• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Title Page
 Foreword
 Acknowledgement
 Table of Contents
 List of Tables
 Basic assumptions and procedur...
 Background and present status of...
 Physical requirements, costs, and...
 Other factors affecting production...
 Conclusions
 Appendix
 Bibliography






Title: Potential for commercial grape production in Florida
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 Material Information
Title: Potential for commercial grape production in Florida
Physical Description: Book
Language: English
Creator: Hart, Kenneth H.
Publisher: Dept. of Agricultural Economics, Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1970
Copyright Date: 1970
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General Note: Ag. Econ. Report - University of Florida Department of Agricultural Economics ; 8
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Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page i
    Foreword
        Page ii
    Acknowledgement
        Page iii
    Table of Contents
        Page iv
    List of Tables
        Page v
        Page vi
    Basic assumptions and procedure
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Background and present status of grape growing in Florida
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Physical requirements, costs, and returns
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
    Other factors affecting production potential
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
    Conclusions
        Page 35
        Page 36
    Appendix
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
        Page 53
        Page 54
        Page 55
        Page 56
        Page 57
        Page 58
        Page 59
        Page 60
    Bibliography
        Page 61
Full Text


April, 1970
/TS. 9


Ag. Econ. Report 8


Potential for Commercial Grape


Production in Florida


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Department of Agricultural Economics
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville


Kenneth H. Hart, Jr.

Leo Polopolus


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FOREWORD


The general objective of this report is to provide information on the

economic feasibility of commercial grape production in Florida. Since

grape production on a commercial scale is largely nonexistent in this

state, the problems are many and varied. Because of the nature of the

problems involved, it is hoped that in addition to meeting certain specific

objectives, this paper will also impart an awareness of the conditions

under which a potential grape grower must make decisions.

Specifically included is an explanation of the cultural practices

involved in growing grapes. This is accompanied by a list of the equipment

needed and the prices that one would expect to pay should he have to buy

equipment outright. There is a rather extensive discussion of the input-

output relationship which exists under the set of production conditions

assumed. With this, there is an indication of the effect of varying levels

of yield and varying price levels. The discussion of input-output relation-

ships and the effect of the different price levels on overall production

potential make up the crux of this report. There is some mention, also, of

other factors which may well bear on the overall picture. While some of

these factors are not amenable to quantitative analysis, they are,

nevertheless, important to this discussion.














ACKNOWLEDGMENTS


Special appreciation is due Drs. John A. Mortensen and Carlos F.

Balerdi at the Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory in Leesburg

for their assistance in compiling data for this report. Similarly, special

thanks go to L. H. Stover, Emeritus Assistant in Horticulture, who formerly

conducted the grape breeding program at the laboratory and who helped in

the compilation of data for this report. Records made available by Fred W.

Bistline of the Coca-Cola Company in Orlando and by M. Aubrey Owen of Owen's

Vineyard and Nursery in Gay, Georgia were particularly helpful. The

authors are also indebted to B. R. Eddleman, John Holt, D. L. Brooke, and

Ralph A. Eastwood of the Department of Agricultural Economics for a critical

review of the manuscript. In addition, the cooperation of various county

extension personnel and of many home grape growers has helped to make a

more meaningful report possible.


iii















TABLE OF CONTENTS


Foreword . . . . . . . . . . .

Acknowledgments . . . . . . . . . ...

List of Tables . . . . . . . . . . .

Basic Assumptions and Procedure . . . . . . .

Background and Present Status of Grape Growing in Florida .

Physical Requirements, Costs, and Returns . . . . .

Establishment Costs and Requirements . . . .
Annual Operating Costs and Requirements . . . .
Overall Costs in Relation to Total Returns . . .
Comparisons with Competitive Suppliers . . . .

Other Factors Affecting Production Potential . . . .

Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . .

Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . .

Selected Bibliography . . .. . . . . . .


Page

ii

iii

v

1

3

5

5
18
24
30

32

35

37

61


* . .














LIST OF TABLES


Table Page

1 Summary Budget for Establishing Bunch Vineyard: Costs per
Acre When All Labor Hired and All Equipment Purchased 11

2 Summary Budget for Establishing Bunch Vineyard: Costs per
Acre When Owner Works in Vineyard Full-Time and All
Equipment Purchased 14

3 Summary Budget for Establishing Muscadine Vineyard: Costs
per Acre When All Labor is Hired and All Equipment
Purchased 16

4 Summary Budget for Establishing Muscadine Vineyard: Costs
per Acre When Owner Works in Vineyard Full-Time and All
Equipment Purchased 17

5 Summary Annual Budget for Operating Bunch Vineyard: Costs
per Acre When All Labor Hired and All Equipment
Purchased 19

6 Summary Annual Budget for Operating Bunch Vineyard: Costs per
Acre When Owner Works in Vineyard Full-Time and All
Equipment Purchased 21

7 Summary Annual Budget for Operating Muscadine Vineyard:
Costs per Acre When All Labor Hired and All Equipment
Purchased 23

8 Summary Annual Budget for Operating Muscadine Vineyard:
Costs per Acre When Owner Works in Vineyard Full-Time
and All Equipment Purchased 25

9 Costs per Acre: Establishing and Operating Bunch Vineyard 26

10 Costs per Acre: Establishing and Operating Muscadine
Vineyard 27

11 Revenue per Acre of Bunch or Muscadine Grapes Generated at
Different Price Levels 29

12 Establishing Bunch Vineyard: Labor, Power, and Material
Requirements per Acre 38









LIST OF TABLES--Continued.

Table Page

13 Establishing Muscadine Vineyard: Labor, Power, and
Material Requirements per Acre 44

14 Inventory of Equipment for Vineyard Enterprise 50

15 Establishing Bunch Vineyard: Material Costs per Acre 51

16 Establishing Muscadine Vineyard: Material Costs per Acre 53

17 Variable Operating Costs for Bunch Vineyard: Labor, Power,
and Material Requirements per Acre 55

18 Operating Bunch Vineyard: Material Costs per Acre 57

19 Variable Operating Costs for Muscadine Vineyard: Labor,
Power, and Material Requirements per Acre 58

20 Operating Muscadine Vineyard: Material Costs per Acre 60









POTENTIAL FOR COMMERCIAL GRAPE
PRODUCTION IN FLORIDA*

Kenneth H. Hart, Jr. and Leo Polopolus


Basic Assumptions and Procedure

In order to make as meaningful a report as possible, certain assump-

tions were made at the outset as to size of operation, cultural practices

adopted, location within the state, level of technology and so forth.

While the framework taken as a basis for this study probably would not

duplicate every grower's situation, it should serve as a point of departure

for anyone in Florida who is considering commercial grape production.

Since a grape industry would be altogether new in Florida, most growers

who ventured into the area would probably wish to do so on a cautious and,

therefore, relatively small basis. The problem was, therefore, approached

from the point of view that an initial venture of five acres would be most

likely. There was a further assumption that the operator of the vineyard

would have average managerial ability.

With respect to the location of the vineyard within the state, there

were only a few very general assumptions. The areas of the state most

generally accepted as suitable for growing grapes are North Florida,

including the Panhandle, and Central Florida. There is no reason, however,

why South Florida could not be equally well adapted to growing grapes. In

general terms, and in addition to the northern part of the state, a vineyard


*Kenneth H. Hart, Jr. was formerly interim Instructor, Department of
Agricultural Economics and Leo Polopolus is Professor of Agricultural
Economics and Agricultural Economist, Florida Agricultural Experiment
Stations, University of Florida.







should be able to thrive anywhere that citrus would do well. The main

requirements are that there be good soil drainage and air drainage.

Otherwise, costly measures would be necessary to order to render a place

suitable for grape growing.

While the cultural practices, fertilizer and spray requirements and so

forth might not change dramatically with the introduction of new grape

varieties, this report is based on an assumption that growers would plant

varieties which are presently available. It should be pointed out that for

our purposes, grapes will be treated in two major classifications, bunch

grapes and muscadine grapes, rather than by specific variety. Among present

varieties, the costs and returns do not vary significantly and a more

detailed treatment is not considered worthwhile.

While some yield variation among varieties can be expected, a yield of

four to five tons per acre was assumed. This range of yields rests on the

assumption that the vines receive the care recommended by the Watermelon

and Grape Investigations Laboratory. Of course, a completely different set

of data would result from a change in the cultural practices, spray program,

fertilizer program, spacing recommendations and so forth.

With regard to the level of technology, it is assumed that post holes

for the trellis are dug by manual post hole diggers, that pruning is done

by manual shears rather than the newer pneumatic pruners, that harvesting

is done by hand rather than with the large and expensive mechanical

harvesters and that other advantages normally enjoyed by large-scale

enterprises are not available.

Four methods were used in generating the data for this report. First,

the Watermelon and Grape Investigations Laboratory provided an indication

as to the cultural practices involved and the time necessary for the








performance of each operation. The Laboratory also provided information

about the fertilizer and spray requirements. The second step was to

interview as many of the larger growers as possible in order to obtain

their estimates of the time required for each of the cultural practices.

By interviewing these growers there was also an opportunity to become

acquainted with the practical problems involved in growing grapes and to

obtain the suggestions of people who had actual experience in this area.

Altogether, nine growers with a total of 26.3 acres of bunch grapes and 20

acres of muscadines were interviewed. The third source of data was

correspondence with Agricultural Experiment Stations in Georgia and North

Carolina and with one commercial grower in Georgia who has a large muscadine

vineyard. Finally, secondary materials provided some of the data of a more

general nature.


Background and Present Status of
Grape Growing in Florida

Florida's experience with growing grapes is long,and largely disap-

pointing. Since wild grapes abound in the state, early settlers figured

that growing grapes would be relatively easy. The varieties brought with

them from Europe, however, lacked the natural immunity of the native grapes

to diseases of the fruit, foliage and roots. Early plantings made in

Florida, mainly along the East Coast, soon fell victim to fungus diseases,

insects, and the hot summer weather to which they were unadapted.

There was a second major attempt at commercial production in the

early 1900's which reached a peak in the 1920's. With Orlando as the

center, the industry expanded to a radius of 50 miles with something over

500 acres being planted. The plants were obtained from the northern states,

with Concord, Niagara, and Ives being among the most common varieties








represented. Unfortunately, these varieties were all shallow-rooted and

were unable to withstand the combination of high temperatures, dry, sandy

soil, insects and diseases, most notably, Pierce's Disease. By 1930, the

plantings were again reduced to a few home vineyards.

Since that time much experimentation has been done in the development

of new varieties using native grape varieties to obtain disease resistant

rootstock. As a result, by using some of the newer varieties of bunch and

muscadine, which are better suited to Florida conditions than the Northern

and European varieties, disease is no longer the problem it used to be.

This is doubly true when a conscientious spray program is followed.

Even with the availability of new varieties, however, there are no

large commercial plantings in existence in Florida today. There are a few,

perhaps half a dozen, plantings which are operated on a commercial basis.

These are all "pick-your-own" operations in which the owner allows people

to enter the vineyard and pick their own fruit at a stated price per pound.

Few customers pick more than ten or fifteen pounds.

The balance of Florida's grape acreage, which totals roughly 100 acres

for the combination of muscadine and bunch, is represented by small home or

"dooryard" plantings. Most of these would be measured in tenths of acres

with very few being larger than one half an acre to an acre. It would be

virtually impossible to determine exactly how many grape growers there are

in Florida due to the small size of most plantings and the wide distribu-

tion of plantings over the state. While there are very few Florida counties

with no grapes at all, the Northern, Panhandle, and a few of the Central

Florida counties have the largest concentration at the present time.









With the small number of grape vines being planted each year, it is

difficult to detect any grower preference between the muscadine and bunch

varieties. Old-time growers naturally preferred the muscadines since vitis

musoniana and vitis rotundifolia are species which are native to the

Southeastern United States and are, therefore, relatively immune to the

diseases prevalent in the hot, humid climate. Muscadines are still popular

but with new varieties of bunch grapes on disease resistant rootstock being

released, the bunch grapes are becoming more common than in years past.


Physical Requirements, Costs, and Returns

Establishment Costs and Requirements

The vineyard operation can be broken into two general stages. The

establishment stage begins with the clearing of the land and ends, about

two and one-half years later, with the harvesting of the first crop. The

second stage begins when the cultural practices reach a regular pattern,

recurring on an annual basis throughout the life of the vineyard. There

are two reasons for visualizing the grape enterprise as a two stage

operation. First, it is logical in a horticultural sense to look at the

vineyard in terms of the vines' maturity, that is, as non-bearing and

bearing. Second, it makes economic analysis more meaningful to treat the

vineyard initially as an investment cost or nonrevenue-producing item and

later, as a source of income as well as annual maintenance and operation

costs.

When managed properly, the grape enterprise demands a good deal of

labor and material inputs, thereby making grapes a rather costly product to

produce. Of course, costs could be reduced by cutting down on fertilizer,

sprays, and annual pruning labor, three of the largest expense items, but








the level of yield would also be reduced. Minimizing or eliminating the

spray program could, in fact, result in heavy vine losses from the fungus

diseases which are common in Florida's warm, humid climate.

To prepare for planting, the land should be completely cleared of all

grasses, weeds, and tree stumps. Since grapes grow and produce best in

open sunshine, a location which has few or no trees is desirable. In

addition to clearing the land, it is also wise to check the soil's acidity

and to add dolomite if the soil has a pH of 5.5 or less. In most instances,

dolomite will be applied at a rate of about two tons per acre to prepare

the land initially and will be reapplied at the same rate every three years.

This will vary from one soil to another.

As indicated in Table 12 (Appendix), vines may be planted in furrows.

Using this system of planting, rather than digging individual holes, is

advantageous, especially with bunch grapes since there are about twice as

many vines per acre in a bunch vineyard as in a muscadine vineyard. Because

there has been no grower experience with planting muscadines in furrows,

Table 13 indicates a different planting system from that used with bunch

grapes. It was only because of the lack of grower experience that a dif-

ferent planting method was adopted for muscadines and not because of any

fundamental difference between bunch and muscadine grape plants. Muscadines

could undoubtedly be planted in furrows with equally satisfying results,

thereby reducing planting time. Needless to say, a grower who had access

to a mechanical post-hole digger could dramatically reduce planting time.

Similarly, the time required in erecting the trellis could be reduced by

using a mechanical post-hole digger.








The cost of vines is a major expense associated with planting. This

is largely because there is not an established grape industry in the state

and, therefore, the plants would probably have to be purchased from

nurseries. In states where there are already established vineyards, addi-

tional plantings can be made with cuttings taken from adult vines. Since

the plant population of a bunch grape vineyard is twice that of a muscadine

vineyard, the cost of plants is all the more burdensome for the grower who

plants bunch grapes.

During the establishment period, fertilizer is applied more frequently

and in smaller amounts per application when compared with the adult vineyard.

As a general rule, fertilizer can be applied at the rate of one pound per

plant in the first year and two in the second year. There are four appli-

cations, so only one-fourth of that year's requirement is applied each time.

This fertilizer program is more costly than one which calls for fewer

applications of larger amounts of fertilizer but experience indicates that

the plants utilize the fertilizer more effectively when applied in small

amounts. In the first two years, the fertilizer requirements per plant are

the same for bunch and muscadine, but because of its lower plant population,

the muscadine vineyard uses less fertilizer per acre.

There is some difference of opinion as to when the trellis should be

constructed, but many authorities agree on the first year, sometime soon

after planting. The reason for building the trellis immediately is that it

facilitates vine training in the first summer of growth. The argument

against building the trellis the first year is that it will thereby need

replacing one year earlier and that vines can be successfully trained to

stakes in the first year. The budgets found in the Appendix of this report








(Tables 12 and 13) adopt a system whereby the posts are set in the first

year and the wire put up in the second year. This distributes the labor

and material requirements over a two year period and the one year's depre-

ciation on pressure treated posts is insignificant.

The number of posts and amount of wire required in building the

trellis will vary, depending upon the trellising system used. There are

numerous systems available, some simple and some complex. The one-wire

system has the advantages of requiring less wire and, more importantly, of

facilitating the pruning operation. Since each plant will have only two

main branches with the one-wire system (one branch trained each direction

from the trunk) there is much less vine to prune than with the two-wire or

three-wire system. The disadvantage is that it also reduces the fruiting

area of the vine and for this reason, the two-wire system was chosen as the

basis for computing trellis costs in this report. From the limited

experience available, the two-wire system seems to offer a sufficient

increase in yield over the one-wire system to more than offset the addi-

tional pruning time required by the two-wire system. There is not a similar

advantage with the three-wire system over the two-wire system.

A major consideration in choosing a trellis is the ease of harvesting

offered by each particular system. Where the large mechanical harvesters

are used, the trellis must be planned to accommodate the harvester. Where

the grapes will be harvested manually, the main consideration is to have

the vines trained in such a way as to leave the fruit readily accessible.

This is most important with bunch grapes since each bunch must be clipped

individually. Where muscadines are harvested by means of a mechanical

shaker, the position of the fruit on the vine is less important.







There are some indications that a trellis with wires placed horizon-

tally along a cross-arm will also work quite effectively, especially with

bunch grapes. When grapes are grown in this manner, the bunches hang below

the vine, making harvesting very easy. A further advantage is that the

vines provide shade for their own roots and in Florida, where soil tempera-

tures can be high, this may be significant.

An operation which is critical for the first two years is summer

training. It is during the first two years of growth that the vine will

take its basic shape and, therefore, the grower must be careful in his

selection and training of canes. By thoughtfully choosing which canes to

eliminate and which to preserve, the vines will offer optimum growth and

production potential.

In the first two years after planting, a relatively mild post-emergence

herbicide, such as Paraquat, is used for weed control. Stronger herbicides

should be avoided as they may harm the young vines. It would be possible

to spray herbicide over the entire vineyard floor, but as an economy

measure, it is advisable to apply the spray in a three to four foot strip

in the plant rows, thereby conserving spray material. When the vines are

in their third year, a pre-emergence herbicide may be safely introduced

into the weed control program.

As part of the weed control program, thorough cultivation is

recommended in conjunction with the use of herbicides. In the first year,

clean cultivation is advisable but in the second year, a cover crop of

natural grasses may be grown. Once the cover crop is under way, weed

control is secured by the use of herbicides and mowing. The grower may

want to disk the vineyard once a year, in the fall, in addition to mowing.







As suggested earlier, the fungicide and insecticide spray program is

an integral part of grape culture in Florida. The program which is indi-

cated in Tables 12 and 13 for bunch and muscadine, respectively, is a good

general program for the control of disease and insect damage. As the need

for a particular spray is evidenced by observable damage, the regular

program should be increased accordingly. Fortunately, most insecticides

and fungicides are compatible and can be applied simultaneously. Therefore,

all the applications, except those during bloom, involve insecticide and

fungicide combinations. The insecticide is omitted during bloom so as not

to interfere with the pollination provided by bees.

Table 1 represents a summary budget for establishing a bunch vineyard

under the assumption that all labor is hired and that all equipment is

purchased. Table 12 in the Appendix provides a detailed budget of the same

costs. The only variable involved in Table 1 is the rate at which power is

charged. The three rates of $.63/hour, $4.30/hour, and $8.40/hour were

calculated as follows. The useful life of a tractor similar to the one in

Table 14 is estimated by the dealers at 10,000 hours, or ten years when

given an average annual use of 1,000 hours. In ten years, half the vine-

yard life, there would be 325 hours of tractor use in one acre of vineyard.
325
In other words, 3 of the useful life of the tractor would be consumed
10,000
by each acre of vineyard operations. Multiplying the base price of the

tractor, $4,200, by the above fraction we get the dollar value of useful

tractor life devoted to an acre of vineyard, $137. On a per hour basis,

this is $.33 per hour, to which is added $.20 per hour for fuel and $.10

per hour for maintenance for a total power cost of $.63 per hour.










Table 1. Summary Budget for Establishing Bunch Vineyard:
Equipment Purchased


Costs per Acre When All Labor Hired and All


Dollars When Power @
Item Units
.63/hr. 4.30/hr. 8.40/hr.

Labor
semiskilled ($2.00) 35 hrs. 70.00 70.00 70.00
unskilled ($1.75) 291 hrs. 351.75 351.75 351.75

Power 74 hrs. 46.62 318.20 621.60

Materials See Table 10 748.53 748.53 748.53

Depreciation on equipment 20 year amortizationa 69.38 69.38 69.38

Interest on operating capital 9.37 14.80 20.87

TOTALb 1,295.65 1,572.66 1,882.13


aIf all equipment is already owned, the total costs would
respectively.


be $1,226.27, $1,503.28, and $1,812.75,


Does not include land rent, insurance, taxes, or interest on investment. While including these
costs would not alter final conclusions as to potential, it would make total costs somewhat higher.








The $8.40 rate was arrived at by dividing the twenty years' total

power requirement per acre into the price of the tractor, $4,200, in order

to get a per hour depreciation cost assuming the tractor would be used

exclusively in the vineyard, and adding the charges for fuel and maintenance.

Admittedly, no prudent farmer would buy a $4,200 tractor to use exclusively

in a five acre vineyard, but this rate is useful for the purposes of making

comparisons between the highest, lowest, and intermediate rates.

The $4.30 rate was arrived at in an attempt to be equitable in alloca-

ting power costs to the vineyard operation, whereas the first method was

probably overgenerous and the method which resulted in an $8.40 charge was

probably unfair. Although the tractor would undoubtedly have a very small

fraction of its useful life consumed in a vineyard the size of the one

under consideration here, it was assumed that as much as one-half of the

tractor's time would be spent in the vineyard. Accordingly, one-half of

the hourly depreciation charge (total cost divided by useful life) was

allocated to the vineyard. This figure, $4.00 per hour, was increased by

the costs of fuel and maintenance, resulting in a rate of $4.30 per hour.

Conceptually, this charge is realistic and, therefore, should serve as the

basis for conclusions about cost.

The costs in Table 1 are two and one-half year (establishment) totals

in each instance. As indicated, labor is charged at two rates, one for

semiskilled labor and one for unskilled labor. The reason for doing this

is that while vineyard operations in general can be learned easily by

almost anyone, a couple of the operations require some degree of special

ability and expertise. In this category, the most important is pruning,

and although summer training could safely be included in the semiskilled








classification, pruning is the only operation actually budgeted at the

$2.00 rate. Unskilled labor, then, comes out as one of the largest expenses

in the establishment of the vineyard.

Although materials represent another large cost, if plants could be

obtained from cuttings instead of nurseries, the materials cost could be

reduced. The other costly item in materials is, of course, the posts and

wire for the trellis (see Table 15).

Taking the $4.30 rate for power, the total cost of establishing an

acre of bunch vineyard is $1,572.66 (see Table 1). This includes a $69.38

cost for depreciation on equipment over the two and one-half year estab-

lishment period. This cost is obtained by dividing the total cost of all

equipment, except the tractor, by twenty, the life of the vineyard, thus

obtaining an annual depreciation cost. That figure is then multiplied by

two and one-half, the number of years in the establishment. Since there is

an assumption of a five acre operation, the annual depreciation cost is

divided by five in order to reduce it to a per acre basis. Of course, the

other assumption at work here is that all the equipment will last the full

life of the vineyard, twenty years. On the other hand, if it is assumed

that all equipment, except the tractor, is already owned, the cost of

depreciation can be eliminated altogether. The total cost of establishment

in that case would be $1,503.28.

A more favorable picture is presented in Table 2, the cost of estab-

lishment when the owner supplies his own labor to the enterprise rather

than hiring all labor. Assuming that the owner is free to work full-time

in the vineyard, he should have to hire labor only to help plant the vines-

and to help erect the trellis. This reduces the labor requirement for the










Table 2. Summary Budget for Establishing Bunch Vineyard:
Full-Time and All Equipment Purchased


Costs per Acre When Owner Works in Vineyard


Dollars When Power @
Item Units
.63/hr. 4.30/hr. 8.40/hr.

Labor
semiskilled ($2.00) 0.00 0.00 0.00
unskilled ($1.75) 49 hrs. 85.75 85.75 85.75

Power 74 hrs. 46.62 318.20 621.60

Materials See Table 10 748.53 748.53 748.53

Depreciation on equipment 20 year amortization 69.38 69.38 69.38

Interest on operating capital 1.32 4.04 7.07

TOTALb 1,001.60 1,225.90 1,532.33


aIf all equipment is already owned, the total costs would
respectively.


be $882.22, $1,156.52, and $1,462.95,


bDoes not include land rent, insurance, taxes, or interest on investment. While including these
costs would not alter final conclusions as to potential, it would make total costs somewhat higher.








establishment to a total of 49 hours at the unskilled rate and eliminates

the semiskilled labor requirement altogether since the owner can now

perform the semiskilled operations. Under these conditions and at the

intermediate power rate, the total cost of establishment is $1,225.90. If

all equipment, except the tractor, is already owned, the cost is $1,156.52.

Table 3 illustrates that the cost per acre of establishing a muscadine

vineyard is not appreciably different from the costs associated with the

bunch vineyard. Although muscadines are generally more vigorous growers

than the bunch grapes, there are also fewer muscadine plants per acre and,

therefore, there is a lower semiskilled labor requirement for muscadine

pruning. This largely accounts for the difference in labor costs between

the muscadines and bunch grapes.

The fact that bunch grape material costs are higher is explained,

again, by the higher plant population in the bunch vineyard. In addition

to the fact that more plants per acre must be purchased, it appears that

bunch grape vines may be somewhat more costly than muscadines. Compare

Tables 15 and 16.

The higher cost for depreciation on equipment shown in the muscadine

budget reflects the annual charge for the mechanical shaker used in har-

vesting muscadine grapes. This particular piece of equipment is not

required in harvesting bunch grapes and, therefore, the total cost of

equipment for the bunch vineyard is $600 lower than for the muscadine

vineyard.

Similar to the establishment of a bunch grape vineyard, Table 4 shows

that muscadines can be established at a savings of several hundred dollars

per acre when the owner works full-time in the vineyard. This assumes that

there is no charge made for the owner's time spent in the vineyard. At the









Table 3. Summary Budget for Establishing Muscadine Vineyard:
and All Equipment Purchased


Costs per Acre When All Labor is Hired


Dollars When Power @
Item Units
.63/hr. 4.30/hr. 8.40/hr.

Labor
semiskilled ($2.00) 5 hrs. 10.00 10.00 10.00
unskilled ($1.75) 205 hrs. 358.75 358.75 358.75

Power 65 hrs. 40.95 279.50 546.00

Materials See Table 15 557.45 557.45 557.45

Depreciation on equipment 20 year amortizationa 84.45 84.45 84.45

Interest on operating capital 8.19 12.97 18.30

TOTALb 1,059.79 1,303.12 1,574.95


aIf all equipment is already owned, the total costs would
respectively.


be $975.34, $1,218.67, and $1,490.50,


bDoes not include land rent, insurance, taxes, or interest on investment. While including these
costs would not alter final conclusions as to potential, it would make total costs somewhat higher.








Table 4. Summary Budget for Establishing Muscadine Vineyard: Costs per
Vineyard Full-Time and All Equipment Purchased


Acre When Owner Works in


Dollars When Power @
Item Units
.63/hr. 4.30/hr. 8.40/hr.

Labor
semiskilled ($2.00) 0.00 0.00 0.00
unskilled ($1.75) 49 hrs. 85.75 85.75 85.75

Power 65 hrs. 40.95 279.50 546.00

Materials See Table 15 557.45 557.45 557.45

Depreciation on equipment 20 year amortization 84.45 84.45 84.45

Interest on operating capital 2.53 7.31 12.64

TOTALb 771.13 1,014.46 1,286.29

aIf all equipment is already owned, the total costs would be $686.68, $930.01, $1,201.84,
respectively.

bDoes not include land rent, insurance, taxes, or interest on investment. While including these
costs would not alter final conclusions as to potential, it would make total costs somewhat higher.








$4.30 per hour power rate, the total costs of establishment when all labor

is hired and when the owner works in the vineyard are respectively, $1,303.12

and $1,014.46. Assuming that all equipment is already owned, the costs per

acre become $1,218.67 and $930.01, respectively.


Annual Operating Costs and Requirements

Once the vineyard is established, attention turns to the variable

costs associated with its operation. Again, two budgets for both bunch and

muscadines are presented, one for all hired labor and one for the full-time

owner-operator. Table 5 is a summary annual budget for the operation of an

acre of bunch vineyard when all labor is hired. As in the case of the

establishment budgets, power is charged at three rates, explained earlier.

The forty-five hour semiskilled labor requirement is for pruning and most

of the unskilled labor is for harvesting. Table 17 provides a detailed

breakdown of labor requirements and other physical inputs for all operations

in the bunch vineyard.

As Table 5 indicates, per acre power requirements for vineyard opera-

tions are minimal, twenty-four hours per acre per year. Again, Table 17

gives a more detailed schedule of power operations, but most requirements

are for approximately one hour per operation, distributed throughout the

year. As one might suspect, for the grower who does not already own a

tractor, a more economic approach to the power requirement could be custom

operations. The problem here would be the small vineyard's inability to

compete with the large citrus groves and other enterprises for service.

The input of fertilizers, sprays, and other materials is also minimal,

once the vineyard is established (see Table 18). This is not to say that

the vineyard's demand for care decreases with maturity but rather, that the

cost of materials is not high in comparison with the cost of labor, for

example.










Table 5. Summary Annual Budget for Operating Bunch Vineyard: Costs per Acre When All Labor Hired and
All Equipment Purchased


Dollars When Power @
Item Units
.63/hr. 4.30/hr. 8.40/hr.


Labor
semiskilled ($2.00) 45 hrs. 90.00 90.00 90.00
unskilled ($1.75) 138 hrs. 241.50 241.50 241.50

Power 24 hrs. 15.12 103.20 201.60

Materials See Table 15 83.49 83.49 83.49

Depreciation on equipment 20 year amortization 27.75 27.75 27.75

Interest on operating capital 1 year 6.93 8.69 10.66

TOTALb 514.79 554.63 655.00


alf all equipment is already
respectively.


owned, the total costs would be $487.04, $526.88, and $627.25,


bIf the cost of establishment is amortized over twenty years and included as an operational
expense, the total annual costs for operating would be $579.57, $633.26, and $749.11, respectively
when all labor is assumed to have been hired during establishment. Total cost figures do not include
land rent, insurance, taxes, or interest on investment capital. While including these costs would not
alter final conclusions as to potential, it would make total costs somewhat higher.








Depreciation on equipment is calculated as a fixed annual expense.

For bunch grapes, the annual charge for depreciation on all equipment,

exclusive of the tractor, is $27.75 per acre. The reason for the tractor's

exclusion from this cost item is that the power rates include tractor

depreciation and, therefore, to include it here would be to count tractor

depreciation twice.

The total cost of operating an acre of bunch grape vineyard is $554.63

when power is charged at $4.30 per hour and all labor is hired. Concep-

tually, there are two ways to treat the cost of establishment at this

point. The first alternative is to treat it entirely separately from the

variable costs as has been done up to now. The second alternative is to

amortize the establishment cost over the twenty year vineyard life, thereby

treating it as an annual fixed cost. In that case, the $554.63 annual cost

would be increased by $78.63 when all establishment labor was hired during

establishment. The resulting total annual cost per acre is $633.26. For

purposes of this report, budgets are presented without including the

amortized establishment costs in tabular form; they are included, however,

as footnotes in the appropriate tables.

Table 6 presents a summary budget for the operation of an acre of

bunch grape vineyard when the owner-operator works full-time in the vineyard.

The requirement for semiskilled labor is eliminated and the requirement for

unskilled labor is reduced from 138 hours to 68 hours, all of which is

needed for harvest. At the $4.30 power rate, total costs become $337.88,

or if the amortized establishment cost is included, $399.18. Footnotes a

and b provide full data for the costs arising from the various approaches

taken.









Table 6. Summary Annual Budget for Operating Bunch Vineyard:
Vineyard Full-Time and All Equipment Purchased


Costs per Acre When Owner Works in


Dollars When Power @
Item Units
.63/hr. 4.30/hr. 8.40/hr.


Labor
semiskilled ($2.00) 0.00 0.00 0.00
unskilled ($1.75) 68 hrs. 119.00 119.00 119.00

Power 24 hrs. 15.12 103.20 201.60

Materials See Table 13 83.49 83.49 83.49

Depreciation on equipment 20 year amortizationa 27.75 27.75 27.75

Interest on operating capital 1 year 2.68 4.44 6.41

TOTALb 248.04 337.88 438.25
TOTAL


aIf all equipment is already
respectively.


owned, the total costs would be $220.29, $310.13, and $410.50,


bIf the cost of establishment is amortized over twenty years, the total costs would be $295.41,
$399.18, and $514.87, respectively when owner works during establishment. Total cost figures do not
include land rent, insurance, taxes, or interest on investment capital. While including these costs
would not alter final conclusions as to potential, it would make total costs somewhat higher.








With regard to the variable costs associated with operating an acre of

muscadine vineyard, Table 7 presents a summary annual budget assuming all

labor is hired. The semiskilled labor requirement is the same for

muscadines as for bunch, forty-five hours, and again, this is for pruning.

A comparison of Tables 5 and 7 shows a slightly lower unskilled labor

requirement for muscadines than for bunch. This is primarily due to the

fact that less time is needed for the harvesting of muscadines when a

mechanical shaker is employed. As indicated in Footnote c of Table 19,

harvesting time for muscadines would be much higher without the use of a

shaker.

Again, comparing Tables 5 and 7, the annual power requirements are

almost equal for bunch and muscadines, twenty-four hours for the former and

twenty-five for the latter. Material requirements for the muscadine vine-

yard are approximately $10 lower per acre than for the bunch vineyard,

however. (Compare Tables 18 and 20.) This results from a lower fertilizer

requirement in the case of muscadines. Since muscadine vines are by nature

vigorous growers, an overly generous fertilizer program can cause excessive

vine growth without a corresponding increase in yield.

The annual depreciation cost charged against muscadines is slightly

higher than for bunch because of the mechanical shaker which is added to

the inventory of equipment needed for muscadines.

Looking at total costs per acre of muscadines, in Table 7, the $4.30

power rate results in an annual variable cost of $486.74. If all equipment

is owned and the depreciation cost is thereby eliminated, the total is

$452.96. Both these amounts exclude the amortized establishment cost;

footnote b, Table 7 shows the effect of including that factor.









Table 7. Summary Annual Budget for Operating Muscadine Vineyard: Costs per Acre When All Labor Hired
and All Equipment Purchased


Dollars When Power @
Item Units
.63/hr. 4.30/hr. 8.40/hr.


Labor
semiskilled ($2.00) 45 hrs. 90.00 90.00 90.00
unskilled ($1.75) 100 hrs. 175.00 175.00 175.00

Power 25 hrs. 15.75 107.50 210.00

Materials See Table 17 73.01 73.01 73.01

Depreciation on equipment 20 year amortization 33.78 33.78 33.78

Interest on operating capital. 1 year 5.62 7.45 9.50

TOTALb 393.16 486.74 591.29


aIf all equipment is already
respectively.


owned, the total costs would be $359.38, $452.96, and $557.51,


bIf the cost of establishment is amortized over twenty years and included as an operational
expense, the total annual costs of operating would be $446.15, $551.90, and $670.04, respectively when
all labor is hired during establishment. Total cost figures do not include land rent, insurance,
taxes, or interest on investment capital. While including these costs would not alter final conclu-
sions as to potential, it would make total costs somewhat higher.









Table 8 shows the variable costs per acre to operate a muscadine

vineyard when the owner-operator works full-time in the vineyard. The

semiskilled operations are performed by the owner, thereby leaving a total

labor requirement per acre of only fifty-two hours. This is to assist with

harvesting. When power is charged at $4.30 per hour, total variable costs

become $309.26 per acre of $275.48 if all equipment was owned. Footnotes

a and b provide full cost data under varying conditions.


Overall Costs in Relation to Total Returns

It should be helpful at this point to synthesize the foregoing material

into a single budget for a hypothetical vineyard operation. Tables 9 and

10 do this by summarizing the establishment and operating costs for bunch

and muscadine enterprises, separately. Table 11 illustrates the revenue

per acre generated at various price levels and can be employed in order to

make some conclusions about the vineyard's profit potential.

Table 9 is a skeleton budget for the establishment and operation of a

bunch grape vineyard. The upper portion of the budget pertains to the

establishment phase and the lower portion pertains to the operating phase.

As indicated, the lower portion includes an amortized establishment charge

and therefore, is the most significant part of the table since it is a

composite for the entire enterprise. Briefly, the budget is somewhat of a

compromise between the situation in which all labor is hired and the

situation in which the owner works full-time in the vineyard. While these

assumed situations were helpful in the sense that they represented opposite

extremes, both of which are possible, neither situation would be very

likely to occur. Tables 9 and 10 were designed to cover the more likely

circumstance of a grower who could work part-time in the vineyard, but who









Table 8. Summary Annual Budget for Operating Muscadine Vineyard: Costs
Vineyard Full-Time and All Equipment Purchased


per Acre When Owner Works in


Dollars When Power @
Item Units
.63/hr. 4.30/hr. 8.40/hr.

Labor
semiskilled ($2.00) 0.00 0.00 0.00
unskilled ($1.75) 52 hrs. 91.00 91.00 91.00

Power 25 hrs.

Materials See Table 17 73.01 73.01 73.01

Depreciation on equipment 20 year amortizationa 33.78 33.78 33.78

Interest on operating capital 1 year 2.14 3.97 6.02

TOTALb 215.68 309.26 413.81


alf all equipment is already
respectively.


owned, the total costs would be $181.90, $275.48, and $380.03,


bIf the cost of establishment is amortized over twenty years, the total costs would be $254.24,
$359.98, and $478.12, respectively when owner works during establishment. Total cost figures do not
include land rent, insurance, taxes, or interest on investment capital. While including these costs
would not alter final conclusions as to potential, it would make total costs somewhat higher.











Table 9. Costs per Acre: Establishing and Operating Bunch Vineyard


Item Units Rate Dollars

Establishing:

Semiskilled labor 18 hrs. $ 2.00/hr. 36.00

Unskilled labor 125 hrs. 1.75/hr. 218.75

Power 74 hrs. 4.30/hr. 318.20

Materials See Table 13 748.53

Depreciation on equipment 2 1/2 yrs. 27.75/yr. 69.38

Interest on operating capital 11.46

SUBTOTALa 1,402.32

Operating:

Semiskilled labor 23 hrs. $ 2.00/hr. 46.00

Unskilled labor 105 hrs. 1.75/hr. 183.75

Power 24 hrs. 4.30/hr. 103.20

Materials See Table 15 83.49

Depreciation on equipment 1 yr. 27.75/yr. 27.75

Amortized establishment cost 1 yr. 69.50/yr. 70.12

Interest on operating capital 1 yr. 6.66 6.66

TOTAL ANNUAL RATEb 520.97

aDoes not include land rent, insurance, taxes, or interest on
investment.

bDoes not include land rent, insurance, taxes, or interest on invest-
ment capital.










Table 10. Costs per Acre: Establishing and Operating Muscadine Vineyard



Item Units Rate Dollars

Establishing:

Semiskilled labor 0.00

Unskilled labor 125 hrs. $ 1.75/hr. 218.75

Power 65 hrs. 4.30/hr. 279.50

Materials See Table 17 557.45

Depreciation on equipment 2 1/2 yrs. 33.78/yr. 84.45

Interest on operating capital 9.97

SUBTOTALa 1,150.12

Operating:

Semiskilled labor 23 hrs. $ 2.00/hr. 46.00

Unskilled labor 75 hrs. 1.75/hr. 131.25

Power 25 hrs. 4.30/hr. 107.50

Materials See Table 19 73.01

Depreciation on equipment 1 yr. 33.78/yr. 33.78

Amortized establishment cost 1 yr. 57.01/yr. 57.51

Interest on operating capital 1 yr. 5.70 5.70

TOTAL ANNUAL RATEb 454.75

aDoes not include land rent, insurance, taxes, or interest on
investment.

Does not include land rent, insurance, taxes, or interest on invest-
ment capital.









had other duties as well. With this in mind, it was assumed that the owner

would perform all the operations calling for the use of a tractor, and that

he would provide from one-third to one-half of the labor for the operations

calling for outside help. The power, material, and depreciation costs

remain unchanged but power is charged only at a single rate, $4.30 per hour.

During establishment, hired labor requirements total 143 hours.

Eighteen hours of that total is for semiskilled labor and the remainder is

for unskilled labor; in addition to this, the owner must work 93 hours.

The total cost for wages, both semiskilled and unskilled, is $254.75 while

power and materials are $318.20 and $748.53, respectively. Depreciation on

equipment for the two and one-half year establishment is $69.38, resulting

in a total establishment cost of $1,402.32 per acre (Table 9).

Total hired labor requirements per acre for operating the bunch vine-

yard are 128 hours, with 23 hours for semiskilled and 105 hours for

unskilled. In addition, the owner must work 55 hours. The total cost for

wages is $229.75 while power costs are $103.20 per acre and materials,

$83.49 per acre. The annual depreciation cost is $27.75 and as indicated,

the cost of establishment is amortized over twenty years and included as

an annual expense of $69.50. Total annual costs per acre are $520.97

(;able 9).

Table 11 suggests what price levels would have to prevail in order for

the grape enterprise to be a financial success. With costs of approximately

$520 per acre for bunch grapes (see Table 9), a yield of 4 tons per acre

selling at $125 per ton would fall slightly short of covering costs. A

yield of 5 tons per acre selling at $100 per ton would have the same result.

Since a yield of 4 to 5 tons per acre seems fairly certain, profitability

turns on the price per ton which can be obtained. At this time, it appears











Table 11.


Revenue per Acre of Bunch or Muscadine Grapes Generated at
Different Price Levels


Level of Yield Price per Ton Revenue per Acre


$ 25
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
225
400
500
600
700
800


tons/acre
tons/acre
tons/acre
tons/acre
tons/acre
tons/acre
tons/acre
tons/acre
tons/acre
tons/acre
tons/acre
tons/acre
tons/acre
tons/acre

tons/acre
tons/acre
tons/acre
tons/acre
tons/acre
tons/acre
tons/acre
tons/acre
tons/acre
tons/acre
tons/acre
tons/acre
tons/acre
tons/acre


25
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
225
400
500
600
700
800


$ 100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1,600
2,000
2,400
2,800
3,200

125
250
375
500
625
750
875
1,000
1,125
2,000
2,500
3,000
3,500
4,000


(.20/1b.)a
(.25/1b.)
(.30/lb.)
(.35/lb.)
(.40/lb.)











(.20/1b.)a
(.25/lb.)
(.30/lb.)
(.35/lb.)
(.40/lb.)







that a gross return of $600 per acre would be necessary in order to show a

13 percent profit on sales. In other words, at a 4 ton per acre yield, the

prevailing price per ton would have to be $150 or at a 5 ton per acre yield,

the price per ton would have to be slightly less than $125.

Table 10 suggests that the outlook for muscadine grapes is somewhat

brighter than for bunch grapes. Total costs per acre are $454.75 for

muscadines, or about $66 lower than for bunch grapes (see Table 9). This

means that returns of $90 to $115 per ton would cover costs and returns of

$110 to $135 per ton would result in approximately a 13 percent profit on

sales. It should be pointed out, however, that while it appears there would

be a difference in the cost of producing bunch and muscadine grapes, the

difference is fairly small and therefore!, should not be overemphasized.

Actual grower experience might disprove the difference altogether.


Comparisons with Competitive Suppliers

By comparison, a study made in North Carolina in 1965, indicated that

total costs per acre for establishing a bunch grape vineyard were $657.75.

Materials amounted to $412.25 and labor totaled $245.50. Tractor costs

were included with labor costs and there was no charge made for depreciation

on equipment. It is doubtful that North Carolina's program was as

elaborate as the one contemplated in this report, therefore, material and

labor requirements are lower both in the absolute sense as well as in cost.

In addition, unit prices in the North Carolina budget were uniformly lower

than the prices used in this report. As examples, posts were estimated at

$.50 each whereas they were estimated at $1.25 each for line posts and at

$2.20 each for end posts in this report and labor was charged at $1.00 per

hour whereas labor was charged at $1.75 and $2.00 per hour in this report.


IHorticultural Information Leaflet No. 202-B. Agr. Ext. Service, N.C.
State Univ. at Raleigh, Sept. 1965.








Interestingly, however, the North Carolina budget assumed a yield of five

tons per acre when revenue projections were made. It is difficult to say

whether or not a valid comparison can be made between this and the North

Carolina reports. If the estimates in both are accurate, and both programs

result in yields of five tons per acre, it is easy to see that North

Carolina growers would have a decided advantage over Florida growers since

their initial costs are slightly less than one-half those in Florida.

Using the same study as before, North Carolina's variable costs per

acre are $639.69. However, this includes $178.00 for containers and $50.00

for transportation to market, neither of which was included in the Florida

budget. When these two factors are extracted, the comparative costs become

$411.69.per acre in North Carolina and $520.97 per acre in Florida. As

before, the North Carolina budget assumed a yield of five tons per acre and

if cost estimates are accurate, North Carolina would again have the advan-

tage of a substantially lower cost of production.
2
Again, in comparison with costs found in North Carolina, Florida-

grown muscadines are costly to produce. Total costs in North Carolina,

including variable materials, labor, and the pro-rated cost of establishment

are $193.63 per acre. Table 10 reflects a total cost of $454.75 for pro-

ducing an acre of Florida muscadines. As in the case of bunch grapes, the

North Carolina study uses uniformly lower unit prices and calls for fewer

inputs. For example, labor is charged at $1.00 per hour, power at $.54 per

hour and no spray materials are required. Yields of five tons per acre were

still anticipated. If these estimates are correct, North Carolina can pro-

duce the same yield of muscadines as Florida for less than half the cost per


2Horticultural Information Leaflet No. 203. Agr. Ext. Service, N.C.
State University at Raleigh, Nov. 1965.







acre. This does not nedcssarily mean that Florida would fail as a grape-

producing state but rather, that Florida's profitability would be lower than

North Carolina's.3

There is very little basis for determining what price per ton might be

expected for Florida-grown grapes; however, based on data from Georgia and

North Carolina, it is almost certain that no more than $125 to $150 per ton

would be obtained. There is some evidence that California-grown grapes are

available to Florida processors for as little as $40 to $50 per ton.


Other Factors Affecting Production Potential

Although the most significant criteria for deciding the feasibility of

a grape enterprise are found in the input-output relationships already

discussed, other factors may be important. A number of problems arise from

the fact that there is no existing grape industry to which a new enterprise

may attach itself. Anyone willing to venture into the business must be

prepared to face risks not associated with a thriving, well established

industry. For example, there is some question as to the availability of a

labor force with an adequate knowledge of grape culture to operate a vine-

yard enterprise. The importance of proper pruning and training practices

cannot be overemphasized and without experienced labor to perform these

operations, the level of yield could be adversely affected for several

years. In the case of a small enterprise, however, the owner could probably

train one or two men who would become reliable assistants.


There has been no attempt in this report to provide a fully developed
analysis of interregional competition. While the data from North Carolina,
cited above, give an indication of costs of production in another area,
potential investors would be wise to explore this question more extensively
by studying reports from other grape producing states. Additional reading
can be found in Ohio Agr. Exp. Sta. Res. Summary 38: 19 (August 1969),
Mich. St. Univ. Ext. Agr. Econ. Rep. 95 (1968), Wash. St. Univ. Ext. E.M.
2958 (1968), Cornell Univ. Coll. Agr. A.E. Res, 170 (July 1965), S. C. Agr.
Exp. Sta. A.E. 328 (June 1963), and N. Y. State Hort. Soc. Proc. 105: 255
(1960).








Another major obstacle may result from a standoff between potential

growers and processors. From the grower's point of view, it is desirable

to have a rather firm indication of what price per ton can be expected from

the buyer. Without that information, he has little idea of whether or not

his proposed vineyard would succeed financially, and therefore, he is

reluctant to begin planting. From the processor's point of view, there

should be some indication that the grower can provide a dependable source

of supply of a given quantity and quality of grapes. Without this knowledge,

processors will remain unwilling to make commitments to growers. At the

present time, both are reluctant to take the initial step, to go out on the

proverbial limb. For this reason, some groundwork between growers and pro-

cessors will have to be accomplished before a grape industry can begin.

Generally, it appears that if Florida-grown grapes could be produced

economically, they would have a promising potential both for juice and for

wine. Although less research has been done in the area, grapes for jelly,

preserves, syrup and other specialty products would probably be equally

promising. With respect to wines and juices, a good deal of research has

been carried out, using different varieties of bunch and muscadine grapes.

For wine-making purposes, grapes should have a sugar content of

approximately 20 percent or more. Most varieties growing in Florida today

carry an average sugar content of only 16 to 18 percent in contrast with

California varieties, for example, which average at least 20 percent.

While not generally acceptable for making high quality wines, Florida-

grown grapes are acceptable for the manufacture of neutral spirits and

brandy. Of course, the proof-gallon yield from grapes is in direct rela-

tion to the sugar content.







It should be pointed out that Florida tax laws presently give favorable

treatment to Florida-grown products which are used in alcohol fermentation.

While state law requires the payment of $3.75 per proof gallon on all

alcohol shipped into Florida or produced in Florida with non-Florida raw

materials, the tax imposed on alcohol produced in Florida with Florida

materials is only $.47 per proof gallon. Provided this tax policy con-

tinues, Florida-grown grapes should be extremely attractive to distillers

and wine-makers who would want to build plants in Florida.

Certain varieties of grapes presently growing in Florida will make

excellent tasting juice, both single strength and concentrate. Most manu-

facturers are of the opinion, however, that consumers insist upon a grape

juice with the characteristic Concord flavor which Florida grapes lack.

While this poses at least a psychological barrier, the technical problems

in juice-making are not serious. The 16 to 18 percent sugar content found

in Florida-grown grapes is high enough for juice-making purposes. The main

problem is in developing a juice product which will hold its color while on

the shelf and which is uniform in color and taste from one season to the

next.

It appears that a grape industry which grows grapes for juice-making

could also be easily coordinated with the citrus industry, both seasonally

and technologically. Since grapes mature in the summer months, citrus

labor could be used for harvesting the grape crop with little or no con-

flict with the citrus industry. By the same token, the citrus processing

plants, which are relatively idle during the summer months, could be

employed in the processing of grape juice. Technologically, the switch

from citrus to grape processing should require only relatively minor modi-

fications of equipment.








Another seasonal advantage that Florida could capitalize on is with

respect to fresh table grapes. Certain varieties, especially when grown in

southern sections of the state, would be ready for shipping to northern

markets as early as May or June. While Florida has some varieties which

are excellent tasting as fresh fruit and which would hold well for shipping

purposes, unfortuantely none are of the seedless type. Harvesting costs

would also be higher for grapes intended for the fresh market since they

must be handled very carefully and packed in smaller containers than grapes

intended for processing.

As mentioned earlier, a requirement from the processor's viewpoint is

a dependable source of supply of a given quantity of grapes. Consequently,

small independent growers might be unable to supply sufficiently large

quantities to attract processors whose requirements run in the thousands of

tons. A possible solution to this problem and a factor which should be

investigated is grower cooperatives. Pooled together, their crops might be

large enough to meet processor requirements and to bring adequate prices.


Conclusions

While grower decision-making may ultimately be based on considerations

of input-output relationships such as those discussed earlier in the report,

there is a significant need for additional types of information. Further

marketing research seems particularly desirable. Specific questions which

need to be answered are (1) how much demand for Florida-grown grapes will

there be in the next few years and in the long run? (2) what character-

istics will processors of other buyers be looking for in the grapes they

purchase? (3) what price per ton can be expected for such grapes?









On the other side of the coin, questions needing answers are (1) how

many tons of grapes will Florida growers be able to produce in the near and

distant future? (2) what quality grapes can be grown? In a nutshell,

these are the questions which, if left unanswered, may very well leave

growers and processors in a standoff with neither being willing to take

initial steps. With this in mind, a grower-processor conference might be

in order.

It is possible that "pick-your-own" operations would be successful

provided they were in the proper locations. Since most customers would buy

only five to ten pounds at a time, a vineyard of this type must be in an

area with either a large local population to draw on or in an area which

has considerable highway traffic. Similarly, since the volume of business

would be low in comparison with large bulk operations, a given area would

probably support fewer acres of vineyard. On the other hand, the price per

pound would be much higher than for grapes sold by the ton. Since a

properly established vineyard calls for rather large initial investments,

much thought should be given before a grower enters any type commercial

vineyard enterprise, including the "pick-your-own" type.

The most that can be said at the present time is that a commercial

vineyard would face large risks with conditions being what they are today.

Factors which could materially alter the situation are new techniques or

large scale operations which would lower the cost of production, higher

prices for the grapes, and new varieties developed specifically for Florida

conditions and fulfilling consumers' tastes and desires for fresh and

processed forms of grapes.








































APPENDIX











Table 12. Establishing Bunch Vineyard: Labor, Power, and Material Requirements per Acre


Hours per Acre
First Year Operationa Equipment and Materials
Man Power


Before Jan. 1


S. Fla.--Jan.
C. Fla.--Jan.-Feb.
N. Fla.--Mar.


Mar. 15
Apr. 30
June 15
July 30
Mar.


6-7 intervals
during growing
season


Land preparation
clearing
disking
spreading dolomite
Planting
opening furrows
setting vines
Fertilizingc


Erecting trellis
distributing posts
setting posts
Summer training


Tractor, disk, 2 tons dolomite


Tractor, bull tongue, hand post-
hole diggers, shovel, hoe, b
100# steamed bone meal, 435 plants
Tractor, trailer, 435# fertilizer
(6-6-6)



124 line postsd 4" x 7', 20 end
posts 5" x 8', tractor, trailer,
post-hole diggers
Hand pruners, raffia, twine, 435
stakes


aAn operation which has been excluded from this analysis is irrigation. Although not all growers
irrigate their vines, this could be a very important operation, especially in the early stages of vine
development. It would probably represent a sizeable expense.

bin an established operation, plants would be taken from cuttings.
CFertilizer is applied by hand for the first two years. Each plant receives a total of 1# per
year in four equal applications of 1/4# each in the first year; this is doubled in the second year.
Two tons of dolomite is also applied every third year.
dAssuming 400' rows.


1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2











Table 12. Continued


Hours per Acre
First Year Operation Equipment and Materials
Man Power


Spraying herbicides






Spraying fungicides
and insecticides


Cultivation


Tractor, sprayer, 1.2# (active)
Paraquate





Tractor, sprayer, 6# Manzate D,
7# Sevin


Tractor, disk


eThe 1.2# requirement is based on six equal applications of .2# each per acre mixed with 50 gal.
water and applied in a 3'-4' band rather than to the entire vineyard floor.

No insecticide is applied during bloom period (April). All other sprays are a combination of
3/41 Manzate D and 1# Sevin.


Mar. 30
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Feb. 1
'Mar. 15
Apr. 1
Apr. 15
May 1
May 15
June 1
June 15


(dormant)


May
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.











Table 12. Continued


Hours per Acre

First Year Operation Equipment and Materials
Man Power


Dec. Dormant pruning Hand pruners 10
As required Replacing vines Plants, shovel, steamed bone meal 2

TOTAL HOURS, FIRST YEAR 111 28

TOTAL MATERIALS, FIRST YEAR $579.40

DEPRECIATION ON EQUIPMENT 138.75

Hours per Acre

Second Year Operation Equipment and Materials
Man Power


Jan.-Feb.


Completing trellis8


Feb. 15
Mar. 30
May 15
June 30
7-8 intervals
during growing
season


Fertilizing


Summer training


5# staples, wire stretcher, three 100#
rolls 9 gauge galvanized wire
Tractor, trailer, 870# fertilizer
(6-6-6)


Hand pruners, raffia, twine


gIn the third year, the grower may wish to extend the trellis with a cross-arm and outside wires,
but this is optional, and therefore, excluded.


2 1/2
2 1/2
2 1/2
2 1/2


1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2











Table 12. Continued


Hours per Acre
Second Year Operation Equipment and Materials
Man Power


Feb. 1 (dormant)
Mar. 15
Apr. 1
Apr. 15
May 1
May 15
June 1
June 15
May
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Mar. 30
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.


Spraying fungicides
and insecticides







Cultivation (mowing)




(disking)
Spraying herbidicesi


Tractor, sprayer, 12# Manzate D
12# Sevin







Tractor, mower, disk






Tractor, sprayer, 1.2# (active)
Paraquat


hNo insecticides are applied during bloom period.

iApplied in a 3'-4' band.


1 1/2
1 1/2
1 1/2
1 1/2
1 1/2
1 1/2










Table 12. Continued


Hours per Acre
Second Year Operation Equipment and Materials
Man Power

Dec. Dormant pruning Hand pruners, tractor, trailer 25 1
As required .Replacing vines Vines, shovel, steamed bone meal 2

TOTAL HOURS, SECOND YEAR 96 27

TOTAL MATERIALS, SECOND YEAR $99.38

DEPRECIATION ON EQUIPMENT 138.75


Hours per Acre
Third Yearj Operation Equipment and Materials Ho per
Man Power


Feb. 30


Feb. 1 (dormant)
Mar. 15
Apr. 1
Apr. 15
May 1
May 15
June 1
June 15


Fertilizing


Spraying fungicides
and insecticidask


Tractor, fertilizer distributor,
1500# fertilizer (6-6-6)
Tractor, sprayer, 12# Manzate D,
12# Sevin


jSince a light crop can be expected in the third summer, the "establishment" period is terminated
on June 30 of the third year. From that point forward, the vineyard operates on an annual basis.

No insecticides are applied during bloom period.


1 1/2 1 1/2









Table 12. Continued


Hours .per Acre
Third Year Operation Equipment and Materials
Man Power

May Cultivation (mowing) Tractor, mower 1 1/2 1 1/2
June 1 1/2 1 1/2
Mar. 30 Spraying herbicides Tractor, sprayer, 2.3# (active) 1 1
Aug. Karmex (pre-emergence), .2# (active) 1 1
Paraquat (post-emergence)
7-8 intervals Summer training Hand pruners, raffia, twine 12
during growing
season

TOTAL HOURS, THIRD YEAR 28 16

TOTAL MATERIALS, THIRD YEAR $ 69.75

DEPRECIATION ON EQUIPMENT 138.75

TOTAL HOURS, ESTABLISHMENT 235 71

TOTAL MATERIALS, ESTABLISHMENT $748.53

DEPRECIATION, ESTABLISHMENT 346.88


1Applied in a 3'-4'
(Karmex) in late March.
if needed. This system


band. In the third year, there is one application of pre-emergence herbicide
There is a follow-up application of post-emergence (Paraquat) in late summer
is continued in all subsequent years.










Table 13. Establishing Muscadine Vineyard: Labor, Power, and Material Requirements per Acre



Hours per Acre
First Year Operationa Equipment and Materials
Man Power


Before Jan. 1




S. Fla.-Jan.
C. Fla.-Feb.
N. Fla.-Mar.
April
May
July
Sept.
March


Land preparation
clearing
disking
spreading dolomite
Planting


Fertilisingc




Erecting trellis
distributing posts
setting posts


Tractor, disk, 2 tons dolomite




217 plants,b shovel, post-hole diggers,
50# steamed bone meal

217# fertilizer (6-6-6), tractor,
trailer



124 line postsd 4" x 7', 20 end posts
5" x 8', tractor, trailer, post-hole
diggers


aAn operation which has been excluded from this analysis is irrigation. Although not all growers
irrigate their vines, this could be a very important operation, especially in the early stages of vine
develocernt. It would probably represent a sizeable expense.

bin an established operation, plants would be taken from cuttings.

CFertilizer is applied by hand for the first two years. Each plant receives a total of 10 per
year in four equal applications of 1/4# each in the first year; this is doubled in the second year.
Two tons of dolomite is also applied every third year.

dAssuming 400' rows.


1 1/2
1 1/2
1 1/2
1 1/2


1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2









Table 13. Continued


Hours per Acre
First Year Operation Equipment and Materials
Man Power


6-7 intervals
during growing
season


March 30
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
April
May
June
July
May
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.


Sumer training



Spraying herbicides






Spraying fungicid s
and insecticides


Cultivation


Hand pruners, 217 stakes, twine, raffia



Tractor, sprayer, 1.2# (active) Paraquate






Tractor, sprayer, 6# Manzate D,
7# Sevin


Tractor, disk


eBased on using six equal applications of .2# per acre mixed with 50 gal. water
3'-4' band rather than to the entire vineyard floor.


and applying in a


fo insecticide is applied during bloom period (May). All other sprays are a combination of 3/4#
Manzate D and 1# Sevin.










Table 13. Continued


Hours per Acre
First Year Operation Equipment and Materials
Man Power


Dec. Dormant pruning Band pruners 2
As required Replacing vines Plants, shovel, steamed bone meal 2

TOTAL BOURS, FIRST YEAR 103 23

TOTAL MATERIALS, FIRST YEAR $379.73

DEPRECIATION 05 wQUIPMEN 168.90

Hours per Acre
Sebeod Year Operation Equipment and Materials
Man Power


Completing trellis

Fertilizing


Three 100# rolls 9 gauge galvanized
wire, 5# staples, wire stretcher
434# fertilizer (6-6-6), tractor,
trailer


Feb.

Feb.
Mar.
May
June


24

1 1/2
1 1/2
1 1/2
1 1/2


1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2










Table 13. Continued


Hours per Acre
Second Year Operation Equipment and Materials
Man Power


Mar. 30
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
May
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Feb. (dormant)
Mar. 15
Apr. 1
Apr. 15
May 1
May 15
June 1
June 15


Spraying herbicidesg






Cultivation (mowing)


(disking)
Spraying fungicides
and insecticides


1 1/2
1 1/2
1 1/2
1 1/2
1 1/2
1 1/2


1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2


Tractor, sprayer, 1.2# (active)
Paraquat





Tractor, mower, disk


Tractor, sprayer, 12# Manzate D,
12# Sevin


gApplied in 3'-4' band.

hNo insecticide is applied during bloom period.











Table 13. Continued


Hours per Acre
Second Year Operation Equipment and Materials
Man Power


Dec. Dormant pruning Hand pruners 3
As required Replacing vines Plants, shovel, steamed bone meal 2

TOTAL HOURS, SECOND YEAR 83 26

TOTAL MATERIALS, SECOND YEAR $147.27

DEPRECIATION ON EQUIPMENT 168.90

Hours per Acre
Third Yeari Operation Equipment and Materials
Man Power


Mar. 30
June 1
Feb. (dormant)
Mar. 15
Apr. 1
Apr. 15
May 1
May 15
June 1
June 15


Fertilizing


Spraying fungicides
and insecticides


Tractor, fertilizer distributor, 1100#
fertilizer (6-6-6)
Tractor, sprayer, 12# Manzate D,
12# Sevin


iSince a light crop can be expected in the third summer, the "establishment" period is terminated
on June 30 of the third year. From that point forward, the vineyard operates on an annual basis.

jNo insecticide is applied during bloom period.


1 1/2
1 1/2


1 1/2
1 1/2










Table 13. Continued


Hours per Acre
Third Year Operation Equipment and Materials
Man Power

7-8 intervals Summer training Hand pruners, twine, raffia 8
during growing
season
May Cultivation (mowing) Tractor, mower 1 1/2 1 1/2
June 1 1/2 1 1/2
lar. 30 Spraying herbicidesk Tractor, sprayer, 2.3# (active) Karmox 1 1
Aug. .2# (active) Paraquat 1 1

TOTAL HOURS, THIRD YEAR 24 16

TOTAL MATERIALS, THIRD YEAR $30.45

DEPRECIATIOT ON EQUIPMENT 168.90

TOTAL HOURS, ESTABLISHMENT 210 65

TOTAL MATERIALS, ESTABLISHMENT $557.45

DEPRECIATION, ESTABLISHMENT 422.25


kn the third year, there is one application of pre-emergence herbicide (Karmex) in late March.
There is a follow-up application of post-energence (Paraquat) in late summer if needed. This system
is followed in all subsequent years.











Table 14. Inventory of Equipment for Vineyard Enterprise


Item Size or Description Price

Tractor 30-40 HP $4,200

Sprayer 200-300 gal. capacity 1,100

Disk 7' 425

Fertilizer distributor 1 ton capacity 500

Trailer Flatbed 300

Mower Heavy duty rotary type 350

Mechanical shaker (for muscadines) 600

Pruning shears

Shovels

Post-hole diggers 100

Wire stretchers

Hammers

TOTALa $3,375


aTractor not
power costs.


included since initial cost of tractor is reflected in









Establishing Bunch Vineyard: Material Costs per Acre


Itema Amount Unit Costb Dollars


(First Year)
Dolomite
Plants
Steamed bone meal
Fertilizer (6-6-6)
Line posts 4" x 7'
End posts 5" x 8'
Stakes
Herbicide (Paraquat)
Fungicide (Manzate.D)
Insecticide (Sevin)

(Second Year)
Wire 9 gauge
Staples
Fertilizer (6-6-6)
Herbicide -(Paraquat)
Fungicide (Manzate D)
Insecticide (Sevin)


2 tons
435
100#
435#
124
20
435
1.2#
6#
7#


3 rolls
5#
870#
1.2#
12#
12#


(100#/roll)


20.60/ton
.60 each
11.96/100#
52.40/ton
1.25 each
2.20 each
3.00/50
138,75/5 gal.
2.97/31
3.75/5#


12.60/roll
.25/#
52.40/ton
138.75/5 gal.
2.97/3#
3.75/5#


(2#/gal.)


41.20
261.00
11.96
11.40
155.00
44.00
27.00
16.65
5.94
5.25


37.80
1.25
22.80
16.65
5.94
5.25


(2#/gal.)


Table 15.












Table 15. Continued


Itema Amount Unit Costb Dollars

(Third Year)
Fertilizer (6-6-6) 1500# 52.40/ton 39.40
Herbicides
pre-emergence (Karmex) 2.3# 11.80/4# 6.79
post-emergence (Paraquat) .2# 138.75/5 gal. (2#/gal.) 2.78
Fungicide (Manzate D) 12# 2.79/3# 11.88
Insecticide (Sevin) 12# 3.75/5# 9.00

TOTAL, ESTABLISHMENT 748.53

TOTAL, FIRST YEAR 579.40
TOTAL, SECOND YEAR 99.38
TOTAL, THIRD YEAR 69.75










Table 16. Establishing Muscadine Vineyard: Material Costs per Acre


Itema Amount Unit Costb Dollars


(First Year)
Dolomite
Plants
Steamed bone meal
Fertilizer (6-6-6)
Line posts 4" x 7'
End posts 5" x 8'
Stakes
Herbicide (Paraquat)
Fungicide (Manzate D)
Insecticide (Sevin)

(Second Year)
Wire 9 gauge
Staples
Fertilizer (6-6-6)
Herbicide (Paraquat)
Fungicide (Manzate D)
Insecticide (Sevin)


2 tons
217
50#
217#
124
20
217
1.2#
6#
7#


3 rolls
5#
434#
1.2#
12#
12#


(100#/roll)


20.60/ton
.40/plant
11.96/100#
52.40/ton
1.25 each
2.20 each
3.00/50
138.75/5 gal.
2.79/3#
3.75/5#


12.60/roll
.25/#
52.40/ton
138.75/5 gal.
2.79/3#
3.75/5#


(2#/gal.)


41.20
86.80
5.98
5.71
155.00
44.00
13.20
16.65
5.94
5.25


37.80
1.25
11.42
16.65
11.88
9.00


(2#/gal.)









Table 16. Continued


Itema Amount Unit Costb Dollars

(Third Year)
Fertilizer (6-6-6) 1100# 52.40/ton 28.82
Herbicides
pre-emergence (Karmex) 2.3# 11.80/4# 6.79
post-emergence (Paraquat) .2# 138.75/5 gal. (2#/gal.) 2.78
Fungicide (Manzate D) 12# 2.79/3# 11.88
Insecticide (Sevin) 12# 3.75/5# 9.00

TOTAL, ESTABLISHMENT 557.45

TOTAL, FIRST YEAR 379.73
TOTAL, SECOND YEAR 147.27
TOTAL, THIRD YEAR 30.45


aBrand names are given where prices are based on a particular product.

bCost information was obtained from several farm supply houses in different parts of the state.











Table 17. Variable Operating Coats for Bunch Vineyard: Labor, Power, and Material
Acre


Requirements per


Hours per Acre
Date Operation Equipment and Materials
Man Power


Pruning
Chopping
Trellis maintenance


Tying vines
Fertilizing


Spraying herbicides


Cultivation (mowing)


Pruning shears
Tractor, mower, disk
Wire stretcher, wire, staples
Twine
Tractor, fertilizer distributor,
1500# fertilizer (6-6-6)
Tractor, sprayer, 2.3# (active) Karmex
(pre-emergence), .2# (active) Paraquat
(post-emergence)
Tractor, disk, mower


1 1/2 1 1/2
1 1/2 1 1/2


(disking)


Pruning time varies considerably among growers, Differences are attributable to variations in
trellising system, vigorousness of vine growth and the pruner's proficiency. Estimates of pruning time
have ranged from 10 to 110 hours per acre but most growers agree on 40 to 50 hours per acre.


Jan.-Feb.
Mar.
Mar.
Mar.
Feb. 28
May 1
Mar. 30
Aug.


May
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.










Table 17. Continued


Hours per Acre
Date Operation Equipment and Materials
Man Power

Feb. 1 (dormant) Spraying fungicides Tractor, sprayer, 12# Manzate D, 1 1
Mar. 15 and insecticides 12# Sevin 1 1
Apr. 1 1 1
Apr. 15 1 1
May 1 1 1
May 15 1 1
June 1 1 1
June 15 1 1

May Suckering and tying Twine 9
June 15 Distributing boxes Tractor, trailer, 400 20# lugs 2 1
in field
June 20-Sept.c Picking and placing Harvesting clippers 90
in lugs
June 20-Sept. Hauling out of Tractor, trailer 6 3
vineyard

TOTAL HOURS, OPERATING 183 25

TOTAL MATERIALS, OPERATING $83.49


bNo insecticides are applied during bloom period.

cDates of harvesting operations will vary within the range indicated depending largely on what
varieties are being grown.











Table 18. Operating Bunch Vineyard: Material Costs per Acre


Item Amount Unit Cost Dollars

Fertilizer (6-6-6) 1,500# 52.40/ton 39.30

Herbicides
pre-emergence (Karmex) 2.3# 11.80/4# 6.79
post-emergence (Paraquat) .2# 138.75/5 gal. (2#/gal.) 2.78

Fungicide (Manzate D) 12# 2.79/3# 11.88

Insecticide (Sevin) 12# 3.75/5# 9.00

Dolomitea 2/3 ton 20.60/ton 13.74

TOTAL 83.49

aTwo-thirds ton of dolomite represents the pro-rata annual requirement.
In practice, dolomite is applied at the rate of two tons every third year.










Table 19.


Variable Operating Costs for Muscadine Vineyard: Labor, Power and Material Requirements
per Acre


Hours per Acre
Date Operation Equipment and Materials
Man Power


Pruning
Chopping
Trellis maintenance
Fertilizing

Spraying herbicides

Cultivation (mowing)


Pruning shears
Tractor, mower, disk
Wire stretcher, wire, staples, hamer
Tractor, fertilizer distributor,
1100# fertilizer (6-6-6)
Tractor, sprayer, 2.3# (active)
Karmex, .2# (active) Paraquat
Tractor, mower, disk


(disking)


aPruning time varies considerably among growers. Differences are attributable to variations in
trlli-cias system, vigorousness of vine growth and the pruner's proficiency. Estimates of pruning time
have ranged from 10 to 110 hours per acre but most 3rc?-rs agree on 40 to 50 hours per acre.


Jan.-Feb.
March
March
Mar. 30
June 1
Mar. 30
Aug.
May
June
July
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.


45a


1 1/2
1 1/2
1
1
1


1 1/2
1 1/2
1

1
1
1
1
1
1










Table 19. Continued


Hours per Acre
Date Operation Equipment and Materials
Man Power


Feb. (dormant) Spraying fungicides Tractor, sprayer, 12# Manzate D, 1 1
Mar. 15 and insecticides 12# Sevin 1 1
Apr. 1 1 1
Apr. 15 1 1
May 1 1 1
May 15 1 1
June 1 1 1
June 15 1 1
Aug. 1 Distributing boxes Tractor, trailer, 400 20# lugs 2 1
in field
Aug. 10 Spreading canvas or Canvas or plastic sheets 5
plastic
Aug. 10-Sept. 10 Picking and placing Mechanical shaker 64
in lugsc
Aug. 10-Sept. 10 Hauling out of Tractor, trailer 6 3
vineyard

TOTAL HOURS, OPERATING 145 25

TOTAL MATERIALS, OPERATING $73.01


bNo insecticide is applied during bloom period.

CHarvesting is actually done by means of a mechanical shaker. Handpicking would take 100 to 140
hours per acre with a yield of 4 tons per acre.











Table 20. Operating Muscadine Vineyard:


Item Amount Unit Cost Dollars

Fertilizer (6-6-6) 1100# 52.40/ton 28.82

Herbicides
pre-emergence (Karmex) 2.3# 11.80/4# 6.79
post-emergence (Paraquat) .2# 138.75/5 gal. (2#/gal.) 2.78

Fungicide (Manzate D) 12# 2.79/3# 11.88

Insecticide (Sevin) 12# 3.75/5# 9.00

Dolomitea 2/3 ton 20.60/ton 13.74

TOTAL 73.01

aTwo-thirds ton of dolomite represents the pro-rata annual requirement.
In practice, dolomite is applied at the rate of two tons every third year.


Material Costs per Acre















SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY


Demko, Charles. Growing Grapes in Florida, Fla. Dept. of Agriculture,
Tallahassee, Bull. N.S. 63 (rev. 1963).

Dickey, R. D., Stover, L. H. and Parris, G. K. Grape Growing in Florida,
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bull. 436 (1949).

Horticultural Information Leaflet No. 202-B. Agr. Ext. Service, N.C.
State Univ. at Raleigh (Sept. 1965).

Horticultural Information Leaflet No. 203. Agr. Ext. Service, N.C. State
Univ. at Raleigh (Nov. 1965).

Mortensen, J. A., Adlerz, W. C. and Balerdi, C. F. Thirty Questions and
Answers for Grape Growers, Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Circ. 327
(Dec. 1968).

Stover, L. H. and Dennison, R. H. "The Potential of Blue Lake Grapes for
Fresh Juice Processing," Sunshine State Agr. Res. Rep. 8: 16-17
(July 1963).

"Stover Grape Released," Sunshine State Agr. Res. Rep, 14: 3 (Jan. 1969).




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