dressed with 654 pounds of material which
was usually gypsum or land plaster. They had a herbicide cost of $10.03
per acre which was normally Balan and/or Dinitro. The crop received a
fungicide and/or insecticide an average of five times, normally with
dust. The material used was copper-sulfur with some other ingredient
such as Sevin.
The average rent for peanut land was $40.83 per acre. The high
rent reflected the fact that peanuts was an "allotted" crop.


Soybeans

It required 2.38 hours of man labor and 1.98 hours of tractor work
to produce an acre of soybeans (Table 7). Soybeans were normally culti-
vated three times for a per-acre requirement of .66 hour each of man
labor and tractor work. It required only .4 hour to combine an acre of
soybeans.


Table 7.--Soybeans: Estimated labor and power inputs per acre, North
and West Florida


Period Times Hours per acre
Times
Operation over
From To Man Tractor

No. No. No.
Disking April 15 May 30 2 .46 .46
Fertilizing April 1 May 30 1 .18 .18
Breaking April 1 May 30 1 .41 .41
Planting May 10 June 30 1 .27 .27
Cultivating May 25 July 30 3 .66 .66
Spraying July 16 Sept. 15 2 a a
Harvesting Oct._ 1 Nov. 30 1 .40 .40
Totalc 2.38 2.38

aCustom operation.

bSelf-propelled combine.

cDoes not include labor and equipment for hauling--often done on a
custom basis.








The normal yield of soybeans was 33 bushels per acre (Table 8).
The state average price in 1969 was $2.40 per bushel to give a gross
value of $79.20 per acre.


Table 8.--Soybeans: Estimated revenue and cost per acre for growing,
North and West Florida

Item Description Unit Quantity Price Amount

No. Dollars Dollars
Total revenue
Yield beans bu. 33 2.40 79.20
Expenses
Seed adapted variety bu. .95 4.84 4.61
Fertilizer 2-15-15 lb. 516 .023 11.72
Lime dolomite lb. 614 .004 2.44
Custom spraying plane no. 2 2.75 5.50
Man labor hr. 2.38 1.25 2.98
Tractor work hr. 1.98 3.20 6.34
Harvesting combine hr. .40 11.04 4.40
Hauling ton .99 2.00 1.98
Truck pick-up mi. 17 .10 1.70
Other equipment hr. 1.98 1.84 3.64
Land rent acre 1.0 18.85 18.85
Total cost 64.16
Cost per bushel 1.94

Includes costs of materials and application.


Sixty percent of the planted acreage was in the Hampton variety and
24 percent in the Bragg variety. The average rate of seeding was .95 bushel
per acre. The cost of seed was $4.84 per bushel. An average of 516 pounds
of fertilizer with an average analysis of 2-15-15 was used per acre.
Beans were sprayed two times with a plane to control insects. The
cost of spraying, including cost of materials, was $5.50 per acre.
Farmers' estimates of land rental rate were $18.85 per acre. Although
there is no control on soybean acreage, the amount of good land for growing
soybeans is limited. Consequently, farmers have bid up the price for such
land.







Flue-Cured Tobacco

It required an average of 380 hours of man labor and 41 hours of
tractor work to produce, harvest and market an acre of tobacco (Table 9).
Fifty-six percent of the total labor was in the harvesting and curing and
19 percent in taking the tobacco out of the barn and putting it in the
packhouse, preparing it for market and marketing the crop.


Table 9.--Flue-Cured Tobacco: Estimated labor and power inputs per
acre, North and West Florida


Disking
Breaking land
Preparing row and
fertilizing
Fumigating
Transplanting
Irrigating
Cultivating and
side dressing
Hoeing

Applying
insecticide
Applying sucker
control
Topping and
suckering
Harvesting
Curing
Taking out and
packing down
Preparing for
market
Hauling to
market
Selling
Total


No.
Dec. 1 March 15 3
Jan. 1 Feb. 20 1


Feb. 15
Feb. 15
March 10
March 10


March 20
April 10


March 20
March 15
March 30
June 15


May 20
April 30


March 20 July 30


May 20


May 20
June 1
June 1


June 1


July 16


July 25
July 25


June 30


June
July
July


July 31


Aug. 15


Aug.
Aug.


No.
1.38.
.81


2.52
.97
23.93
27.54


4.96
11.19


5.52


No.
1.38
.81


1.98
.97
2.73
2.04


4.52



3.12

.51


22.60


40.66


16.54
204.20
9.03


21.79


42.52


3.35
3.10
S379.86







The normal yield for tobacco was 2,253 pounds (Table 10). The state
average price was 75.5 cents per pound to give a gross return of $1,701.02
per acre.


Table 10.--Flue-Cured Tobacco: Estimated revenue and
growing, North and West Florida


cost per acre for


Item Description Unit Quantity Price Amount


No.


Total revenue
Yield
Expenses
Cost of plants
Soil fumigant
Fertilizer 4-8-11
Side dressing 6-7-12
Lime dolomite
-Insecticides
Sucker control
Sheets
Insurance
Fuel L.P. gas.
Twine
Warehouse charges
Man labor
Tractor work
Irrigation cost:
Investment charge
Operating cost
Trailers and sleds
Other equipment
Truck pick-up
Tobacco barn
Packhouse
Land rent
Total cost
Cost per pound (cents)


lb. 2,253


thous.


8.2


lb. 1,216
lb. 890
lb. 539


no.

gal.
lb.
lb.
hr.
hr.


pet.
hr.
no.
hr.
mi.


2.77

474
7.46
2,253
379.9
40.7


$676
11.7
3.72
15.48
458


lb. 2,253


Dollars Dollars

.755 1,701.02


4.36

.029
.031
.004


1.22

.167
.61
.025
1.25
1.78


12.0
2.09
2.12
1,71
.10


.156


35.73
23.68
35.07
27.15
2.23
37.66
13.98
3.36
54.42
79.07
4.55
56.32
474.88
72.45

81.11
24.43
7.89
26.44
45.80
77.51
27.44
352.52
1,563.69
69.40


The most important variety planted was strains of Coker followed by
Hicks'Broadleaf and strains of McNair. An average of 8.2 thousand plants
were set per acre (Table 10). The average cost of plants was $4.36 per
thousand or $35.73 per acre. A number of soil fumigants were used. Soil
fumigant materials cost an average of $23.68 per acre.








Farmers often put about 60 percent of their fertilizer down before
planting and put the rest down in two or three applications as a side
dressing. Other analyses were used as a side dressing and a number of
growers also side dressed with nitrate of potash. On the average, 1,216
pounds of fertilizer were applied before planting and 890 pounds as a side
dressing. The average analysis of the fertilizer applied before planting
was 4-8-11 and the average analysis of the side dressing was 6-7-12. The
total cost of fertilizer and side dressing was $62.22 per acre.
On the average, farmers applied insecticides to their crops about
six times. A variety of materials, among which Sevin and Thiodan were
important, was used. The costs of poisoning material averaged $37.66
per acre. MH30, Desprout and Offshoot-T were the materials used for
sucker control. The average cost of such materials was $13.98 per acre.
The average investment in irrigation facilities was $676 per acre.
The cost per acre for irrigation was $105.54. This figure does not in-
clude man labor and tractor work used in applying the water.
The charge for land rent was 15.6 cents per pound of. tobacco or
$352.52 per acre. Rent per pound of allotment varied from about 10 cents
in Alachua County to 20 cents in Hamilton County. The estimated total
cost of producing an acre of tobacco was $1,563.69 or 69.4 cents per pound.


Wheat

Exclusive of hauling, farmers used only 1.25 hours of man labor and
.93 hour of tractor work to produce an acre of wheat (Table 11). It
required only .32 hour of man labor to combine an acre of wheat. Ninety
percent of the wheat acreage was planted in the Wakeland variety.
The normal yield of wheat was 33 bushels per acre (Table 12). The
state average price in 1970 was only $1.25 per bushel to give a gross
return of $41.25 per acre. Rate of seeding was 1.38 bushels per acre.
Cost of seed was $3.54 per bushel or $4.89 per acre. Farmers used an
average of 489 pounds of fertilizer per acre with an average analysis of
4-13-13. Wheat was top dressed with 142 pounds of ammonium nitrate per
acre. Cost of fertilizer and top dressing was $14.58 per acre.
The charge for land rent was $16.95 per acre. The total cost of
growing an acre of wheat was $54.86 or $1.66 per bushel. Cost per bushel
exceeded price by 41 cents.







Table ll.--Wheat: Estimated labor and power inputs per acre, North and
West Florida


No. No. No.
Disking Oct. 16 Nov. 30 2 .36 .36


Fertilizing
Planting
Applying top
dressing
Harvesting
Totalb


Nov. 1
Nov. 16


Feb. 1
May 16


Nov. 30
Nov. 30


Feb. 28
May 31


1.25


1.25


aSelf-propelled combine.


Does not include labor and equipment
custom basis.


for hauling--often done on a


Table 12.--Wheat: Estimated revenue and cost per acre for growing,
North and West Florida


Item Description Unit Quantity Price Amount

No. Dollars Dollars
Total revenue
Yield grain bu. 33 1.25 41.25
Expenses
Seed Wakeland bu. 1.38 3.545 4.89
Fertilizer 4-13-13 lb. 489 .0216 10.57
Top dressing Amm. nitrate lb. 142 .0283 4.01
Lime dolomite lb. 607 .004 2.42
Man labor hr. 1.25 1.25 1.56
Tractor work hr. .93 3.08 2.86
Harvesting combine hr. .32 12.68 4.08
Hauling ton .99 2.00 1.98
Truck pick-up mi. 11 .10 1.10
Other equipment hr. .93 4.78 4.44
Land rent acre 1.0 16.95 16.95
Total cost 54.86
Cost per bushel 1.66















COST OF OPERATING SELECTED ITEMS
OF EQUIPMENT


Information was collected on the cost of operating equipment used
in producing the crops for which data were obtained. These records were
summarized to show the average costs of operating each machine used.


Method of Calculating Costs

Data were obtained for each item of equipment on purchase price,
salvage value, present age and expected life. Information was also ob-
tained on amount of use annually and the annual cost of repairs and
maintenance. In the case of tractors and other motors, data were ob-
tained on the cost of fuel and oil and other costs of operating the ma-
chines for a year.
Annual costs were summarized showing fixed costs and operating
costs. Various cost items were summarized as follows:
Depreciation.--The rate of depreciation was calculated based on the
farmer's estimate of the expected life of the equipment. The amount of
depreciation was calculated by multiplying the rate of depreciation times
the purchase price adjusted for any salvage value.
Interest.--Interest was calculated by taking 6 percent of the aver-
age value of the equipment based on the value at the beginning and
ending of the year. The value at the beginning of the year was obtained
by depreciating the purchase price for the number of years the farmer
had owned the equipment. The value at the end of the year was calcu-
lated by subtracting the amount of annual depreciation from the value at
the beginning of the year. The average value was the sum of the beginning
and ending values divided by two.
Insurance, taxes and housing.--This was an estimated figure based on
2 percent of the purchase price of the equipment.
The five items of costs--depreciation, interest, insurance, taxes
and housing--constituted the fixed costs of operating the equipment.
Repair and maintenance.--Farmers were asked to estimate the annual
cost for repair and maintenance for the year for the various items of
equipment. Maintenance included a charge for grease, annual repairs and
the average costs of overhauls for equipment such as tractors that are
usually overhauled during the life of the equipment.
The costs of fuel, oil and hydraulic fluid for tractors and other
motors were based on the estimated consumption and costs of the items









used for the year. Estimates of fuel costs were often made on the basis
of the consumption per hour or per ten-hour day; this amount was then
expanded to represent the estimated annual use for the year.
Repair and maintenance and fuel and other costs that varied with
the amount that the equipment was used made up the operating costs for
the year. The sum of the fixed and the operating costs gave the total
costs for the year.
Costs per unit of annual use.--Cost per unit of annual use was
obtained by dividing the total costs by the estimated annual use for the
year. In the case of tractors, costs were expressed on a per hour
basis. For most other equipment, cost was expressed on a per acre and
a per hour basis. For other equipment, farmers reported the number of
acres (on a once-over basis) on which the equipment was used annually.
The hours of annual use were calculated by dividing the estimated time
to cover an acre into the number of acres on which the equipment was
used.




Cost of Operating Equipment


Data were summarized showing the'costs of operating 18 items of
equipment. Where sufficient records were available, summaries were made
for equipment of various sizes. Cost of operating equipment is shown
starting with tractors, then land preparation, cultivating and harvesting
equipment. Individual summaries are given below.

Tractors.--Records were obtained for 104 tractors (Table 13). These
were grouped into four size groups--less than 35 h.p., 35-54 h.p.,
55-89 h.p., and 90 h.p. or more. The less than 35 h.p. were a group of
old tractors usually found on tobacco farms. The average age of the
smallest size group of tractors was 10.6 years and of the largest size
group 2.9 years. The cost per hour of use varied from $1.24 for the
smallest size group to $3.16 for the largest size group. The amount of
annual use was relatively low in all size groups. Estimated annual use
was 402 hours in the less than 35 h.p. group, 683 hours in the 35-54
group, 878 hours in the 55-89 h.p. group and 852 hours in the 90 or over
h.p. group. The average purchase price for the largest tractors was
$9,513.









Table 13.--Cost of operating
West Florida


tractors, by size of tractor, North and


Size of tractor

Item Less than 35-54 55-89 90 h.p.
35 h.p. h.p. h.p. and over


Number of tractors 18 32 25 29
Average horsepower 24 45 65 104
Hours used annually 402 683 878 852
Purchase price $1,912 $4,586 $6,472 $9,513
Salvage value $ 286 $1,016 $1,336 $2,448
Present age (years) 10.6 4.7 4.0 2.9
Expected life (years) 15.6 8.8 8.2 7.9
Average value $, 923 $3,028 $4,417 $7,620

Average annual costs ---------------------Dollars-------------------
Fixed costs
Depreciation 136 469 723 1,009
Interest 55 182 265 457
Insurance, taxes and
housing 38 92 129 190
Total 229 743 1,117 1,656
Operating costs
Fuel 163 253 384 638
Oil 16 25 40 50
Hydraulic fluid 3 7 11 30
Repair and maintenance 117 186 193 315
Total 299 471 628 1,033
Total--all costs 528 1,214 1,745 2,659
Cost per hour of use 1.24 1.78 1.99 3.16

Inputs used annually
Fuel (gallons) 611 1,261 2,217 3,714
Oil (quarts) 35 59 86 122
Hydraulic fluid (gallons) 1.6 3.7 5.9 14.2








Rotary mowers.--A few farmers used rotary mowers to cut weeds and
stalks on their fields before they started land preparation. Records
were obtained for 13 rotary mowers that averaged six feet in width
(Table 14). The mowers were used to cut 356 acres. The cost of operating
the mowers was 45 cents per acre or $1.17 per hour. It required .38 hour
to mow an acre of land.



Table 14.--Cost of operating rotary mowers, North and West Florida

Item Amount

Number of rotary mowers 13
Average width (feet) 6.0
Annual use:
Acres 356
Hours 136
Purchase price $535
Salvage value $ 62
Present age (years) 5.0
Expected life (years) 9.8
Average value $319

Average annual costs Dollars
Fixed costs
Depreciation 60
Interest 19
Insurance, taxes and housing 11
Total 90
Operating costs
Repair and maintenance 69
Total--all costs 159
Cost per unit of annual use
Acre .45
Hour 1.17


Disks.--Records were obtained on the cost of operating 107 disks
(Table 15). The disks were divided into four size groups based on width
of disk--less than 8 feet, 8-10.9 feet, 11-13.9 feet and 14 feet and over.








Table 15.--Cost of operating disks, by width of disk, North and West
Florida


Number of disks
Average width (feet)
Annual use:
Acres
Hours
Purchase price
Salvage value
Present age (years)
Expected life (years)
Average value


26 28 32 21
7.0 9.5 -12.0 16.0


275
118
$426
$ 27
6.6
11.4
$232


Average annual costs
Fixed costs
Depreciation
Interest
Insurance, taxes and
housing
Total
Operating costs
Repair and maintenance
Total--all costs
Cost per unit of annual use
Acre
Hour


507
171
$808
$ 82
4.7
10.6
$526


966
194
$1,345
$ 230
3.9
8.3
$927


1,295
195
$1,907
$ 257
3.6
9.2
$1,388


-------------------Dollars------------------


187
83


9 16 27 38
72 127 232 308

41 94 196 217


221


.44
1.30


428


525


.44
2.21


.40
2.69


Small disks were used to disk an average of 275 acres while large disks
covered 1,295 acres. The cost of operating disks per acre did not vary
much by size of disk being 41, 44, 44 and 40 cents for the four groups,
respectively. Operating costs per hour varied from 95 cents for the
smallest size group to $2.69 for the largest size group. Acres disked
per hour were 2.3 in the smallest size group and 6.6 in the largest size
group.


--
-


Dollars







Breaking plows.--Records were obtained for 82 breaking plows
(Table 16). The plows varied in size from two breaking plows to five or
more plows. An average of 96 acres were broken by the smallest plows
and 506 acres by the largest plows. As in the case of disks, cost per
acre did not vary greatly by size of plow being 81, 71, 82 and 94 cents
for the four groups, respectively. The cost per hour was 66 cents for
the smallest plows and $2.90 for the largest plows. Acres broken in a
ten-hour day varied from 8.2 for the smallest plows to 30.8 for the
largest plows.


Table 16.--Cost of operating breaking plows,
West Florida


by size of plow, North and


Size of plow

Item Two Three Four Five or
plows plows plows more plows

Number of plows 7 25 25 25
Annual use:
Acres 96 215 347 506
Hours 117 166 155 164
Purchase price $380 $556 $921 $1,286
Salvage value $ 29 $ 52 $127 $ 176
Present age (years) 6.7 5.9 4.8 3.6
Expected life (years) 13.4 10.8 9.7 8.5
Average value $223 $312 $589 $ 930

Average annual costs -------------------Dollars------------------
Fixed costs
Depreciation 32 52 88 138
Interest 13 19 35 56
Insurance, taxes and
housing 8 11 18 26
Total 53 82 141 220
Operating costs
Repair and maintenance 24 70 143 256
Total--all costs 77 152 284 476
Cost per unit of annual use
Acre .81 .71 .82 .94
Hour .66 .92 1.84 2.90







Chisel plows.--Some farmers in Santa Rosa and Escambia counties used
chisel plows. These are specialized items of equipment containing spikes
used to break up the soil. Records were obtained for 6 chisel plows that
averaged 10 feet in width (Table 17). The average cost of operating a
chisel plow was 42 cents per acre or about the same as for a disk. Acres
broken per plow averaged 492. The average age per plow was 2.5 years and
the expected life 11.7 years.



Table 17.--Cost of operating chisel plows, North and West Florida

Item Amount

Number of chisel plows 6
Width of plow (feet) 10
Annual use:
Acres 492
Hours 108
Purchase price $875
Salvage value $154
Present age (years) 2.5
Expected life (years) 11.7
Average value $740

Average annual costs Dollars
Fixed costs
Depreciation 64
Interest 44
Insurance, taxes and housing 18
Total 126
Operating costs
Repair and maintenance 80
Total--all costs 206
Cost per unit of annual use
Acre .42
Hour 1.91




Fertilizer distributors and spreaders.--Fertilizer was either applied
in the row or broadcast on the land. In many cases, the dealer that sold
the fertilizer spread it on the land. Many farmers rented a fertilizer







distributor from their dealer for use in application or had fertilizer
applied on a custom basis.
Records were obtained on 16 2-row distributors and 23 fertilizer
spreaders (Table 18). Distributors were used to apply fertilizer on an
average of 88 acres and spreaders on 466 acres. The cost per acre of
operating a distributor was 87 cents but only 53 cents for operating a
spreader. The cost per hour for a fertilizer spreader was more than
twice that for a fertilizer distributor.



Table 18.--Cost of operating fertilizer distributors and spreaders,
by type of equipment, North and West Florida


Type of equipment

Ite 2-row Fertilizer
distributor spreader

Number of distributors and spreaders 16 23
Annual use:
Acres 88 466
Hours "67 97
Purchase price $295 $843
Salvage value -- $ 50
Present age (years) 4.8 5.2
Expected life (years) 9.0 8.3
Average value $138 $505

Average annual costs --------------Dollars---------------
Fixed costs
Depreciation 43 149
Interest 8 30
Insurance, taxes and housing 6 17
Total 57 196
Operating costs
Repair and maintenance 20 49
Total--all costs 77 245
Cost per unit of annual use
Acre .87 .53
Hour 1.15 2.52








Planters.--Although some farmers used 2-row planters for planting
crops such as corn and soybeans, most farmers used 4-row planters.
Records were obtained for 12 2-row planters and 53 4-row planters
(Table 19). Acres planted with a 2-row planter averaged 96 while acres
planted with a 4-row planter averaged 444. The cost per acre for the
two planters was almost identical, being 68 and 67 cents, respectively.
The cost per hour for a 4-row planter was $1.27 more than the cost for
a 2-row planter. An average of 1.5 acres was planted per hour with a
2-row planter but this figure was 3.4 acres for a 4-row planter. The
annual cost for a 2-row planter was $65 and $297 for a 4-row planter.


Table 19.--Cost of operating planters, by size of planter, North and
West Florida


Number of planters
Annual use:
Acre's
Hours
Purchase price
Salvage value
Present age (years)
Expected life (years)
Average value


Average annual costs
Fixed costs
Depreciation
Interest
Insurance, taxes and housing
Total
Operating costs
Repair and maintenance
Total--all costs
Cost per unit of annual use
Acre
Hour


12 53


96
64
$294
$ 17
5.2
10.2
$154


444
130
$1,136
$ 136
4.5
7.9
$ 624


--------------Dollars---------------


141
38
23
202


95
297

.67
2.28


65

.68
1.01








Transplanters.--Most of the tobacco was set with a transplanter.
Growers with small acreages often used a 1-row transplanter while most
of the other growers used a 2-row transplanter. Records were obtained
for 7 1-row and 17 2-row transplanters (Table 20). Since the trans-
planters were used mainly for setting tobacco, the amount of annual use
was low. An average of 11.4 acres were planted with 1-row transplanters
and 21.9 acres with 2-row machines. The cost per acre of operating
transplanters was $5.52 for 1-row machines and $4.84 for 2-row machines.
Acres planted per hour were only slightly less for 1-row equipment than
for 2-row equipment being .33 acre for 1-row machines and .43 acre for
2-row machines.


Table 20.--Cost of operating transplanters, by size of transplanter,
North and West Florida


I Size of transplanter
Item
1-row 2-row

Number of transplanters 7 17
Annual use:
Acres 11.4 21.9
Hours 35.0 50.6
Purchase price $269 $573
Salvage value -- $ 85
Present age (years) 5.4 4.7
Expected life (years) 9.9 11.6
Average value $126. $375

Average annual costs -------------Dollars---------------
Fixed costs
Depreciation 38 51
Interest 8 23
Insurance, taxes and housing 5 11
Total 51 85
Operating costs
Repair and maintenance 12 21
Total--all costs 63 106
Cost per unit of annual use
Acre 5.52 4.84
Hour 1.80 2.10







24

Drills.--Drills were found mainly on farms that grew wheat.
Records were obtained for 22 drills (Table 21). Average annual use was
188 acres. Rate of drilling was 4.2 acres per hour. The cost of oper-
ating a drill was 94 cents per acre or $3.88 per hour. The total annual
cost of keeping a drill was $176 of which 65 percent or $115 were fixed
costs.




Table 21.--Cost of operating drills, North and West Florida


Item Amount

Number of drills 22
Average width (feet) 11
Annual use:
Acres 188
Hours 45
Purchase price. $804
Salvage value $ 98
Present age (years) 4.7
Expected life (years) 10.8
Average value $533

Average annual costs Dollars
Fixed costs
Depreciation 67
Interest 32
Insurance, taxes and housing 16
Total 115
Operating costs
Repair and maintenance 61
Total--all costs 176
Cost per unit of annual use
Acre .94
Hour 3.88








Rotary hoes.--Some farmers used rotary hoes for
of their crops. Records were obtained for 17 rotary
Annual use averaged 255 acres. The cost per unit of
59 cents per acre or $2.23 per hour. The total cost
a rotary hoe was $150.


the first cultivation
hoes (Table 22).
annual use was
per year of operating


Table 22.--Cost of operating rotary hoes, North and West Florida


Item Amount

Number of rotary hoes 17
Annual use:
Acres 255
Hours 67
Purchase price $558
Salvage value $ 41
Present age (years) 5.2
Expected life (years) 10.0
Average value $358

Average annual costs Dollars
Fixed costs
Depreciation 68
Interest 21
Insurance, taxes and housing 12
Total 101
Operating costs
Repair and maintenance 49
Total--all costs 150
Cost per unit of annual use
Acre .59
Hour 2.23


Cultivators.--Many farmers are shifting to 4-row or larger
cultivators. Two and even 1-row equipment is used by tobacco growers.
Records were obtained for 23 2-row and 54 4-row cultivators (Table 23).
Average annual use was 171 acres for 2-row cultivators and 715 acres for









Table 23.--Cost of operating cultivators, by size of cultivator, North
and West Florida


Size of cultivator
Item
2-row 4-row

Number of cultivators 23 54
Annual use:
Acres 171 715
Hours 127 183
Purchase price $333 $655
Salvage value $ 20 $ 93
Present age (years) 11.3 4.6
Expected life (years) 17.5 10.5
Average value $175 $457

Average annual costs --------------Dollars---------------
Fixed costs
Depreciation 25 63
Interest 10 27
Insurance, taxes and housing 7 13
Total .2 103
Operating costs
Repair and maintenance 32 122
Total--all costs 74 225
Cost per unit of annual use
Acre .43 .31
Hour .58 1.23


4-row cultivators. Rate of cultivation per hour was 1.3 acres for 2-row
equipment and 3.9 acres for 4-row equipment. Cost of operating a culti-
vator averaged 43 cents per acre for a 2-row cultivator and 31 cents per
acre for a 4-row cultivator. The cost per hour was 58 cents and $1.23
for the two groups, respectively. Annual total cost averaged $74 for a
2-row cultivator and $225 for a 4-row cultivator. Due to the increase
in amount of use, the cost of repairs and maintenance was about four
times more on 4-row cultivators than on 2-row cultivators.









Cultivator-fertilizer distributors.--Many of the tobacco farmers
used a combination cultivator-fertilizer distributor. Records were ob-
tained for five 1-row machines and eight 2-row machines (Table 24). The
amount of annual use was 54 acres for 1-row machines and 206 acres for
2-row machines. The cost per unit of annual use was $1.50 per acre for
1-row machines but only 51 cents for 2-row machines. The total annual
cost was only slightly greater for 2-row machines than it was for 1-row
machines being $106 and $80, respectively, for the two groups. Acres
covered per hour were .8 for 1-row machines and 1.2 for 2-row machines.


Table 24.--Cost of operating cultivator-fertilizer distributors, by size
of equipment, North and West Florida


Size of equipment
Item
1-row 2-row

Number of cultivator-fertilizer
distributors 5 8
Annual use:
Acres 54 206
Hours 71 167
Purchase price $435 $472
Salvage value -- $ 66
Present age (years) 8.0 5.4
Expected life (years) 15.0 9.5
Average value $286 $286


Average annual costs'
Fixed costs
Depreciation
Interest
Insurance, taxes and housing
Total
Operating costs
Repair and maintenance
Total--all costs
Cost per unit of annual use
Acre
Hour


--------------Dollars-------------


1.50 .51
1.13 .64









Dusters.--Dusters were used mainly by peanut growers. Records were
obtained for 18 dusters (Table 25). Annual use averaged 328 acres.
Cost per acre was 25 cents and cost per hour $1.58. Rate of dusting was
6.3 acres per hour. The annual cost of keeping a duster was $82. The
average duster was 4.6 years old and had an expected life of 9.2 years.


Table 25.--Cost of operating dusters, North and West Florida


Item Amount

Number of dusters 18
Annual use:
Acres 328
Hours 52
Purchase price $283
Salvage value $ 6
Present age (years) 4.6
Expected life (years) 9.2
Average value $155

Average annual costs Dollrrs
Fixed costs
Depreciation 37
Interest 9
Insurance, taxes and housing 6
Total 52
Operating costs
Repair and maintenance 30
Total--all costs 82
Cost per unit of annual use
Acre .25
Hour 1.58


Sprayers.--Sprayers were used mainly by soybean and tobacco growers.
Records were obtained for 26 sprayers that were used to spray fewer than
150 acres and 22 sprayers that were used to spray 150 acres or more
(Table 26). Average acres sprayed was 70 and 281 for the two groups,
respectively. Cost per acre for spraying was $1.22 for the group with
a low amount of spraying but only 58 cents for the group with a high









Table 26.--Cost of operating sprayers, by number of acres sprayed,
North and West Florida


Item


Number of sprayers
Annual use:
Acres
Hours

Purchase price

Salvage value
Present age (years)
Expected life (years)
Average value


Average annual costs

Fixed costs
Depreciation
Interest
Insurance, taxes and housing
Total
Operating costs
Repair and maintenance
Total--all costs
Cost per unit of annual use
Acre
Hour


Acres sprayed
-

Less than 50 15C or more

26 22


70
47

$328
$ 14
5.3
10.8
$194


281
100

$595
$ 39
3.9
9.8
$432


--------------Dollars---------------


39 70
12 26
6 12
57 108


29 56


1.22
1.81


.58
1.64


amount of spraying. Rate of spraying per hour was 1.5 and 2.8 acres for
the two groups, respectively. The annual cost of operating a sprayer
was $86 for the low use group and $164 for the high use group.

Combines.--Records were obtained for 19 combines of less than
13 feet in width and 28 combines 13 feet or more in width (Table 27).
The amount of annual use was 505 acres for the smaller combines and

717 acres for the larger combines. Rate of harvesting per hour was 2.1
and 2.7 acres for the two groups, respectively. The cost of operating
a combine was $4.36 an acre for the small size group and $4.31 for the
large size group. The average purchase price for combines in the small


--


---









Table 27.--Cost of operating combines, by size of combine, North and
West Florida


Size of combine
Item
Less than 13 feet 13 feet or more

Number of combines 19 28
Annual use:
Acres 505 717
Hours 235 262
Purchase price $8,384 $12,535
Salvage value $1,500 $ 2,089
Present age (years) 3.6 3.5
Expected life (years) 7.8 7.4
Average value $5,872 $ 8,289

Average annual costs --------------Dollars---------------
Fixed costs
Depreciation 995 1,555
Interest 352 498
Insurance, taxes and housing 168 251
Total 1,515 2,304
Operating costs
Fuel 243 270
Oil 10 23
Grease 16 13
Hydraulic fluid 5 6
Repair and maintenance 411 475
Total 685 787
Total--all costs 2,200 3,091
Cost per unit of annual use
Acre 4.36 4.31
Hour 9.35 11.79

Inputs used annually
Fuel (gallons) 847 990
Oil (quarts) 23 42
Grease (pounds) 34 29
Hydraulic fluid (gallons) 2.9 2.9


size group was $8,384; this compared with $12,535 for those in the large
size group.. The total cost of a combine for a year was $2,200 for the
small size group and $3,091 for the large size group.









Peanut plows and shakers.--Peanuts are normally dug from the ground
with a special plow and shaker. Records were obtained for 23 plows and
shakers that were used to dig an average of 78 acres (Table 28). Rate
of digging was 1.4 acres per hour. The cost of operating a plow and
shaker was $2.76 per acre or an annual cost of $216 per year. The aver-
age purchase price of a plow and shaker was $747. Present age averaged
3.5 years and expected life 7.3 years.


Table 28.--Cost of operating
and West Florida


2-row peanut plows and shakers, North


Item Amount

Number of plows and shakers 23
Annual use:
Acres 78
Hours 56
Purchase price $747
Salvage value $ 53
Present age (years) 3.5
Expected life (years) 7.3
Average value $480

Average annual costs Dollars
Fixed costs
Depreciation 111
Interest 29
Insurance, taxes and housing 15
Total 155
Operating costs
Repair and maintenance 61
Total--all costs 216
Cost per unit of annual use
Acre 2.76
Hour 3.85









Peanut combines.--Records were obtained on the cost of operating
22 peanut combines (Table 29). Each machine was used to pick the nuts
off an average of 103 acres. Rate of picking was .9 acre per hour.
The cost of operating a combine was $9.83 per acre. The average pur-
chase price per machine was $3,977 and the total annual cost of oper-
ating a machine was $1,010. Fixed costs made up 81 percent of the total
cost. The average age of the machines was 3.8 years and they had an ex-
pected life of 6.5 years.




Table 29.--Cost of operating peanut combines, North and West Florida


Item Amount

Number of peanut combines 22
Annual use:
Acres 103
Hours 112
Purchase price $3,977
Salvage value $ 636
Present age (years) 3.8
Expected life (years) 6.5
Average value $2,307

Average annual costs Dollars
Fixed costs
Depreciation 590
Interest 138
Insurance, taxes and housing 80
Total 808
Operating costs
Repair and maintenance 202
Total--all costs 1,010
Cost per unit of annual use
Acre 9.83
Hour 9.04





Tobacco trailers.--Records were obtained on the cost of operating
tobacco trailers on 20 farms (Table 30). The average number of trailers
per farm was 4.3 and the average acres in tobacco 15.1. The total cost
of operating all trailers was $117 per year or $7.75 per acre of tobacco.
The average cost per trailer was $27.21.


Table 30.--Cost of operating tobacco trailers, North and West Florida


Item Amount

Number of records 20
Average number of trailers per farm 4.3
Average acres in tobacco 15.1
Purchase price (all trailers) $630
Salvage value (all trailers) $ 28
Present age (years) 5.5
Expected life (years) 14.4
Average value (all trailers) $460

Average annual costs (all trailers) Dollars
Fixed costs
Depreciation 41
Interest 27
Insurance, taxes and housing 13
Total 81
Operating costs
Repair and maintenance 36
Total--all costs 117
Cost per acre of tobacco 7.75
Cost per trailer 27.21




SUMMARY

This publication gives data on the estimated costs of producing corn,
peanuts, soybeans, flue-cured tobacco and wheat in North and West Florida.
Data also are presented on the estimated cost of operating 18 different
kinds of farm equipment used in producing these crops.
Data in this report were gathered by personal interview with growers
of the'various crops. For each crop except wheat, 10 growers were







surveyed in each of three counties. In the case of wheat, 10 growers
were surveyed in each of two counties and one grower in another county.
The records were taken during the summer and fall of 1970. Data
for corn, peanuts and soybeans covered practices and prices in the 1969
crop year. Data for tobacco and wheat related to the 1970 crop.
Farmers were asked to give their estimated normal yield per ncrc as well
as their actual yield for the year covered. Value and cost per unit per
acre for the various crops was based on normal yield.
Data for each crop included a record of practices used, man labor
and tractor work per acre, type of equipment and hours used and the
estimated land rent per acre. The data were summarized to show the man
labor and tractor work requirements per acre by operation and the cost
per acre of various items used in production.
Data were obtained for each item of equipment on purchase price,
salvage value, present age and expected life. Information was also ac-
quired on the amount of use annually and the annual costs of repairs and
maintenance. In the case of tractors and other motors, data were obtained
on the amount and cost of fuel, oil and other costs of operating-the
machines for a year. Annual costs were summarized to show fixed and
operating costs. Total cost per year as well as cost per unit of annual
use was calculated for each item of equipment.
The estimated per unit costs of producing the various crops were
as follows: corn--93 cents per bushel; peanuts--7.9 cents per pound;
soybeans--$1.94 per bushel; flue-cured tobacco--69.4 cents per pound;
and wheat--$1.66 per bushel.




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