Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction and procedure
 Results and discussion
 Summary and conclusions
 Literature cited and acknowled...
 Back Cover
 Historic note

Group Title: Bulletin - Agricultural Experiment Stations, University of Florida ; 820 (technical)
Title: Comparative performance of calves sired by Exotic, Brahman, and Brahman-derivative bulls
Full Citation
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027463/00001
 Material Information
Title: Comparative performance of calves sired by Exotic, Brahman, and Brahman-derivative bulls
Series Title: Bulletin Agricultural Experiment Stations, University of Florida
Physical Description: 14 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Crockett, J. R ( Joe Richard ), 1926-
Publisher: Agricultural Experiment Stations, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla.
Publication Date: 1981
Subject: Beef cattle -- Breeding   ( lcsh )
Beef cattle breeds   ( lcsh )
Calves   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
Bibliography: Bibliography : p. 11.
Statement of Responsibility: J.R. Crockett ... et al..
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027463
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000401557
oclc - 10705557
notis - ACE7405

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Introduction and procedure
        Page 1
    Results and discussion
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Summary and conclusions
        Page 9
        Page 10
    Literature cited and acknowledgments
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    Back Cover
        Page 15
    Historic note
        Page 16
Full Text

' March 1981

Bulletin 820 (technical)

Comparative Performance
of Calves Sired by Exotic,
Brahman, and
Brahman-Derivative Bulls

J. R. Crockett, F. S. Baker, Jr.,
J. W. Carpenter, and M. Koger

Agricultural Experiment Stations
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville
F. A. Wood, Dean for Research

Comparative Performance of Calves Sired by
Exotic, Brahman, and Brahman-Derivative Bulls

J. R. Crockett, F. S. Baker, Jr.,
J. W. Carpenter, and M. Koger

Dr. Crockett is Associate Professor (Associate Animal Geneticist),
Agricultural Research and Education Center, Belle Glade. Mr. Baker is
Professor (Animal Husbandman), Agricultural Research and Education
Center, Quincy. Dr. Carpenter is Professor (Meat Scientist) and Dr. Koger
is Professor (Animal Geneticist), Animal Science Department, University
of Florida, Gainesville.


Introduction ....................... ............... ......... 1
Procedure .................................................. 1
Results and Discussion ....................................... 2
Preweaning traits ........................................ 2
Birth weight ........................................ 2
Calving ease ........................................ 3
Weaning rate ....................................... 5
Weaning weight .................................... 5
Type and condition score ............................ 6
Feedlot traits ......................................... 6
Carcass traits .................... ..................... 8
Summary and Conclusions .................................. 9
Literature Cited ............................................ 11
Acknowledgments .......................................... 11
Appendix..... ............................... ..... 12


In the 1960's it became popular for U.S. cattle breeders to use
Eur'- 'an sires in efforts to increase beef production. Never in the
or of domestic cattle production had so much new genetic
material been injected into a beef cattle population in such a short
period of time and into such diverse environmental conditions.
Since all the new breeds had been developed in a temperate
climate, it was deemed advisable to evaluate and compare the per-
formance of some of these sire breeds to that of breeds already
adapted to south Florida's subtropical environment. The results
cover the first 5 years of the study, during which preweaning and
feedlot performance, and carcass characteristics of first-cross (F,)
calves and steers were evaluated.


The project was conducted at the Agricultural Research and
Education Center (AREC), Belle Glade, in what is considered a sub-
tropical environment. The study was designed to compare the per-
formance of F, calves sired by purebred Limousin, Maine-Anjou,
Simmental, Brahman, Beefmaster, and Brangus bulls out of grade
Angus, Brangus, and Hereford dams. The Brangus sires produced
straightbred calves in addition to F, calves.
The foundation females were all high grades representing their
respective breeds. At the beginning of the study the females, rang-
ing from 2 to 10 years old, were randomized within age within breed
and assigned at random to a specific sire breed. In each subsequent
year they were re-randomized and reassigned prior to the breeding
Breeding was by artificial insemination (AI) for all except Beef-
master, which served as clean-up bulls after the AI season. All AI
sires were selected by Noba, Inc., and included proven sires as well
as young sires undergoing progeny testing. The Beefmaster sires
were obtained in Florida; however, they were not considered good
representatives of the breed. The AI season began each year on
February 15, and continued for 42 days, followed by a 30-day clean-
up season. Twice each day the cows were visually checked, and
those observed to be in standing heat were inseminated 10 to 12

hours later. Calving season was from late November through early
February. Weights and scores were taken in late July when calves
averaged approximately 217 days of age.
The breeding herds were managed alike, grazing Roselawn St.
Augustinegrass (Stenotaphrum secudatum (Walt) Kuntz) pastures
year-round. Straight mill-run cane molasses was fed for approx-
imately 100 days during the winter at a rate of 2.04 kg (4.5 pounds)
per head per day.
SSteer calves selected for feedlot and carcass studies were actually
weaned in September and trucked directly to the AREC, Quincy
(660 km) for feeding. Beginning feedlot weight was taken as the
Belle Glade weight minus 4%. Four years' feedlot and carcass data
are included in this report. Feeding periods varied in length from
168 to 183 days, depending on availability of slaughtering facilities.
The ration used, on a dry matter basis, consisted of ensiled high-
moisture shelled corn, 78%; corn silage, 12%; bahiagrass hay, 3%;
and a commercial protein-mineral-vitamin supplement (72% pro-
tein, 50% NPN, 3.5% calcium, 1.5% phosphorus, 3% salt, and
77,000 IU vitamin A per kg), 7%. Final live weights used in com-
puting feedlot gains were determined by weighing the calves after
they were trucked to the Meats Laboratory at Gainesville (275 km
(165 miles) ).
The data were analyzed by conventional least-squares techniques
(5)'; the statistical model is shown in Table 1. Only the effects of sire
breed, dam breed, and sire breed X dam breed interaction will be
discussed here.


Preweaning Traits

Birth Weight

The effects of sire breed and dam breed were highly significant
(P <.01), whereas the interaction of sire breed X dam breed was non-
significant (Table 1). Calves sired by Brangus bulls averaged 29.2
kg (64 pounds) at birth and were significantly lighter than calves
sired by bulls representing the other breeds (Table 2). Calves sired
by Brahman and Maine-Anjou bulls were heaviest at 34.2 and 33.9
kg (75.4 and 74.7 pounds), respectively. The birth weights of
Brahman-sired calves in this study were similar to those reported

1. Numbers in parentheses refer to literature cited.

TABLE 1. Analyses of variance for preweaning traits.

Sire Breed (SB)
Dam Breed (DB)
Age of dam
** = P< .01.
NS nonsignificant.

TABLE 2. Least squares
dam breed.

Breed No.
Beefmaster 107
Brahman 106
Brangus 95
Limousin 123
Maine-Anjou 123
Simmental 101
Angus 228
Brangus 288
Hereford 239

means of preweaning traits for sire breed and

Birth 205-day Type C..:n,'d .ion
weight weight score score

31.3 202.6
34.2 216.7
29.2 202.2
32.9 203.5
33.9 218.1
32.7 215.1





a. Score code: 9 = low good; 10 = avg. good; 11 = high good; 12 = low choice.
b. 1 kg = 2.205 pounds.

by Crockett et al. (2) when Brahman bulls were mated to Brahman
X British cows. The average birth weights of Limousin- and
Simmental-sired calves out of Angus and Hereford dams were
lighter than those of the same type matings reported by Smith et al.
(6) and Chapman et al. (1). Calves sired by Maine-Anjou bulls were
approximately 26% lighter at birth than those reported by the U.S.
Meat Animal Research Center at Clay Center, Nebraska (3).

Calving Ease

Calving ease is discussed here since calving difficulty may result
when using sires of the larger exotic breeds on dams from the
smaller Angus and Hereford breeds (4,6). Calving ease was recorded


** *







in this study but was not statistically analyzed. Unassisted live
birth, rather than calving ease score, was used to describe this trait
since anything but normal, unassisted calving constitutes a prob-
lem in beef cattle production. Dams producing calves sired by Beef-
master bulls had the highest percentage of unassisted live births
with 94.6% (Table 3). Calves sired by Brahman bulls had the lowest
percentage of unassisted live births with 85.6%. It has been ob-
served that Brahman calves and calves of Brahman crossbred foun-
dation breeds (i.e., Brangus, Beefmaster, Braford, and Santa Ger-
trudis) are usually more narrow and angular at birth than calves of
British and European breeding, which allows them to pass more
easily through the pelvic canal. In this study most of the assisted or
stillborn Brahman-sired calves were sired by a bull whose calves
showed a more blocky conformation than is usually found in
Brahman-sired calves. This suggests that calf shape was more of a
problem than heavy birth weights in Brahman-sired calves. In con-
trast to the low unassisted live births percentage of the Brahman,
the Maine-Anjou (a large, rather rectangular breed) sired calves
with the second highest unassisted live births rate at 93.4%.
Brangus-sired calves from Brangus dams had 93.0% unassisted live
births compared to 89.4% from Angus and Hereford dams. Calving
difficulty was not attributed to age of dam since all cows calved

TABLE 3. Birth and survival traits for sire and dam breeds.
Total Total Survival
calves calves rate ULBb ULB
Breed born weaned (%) (no.) (%)
Beefmaster 224 207 92.4 212 94.6
Brangusc 47 42 89.4 42 89.4
Brangusd 57 53 93.0 53 93.0
Brahman 125 106 84.8 107 85.6
Limousin 134 123 91.8 124 92.5
Maine-Anjou 137 123 89.8 128 93.4
Simmental 116 101 87.1 105 90.5
Total or Average 840 755 89.9 769 91.8

Angus 260 228 88.0 231 88.8
Brangus 314 288 91.7 292 93.0
Hereford 266 239 89.8 246 92.5
a. Survival rate = Calves weaned/calves born.
b. ULB = Unassisted live birth.
c. Brangus sires mated to Angus and Hereford cows.
d. Straightbred Brangus matings.

first at 3 years, and since no definite trend appeared. Angus females
had fewer unassisted live births than Brangus and Hereford females
(88.8, 93.0, and 92.5%, respectively).

Weaning Rate

Weaning rate is one of the most important traits of commercial
beef cattle, and is usually computed as the ratio of calves weaned to
cows in the herd during the breeding season. Weaning rate is a func-
tion of the combination of conception rate and survival rate (birth to
weaning). This combined trait is not a meaningful ratio in this study
because the complications of artificial insemination result in low
conception rates. Therefore, survival rate was used to describe an
important part of weaning rate that may be related to breeds of sire
and dam.
The overall survival rate was 89.9% (Table 3). Straightbred
Brangus calves were the highest at 93.0%, and the Brahman-sired
crossbred calves the lowest at 84.8%. In general, weaning rate
percentages were closely related to unassisted live birth ratios, with
few deaths from birth to weaning. The highest percent birth to
weaning loss occurred in Maine-Anjou- and Simmental-sired calves.

Weaning Weight

The calculated 205-day weight was used in this study to measure
relative weaning weight. It was necessary to calculate to a standard
age due to the difference in age of calves sired during the A.I. season
compared to calves sired during the clean-up portion of the breeding
Analysis of the data showed that the 205-day weight was
significantly affected (P<.01) by sire breed, dam breed, and sire
breed X dam breed interaction (Table 1). Calves sired by Maine-
Anjou, Brahman, and Simmental bulls were comparable at 218.1,
216.7, and 215.1 kg (481, 478, and 474 pounds), respectively (Table
2). The Limousin-, Beefmaster-, and Brangus-sired calves were
grouped at 203.5, 202.6, and 202.2 kg (449, 447, and 446 pounds),
Brangus dams weaned significantly heavier calves than Angus
and Hereford dams. This may be explained by a combination of
higher milk production of Brangus females and slightly heavier
birth weights of their calves. The 205-day weight was the only pre-
weaning trait significantly influenced by sire breed X dam breed in-
teraction. This effect was probably due to Brangus dams consistent-
ly producing heavier calves regardless of breed of sire (Table Al).

Multiple mean cQmparisons using Duncan's New Multiple Range
Test (7) showed that Angus dams produced significantly heavier
calves sired by Brahman, Maine-Anjou, and Simmental bulls than
did Hereford dams mated to the same sire breeds.

Type and Condition Score

While these scores are subjective evaluations they do offer a
method of phenotypically describing calves at weaning. The same
type of appraisal is made by buyers at selling time and is therefore
related to market price.
Type or conformation score describes the general structure or
type of feeder calf. Sire breed and dam breed both had a significant
effect (P<.01) on conformation. Simmental, Brangus, and Maine-
Anjou calves were evaluated as slightly more desirable than calves
from the other sire breeds, although the differences were so small
(Table 3) that it is doubtful whether they would be economically
Condition score generally is believed to reflect mainly the milking
ability of the dam, the environment, and to a small extent the
genetic ability of the calf. This study, however, showed sire breed of
the calf to be very important. Calves sired by Brahman and
Brangus bulls were evaluated as being slightly fatter than calves
sired by the other breeds (Table 2). This characteristic probably
reflected hybrid vigor and genetic adaptability to the subtropical

Feedlot Traits

Analysis of the feedlot data (Table 4) indicated that sire breed in-
fluenced initial weight, final weight, and average daily gain (P<.01).
Breed of dam had a more significant effect on initial and final
weight (P<.01), than did sire breed X dam breed interaction
Brahman-, Maine-Anjou-, and Simmental-sired steer calves had
similar initial feedlot weights with 296, 287, and 290 kg (653, 634,
and 639 pounds) and finished at similar weights with 524, 524, and
506 kg (1155, 1155, and 1120 pounds), respectively (Table 5). The
Beefmaster-, and Limousin-sired calves were also similar with 272
and 270 kg (600 and 595 pounds) initial weights and 488 and 489 kg
(1076 and 1078 pounds) final weights, respectively.
Average daily gain in the feedlot was affected (P<.01) by breed of
sire but not by breed of dam or sire breed X dam breed interaction.

Daily gains ranged from 1.37 kg (3 pounds) for steers sired by
Maine-Anjou bulls to 1.15 kg (2.5 pounds) for steers sired by
Brangus bulls (Table 5). Multiple mean comparisons indicated
significant differences between all sire breeds for this trait.
Feed conversion (Table 5) was analyzed separately due to the
limited information obtained by group feeding by sire groups each
year. The date showed that Maine-Anjou-sired calves were slightly
more efficient with a 6.44:1 conversion rate, and that steers sired by
Simmental bulls were least efficient at 7.01:1. The analysis,
however, indicated that if breed of sire differences did exist, they
were small.

TABLE 4. Analyses of variance for feedlot traits.
Source df '..eight
Sire breed (SB) 5 **

Dam breed (DB)
Year (Y)
W'.'. ninri; age (linear)
** = P< .01.
= P< .05.
NS = Non-significant.



-~Avg. daily

Avg. daily



TABLE 5. Least squares means of feedlot traits for sire and dam breeds.


Initial Final Avg. daily
No. weight weight gain
------------------------kg --...--------..-....
33 272 488 1.19
36 296 524 1.29
36 279 477 1.15
34 270 489 1.27
32 287 524 1.37
36 290 506 1.25

273 494
303 526
271 484

Ratio of


a. Kilograms of feed per kilogram of gain calculated on dry matter basis.
b. Steers were fed by sire groups; therefore, it was not possible to measure dam
effects on feed conversion.
c. 1 kg = 2.205 pounds.





Carcass Traits

Analysis of variance for carcass traits is shown in Table 6. Breed
of sire had highly significant (P<.01) effects on fat thickness, ribeye
area, and yield grade. Dam breed influenced (P<.05) all of the
response traits studied and there was a highly significant (P<.01)
interaction of sire breed X dam breed on ribeye area. Brahman-sired
calves had the highest yield grade (3.6), more fat thickness (1.50 cm
(.6 inch)) highest quality grade (11.6 high good), and highest
marbling score (11.2 average small amount) of all the steers in
this study (Table 7). Steers sired by Brahman, Beefmaster, and
Brangus bulls were all similar in fat thickness at 1.50, 1.45, and 1.24
cm (.59, .57, and .49 inch), respectively, while those sired by Sim-

TABLE 6. Analyses of variance for carcass traits.
Marbling Fat Ribeye Quality Yield
Source df score thickness area grade grade
Sire breed (SB) 5 NS ** ** NS **
Dam breed (DB) 2 *
Year (Y) 3 ** ** NS **
Weaning age
(linear) 1 NS ** NS NS NS
Remainder 185
** = P< .01.
= P< .05.
NS = Non-significant.

TABLE 7. Least squares means of carcass traits for sire and dam breeds.
Fat Ribeye
Marbling thickness area Quality Yield
Breed No. scorea (cm)b (cm2)b grade grade
Beefmaster 33 10.9 1.45 76 11.3 3.2
Brahman 36 11.2 1.50 75 11.6 3.6
Brangus 36 10.7 1.24 68 11.3 3.4
Limousin 34 9.1 .78 82 10.8 2.4
Maine-Anjou 32 10.1 .86 83 11.3 2.5
Simmental 36 9.6 .86 78 10.7 2.7
Angus 54 10.8 1.09 79 11.4 2.8
Brangus 95 9.5 1.22 79 10.8 3.1
Hereford 58 10.5 1.07 74 11.3 3.0
a. 9 = slight+; 10 = small -; 11 = average small.
b. 1 cm = .394 inch; 1 cm2 = .155 square inch.
c. 10 = average good; 11 = high good; 12 = low choice.

mental, Maine-Anjou, and Limousin were also similar at .86, .86,
and .78 cm (.34, .34, and .31 inch), respectively. Steers from Brangus
dams were slightly fatter than those for Hereford and Angus dams.
The yield grades of exotic-sired steers were significantly lower than
those of the Brahman and Brahman-derivative sires (2.4, 2.5, and
2.7 vs. 3.2, 3.4, and 3.6). Brangus-sired steers had the smallest
average ribeye area at 68 cm2 (10.54 square inches) and the Maine-
Anjou steers the largest ribeye area at 83 cm2 (12.86 square inches).


Data from five weaned calf crops and four feedlot trials compar-
ing progeny sired by Beefmaster, Brahman, Brangus, Limousin,
Maine-Anjou, and Simmental from Angus, Brangus, and Hereford
females are presented. Highly significant differences between sire
breeds (P<.01) were found for birth weight, 205-day weight, type
score, and condition score. The heaviest birth weights were ob-
served from Brahman- and Maine-Anjou-sired calves, averaging
34.2 and 33.9 kg (76 and 75 pounds), respectively. The same sire
breeds produced the heaviest average 205-day weights at 218.1 and
216.7 kg (481 and 478 pounds), respectively. Brangus-sired calves
were lightest at birth and 205 days, averaging 29.2 and 202.2 kg (64
and 446 pounds). Beefmaster and Limousin calves were slightly
heavier at birth than were Brangus-sired calves, averaging 31.1 and
32.9 kg (69 and 73 pounds), but had similar 205-day weights averag-
ing 202.6 and 203.5 kg (447 and 449 pounds), respectively. Calves
from Brangus dams were significantly (P<.01) heavier at 205 days
than were calves from Angus and Hereford dams, averaging 224.5
kg (494 pounds) vs. 204.2 and 200.5 kg (495 and 442 pounds), respec-
Feedlot traits studied indicated that steers sired by Maine-Anjou
bulls had the highest average daily gain, averaging 1.37 kg (3.02
pounds) with a feed to gain ratio of 6.44:1. Brangus-sired calves
showed the least desirable overall performance with 1.15 kg (2.54
pounds) average daily gain and a feed to gain ratio of 6.99:1. There
were no significant differences between the breed of dam groups for
average daily gain.
Analysis of carcass traits showed that sire breed had a highly
significant (P<.01) effect on fat thickness, ribeye area, and yield
grade. Steers sired by bulls of the exotic breeds had less fat over the
12th rib and subsequently lower yield grades than steers sired by
Brahman and Brahman-derivative bulls. The average quality
grades for all breed groups were USDA Good. Although the dif-

ferences were small, steers sired by Brahmans and Brahman-
derivatives averaged slightly higher than did the Limousin and
Simmental calves for this trait. Breed of dam influenced (P<.05) all
the carcass traits reported in this study. Steers from Angus and
Hereford dams had slightly higher marbling scores, less fat
thickness, and higher quality grades than did steers from Brangus
dams, but yield grades were similar.
Each of the sire breeds ranked differently for the various traits
and stages of beef production. It was concluded that the Beefmaster
sires had a more desirable performance in unassisted live births,
survival rate, and relatively light birth weights; however, concep-
tion rate was not available in this study. At the second stage (wean-
ing) the Brahman sire breed was ranked first, and at the third pro-
duction level (feedlot) the Maine-Anjou was considered the best per-
forming sire breed. Maine-Anjou and Limousin sire breeds were
similar and ranked at the top of the final stage (carcass). It might be
possible that using dams representing other breeds might alter the
rankings of the sire breeds studied; however, it is doubtful that any
great changes would occur.
Possibly one or all of the exotic breeds will find a place in beef cat-
tle production in the United States, performing well under most en-
vironments. Although sire breed X dam breed interaction did not
have a great overall effect on this study, sire breed X dam breed
response of each trait is presented in the appendix tables for further


1. Chapman, Hollis D., E. G. Morrison, and Ned C. Edwards, Jr, 1978.
Limousin and Simmental sires mated with Angus and Hereford cows. J.
Anim. Sci. 46:341.
2. Crockett, J. R., R. W. Kidder, M. Koger, and D. W. Beardsley. 1978. Beef
production in a crisscross breeding system involving the Angus,
Brahman and Hereford. Fla. Agr. Expt. Stas. Bul. (Tech.) 759.
3. Germ Plasm Evaluation Report. Progress Report No. 4. June, 1976.
United States Meat Animal Research Center. Clay Center, Nebraska.
4. Gregory, Keith E., Larry V. Cundiff, Gerald M. Smith, D. B. Lasater,
and H. A. Fitzhugh, Jr. 1978. Characterization of biological types of cat-
tle Cycle 11:1. Birth and weaning traits. J. Anim. Sci. 47:1022.
5. Harvey, Walter R. 1960. Least-squares analyses of data with unequal
subclass numbers. U.S.D.A. ARS 20-8.
6. Smith, Gerald M., D. B. Lasater, and Keith E. Gregory. 1976.
Characterization of biological types of cattle. I. Dystocia and prewean-
ing growth. J. Anim. Sci. 43:27.
7. Steel, R. G. D., and J. H. Torrie. 1960. Principles and procedures of
statistics. McGraw-Hill Book Co., Inc., New York.


The authors wish to express their sincere appreciation to Noba, Inc., Tif-
fin, Ohio, for their generous support during the course of this study.


TABLE Al. Least squares means of preweaning traits for sire beed X dam
breed interaction.
Birth 205-day Type Condition
Sire Dam weight, kgc weight, kg score score
breeda breeda No. mean mean mean mean
Bf A 57 29.9 196.6 11.5 9.3
Bg 75 32.0 212.3 11.9 9.8
H 75 32.0 198.0 11.7 9.3

Br A 32 32.8 216.4 12.0 10.4
Bg 41 34.4 224.2 12.2 10.6
H 33 35.3 209.6 11.7 9.8

Bg A 17 28.1 197.0 12.0 9.8
Bg 53 30.9 217.1 12.8 10.7
H 25 28.7 192.7 12.1 9.9

L A 44 31.2 193.6 11.9 9.2
Bg 44 33.3 221.0 12.4 9.5
H 35 34.2 196.0 11.7 8.9

M-A A 39 32.2 213.1 12.2 9.4
Bg 38 35.6 238.3 12.6 9.9
H 46 34.0 203.0 12.0 9.1

S A 39 31.4 208.1 12.5 10.2
Bg 37 33.8 234.2 12.6 10.2
H 25 32.9 203.0 12.1 9.0
a. Bf = Beefmaster; Br = Brahman; Bg = Brangus; L = Limousin;
M-A = Maine-Anjou; S = Simmental; A = Angus; H = Hereford.
b. Score code: 9 = low good; 10 = avg. good; 11 = high good; 12 = low choice.
c. 1 kg = 2.205 pounds.

TABLE A2. Least squares means of feedlot traits for sire breed X dam
breed interaction.
Sire Dam Initial Final Avg. daily
breeda breeda No. weight weight gain
------- -----------.-kgb.. ------...............
Bf A 6 255 475 1.20
Bg 18 284 502 1.18
H 9 277 487 1.19






a. BF = Beefmaster; Br = Brahman; Bg = Brangus; L = Limousin;
M-A = Maine-Anjou; S = Simmental; A = Angus; H = Hereford.
b. 1 kg = 2.205 pounds.

TABLE A3. Least squares means of carcass traits for sire breed X dam
breed interaction.
Fat Ribeye
Sire Dam Marbling thickness area Quality Yield
breeda breeda No. score (cmd) (cm2)e grade grade
Bf A 6 12.1 1.57 77.4 12.1 3.3
Bg 18 9.1 1.47 73.6 10.2 3.4
H 9 11.5 1.32 76.8 11.5 3.0

Br A 11 12.1
Bg 16 10.2
H 9 11.3

Bg A 6 11.5
Bg 21 9.3
H 9 11.3

L A 10
Bg 14
H 10

M-A A 10 9.8
Bg 10 10.1
H 12 10.3

79.4 12.0 3.6
73.6 10.9 3.9
73.6 11.9 3.3

79.3 11.6 3.0
71.6 10.6 3.5
63.9 11.8 3.6

83.9 10.3 2.0
83.9 11.0 2.6
78.1 11.1 2.5

85.8 11.3 2.2
89.7 11.3 2.6
73.6 11.1 2.9

S A 11 10.5 .89 78.1 11.0 2.7
Bg 16 9.0 .89 78.1 10.4 2.7
H 9 9.2 .84 77.4 10.6 2.6
a. Bf = Beefmaster; Br = Brahman; Bg = Brangus; L = Limousin;
M-A = Maine-Anjou; S = Simmental; A = Angus; H = Hereford.
b. 9 = slight+; 10 = small-; 11 = average small; 12 = small.
c. 10 = average good; 11 = high good; 12 = low choice.
d. 1 cm = .394 inches.
e. 1 cm2 = .155 square inches.

JUL 5 1932 JUL ';

'M.910.~lLr~r~ 1nr~

This publication was promulgated at a cost of $1631.37, or 40.7
cents per copy, to disseminate research results to the Florida
cattle industry. 3-4M-81

All programs and related activities sponsored or assisted by the
Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations are open to all persons
regardless of race, color, national origin, age, sex, or handicap.


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.

Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida

University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs