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 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 Summary
 Preface
 Methods and materials
 Host: Parasite list
 Parasite: Host list
 The nature of the parasite-host...
 Discussion
 Literature cited
 Acknowledgement
 Addendum
 Back Cover
 Historic note


UF FLAG IFAS




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1lleParasitesoftIRStaphylinidae(CoIeoplera)ACaeln...tioooT_ ... Enl:,..Iol'ed;aor....Slo""'"_

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61 CONTENTS SUMMARY. PREFACE .......................... METIKDS AND MATERIAl.S .......... lilcnlweSeardi.NamesofHoslS ....................... ExplanalionofHosl:ParllsileLisl .. ExplanaliOl1ofPar.uile:H05ILisl .................. EmerdalioosloNamesofLaboulbeniales UnpublishedBernhallC1"N:unes HOST:PARASITE UST Pieslinx6; 6; Omaliinac: 8; Oxytelinac9:Steninac:16;EuaesllllelinaeI6;PaederinaeI7;XanlholininaeJI;SlaphylininaeJJ:Trichophyinac48;Tachyporinae4\1:AleocharinaeSI:Suhfamilia locognitaS!iI. PARASITE:HOSTUST Gk:leotwstOriacex 61; f't)Titsdliellaceae6l;Laboulbeniacex68;CeraIOffi)Cetaeeae7S:EnI(:mophlhorac<-x76;Hyphonl)'ttICS76; Aetinocephalidae 76: Grcgarinidae 77; NOSt'ntalidac 77: Allanl00cnlalldac 77: Entaphelcnchidac 78: DiplOSlmeridac78:Rhabdilidae79;Mermilhj
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RelKicm.hipsAR'OJIlWlheHostS .. Cmclusion ....102"'.117L1TERATUREcmo .ACKNOWLEDGMENTS. ADDENDUM.

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SUMMARY A literalU",5"Mdltheail.lCllCeofreeord$ofpat'lsile$ from morettlln 540 species,allsubfamilies.ofS.ylinidx.AhosI:para$ilC liSland a paf1ISilC::hosI liscWU'ecompikdtoliveusylCttS5 10 thelilmll"..,.Manycllhenamesol"paruill;'S are on namesoftmrho!;ts,and ina f_instances parasites "ie-elIlIlTlI:d in misundenolandingallllmesol"lhehosts;clTlI:nd:llionstoaremade in theinterAbout470speciesofpafilSilesarerecttded.Mosl(>380)beloogtoLabouJheniales(Fungi: andare cCIlsidered tobe true parasiles.Twelve speciesaIGloed1austoriales (Fungi: lXuleromyceles).one ofEntornophthorales (Fungi: Zygomycetes), and oneofHyplunycetes (Fulllli)ruordcd.AITOOSISOspeciesof Nemala arc listed,someofwhichare parasites, and otlw$are phoreties. Seventeen speQesofHymrnoplml (InsttUI) are parasitoids. At least (;vespeciesofGrcprinidaandMicrosporida(I'rolOlOa)areparasiles.OnespedesofpllmilicIJJr'sdWr\\OO1l(Nemaloonpha:Gcxdioidea).onephornic(Insecta:CoIeop1en1). and feMspeciesofptDtticmild(Arachnida:Aarina)areliSled.Evidcnceforco-cvolu6onalLabouIbeniaiesaDdthe:irsuphylinidhoslsi$$lrorag.Oro.JrrtlladgmcndLaboulbeniaiessMkmllO be reason for loUpposillgthe phylelic prolIimilydhost subfamilies. ThiSloUpposed pmr.imil)'m3)'bcuseduanaid to dadiltieanalysisbywnvenmobililyofadulliooividualsof'ilsspecies.Conversely.highmobililyisseenas a barrier lOadaplivespecialionbyhymenoplcrousparasiloids.CI1II biological disciplincs. Una busqucdaenlalilCralllnlm/elo la odslencia de reginros de parisilos en mas denpecies.reprnenlando todasIulubfamiliasmayores.deStaph)'linidae.Lisasdch..c$pCd:p;uisilOypacisilo:huC.spedfuc:roa romPi1adasp;ua facilitarelaeecwalalila'atuno.MldmdelosllOlllbresdelosparisilOSe5ranbasadostlielnombredesusyenalgunosCtiOSIo5 parisitOl fueron nombndosboljo maJelllendi1'IClItIbres.,sieteespecindeuboulbenialesp;uadanlkar II nomendatutll:ac:

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Cm:adc:47Qespeciudeparisiloshansidorrgi$lDOh$.LalT8)'lllia(>J8O)pmeDenalosLabouibenililes (Fungi:AKUn)"CC1e5)Y5OlleonsitknK\al;c:omo palisilOSvcnbderos.Doce e5peciesdeCloeoh:lustoriales (Fungi: Oe\uerorrty cCles), unadeEnlomophlhoralcs(Fun!i:y una de Hypoomy algurusdelascuale$sonparasilOsyouIS$(Nlforericas.DiccisiclcespccicsdeH)mcnoplera.(II'lSlI) 5OIIp.aruiloicb.Por 10 mcnoscincoespcciesdeCregar. inida y Microsporidawnbien5(JfIparisilOS. Una especiedeguSinodecrin(/'/em:IIClaocurrenciadegc"""",deLaboulbeni.tmespedc:spenenettrlados 0 mis subfamilias. comoraziJnsuflciemcpanl5.U'ponIl'"
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PREFACEFor several years. I have claimed lhallam interested inthenatural hislQryof Sliphylinid:le.TheeJllcnt ofmy knowledsc has never satisfied me, regardlessofwhclhcrl couldans"'Cfspecificqueslionsaskcd mcbycoilcll:ueswanling information.IfIam required 10 haveancncyclotxdkknowledge (osupportmy claim,thenllohallhavelocoostructanencydapcdiabySCOllrilllllhelitmllureandasscmblinclheinfonnationlhusabstnclcd into a form usablc100Iha's.Thescpa.gesc:onlainanabslJXlofalllhaoeleamedaboulpuuitesolSl:lpbylinidae.PIoruileSofStaphylinidac: areonlyoneaspoctofthenatural hi$loryofther.mily.Sizcclthefamily...jlhmorelhan28,OOOspcciesdescribWbyl96S. andI' least 3,416species<::llanl in America I10rth ofMaico {Frank &: Curtis. 1979),haslhecffe.:llhatcvcnlhoughrunuralhisloryofonlyaverysmallper<;enlagt ofspel:ics has been studied Dlall, Ihe volumeofinformalion is large. MOSllIlOnOllJ1Il'hicworks on thefamily unfortunately make little reference
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METHODSANDMATERIALSLITERATURESEARCH 'Thefrom ""hich hou:plIr1Isite 2nd p;mIsitc:hosIliw;..compiln.l..1979.Thcw:lisuareinlendcdlobccomplclcupunlilmidI919.bullhedivcrsilyoflileralure makes il probable lhal I havc:overlookcd$OC(:s.Thus,anycrrorsofdtationarcminc. Dates of publicatiOll ofsom<:."iclcs on Laboulb<:nialcs.cspecially$OmcofIheanielesbyThaxlCf. 3R'OOscure. ForCllamplc.lhe firSI partofTnuler's"Conlribuliontowards a ITIOIlO&raphoflheLaboulbcniaccae" bears the date rdermlwu1895byPicard(l917) andCoU,,{l925j. as1896byHake(I924)andHincl
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liSl;here. thenameoIlhehost is wablished,bultheremainsobscurelhooghpo$siblyiktennin;lbleby':umimliooolBc:rnh:olltl"'swllrioninroajunclioowilhhisunpubiishedOOlel.m;urusnipls.andkllcrs.Alislofll>c:seunpublished RcrnllauerII:IITlCS is included al lhe enddlhc:ITW:ll1odsandmalcrialsscelion. Changes in thenomenclalureoflhe Slapllylinidae arc unavoidable given lllepresenlslatedknov .. tedgeollhefamily.lnscva1llinslanc:cs,aulhorsdrecordsh3\'(:citedgmeric: andIorspecirlC names"'ilidlare junior synonyms, or"'ilich for otha"reasons are not nowac:apted.Attq>tedgenmc-namesareliSled in both lheIlosl:pansill:andpansill::hostlisu;thehost;p;uuile lisl iscrOS$->lnwcdSOlhaIUn:lttcplcdgenericnalTW:s.rerderabletoaccq>tc4....m<: ..... hilespecific synonymies are indiealed under accepled specific name. Ina few in slances, wlJcrcIIoSInameswereciledasunidentified ofunaccepled ge,nerienam<:s.ilisunclcarastowhalgcneriemmcloapply.andinlhescinstances I h3\'(:hadnooplionbulto retainlheUnattqlledgeDCticname.8cn1h1uer&Schubcn(191Q-1916),8cmhaucr&Schoerpdtz(1926),Schttrpchz(1933-1934),Blao:bddcr(l'M3,19-W.19S2).L.d'lse(I964.1974),Hcrman (1970,1976).and Hammond (1971), usingBlllCk....e1der (1952) almosl ClIelusively asa guidc 10 gencrie synonymy. EXPLANATION OFHOST:PARASITEUSf Subfamities01Suphylintdx from ,",'hid!PMlsitaareare:Piatinac.Osoriinx.Omaliinac,Oxyldinac,Sleninac.Euacslhetinac.Pacdcrinac,Xanlholininac. Staphylininac. Trichopllyinac.Tachypoorinae,and Alcochari nac. This arrangemenlof subfamilies conforms 10conservative classifiealion in botll Nortll America and Europe. perhaps willi thecxecption IllalXanllOlininuare lrealcd asasubfamily following Coiffail(1972)andSmeuna(1977). Pan.liileS do notsecmto havebeenrecorded from the wbfamiliC$ Protcininac, Pbklcodlarinac. Psalllopsinac, Lcptot)'p11linac.Oxyporinae,Meplopsidiinac,andUabrocainac.SubCamiliesofSuphylinidacan:lIl'aledinsequcnoeinrli.cated above. Genera wilhineachsubfamilyandspceiC$wilhineachge .... s arelrealedalpll:tbetieally,execpllllalllni(\enlirK"dspeciesolcachgcnusaretisledfollowing named species, unideOlified genera of cadi subfamily are lislcd aflCrnamedgc... ra. andunideOlific4Suphylinidac(subfarnilyunkoown) arc hSled foIlowil'1lAlcocharilllOf:. U ......""P\edgennicnamesofhostsusedinlilcralureon parasilesan:crossreferre
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IllisW2$known to be in daub!.cMablishing ido:tttily ofllost if originalriI\Qst:parlI!iitcawxiatiQnlllshcctrerorckd, EXPLANATION OFPARASITE:HOST LIST Par1Isilcs. panlsitc>ids. and phorctic:sofStapllylinidac belong to ordaGloe
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h3pptnedbyIYJ'lO&l1l9hialcnor.a$lheresullulmislelltlingormisreadillJulhavealrcady been emended.Thus,CQI"nhro"')ussnigerus 181) waliemended IOC.sclig...by Saccardo{11I95:449) (orltlOgraphy).Oichomycrsfurrifm'lTh,mcr(1895: 184) wascmenclcdtoD.furrifnby Saccardo( 1895:447)(onhognphy).Con/horontyJ bUdiiThauer(1890: 10)WIlS emellded 10C. ble diibyThuter(1896:271)(hoslisBledi",).Stidtowlpss/iliro/llsThuICJ(1902:24)...-ucmclWSed lOS. uilirirolabySaccardo&SlIcardo(I905:9l1)(onhogRphy).Stim-ys("0lIO_Thulcr(I90Ib:38),,'Ucmenclcd 105. ronosOtNl/isby Main: (1920:147) (onhoj;nlphy).DilftQl"J'homyets"",rt)rlf'\'OtThaxler( 1912a: 158)"'ascmendcd 100. nrrrOl1croebyThaxtcr(1924:323)(ttost isMr,.."...r,,).Di",rrom)'ccs 6}'roph"rni"rThaxtcr( 1920a:268) was emended 10D. lO'rophorn"eby Th",;!er (1924:321) (host is G)'roph"etuJ). Con/hronryecsIUfCigrrws1baxter(1912a:ISS),,'Ucm:ndcdIOC.II..nger byTroncr(1926:1lS)..'UemendcdlOD.plrIDn1fNWlolMniTha.\1cr(1931;317)bccomc$ C. pula",ini(host is Po/omi""s): Conlitrotn)'CtSdochltOChilillwua(1931; 193) becomes C. ducnochl/I(host is Dacnochi/us): DichOfn)'CtStldyuiThaxlcr (1931:12) bceoo\Cs D. ru/iui{host,,"s slaled10 beiIIuans E,." error for Eulissus il/UUlIS(ErichSQn),butsceXonrho!i .... s in hosI:pansile and parasitc;host lisls);Mrionomyrudi/)efOllitisl1laxter(1931;270)bec:omesM.dilNlllrtt'tis(hosI is DiNlortt'lt's):rryrilrljella.ryriro/tJThulCJ(1931:19)beCUIlC$P.;:,yrirola(hostisZ)TU$);SpJuJ1er.-'1'usbrach)drril1laxlcr(I900:442)LatC
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Il3mcs remain problematical.nnulNlllJ Thaxter (192Ol.:L"O) ... ...sElntJiJ(Slapllylini<.lx). bul admilled UIallllle hosl had been misidenlifiedmenlioned in !Iost:paruiteorpafasitC:hoslliSlS.MQ/lOirom)l"ts ItplOfrachtlacThaxtcr(1913:30) misspclltd byThaxlCl'(1931:43)asM./tplOmldrtli,was re BcrnllallC'r";Bcrnliauerappc:auOOllohavedcs<.:ribla$l;lphylinidlindcrlhiSll3me.andlllleiikmityoflheho:sl:reQl;l;ns obscuresintcuplOfrwhtlasecTtIli001 10 beallidgc""-KnarneinzoolosyMonoit'OtN]t"stl")pcfMlbaxla(1931:SO) ... 'Uemcndtdlo .. ).but8eDjamin(I97I:143) .. tiskgilimateKCOl'dingloarticlc62oltlllelnlern:llionalCodcofBotaninlNomentlalUn:(Ioc.cil.)andmust bcl'l:laincd.1ltcn:isnocvidcntcIhatThaxlcrbclic ... cd(he hosllO be a ny ofthcgcttUsTrYfOralhcrthanabccl!cof'lhcl,>ellusGII}jwIsoooIok4IMllIlIClUiJ.C.,rinidatJ.-/Ut:AUOCIlARlNA5:AIMIOdlilcnsis.A.>'C"f':o/OnD.G)'rop""tNJH_lotopstudocribn"". "op/olldria carillirol/is, U, quod rirkll/(lIU, Muuoc/!(lra s'''''''lrfllSls. PhlgiuJ(' gmciliCQrtlis. Pl:IIyo/uphi lipp;tl(l. /'fQllOllUlfUJUtlllllrtflJis.PygoSlftUlSIwmu"MlIsis(probablyisTypltlO
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HOST: PARASITE LISTPIESTINAE PiU1IISbirDrttisI..aponc:Corr/llromyctS pirniroltJ'Thaxter 1931: 208: Costa Rica.PitSlUsminUIUS Erichsoo:DiaphoromJctszirOflh""i(Thaxtcr),Thuler 1926' 508; Trinidad. Pi"SIIlSptl/idllalus(Dalman)(: P.SinD/uS (Gray:ConthronlYCtspits/;PitslllSsrillOslIs(Fabricius)(=P.ox)'lelinllsl't:rty):CtIf't/hrott,yrtsp;"slleolaThuterI93];2Q8;Vcl1Czucia.Pit'slu,sp.indet.Sharp:Diap/loromyus:JrophorifThnll:r),Tha.\lerI926:S08;Trinilbd. PitS/WSSP. inde1.:Rktia:J,..moriThaxlcr 1916: S2.lransf.adDiapJooromyet's tiropltori(Thaxu:r), Thaxter 1926: 508: Trinidad. OSORIINAE Boro/i".., bironlisNabnc&SaWllda:/tplorlJiriThuler.S4Jgi)'2llUlI978.a: 156.Tenda1m:126:hpan.8oro1illUsjal'Qnjf1ls(upone):MolloicQllfyc'tslq>todoiriThaucrl90S:3Qol.1908:21:2,SugiyamaI978a:156:lndonuia(Java).BoroIi/ll's minu(us (Laportc):MonofcomyctJIrplochir;"Thaxter 1905: 304,1908: 272; Indonesia(hva).mvd: 1931: 36S:Camaoon.E/tIlJisn:>lIlT/QfQShoorp:Sugiy.omil 1913: 3&, 1974:13: Jap;ln.Elfll$isconrm/riFauvel:l(a;,u>mycaismIWIiThaxter 1901b: 4S, 1908: 44S,1931:364,SugiyaIll31978a:ISS:Tanzania.EltIlsjs 1I",..ilisErichsen:I(Qi_yuslrytJU""sTCTlllb 1978: S6: Tai ..JtIlJisJ:rot./:iFauvd:isoma/jTh:ulcr."Th:nlCr 1931: 364,Sugjy.omaI97kISS;Pltilippincs,lndon:sia(SufTI;!tn),ThiVo2ll.FauveI;KaiTlOmy
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EltI'SislligurimaF:luvel:O"lIlransicpJisSp:puini11118:3L1;Al'gle1llina. EI&JispinoK"i_ycni_Ii1lwr.1Cr. Collart 26; 'Zaire. l1le following IWOspecies names allribuled 10 Bemhauerapp:arnollObe valid. MOlloicomyctsThaxler L1I31:41: Veoc:zuela EI .. usis schwabi";K"inont)'C<'$isOnt(J/i'ThaXler,Thuler 11131: 364.Sugiyam;.11l78a: ISS:Cameroon.....yc .. ..ns(Thal.ler).T'lw.ICr 11124: 32S;Cameroon; (2) Kai_yceli-UnWlIer.1'hu.1a19Jl;J6S;Camaoon.lndonesia(Jao,'ll).M21:l)"sia(Sarn'llk). Hoiosulsp. indel.: Rir:kia,os",/Ia/a Thuler 1926: 496:Indonesia (Sumalra). upr(K:hi,."s .. duxSharp:(I)SlyloctphalrosfllsijuusElIisL912:686,lransf.ll
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(Eridlson): (I) Rictio/iJPitliThuter1912&: 160. zini 1911: 666. tnllSf. ad Diopltorotnyus/ispini(Thuler).Thuter1926:508;Argentina.Guatemala: (2) ClIolltrrJl/siopsisboIsoerell.JisSpegauini1918: 317;Argenlina: il hoslspecimcns(ofboIh parasiles) from Argenlina bcloogloLispinusspeguuiniiBernhauer.NeoSO'ilUoptKulus(Eppclshcim):MOIIOiconl)'Usosoriottl'a""beSUIUMannerhcim:CompSOWlycesThula-.lbaxlcr 1908:428.Picard 1913b: 556.Balazuc 1973b:2SO. 1974: 367,Majewsk.i 1973b:23I,RossiI978:64:Scodand,Polaoo,haly. Lts/rt'Q,-i/lo,JiRcy: (1) Compsomyculesll!>uf.'Thaxler,Balazuc 1973b:

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250: France: (2) Labo/benio ?,'ulgoris Pcyritseh. 1974: 314: sp. indct,:Compmmycu Thaxter. Thaxter 1908: 428. Picard 1913b; 556. 1973b: 250. France.Microlym"", murina (Stroem)( '" M. (Gyllenhal: (I)Richasp indel. Balazue 1974: 368: Sweden:(2)PlatymischuJsp.ir>dct.(Hymenop tera. Diapriidac). Wailes 1859: 98. ElIion& Morley 1907:II. probably in errorbccausePlolyrnischus isa parasitcof Diptera: England OmaliumcaUum Gravenhorst: Orthomermis oeJobronchUJ Poinar 1%5: 504.Shcphard 1974: 131. Poinar 1975: 172; England. OmaliumeXCUlmum Stephens: RickiaUlnc/lii Rossi& QsariRossi 1978'71;haly. Omalium rivulore (Paykull): Gregorina ormllino Foerster 1938:186; PoJar>dPoroph/oeoslibo .wmlni Bernhaucr:Rickia phloeonomi Thaxter. Sugiyama 1978b:287:Japan PMoeOIWm"s singuloriJKraatz; Rickia phloeonomi Thaxter 1926: 494. Sugiyama 1978b: 287; Indooesia(Suinatra).Phloeo"omM sp. indcl.: Bolol,uc;o bittllera/is Benjamin 1968b: 47; Mexico (Chiapas). X)'lodromuJ concinn"s(Marsham): Ag/enus b",nneus (Gyllenhal). Wood roffeI967:40;EnglandOXYTELINAEAerognOlhusEriehson.SEEManda Ancyrophor"sKraatz.SEEOch/hel'hi/"sAlIOIyluscomplanu/I4s(Eriehsoo);l'arasi/ylenchuJQx)'leliWachek 1955:66, subgenusgivengcnericstatus.thusFroparasilyll'nchusoxy/e1iWacllek.by Nickle 1%7: 86. Shephard 1974: 205. Poinar 1975:172:Germany AlIOIylus hos/I/Is(Bernhauer): Monoicomyces in,i.ibi/is (Thaxter). Thaxter 1931: 43. Indooc:sia(Sumatra) AfIOfylusinseca/l4s{Gravenhorst):Peyrilschiel/oproteolllaxter.PicardI913b: 512. Thaxter 1931: 20. Siemaszko 1932: 165. Sladelmann &Poell1962: 131. Schcloske 1%9: 141. Bal3l.uc 1974: 361: Norlh Africa. France. Poland. AnOf)'hlSinsign;/us (Gravenhorst): (I)Eumoaoicomyccs pap"onllS Thaxter, Spegazzini 1917: 547. Thaxter 1931:52. Uruguay; (2) MOlloiwmyces fi"cG/usThaxtcr1931:41:Jamaica. Haiti. GuatclTL1la. Anoly/us ;nUJIIlS (Gravenhorsl):(I) t.""numoicomyces colifornicuJThaxter. Maire 1920: 130. lransf. ad. Monoicomyces col!forJl;n,s(Thaxter) byThax

PAGE 18

ter 1931; 38,Algeri;o;(2)"'olloicomyussp.ilKkl:.Middclhoek 1943;0;60. 1943b:94,S!addm;mnclPodl1962: 130; Nctlw:rl:md$:.MoI)-I ..T'hnler1900:427.Cipedc&;Picard 1908a: 784 (asRMophi/6oxyulisp. n.). 1908: 260.Cepede&Picard1908b:251.Pieard1913b:$12.1917:443.Th:merI931; 20. Siemanko 1932; 16$,Lepc:s""1941: 481. Middelhoek 1943b: 90,1974b:232. Banhegyi 1944:$O,l949:93,Collart194$: 102,Sladelmann&Pocll 1962:JJl.ScllelO$kc1969:14I,BalazucI973a:47$,1974:36I,Rossi 197$: 83: England, Fraocc, Poland, Romania. Hungary. Belgium, Gcrmany,llaly,Netlw:rlands.A_yfllS_fplum/us(GI1I\'\'nhonl): (I) IVtobdilisCOOrCf
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lNllicluBlaclcw''Cldcr ( '" 8. ",_IWSSay):Col!lltarrMlyc,sddt .. /lJlisThuler 1893: 161. 1896: 272. possibly a misKkluificalionof8.sIn .. litiSCasc:y(HerlTliln1976: 136):U.s.A.(Utah). 81tdiusbicarnis(Gcnnar): (I) Pe,'rilsdri,lIoprotMThaxler 1900: 427. 1908: 200. Picard 19I3h:S13.Siemas.zko 1932: 16.5. Stadelm:mn & POcil1962: 131, Scheloskc 1969: 14[; Europe. Gemnny;(2)Haplom)'uHexoIUisThaxter. Thaxler 1908: 21S. Picard1913b.: S16.Balazuc 1914: 3S8: Ger-,.BIn/ills cribrirollisHttr:floplamyus/U.tUIeedasasynonymdM.dysrhiriibySch:loskc1969: 134.placedas subsptcicsrXM.d)"Sl"hirii by

PAGE 20

Daluuc197Jb: 252.ROSii1915: 14:Frana.ltlly;(3)HaplaRy<:"s,,,.w... s 1lIaxll:r.Baluuc1914: J5S;Frana. BI.. diusSUbl<''''fl''''''SErichson:(I)Haplqyc ..s lua""s1llaxll:r. 1908: 215. Balazuc 1914: 358: GcTmany; (2) Camharom)us bI..dii Sie, 1932: 169. Sladclmann.&Poel1 1962: 125; Poland.BI.. diusu/fiar/fisGcrnw(::8,ju'"tMI4$Eridlson):(I)HaplomycatuollUSThuttr.Tlwna" 1980: 215. BalUIK 1914:J511; (2) IAhou1lNniDptlTTiuwliBaianIc 1974: 251, describedamilJuSln;ledbulllClmmedby l\OOearlics"aulhor$ ciled byBaianIc(I914:258): France. BI.. dillSspp.itKlc:I.: (I) Dioicom)'l'<'sflorida""s(nw:.tl:f),Thulcr 1908: 295, U.S.A. (Massachu$Cus): (2) PtyrilSclritl/a prottaBal>nuc: 1914: 36l,France.CDrpr/i1lUlSLeach.SEEAuoTlrinodf'OmMs.CDrp<'fitfUiStUm..... lIlarilULynch:AmorpItomyusSpepuini1911:465; Argenlina.CtupO'lilftlSbili1l<'il1ldSlcpbe:ns: (I) Panui,)1 .. nduutrogophlori\\'adlck1955: 61, subgewsgivengcllO"icSlll1US, .. ndlustrot;ophlQ<'1 Wachck, by Nickle 1961:86,Shephardl914:205,Poinarl975:114; Germany; (2) RickiaSpcgauini 1911:664. placed syn.n. 1926: S08.ahhough00s1be1iM:d misidenlified;Argentina: (3) CtUvlrtJromyt ..s ,haD ..ri Maire,Picard1917:443,Siernltszkol928:I96,19J2:17{l.l..q:JesmeI94I:482,Middd,hoek 1949: 255.Sladdmann&l'oeIt1962: 125.ScbeIaske1969:95.BaJazuc:1974:359;France.Poland.Nethcrlands.Carpe/imJIsrortkinllS(Gravcnhom): (I) Camharom)"Ctsabbr/NlalllSMain: 1920: 131. 1931: 21. Siemanko 1932: 170. Sladelmann.& Poell 1962: 125, placed as synonym olC.orlen/alisSpcgauini by Sehelol;ke 1969:94:Aljtaia.Poland.Gamany; (2) CDnllrllronly<:"St/r(uuriMaire,Midddhoet.l949:2.5.5,mtedillCOl"redlyidenlifiedandisC.ori .. nfDlisSpegazzini. Stadeimann&.Poelt 1962.: 12.5,SdlcIosle 1969: 9.5. B.aluue 1974: 3.59: Holland. CarpelimJIJuilfwllS (Erichson):(1) Cllmlraromy<:rJr.xigWllS 1931:23. Sugiyama 1913:20.1974: 72:Came.oon,Japan: (2) AmorphQmy<:tJstipita/llsThuler 1931: 58:Indonesia(Sumalra): (3) Amorplromyc"J Itali olJSpegazzini.Thule!"1931:.51.Roui1918: 71:Camerooa. .. ltdrIcsboopiIliWa<.toekI9.5.5: 62. subgauscivengmaicswus.l"'sPropfuasit)1ew:Jwsboopi";\\'adlet;:. by Nickle 1961:86. Shephard1914:205.Poi.....,.1915: 114; CorpO'/imJIsfllMpO's(Erichson):CamhllromyctSIra)"tirmisThulcr 1931: 23: Ilai6. 12

PAGE 21

Iwlopllillls (Kie$en"''ellCr):AmorpIlompsilaJintlSpcgauini.Maire 1920: 136. Roni1978:71;Algala.CQr!"limus mu"dul(Sharp): AmorphomyCi'J ila/icus Spcgazzini. Thaxter 1931: 57. Rossi 1978: 71; Ecuadorpu'!C,;colliJ(Sohcr) ( := C. obJcurUJ (Solier)): CQ/lIlrarom)'CuQndiowl1l>ax1Cr 1918:210.1931:22; Chile.Corprli_sri""/oris(Mot$dlulsky): CDtUNJrotrryalIY.... ,III Spcpzzini.SiemasztoI932:17I.StadcllTWln&:Poehl962:12j:Poland.CQrprli""" SIIbfilicorniJ (Roubal): CQnlhorotrrpJSpegazzini,Schdoske1969: 95; GcrlT\;lny. CarpdimllsBernhaucr.(1ICamluJrom)'r:tSrrogopMeul Spegaz zini 1917:470. Thaxler 1931: 25; Argenlina; (2) Di11ttNphom)UIlrogophlMiSpcpzzini 1917: 519.Thu.1el" 1924: 321; Argenlin;l.273. 193/: 1932; 171:U.S.A. (Mainc and MauadluSCIU);(2)MonoiromyCi'lhoma/ottJt1'huI<:r,Thaxla1908: 268, Sugiyama 1978b: 286;U.S.A. (Maine and NewIbmpshill'): (3) Camhoromyas"bbm'iorurMaire. SicmaS7.ko 1932: 171.Sladclmann&P0c1tl%2: 125.placcdassyn. 1969:94: l'OIand; (4) C",,'''IUI"iMaire,Banllegyi 19J4: 49;Hungary.Drl_rdidlft).u ( := D. "dMJlIIJKiisla"):ldiOlllyUlpqril'sdliiThuler1893: 162. 1896:158.1908: 314. Picard 1913b: 527. Baum gartllCf" 1923:260, Hake 1923:SO. Thuler 193/: 168.Siemuzko 1932: 172. Banllcgyi 1960:49.Stadclmann&POcll1962: 126. Balazuc 1974:348.Rossi 1978: 66: England. Scotland. Swiuerland,France. Poland.U.S.S.R. (Caucasus). Auslria,Nctllerlands. Yugoslavia, Italy, Hungary.Dr/ftlJlt'ryom,lJ"",iAdad'li:fdi_ycnptyrilsdliiThauer.Terada 1971: 1l';Japan.Mand""",,,di""/,,riJ(GyllcnhaJ):prou"Thaxlcr 1900; 421, 19O1l:260.Pic.a.n:l1913b:513,Scllcloskc1969: 140; Europe.Or:hlhtphilu$(Fauvcl):F."h"plamycts "ncyroplwriThaxter 1901b:25.1908:281,Picard 1913b: 516. Hake 1923:19. 1971e: 116: Scotland.Odulltpi/IIJjlullOS'J.J(M\llsanl&;Rcy):C"",IlQrotII:fCtJ ancyropltoriPiC
PAGE 22

Oxyldusferrugineus Kraatz: Monoieamyees .wnetoehelenae ler 1931:48; Malaysia (Sarawak) Oxyldusfulvipes Erichson: Peyril5chiclloprO/co 1932' 165. Sladclmann & Poelt 1962: 1969: 141: Poland Oxylelus gmndis Eppelshcim: Monoicomyccs Jingu/oris Thaxler 1931: 49; Oxyldus/oqocatus(Marsham) ( "" O. 10lcipenn;s Erichson):(I) MrmoieomyetsJOncrocheicn/le Thaxler, 1908; 272. Picard 19Db:516. Maire 1916a:9, Thax1er 1931: 48: Gcrmany (/idc Maire,not Algeria): (2) MOIWieomyces invisibilis Thaxter, Siemaszko 1932: 167. Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: DO; Poland Oxytelos nimius Ca""'Y:MonoieOTtlyccsbarberi Thaxter 1931: 37; U.S.A (Maryland). Oxyteluspiceus (Linnacus): (1)MonoicomyccssurIt'/ueheicnac Thax1er 1908: 272, Pieard 1913b:516,Maire 1916a:9, Thaxter 1931: 48, Siemaszko 1932: 166, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: DO; Algeria (/ide Maire, not Ger many). Poland; (2) Emaphdenchusoxyuli Wachek 1955: 104. Goodey 1963: 158, Nickle, 1970b: 385, 1974: 206, Poinar 1975: 172: Germany. The following species namc, allributedtoBernhauer, appears not tobe valid"Oxyulussemisu/ea/llS": MonoieomyceJ suoc/u<'he/Mac Thaxler, 1931: 48; Cameroon. Oxytdu5 spp. indel.: (I) EumOlloicomycespaPUOnJ1S Thaxler 1901b: 22. 1908: 274, 1931: 52;New Guinea: (2) EumonnicomyccspapuUflllS Thaxter, Thaxter 1931: 52: Indonnia (Suma1l"a);(3) EwnQlwicomyccs coiifornieus Thaxterl901b:22,1908:274,transLadMonoieomyusealifornrcus(Thax ler)by Thaxter 1931: 38;U.S.A.(California); (4) Monoicomyccsj
PAGE 23

corari .... s(8oto'iell)byPararroncw&Sobokv19S4: 21S. tml$f... ien)by Goodey 1963:IS6. PoinarI97S: 172; (13) Rhabditiscoorc/ll/ll(Leuckan).Saclls 19S0:21S. tr,msr. ad Ptloderal;oorCUlla(Lcuckarl) by Dougher'y 19S5: 70. Poin:u 1975: 172: Germany;(14)RIrab dilis do/idmmSchneider.Sachs 1950:2S4.lJanJr.addJum(SchneKb)byo.:mgheny19S3: 71 byQscheI9S2:265lOseneric:rant.Poi1W"I975:172:Gerrnany;(IS)Rltabdinsgrodlirouda:1K1971<.:: 116; Englam,Moroc!:'o; (3) ....'adoek 1955:60. subgenusr:aised 10 gencriclilalUS,IhllsPropumsitylendtllsplal)'1' lelhiWachek,byNickJe1967: 86. Shephard 1974:205. Poinar 1975: 173; Gcrmany. Lynch: E"mtNIl)jcomycyJSpcgazzini 1912: 188.1917: 547. placcdassyn.dF..prlpflD".UThulCTbyThnICl" 1931:52: Ar#nlina.Platys"tlulJ."..1IlPISSharp:CQ"thQromyas platyJ"I"illwr.1CI.Thada 1977: 125; Japan PlatyllnhllJ specmbilisKraalz:Eumonoirom)'us plmyllelhi 1931: S2:lndonesia(Sumalra).PIQ/yJ",hNSSplllOSNSErichson:/..Doo..lbrlliQgri
PAGE 24

Thinodnmws dilata/us (Erichson): Gmllwromyces I!lox/erl Maire 1916b: 100. Picard 1917:443. Thaxler 1931:25, Siemaszl:o 1932: 170. Schelosl:c1969:95.BalazucI974:359;Fraoce.TIJinoops Ljungh ("'5. buph/halm"s Grnvenhorsl): P
PAGE 25

PAEDERJNAE Aroll/hog/ossa ill/ulllixlaThv.ler1931:181:Camcroon.Erichson:Laboulben;(Jll(:henliMaire 1920: 153: Algeria.(Sharp):(Speguzini),n......ter1931:303:Venczuda.MlelllU "ltglUlalus(P3ykult) (= A.grad/is(Paykull: (I) Camp_ps$poindel.,Sch::1oske 1969:94;GermaPy;(2)Campsomyasnmldllanu{Thu.lc:r).Schdoskc1969:103.&luucl913b:25O;Gc:rmany.biflf/JC/l/alUS (Erichson): rl/,....IUS11Iutn"1926; 548; PhiliPl'ines, A$lenuscogll/ll"s Sharp: os/elliThaxler 1931:268: Guatemala,ASlell"sfime/arlusThuler 1931: 313.author m namc ofhost givenas Moudtulsky,presumably by error:Carne--AsIetuugrQlelllU(Fauvd) ( =A.poUml/lUKrutz): (I) MftorrofIfycestu/el/1931; 269; Indoncsia(SUrn;lu:a); (2) Mriotromycutulerlicola'ThnlcrI93t:269;lndoncsia(Sumalra).MlellllJ troar.J8ernhaucr:Camp/Cmyas sU"""Nt'Thaxler 1926: 549; In doncsia{S
PAGE 26

ASlerms signa/us Sahlbcrg: Compsomyas"erlicillatus Spegazzini19J7:484. Schdoske 1969: 103; Argentina. ASlerlus spp. inde1.: (I) Camplomyasja!call4s'rllaxter 1926: 547; Philip pines; (2) Camplomyct's guatemillemis Thaxter 1926: 548: Guatemala; (3) Camp/omyces subs;gmoideus Thaxl .... 1926: 549; PhilippinesBiol'ryplaju/vipes(Eriehson): Co ..../hromyctsPU'p"roSCCrlSThuter. Thaxter 1931:21I: Grenada. CryplOb;umManncrheim. SEEALSODehlhep},;/",n. Biocryp/o. Pscudocryp wbium ANDllomaeOla'sus. Cryp/obi!lm sharpiFauve1:Corethromyccs er)p/obiiThaJlter, $pegazzini 1915b: 452.Thaxler 1931: 193. stales identificationof parasite doobtful; Burma1lIc following. unauributcd specics name appears not to bc valid."Cr)p/obium CapiIaIUm":(I) Corelhromyccs purpuroSctrlS Thaxter 1900:433.1908:318, 1912a:219.1931:211.Brazil;(2)Rhachomycncr)'plObi rmusThaxlerl900:437,1908:424.1931:285;Brazil DacIlochilus/aelus LeCome:CowhromyctsdachnOltO be valid. 'Dibelalletcspiec"s":Mei01W111yccsdibe/ollilis Thaxter19JI:270.NEWEMENDATIONTOM. dibe/fmc/is, Grenada. Doiicaondcllsil'cnlr;sFauvc1,LAboulbf'niadoiicaon/isMaircl920:151,Sie1932: 180: Algc'fiaDoiicaon illy,iclIs ErieMon: (I) Sphaleromyctsobmsu,
PAGE 27

,,,t!latfMTlUEridI!iOIl:J#bftli ....,a 1918: 19;Argenlina.GI)P_nlSan'ko/DMiilkr. (I) Rharloomyus,Iw'omtriThuler 1901b: 39.1908: 423, Picud 1913b: SSS. Th,uler 1931: 2fjS,Lcpc:sme1942: 78. Th&>dori&s 1954: 191; Yugoslavia; (2) Laboul/Nniasp.indel.Picud 1913b:5SS: Europc.Ilomawum"s bleolor (I) Cortlhromyus<:r>plObiiThaxter, Thaxter [893: 181. 1896: 303.1908: 318, 1931: 193; U.S.A.; _}USThuler,Benjamin&.ShallOt 1951:SSS, Baluue 1973b: 249; U.S.A. (Illinois). Thula"1892: 36.1896:303,1908:318,1931:193;U.S.A. Lalhrobiu", Gnr.Tnhorst.AuoLobrolhiuM...JisandMi$5Qllri).Uliltrobi"",b"".,.ipts(FabricillS): (I) falhrobiilbaxter.1lw:lerl908:444,PK:anI[9l3b:S63.Collanl94S:J03.Schdoskc 1969: 114, Balazuc: 1973b:249; England, Germany. Bdgjum: (2) RhtJdinQm}uSptlllidusThuter.Thaxter 1908: 318, Iransf.adComhrom)'C'tfspa/fidus(Thaxter)byThax1er 1912a: 180. Picard 19J3b: 528, Thaxter 193/: 208. Hincks 1960: 100, Sellcloske 1969: lOS. Baluue 1973b: 284; England. Gerltlilny; (3) Cortflhmmy<:tIeriSfO/us(Thaxter),Siemanko 1932: 114. CoI1arl1945: J03.Hincl:sl960:100, Stadclmann&. i'ot'll 1962:125 (placedasslIbspec:inofc.pDllidusbyBalullC J913b: 285): Poland.Bel.tium.Sc
PAGE 28

(as Rhadinomyrrs [1Qllidlls 1lw.1Cr).Middcl_kI9-Ua: 60. 1943b: 95. (Robin). Siemastko 1932: 183. Sladelmann&Poc:lll962: 13J.Sd\do$kel969: 142, Balazoc 1973b: 281; PoI:and;(4)Il'IllllrrobiiThu.ter,Midddhoxk 1943a: 60. I9-Ub: 101. Staddmann&:Podl 1962: 125, BalU\If: 1973b: 249;rklherlanb.fA/11mb/lim[(]'I'''/If,"Slephens:EuzodiomJClS lalhrobii Thaxler. Scheloske 1969: 114. Balazuc 1973b: 249: GermanyRobin 1871: lhelanerplaced in synonymy by ThaJuer 1895:467. lhennew combinaTion RhlJC'hom)'C<'SpiloJtllus(Robin) madebyThaxler 1896: 363. 1908: 422.Pieard 1913b; 554. Thaxler 1931: 287. Sicmas7.l:o 1932:183.Collarl 1942:I03.lqlcsme1942: 77. Sladclmann & Poeh1\)62;131.Schc:losu1969: 142. BalazUl: 1973b;231.RO$$i1975;!3:Fruocc.GerltWly,h.aty.Belgium: (2) RMdi_yaspullidJUTh.mer 1893: ISO. 1902:306. 1908: 318. lranSr.ad Cor"hrom)usfNJllidus(Thaxter) by Thaxler 1912a;ISO. Pieanl 1913b: 528. Thaxter 1931: 20M. Stadelmann & Poell 1962:Dl, Schelosu1969: 105; Fraoce. Germany;(3)Corethronryus11131ter. SienasU:O 1932; 174.CoIlm1945:103.StaklltWln&:PoclII962:12S.{placeda$subspccic:sdC.pullidusby8..lazueI973b:28S);PoI:and.BelgiumLothmbium grm;numKraalZ: (I) CornlmHn)'C<'scris/iJ/llsThaxler.Sicmaszko 1932: 174.CoIlart1945: 103, (placedas subspeciesafC.pallidusby8aJazuc 1973b: 285), Staddmann &. Poeh 1962: 12S: Beicium.PoWd: (2) Euwdit-ycrskJlhrobiiThu.1Cr.Midd<'llut1943b: 101. Stadelmann&Poelll962;125.Schc:losul969:114.BaluucI973b:249;Nelhrrlands.Germany.UJ/hrobium imprrssumHeer (co L./llifor_ Gra\"enhorst):#zodiQltl)'{'ts /lJlhrobiiThaxIer1900: 449. Thu.ler1908:444.PK:iU'd 1913b: S6J.MajewstiI97Jb:234.BaJazue 1973b: 249: England, Poland.UJthrobium I,uv;ptn"..Hecr: (I) Corrlhrom)'<:tscr;JIIJ/uJ Sic manko 1932; 174, POdl 1962; 125. (placedusubspceiesof C. pal/idus by BalazllC 1973b: 285): Poland: (2) uzodiom)'{'<'SImhrobiiThlIxlcr. Baumgartner 1923:265. Middel_lo:1943b; 101. Sl:crland.Ut/hrobium "itidulum LcCOOlt; (I) SplrtJlrrtlmycrJIlJlhrobii1lIaxlcr 189-l: 95.1896: 365. transf. ad Comhrom)'<:tJ Imhrobii(1llaXltr)byThaxler

PAGE 29

1912a: 180.1931: 202;Itl'"1893:181.1896:305.narroeemendedloC.Jrli,nbySaccardoI89S: 449. Benjamin1971:123: /alllJThaxler 1893:180, 1896;306.l9O8: 3l8.tr.lnsf.adCO'l'l1lromycO'"$a;s/a/lls(Thaxter)byThaxlerI912a: 180.1931;193.possiblyonlya vari ely olCOI'f1hromyctJ pallidus. placed subspeciesolC.palliduJby Bala ltUC 197Jb:285:U.S.A.:England. Lothrobiump"'1IC'ulammLeConIe: (I) IrrrrSlrts1894:94.1896: 317. wnsf.a\lf:.crralOnlyrUIrrt?s/ns(1lw;ler)byThaxler1931: 343:U.S.A. (MassadluSI':lls and Maine):(2)Sphalnomycrs IalhrobiiThaxler 1894:95. 1896:36S.lransf.ad Corflhromyct!s lalhrobii(Thaxler) by ThaXler 1912a: 180.1931:202; U.S.A. (3) Cortlhrom)'ctspallid"s(Thaxler).erroneouscitalion by Sladelmann & Poclt 1962:131, S<:hcloske1969:105.Lmhrobi .. .. m(P3ykull): (I) SpItolffl}tflyusIQ/llrobiiThaxla. 19011:203. Picard 19r3b: 529. wnsf.adCondlrtrlyuJlathrobii(Tlluler)byThaxler1912a: ISO.1931:202. PelCh1944:93. Hinc\:s1960: 100: Europe:(2)Rhadi_YUJpallidusThaXler.Thuler 1908:318. Pieard 1913b: 529.lranSr.ad Core/hrom)'ctsJX.llid"J(Thaxler)byThaxler 1912a; 180, Hake 1924:80;England. LiJlltrobiumnpimaCzwalina: COi'r/hromyrrJ cris/a/uJ Thaxter. Siemllsdo 1932.: 174. Sladelmann&: PoeIlI962.: 125.(plaeedas$lIbspeciesolC.palliduJbyBalazucI973b.:2SS):PobncI.Lntllrobiumsimi/rLeConte:Euzooiomycrs lafltrobii"Thaxter,BC1Ijamin&: Shaoof 1951:555, 6aluoc197Jb:249; U.S.A. (lIIillOis).IA/l1mbi"",urm;lI(uumGravenhorsl: (I) R!lad;lU)n1)'c;rspallid"sThaxler. 'Thaxler1908: 31S, Picard 1913b: 529,Ir.lnsf.adCort'/hromyctspa/lid"s(Thaxler)byThulerI912a: ISO, Thaxter r931: 208.Scheloske1969:105.Ba/:Iltpc 1973b: 285;rnlltt:(2)COi'rlhromyctscdS/afUs(nWller).Hinds1960:l00.(pIaeedassubspeticsclC.pallidusbyBalal.l.lC 1973b:28S); England./"Qlhrobiu,., zrtltrsl<,dtiRye(::: L. ""tIC/at"sZellersledl):u:.Ddiom)'{'tslarhmbiiThUlcr 1900:449, 1905:444, Ccpedc&: Picard 1909:262. Picard1913b:563, Hake 1923:82:Enllland. Lnlhrobiu,.,spp.indet.:(I)Aamlhoorryc
PAGE 30

T1wllcr 1931; 206;Europe;(5)RbdinomyuscriSIDIUSTlwltcr.Tlwltcr1908: 318. n
PAGE 31

Lobmlltium jorobinum(LeConte):CArtlltromycU jarobinusllwm:r 1893: 18I,1896:304;U.S.A.(California)Lobro,hium IlmgiuscIII"m(Gravenoorsl):Nalll/,amyeuIa/hmbiiThuler 1893:178. IransLad Hhadwmyas larhrobii(Thaxler) by Thuter 1895;467.1896: 363. 1931: 286:U.S.A.(NewHa"l'Shire).Lcbrolltium_nutli(Fauvel):u:.odiomyuslalhrobiiThnler. Roni1975; 72:llal)'.Lobmrhillm muhipune",m(Gravenhorsl) (= Lmullipur/C/ltlumauet.): (I) EII..Wiam}nsrapillllrillS&. Picard 1908a: 782. 1908b: 263. Thax 1931:332. Collan 1945: 103. Balazuc 1973b: 249;Frara.BcI,ium:(2)EM..odiom'!C'ulalltf'fJb;i 1900: 449.1908:444.CCpedc&.Picard 1908a:782.1908b:262.PicardI913b:S64.1917:4S8.BaumgartnerI92J: 265. SllIlIelmann&. Pocll 1962: 125,Baluuc 1973b:249. Rossi 1975;72; France. Swil1.crland,lIaly; (3) I/,I",dilWm)'en1>iJllillusTh;ulcr. Picard1913b: ISO. ThnlCf 1931: 208. Schl:loske1969:10$,BalazIJC" 1973b: 284: France; (4) lAbwllx"ia/IIIIII/licaThuta"1908: 336. Picard 1913b: 536. 1917: 451.l...cpes1Tll:1941:484,Collan1945:103,BalaZlo:l974: '3; Madcira,FratItt. Belgium.Lobrlllhium "I,ill,,,,, (Erlchson): (I) CQft/J"",m)"ts IllaremisThaxter 1912a: 183.Speganini 1911;494.ThuICTI931:2O'JslalesC..w"lltoiiIliSpegaz ziniI912:183apossiblesynon)'m;Argcnlina.:(2)Crlhrom)'lYSgrocilisThu=1912a:l83odginall)'uavariClyolC.pla"lISis,slalllsbySpegazzini1917:491.Thulerr931:19'J;Argcn!Jna.MedOtltmlt"liprnfris Eppclshcim: COt('lhronl)WS II/IrowrsusThaxler 1931: 201;Carrl<:roon.Mrdonbir__ s (l)Coufhromycrs_doIfisThulcr 1915: 38, 1931: 2Q5;(Sar3wak); (1)CArtlltromycrsdrripi .. nsThv.lCf 1915: 38;Indonesia(Bomro).MtdOtl crQ5Jul"",Sharp: (I) pe",l .. gansThaxter 1931:195:Trinidad:(2) Cor.-lhrom)'Crs sdoporlThaxler1931: 215; Trinidad. Mrdotlp/anDlus 1931: 192: In dont$ia(SUmltlrl).AfNlottripicoia(Kraa17J:Porusilyl .. 1IdrIlsrrl<'do>tis'>''adlek1955:6I,5Ubgcnus raised 10 slalus,lhusl'roparus/r)"lrnchusmtdOtl/s Waclttk.byNickle 1967:86. Slt<:phard 1974; 205,Poin3r1975: 172: Germany.MrdOtfscm.'fJr../n.b<'nsis Benjamin 1955, 193; Cuba.ThcfollowingfOllrspeciesnatno1.aluibutedlOBa-nhaucr.appcar/lOllObe2J

PAGE 32

"Medonkumerum'nsis.' Corerhromyces kamerunensis Thaxter 1931: 201; Cameroon. "MedonSUIIUU"'MS;S": (I) Corerltromyees lamillife."s Thaxter 1931: 202. namcemendedIOC./amhliferby Benjamin 1971: 145;Indonesia(Sumalra);(2)CorethmmycesprotrudensThaxter 1931: 210; IMoonesia(Sumatra);(3)Corelhromycessetico/a Thaxter 1931: 216; Indonesia (Sumatra) 'Medon Irisris"': Rhaehamyces ntedonalisThaxter 1931: 286; Grenada"Medon vulnerorus"': CorerhromycesintfOlwsus Thaxter 1931: 201: CameMedon spp. indet,:(I)Neohaplamyees medonalisBenjamin 1955: 190:U.S.A. (California and Arizona); (2) Corethrontyces eurlipesThaxter. Terada 197624.1978: 64; Taiwan. NeamedOfr adlOfrtrlSeCasey:Neohaplomyces neomedooalis Benjamin 1955: 192; U.S.A.(Arizona). OehlhephUum a8i1e Erichson:Corethrom}'t::es argentinus Thaxter 1912a: 181, Spegazzini1917:488.ThaxterI931:188; Argentina Ochlhephilunt basale Blanchard: Corelhromyces brazilianus Thaxter, Thax ter1931:189;Argentina.Ochlhephilunt brasiliatu,m Lucas: Corelhrom}'t::es braziliaMus Thaxter 1900432,1908:318, Thaxter 1931:189: BrazilOehthephilumfasciawm(Erichson):Corerhromyccs brariliaru'sThaxter 1900:432.1908:318, Thaxter 1931: 189: Venezuela.Ochrheph;lumjlohriSharp: Corelhromyces brazilianus Thaxter 1900: 432. 1908:318.Thaxter1931:189; Mexico.Oehthephilum paranense Lynch: Corethrom)'us brazilianus Thaxter, Spe gazzini 1912:181.1917:489.Thaxter 1931:189;Argentina. Odrthephil"m simi/ipenne Say:Co.elhromyees brarilianusThaxter 1900: 432. 1908; 318. Thaxter 1931: 189;MexicoOehthephi/um "enuSI,,,nSharp: Corerhramyccs bruziliarmsThaxter 1900: 432. 1908: 318. Thaxter 1931:189; Mexico.Odrlhephilum spp iOOel.: (I) COrelhrOTrI)"Cespurpurascens Thaxter 1901J433; Grenada; (2) CorethromycespurpurascensThaxter. Thaxter 1931: 211: Trinidad; (3) Corethrom)"Ces purpuroscens Thaxter. Thaxter 1931: 211; Ar gcntina; (4) Rhaehomyccs CiJyennensis Thaxter 1900: 438. 1908:423. 1931: 285; French Guiana: (5)Carelhramyces braziliaflUS Thaxter 1900: 432.1908:318.1931:189; Colombia.Oediehirusspp. iOOel.: (1) Laboulbenia oedichiri Thaxter J902:48. 1908: 354, Brazil:(2)Rhachontyusoediehiri Thaxtcr 1916:38. 1908:424. 1931' 286; Brazil. 24

PAGE 33

lhdodoctyl.ujUMobn"'MIlJ Fairma:irelk.Germain.:lAboulbr"iOIl):L.aboulbrl/ia eriSlala Thaxter. Thaxter 1908:354.Picard 1913b: .541,SpegilZzini 1914: 49, Baumgartnc:rI923:26,5. 1927:xix.Colia 1925: 261. 1926: 175.1934: 107, Siemaszk.o 1932:119. Banllegyi 1940:53. 1944:56.Kur=a19.58:26,5. Staddmannlk.Poc:Jtl962: l26.Sugiyarna 1913:47. Balazoc 1914:20.Su giyamalk.$lw.aw.a 1m: 276;India.haly.Switzerland.France.Hungary .lapan. Taiwan.1932: 179. Binhcgyi 1960:SI.Staddmann&Poelt1962: 126: Poland. AI bania. P""dmuli"orolisGravenhorsl: (I)WlxJ.ulbenia crls/ll'" Thaxler. Picard 19IJb:54I:Spcga7.zini 1914:49. 191$a:492.Siemas1.k.oI932: 179, Colla 1926: 176.1934; 107. Baumgartner 1934;xnxvii.Binhegyi1940:.53.u"

PAGE 34

pesmc 1941:486. CoIlan 1945: 103. Sladelm:mn& POdl 1962: 126. Bala zuc 1974: 20; lUi)'. Belgium. Franc:e. Hungary.Yupl:r.ia.SwilZer1and. U.S.S.R.; (HUlkriWachek1955: 77. Nickle 1967: 85.SbcpIwd 1974: 205.Poin:u1975: 173: German)'.Amittnuli/tomri..,Gnl\cnhorscLobootlbntiarri"il/ilThulcrI893; 174. 1896: 330; U.S.A. (Mainc).PMdtnuSharp:rri"oroThuter.Thuta"1908:354; Panama. 1932:179: Portugal; il is possiblelhallhcreoonI ofL. cri"Dln from oo.,dll from Spain shouldbeallrib.l\edLOlhisspccic$.maoogascaricnsl,Eridl5Oll:Lobou/fN,ni"crim""ThaxTer.SpegazziniI915a:492;Madagascar.Pucdc,".sobfilmm.s LeContc:Loboo/benia criSWlaThaxter. 1893; 174. IS96: 330;U.S.A. (Mainc).Pacdu"sWeise:lAboullxniaais/aTa ThaxTer. Sugiy.ml3 1973: 47. 1974: 73; Japall.fWtknu Sharp: Lobou/tJcolllocrisla/aThulCf. Sugiyama 1973: 47. 1974: 73; Japan.riparilU(LinnlleUS): (I) LaboaItJconfocrUlDlaThauer.Picln11913b:S40.Spegazzini1914:49.Sianaszko 1932: 179. Colla 1934: 107. K05Sal19J6:281. 1938: 153. Bznho:g)'i1940:53.Middclhoekl943b:97.Collat1945: 103. Stadelmann&.PoelII962:127.Balazuc 1974: 20; JW)'.FTancc:.Nelherlands.Belgium.Hungary. Austria; (2) GoffimiaHinchlTllllm 1952:349.Poinar1975: 173; Gcr1'llany. (3) Hirsu/t'lfaua/Otllm(Nees).Pclch 1948: 297. Lealherdale 1958: 104; England. Pactkrus rubrathQrocicus(GIxzc)("" P. /OtIgi('Of'tlisAubi): Lobou/lxtliaais/alilThaxtcr. Spcgazzini 1915:49. Siemaslko 1932: 179. Colla 1934: 107. Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 127. Balazuc 1974: 20:Ilaly. Poland. France. Yugoslavia Pacduusrujicoi/is(Fabriciusl(=,Pgeme!lusKraatl.):(11LohQulbenlacriJ IlllUThaxlcr 1893: 174. 1896:no. Picard 1913b: 541.Spcgazzini 1914' 49.Picanl 1917: 4.54. BaumgarlnCr 1923: 265.Sicmaszko 19J2: 179. Colla 1934: 107. Binhcg)'i 1940:53.Sladelmann&Poch 1962: 126. Sd>elosl;e 1969: 119. Baiulle 1974: 20;AuSITia.France.ltal)'.SwitZerland.Poland.Hungary. Germany. (2) m"jq_sp.indet .. ThWdori'*s1955: 165:354; Colombia.26

PAGE 35

criSIa/a from "Paedausooudii"from Austria, Hungary, and perhapsAI ooninshould bealtributed 10lhis spoxies and result from mistaken identity Piledauslamuius Erichson: Labouibenia crisla/aThaxter, Lepcsme 1941' 486; Bangladesh, Pilederus spp. indet.: LAboulbenia cris/IJ/(lThaXler 1893: 174, 1896:330,1908: 354. Colla 1926: 175. Lepcsnte 1941: 486. Ishikawa 1952:7. Banhcgyi 1960:51; Mexieo. Niearagua, Venczuela. Indonesia (Java). Japan.11aly, YugoslaviaPalami"us sp. indet.: Compsomyces palame,,;ThaXler 1931: 317, NEW EMENDATIONtoC, po/ami'li; Trinidad PillOphilusbergiLyndl:(I)CorelhromycespulchelluJSpeganini 1917:495, Thaxter 1931: 211; Argemina: (2) Laboulbe'liabergi
PAGE 36

Thaxter 1902: 24,1908: 321, rulme emended lOS. s/i/ideolabySaccardo & Saecardo 1905: 917, transf. adCore/hromycess/ilicicolo (Thaxter)by Thaxter 1912a: 186, 1917:503, Thaxter 1931: 219. Benjamin 1971:129;U.S.A. (Ma.saehusens) RlIgiluscey/atU'"sis(Kmatz):{I)Corcthromyeesbucca/isThaxlcrI931:190; ltxlone.ia(Sumatra);(2)CorethromycesgmcilkaulisThaxterI931: 198;ln doncsia (Sumatra): (3) Corethromycts oriemalis Thaxter 1915: 40. J931; 207: llldonesia (Javaand Sumatra); (4) Corelhr01r1)"CfSreCIilSSpegazzini, Thaxter 1931: 212; Indonesia (Sumatra) (5)Misgllmyces rhizop/wrus Thax ter1931:303; lndooesia(SurJl:l.trn): (6) Misg01nyces sti/ici Thaxter 1931 304: lndonesia(Sumatra);(7)S/ig/llOlOmycesstiliciThaxter 1915:35, J931:167: and Ceylon and Indonesia (Sumatra). Rugilus dlile/lSis (Solier):(I) Corethrom)'cesarmiUUSThaxter 1912a: 188. 1931: 189: Argentina: (2) Corethromyct:s p)'gmaeus Thaxter 1912a: 186. Spcganini 1917: 501. Thaxter 1931: 211:Chile:(3)Corelhronryctsstilid Thaxler. Spcgazzini 1912a: 182. Thaxter 1931: 218. Sehcloske 1969:105;Argenlina.Chile. Rugilllse!egans (Lyoch): (I)CorelhronryCl'spyg/llOeus Thaxter19123:186. Spcgazzini 1917: 501. Thaxter 1931:21/;Argentina; (2)CorelhrOlnyUS sti!id Thaxterformarectus Spegazzini 1917: 499. raised tospecifie rank as Corethrotn)'ctsaems Spcgazziniby Thaxter 1931: 212: Argentina: (3) Cor. ethromyCfsbrunneol"sThaxter J9123: 185. 1931: 190. includes synonym Corethrotn)'ctJ stu'JQlis Spcgazzini (which was described asforma stunalis ofC. s/i1icicol" (ThaxterSpcgazzini 1917: 504: Argentina; (4) Cor. nhrotnycts s/ilicico/" Thaxtervarietypodophilus Spcgazzini 1917: 504. raised tospceifie rank as Cort:thromyceJ podophi/us Spegazzini byThaxter 1931: 210; Argentina; (5) Cort:tltrotn)'ct:s sigmoidells Thaxter 1912a: 187. Spegazzini 1917: 500. Thaxter 1931: 216: Argentina; (6)Corel/'rom)'usstilid Thaxtcr. Spcgazzini 1917:498. Thaxter /931: 218. Scheloske 1969: 105; Argentina and Uruguay; (7)Corethromyces sti/icicola (Thaxler), Tha xlcr 1912a: 186. Spcgazzini 1917:503, Thaxler 193J: 219: Argentina and Uruguay: (8) uncigerus Thaxter 1912a: 188. Spegaaini 1917: 503, I13.nteemendedloC./mcigerbyTroIler 1926: 135, Thaxter 1931: 220, Benjamin 1971:145:Argentina: (9) Corethmmyces stilic; Thaxter va rietyl"Urucije:rSpega7.zini 1917: 502. raiscdtospcdficrank asCore/hro' mycnverrucijerSpcgazzini by Thuler 1931: 222; Argentill3.Rusi/uJer;ch.on; (Fauvcl):wboul!>eniasubterrane" Thaxler(asL.s/i/ici co/a Spegazzinj). Baumgarlner 1923: 261, Siemaszko 1932: 180,Sladel. mann&PoeIt 1962: 129;Switzerland Rusi/usjragi/is (Gravenhorst)( "'R.ongustalfls (Fourcroy: lAbou/beui" Slilicico/"SpcgazziniI915:431.Siel1laszxoI932:180.placedasaprobable synonymofL.subtemmeoThaxlcrbyCoilaI934:81;ltaly.28

PAGE 37

R'illU(Ericll_):1n.u1Cf,Thu=1908:3H,Pic:u"d1911b:zininoclob.eaformofL,sublumMflbtJla_species.L.Jlilirirol"Sp.epain;1915:41,Sicmauko 1932: synonymofl. s"bluroMubyCollaI934:81;England. HuCilus OTbku/mus(P'Jykull):wboldbtniaSUblUMllM Thaxler1908: 335, Picard 1913b:535.pamilesubscquenllyconsierlaooS,llaly.Rugiius pruinosus (Cameron):Coul/rmmyusflrclIIlllJ Thaxler1931;197; Indoocsia(Sumalra).R"gilus rTlflprsGcrmar: (I) Conrhromyus slilieiTh:Illler 1901b:42. 1908: ll9, 1912a: 219, Picard 1911b: 529.TlwlIc:r 1931:218, Midddhoek1941b:94,Sl3dc:lrn;tnn& PoeItl962: 12S,Sdtdoskc 1969:lIB,Rom 1975:12; lilly, Germany, Netherlands; (2) LAbllwttiuswbluTQJtf'lI1ltaxter. Mid delhoek1943b: 97. SlMIelmann & Podl 1962:129;Netherlands. R"Cilus ur;UIIS(Monehulsky): (I) Corrlhmmyusgm/iea"lislllluler1931: 198, IUlhorQ/"S[JCcificIIlIITleoChoSI given as Bernhauer, presumably in error: Indoflesia(Sumalra):(2)Corrthramyces TeelilsSpcgazzini,1931: 212:Indonesia (Sumalra): (3)welhromycessli/ieiTh:Uler, Thaxter 1931:318, Sehc10Ske1969:105;Indonesia (54Jmalra).Rilgi/llslimilis(Eriduon):i.JJbt;,ulbmillswbteTnlttnlT4"
PAGE 38

Scopt,cullugubrilLynch: SliWnlltomycelfu,'c!pel Spegazzini 1917: 675, ThulerI931:165;Argemina, Scopaeul nitidufur MOischulsky ( '" S. subfU5ciatus Kraatz): (I) Corethro mycesscoparicoi
PAGE 39

? Sti/,-donSfl.: 1931: 2OO.lInt_nf:C'IlUSpossiblyS,ilOtMdofl: GuatcrtWa.s,."i"s'P.illOcl.:LAblbt'niograci/ilSpcpui"i 1915b: 55.(1lOIIl..fl0S'I/%l'cyritschvar.grorilisSpegazzini).Picardt917:4504.Colla 1934: 119.Sladclmann&Pocltl%2:127;llaly 7iu',to
PAGE 40

OrlJills_y,-rop/IillU(Thaxter),Thax.ter1908:424.Picard 1913b: 555.Thaxter 1931: 285.LqxsITlC'1942: n, OthilUpilifaQuedellfddl:RhtM:htMRpsjllrrolllS(Thaxter),Mair-e 1916a: 32, Thaxler 1931: 285.Siemaszlo 1932:183.Lepe:s1TlC'1942:77,Scheloste 1969: 141:Algeria. Oll,ius p'U1"IiIllIIUS (Ooeze)(=O.julgiJ"s (Paykull) = O.j"l>ipennis (Fa bricius:(l)AcumlwmycesjUTctJ/USThaxler 1893:177.lransf.ad Rhoch omycesjuTrGlllS(ThaxlCl') by ThaJuer1895: 467.1896: 362.1908: 464.Picard 19130;555, Mair-e1920:155,Sicmaszko 1928; 206, 1932:182. Thuln 1931: 1942: n, &:Poell 1962:131, .5cfIdoste1969:141.Baluuc 1913b: 156. Rossi1915; 83: Gmnany,Francc:.lllly,PolaDd.Algeria:lasiopltonQThaxter.SUoddIlUM&:Poelll962: 124:Gcrmany. Otlri", l/llnssil...,IIic",Ganglbaucr:RhadlomycujlG'"S(Thaxter),Ball' hegyi 1949:98,Sladelmann&:PoeIII962:131.Sc:lM:loskc1969: 141. Bal azllC1913a:465: Romania.The following ullOlllribulcdspeciesIlOlITle is unlikely 10 ber-efcrable 10a/hillS crassllsMouchulsky,aspccieSIl(ll=OIdedfromAfrica.Othi,"pallid"s": 1IJtadtomycu/llTCtJIIlS(Thall.lcr).Spcgauini1915a:Siemaszko 1932: 183.Scheloste1969: 141; Upnda."T/ryU'tphulus.-rnr..olarfUs":Didtomyuslbuter 1931: 16:VCt'eludaXumholinus Dejean. SIAUIOGyNJph,.,rus. Xamlrolinus audiN'SFauvc1;MmlQicomycesi'l!usctJ(USSpegazzini, Thaxler19121: 163,Spcganini 1917:659. Thaxler 1931: 4):Argclllina Xantholi""s bonu,ittlSis Gelllmingcr&: Harold(=X. grodlisBoI\cllUl1);puini1917:659.Thuler 1931: 4);ArJenl:ina.Xanlholi_sillllCtnsEridlson:DidoottlYCf'JtoIlyssilllaxICr1931:12,hosI g;"'enas""JpslUilJ,,<:f'ns", NEW ENEI'IOAT!OS 10D. ttlliui: Trinidad. 0"""".XaulhoJinuslinea,is(Olivicr);ntaphtlf'ndr"sxontholin;Wachc:k1955: 109. Shephard 1974;206. PoillOlr 1975: 174:Germany.X"mlwlim,s Sl,blilisBohcmJn: (I) MlJtIOic
PAGE 41

Tbultf:(4)Chml/mlUiopsis bonatUILJis 1918: 317;XQill100linlls'Tiro/or (Fabriciusl; t:il/(lplwftndlusx{lil,1ooIiiliWKhck 1955: 109. Shephard 1974;206. Poirw1975:174;Gcnnany.Thefollowincunatmbutedspecicsnameappearsll(JtlObe..... lid. XQilrlJoli,.,s {l8ilis' .. DidttJ,;,ycn QrvmiNl'IJisSpepu:ini 1912: 183, Ar XDIUhoIiNUspp.indct.:(I)DidttJ,;,)'tYlitrjfILJTbula,ThUlcr 1931; 17;Indonesia(Suman);(2)C/oQillrrlilsiopnssp.inde1.ThaXIa 1914; 249; Philippines; (3lu<:odiomyas/(uhrobi,Thaxta.Schdoske 1969: 114,BaI lZUC 1973b: 249; Gennany; (4) Cod.us liga/us(Nea).Hedqvist 1963: 63, ft'OlTlhostlarva; Swedcn;(SlCodrusmicroarusKieffer,Hedqvistl963: 63. franhost larva; Sweden: (6) PmctOlrupidae indel., El1iofl &Morley191I:434,from host larva; ?England.STAPHYLININAE AcyIopltorus dQrliilgtoniBlxh'elckr ( '"A.fOflgicorilitYV.,Illu,..ri Bern iwIer MS.):Ttrotomyus",irifinuTbuler.Thuter 1931: 170: Trinidad. AcyIop/IonlSfltrlo'iro//is Sadlsc:Ttm"""ycnllliri/intsThaxta 1893: 182, AcylopltonulrJillt'iDuYivier(::A.Jlmipttl...eContc);Ttrtll()mycrsmiriflCflSThuUl',ThaxIC:rI896:355;U.5.A.(Fbida).AQ"opItonupronus&idl5Oll: TtmlCWl,culllirifinuThaxler 1893: 182, 1896: 3SS;U.S.A.(MalneandMassachuscns).AmicltrotusSharp.SEfALSOHuptrus.Am/rltrotus tJpidpt"";s Sharp: RhQChomycn phi/omhi"us Thaxter, ThaxterAm/chrotussr.indel.: Rhuchu/Il)'cuphillNl/husThaxter, Thaxter 1908: 424. SdJeloskel969:142:Japan.genus (and species) indet .. ncarAmirhrOlus: Rhachomyctt pltl/omltillJls'Thuter,Thaxter 1908:424, Lcpcs.me1942: 79. Sehc:loske 1969: 142; Ja ....A"IIlIlUdius .... ,.w(l...eConte):LobllxniQqul'dii Tha.uer 1893; 167, ho$l:asQul'dillS","",lisLee.,1896; 347; U.S.A. (Illinois). Mal'l."ltlIlhu''''/iroilis (Kr.aatt): (I)RicUQ'fmrotD1l\uter1915: 10, 1926: 497: Malaysia(SarP>U)and Indonesia(bo.-a): (2) DipU.-ycttalOil)'81tl11l1iT1W'.ler 1931: 173: CammlOlland(Sat1IWIk): (3) Ttm/Oill)'Cn II

PAGE 42

Belom,rh"srogmuusSharp:Dirhomyrt'S arimcnsis Thaxler 1931: 11; Trini d"Brionurhusjusript'SFauve!:Dich()fll)'resbelonurhiThaxlerI901b:27.19OR: 251:NewGuinea Be/om,rh"s haemorrhoida/is(Fabricius): (I) Thox/erio/a injuscaUlSpega'l 'lini 1918: 315: Argenlina; (2)Chamransiapsisp/mensisSpegaaini 1918: 319: Argcnlina. Belo""rhusruftpennis(Fabricius)( = 8.jorltwsusSharp):Dirhom)'ces exi/is Thaxlcr.ThaxterI908:258:Mexico(Jalapa) 8rachydirusNordmann. SEENordus Caji"sbis,,/ratusSolier.Laboulbenia cafti Thader1899: 162. 1908: 406; Chile. C
PAGE 43

22.5, Elliou&: 1911:453. Vcrhoeff 1919:)4. Morley 1922:18),Eutham1929: 2 (tloumis-aledasOc)'P"s DlellS),placed in genusCodru,byPschonlWaIc:her 19S5: 62. WcidellWln1962: 30, Hedqvistl962:63,WcidcllWUll96S:442,fromlarvllclhost;EngW1d;(2)GonJiu't2qlUllinuUnnacus,A$S1nIW18SS:118. Zwaluwenburg 1928:JO;Allslria;(3)AJysiQWlDNiUCQ/Qr(Panzer),Mmhall(aledbyE1lion&:Mork)'1907:9),SlaIedI(rWslarvaeclwhidlC.nwuilJosusislpml:llorandrort!isSllSpeCt;?Jurinc:. presumably by misspellingIlldmisatlribution) Elliol:l&:Mo
PAGE 44

Thaxter 1931: 169, Sehdoske 1969: 151, 1911e: 116;England, Germany.richsWliUSIlUlUlS (Horn):(I) Diplolll)'ct'SaClobiallUS Thaxter 1895: 469, 1896: 358. 1931: 113; U.S.A. (Massachuscns); (2) Terowmyct'S acrob;;Thaxler 1894:98,1896:356, Scheloske 1969:151:U.S ,A. (Maine and Massachus.cns);(3)TuatoJ/lycesbrel'icauli.Thaxwr 1894: 99. 1896:351; U.S.A. (Maine, Massachusells. and Connecticut). Erichsoniuignaricorni.(Mulsant& Rcy): (I) Temromyces tIC/obiiThaxter. Hake 1923:80: Englalld: T. atropurpureus Maire 1920: 145, but this name placedassyllOllymofT.actobiibyThaxter 1931: 169,Scheloskel969: lSI, Balai'ue 1911c: 116, Rossi 1918:66; Mauretania:(2)DipIOl/,)'cesclm'ifer Rossi&Cesari Rossi 1978:65:11aly Gabrius exiguus (Nordmann): RhachomycfS phi/onrhifmsThaxter. Thaxter 1908: 424. Sicmaszko 1932: 182. Lepesme 1942: 79.Scheloske 1969:142:Europe. Gllbrius Iligri/tdus (Gravenhorst): li"'l/OI/'}'CfS phi/omhi Thaxter, Rossi1978' 13; Italy. Gabrius pennon.. Sharp: Tmllomyces philontlli Thaxter, Schcloske 1969 151, Bal3.l.ue 1971b: 212, 1914: 348, Rossi 1918: 73;Gcrmany.Gabriu.rro .. ulu,(Nordmann): Teratomyces phi/oml,iThaxter, Midddhock 1943a:60, 1943h: 95, Staddmann & Poell 1962: 131,Seheloske 1969: 151, Balazoc 1911h: 212, 1974: 348, Rossi 1918: 13; Netherlands. Gcrmany. Gobriusossc/icus(Kolcnati) (= G. \'ernoli.' (Erichsnn: (l)AlloflloneflUl philonlhi Waehek 1955:40. Shephard 1974: 205, Poinar 1915:173;Ger many;(2)Sphauu/ariopsi,phi/onlhi aue!., typographicalcrror.1lOI \Vachck 1955.Spltaeru/orh)/>slsplaccdassynonymofSricl)"lus by Ruhm 1956:161, Poinar 1975: 173,nosuchspecies; (3) Dichomycr.furciferThaxter. Pcyr itsch as citedbyStadel mann & Pod! 1962:125:Austria.Hemiquedius ferox (leConte):(I) E"zoJiQmycrs larhrobiiThaxter. Benjamin &Shanor1951:555, Balazue 1973h:249; U.S.A. (Illinoi.); (2)TemlO. J/l}\"esquedianusThaxtcrI896:356, 1931:171, Benjamin l%8a:6:U.S.A (Massachuscus). Hes{JC",.,loevigOlusFauvel:DichomycesgracilisThaxter. Thaxter 1931:13;Indooesia(SUmalra). The following spcdes name. atlribu!ed !o Bernhauer. appears 001 to be valid, lhough conceivably it mightbcan crrorforAmichromsjocabsoni Bernhaucr "HrsperusjacobsOfli": Dlchomycesf"ltWs"sThaxter 1931:13; Indone.ia (Sumatra) Hesj)<'rus sp. indct,: Dicholllyccs graci/isThaxter 1915:29.1931:13,host first staled lobcofuoknowngcnus; Indonesia (Java).16

PAGE 45

Hnerotlll!p, biNMmu,MilftLo.,ryu$&.Bor\ett$.Midddhod:1943b: 101. Stadelmann&'Poc:ll1962: 130. Balazoc1971(: 116;Nethcrtands.lIeurolhops dissimi/is (Gravenhorst): Grtgarin
PAGE 46

record;(8)Phlwwurphus viator (Haliday), Morley 1922; 158. from larvaof host; England Oe)'fms seu/iger Sharp: 00'pi Sugiyama 1973; 72, 1974; 13; Japan Phi/olt/husCunis.SEIlAUlOGabrius. Phi/onlhus obyssillusFauve1hoIomd,u Eppclshcim): Diehomyas subi naequilaterusSpegazzini 1915b:453,ThaxtcrI931:l1,hostgivcnu"Phi /on/hus holomollus'; Somalia. Phi/onlhus ueeedens Sharp: lAbou/benio phi/oil/iii Thaxter, Thaxter 1908: 358,hostgivcnas "Phi/onlhusacciderus"; Guatemala Phi/onlhus aero/eueus Kraatz: Diclwmycesfl"'eiferus Thaxler. Thaxter 1931: 16,Seheloskc 1969: 106,host given as "Phi/onlhusochrokueus"; Indonc sia(Sumarra) Phi/onlhus aeneipennis Hoheman ('" P. kwisius Sharp):(1) Diehomyces hy bridusThaxter1900:423,1908: 253, Terada1976:24,1918:64; GulfofOman, Japan. Taiwan; (2) Diehomyces pal/Mus Thaxter 1931:14;Philip_ pllles Philomhus aequa/is Horn: lAbou/benia phi/onlhi Thaxter 1893: 114, 1896' 343,Sche1oske1969: 129; U.S.A.("LakeSupcrior"). Phi/on/hus aerugirwsus Nordmann: Diehomyees vu/golUs Thaxter, Spcgaz zini 1912: 186,1911:513;Argentina. Philonlhusagi/is (Gravenhorst):Didlomyees "ulgalUsThaxter. Thaxter 1908:251, Picard 1913b: 511, Balazuc1974: 361; Austria. Frarx:e. Phi/onlhus o/bipes (Gravenhorst);(1) Dichomycesfurcifer Thaxter. Thaxter 1908: 250. Picard 1913b: 511, Middelhock 1943b:92.Stadelmann&Podt 1962: 125, Sche10skc 1%9: 106; England. Netherlands; (2) Rhachomyces philonlhillus Thaxter, Thaxter 1908: 424, Picard 1913b: 555, Siemaszko 1932: 182. Lepcsme 1942: 79. Stadelmann & ?oeIl1962: 131. Schcloske 1%9:142; Sweden; (3) Dichomyces ,'u/galus Thaxter, Middclhock 1943a' 60; Netherlands Phi/onlhusumi,us Sharp: Diehomycesfurcifer Thaxter, Sugiyama 1973: 29, 1914: 73;Japan. Phi/onlhusolriceps Sharp: Dichom)wsmexicunus Thaxter 1901b:28,1908256; Mexico(Jalapa). Phi/onlbus bonariensis Bcrnhauer: Dichomycuprinceps Thaxter. Spegazzini 1917:513,Thaxter 1931:11;Argentina Phi/onlhus bortletllSis Bernhaucr: Dicbomyus bico/or Thaxter 1931:12;Ma laysia(Sarawak)and Phitippines. Phi/omhuscen/ra/ls Sharp: Dicbomycesfurdfer Thaxtcr, Thaxtcr 1908: 250, Scheioskel969:I06:Mexico

PAGE 47

PIlilOtllhlls crpItoltMS(GraYellhonl):Didtottlycu,,"lfapS11w.ta",'lba::s;ta"1908:257.PicardI9I3b:SI2.Collartlo:MS:I02.Middelloxklo:M7a:91.1947b: 238. Majewski 1973b: 232; Belgium. Poland; (2) Didromps,,,,I.galUSThaxter. Middclhock 1943b: 91. 1947b: 23g. Sladdmann &. l'oeil 1962: 12S;Nclhcrlands.Philoolhus dncliJH""isFauvcl:Dldrom)'rtsfurdfuThaxler. 1lIalllCf 1908: 250,Schdoskc1969: 106. Thc:origindlhchoslwasllOl5laled by Th.u.ICf.buttheran&ed P. d..roJHrurisis northeaslernAfrica 10 southeastan Asia acrordin;toBcmhauer&SdJubcn(19IO-1916).PhilooUrIlScin:wmductrlSFau\'d:DidtomycnIt'pidusThuler 1931: 14. au lhororspecificnameofhoslgiw.nasBemhaucrpKsumably in error; Phil Ippll1es. Philoolhllsconclll"us(Gr.M:nhorSI):(l)Rhodwttl)'rtsplrilOlllhituls1lIax1Cf. MaiK192ftISS.ThaxIer 1931:287. Lepe$me1942.:79.Hinc:b1960: 100. Sctlc:klske1969;142.:Algo:ria,Eng.Wd;Wxbek19S5:IIO.Goodey1963: ISS.Shephard1974:206.PoiIWI97S:173;Germany; (2) Loboulbc'lIiaphilOfUhl Thaxler. Rossi 1975:73:1taly.Phll(NIlhus COIIw'xirollisLynch; (I) subi"at'quilmem(Spegll'zini),Spegazzini 1917:661. lransf.adDichamyces,,,b,,,aequilaurusSpe.gazzinibyTh.u.ICf 1931: 17; Argemina; (2) DidwmycesfurdfuThuter.Spcgav.ini 1917; SI3,1lwl1er 1931: 16.Srhelmkc1969: 106; Argenlin:t;...I/t"lliS11w.llT,Spcgau:ini1912.: 186. 1917:SI3;Argmtina:(4)Lob/bc'lIiaphilOlllhiThuter.Spepu:ini1912.:230. 1917:633. Sddosu1969: 129; Argenlina;(S)11mxfuiolaill/lfm:lla Spegazzini 1918: 31S;Argenlina.Philolll!UlscrUenlalllS(""P.bipusrulaw,(I)Dichomyce,lbaxler1900: 424,1908:2SI. l'icard 1913b:SII;Europe: (2) Rhodtomyctsphilo,uhimuThaxler,Midddloxk1943a: 60 (byerroras R. phi/Otllhi}, 1943b: 101, Sddosu1969: 142. Bala1\IC t973b:231,R0$5i 1975: 83; Ncthcrtands.Frara,Italy. PhiIOtlth .. 343. Scheloskc 1969: 129; U.S.A. ("NewEngl;ond"). Phi/omh"stkbills(GrtlVenhorsl):(t)Peyrirschielia"igTt'srr", 1893: 184, 1896: 281 and DichomyctsilWequalisThaxtCT1894: 103. 1896: 283, Sugiyama 1978b; 281.considcn:d 10 bI:synonyms by Thaxter 1908: 260 and. OIl lher;lOlndslhallhcformerwascon.sidertd 10 rqlfUCnlallatypical l'orm of the lJ,ner. andDidootttyceJ 10 be lhecorrttIr;cnr:ri
PAGE 48

Gc:mYny;Thaxter 1893: 184. 1902; 282. namebySxardo189j: 447. Benjamin 1971; 127;U.S.A. ("bineandM.auachusclIs):(j)SpluundarlCJuisplrilOfl1lliauet.,typo&f'IPhicalerror,no(w..dlCk19jj,SpIuu...larlopsisplxc:dUlynonymmSticl)'lusbyRiihmI9j6;16I,Poinarl97j:173,nosuchspcOcs...... "Cnhorsl):lAboulbenia 'p. indcc.1908;3j3. namedasL.philon/hicoiaSpeguzini 1915a:61.butthisplaccdassyJlOOymofL.dublaThuterbyScheloskc1969: 119:Germany. discoilkusIGI"8\'cnllorsl):DirltomycnjurdjuThuler.Thu!cr1908:2j(),PicardI913b:511.MaircI916a:9.ThaxterI931:16.Schcloskc1969:106: U.S.A. (Massac:hu5ClU),Scotland.CatwyIslands, Algeril.""ilauh .. sIG.-.:nhom);Didtonlyces .... Igal"s'lbnter.Tlw.1Cr 1908: 251.IK:lstgivenu"11IilotlduuelxMlU", U.S,S.R, ISibma): Eu "",.l'trUonlh .. sji_lari .. s(GI'2'.'cnllorSl)I'" p. ,Ianlhom"..sKraatz): (I)Allall' tonemt,pIIi1Q11/hiWad>ck1955: 40, Shcphard 1974:2
PAGE 49

1969: 129. Majcwski 1973a: 117. Balazuc 1974: 296.RO$$i1975: 73: Ger many. Poland.Turkey. Italy.PIIiloruluuj"mari", (I) Rltadtomyr."philo,"lli"",Balazuc 1973b: 281. Rossi 1975: 83; France. haly: (2)UlboflltNnia barbaTilMidde!hcck&.8oclens, Rossi 1975:73;haly. PIIIIon//uuj"n ... ,Nordman:LDboufbellio!,lIilOftdliTlWIICT.'Thaxler 1896:343.1908: 358. Sdlclosk1969:129: U.S.A.(Califomia) and Mexicof'ltiion/h"sfusciJH""is(Mannerheim):(I)LDboItlbt!"io dubio Thallu.Picard 1917: 452.Siemaszl:o 1928:2Q5.1932: 178. Briedis 1932: 131. Lepesmc 1941: 486, Collartl945: 103.Sladelmann& Poelll962: 127. Scllelosl:e 1969: 119,Balazuc (2) Lobou/bt!"ia philotllhicolaSpcgazzini, Lepesme1941: 486. but lhis plaeedassynonymflL.dubiaThaxlerbySchdoske 1969: I19 andB
PAGE 50

(Missouri), Taiwan: (4) Dichom)'Ces furciferSpegauini 1917: 513, ScheJoske J969:106:Argentina; (5)Rhabdilis sp., Z"''llluwenburg 1928: 30; U.S.A. (Hawaii).Philon/hu$ 'n
PAGE 51

dubiQThaxler1902:3$,Hate,1923;SI,Siema"zko1932: 17S.Scheloske 1969: 119. Balazuc 1974;21,L.pJti/OItlhicolQSpepuiniplaadasas)n onym; En&l3oo. France; (3) Didtomyusprinc'f'JThulei'. Callan 1945: 102; BdJ.ium; (4) DidtQnryc#:s .../pfllsThaxler.Hinr:b1960: 100: Eng.land;(S)&D.//OllyxfigalllS{Ntts),Pauli;m"19-I1: 16. fromlan'aclb:lst;Fnnce.(&D.ffOll)'xis listed u a synonymclCodnuby Muesebecket aI. QbifisSiemaszkotilederroneously by Stadelmann8
PAGE 52

Phi/ml/hus lu,bidus Erichson: (I) Dichom)'cu mddaguscurensis Maire1916b:102, Thute' 1931:17; Egypl;(2)F.xullol1"xphilom/liphagus Williams1932:205.from larva ofhosl. Clausen 1940:264:Hawaii(Ex,,/ /ollyxislisledasasyoonymofConsisThaxter 1900:421,1908257;Angola;(2) Diclw",ycubifidllsThaxlcr 1901b:26.1908:255;NewGuinea(NewBrilain):(3) Dieholltyces j"'''''l1/s Thaxler1900:420. 1908 259; (4) LtJboullvnia philonrhi<'0/aSpegazzini 1915a:61. Picard 1917: 452. Colla1934:119.Sladclmann& Poelt 1962:128,placedasa synonymofL.dubia ThaxeerbyScheloske1969:I 19: France. llaly:(5) Temromyces phi/omlli 1900:432, 1908: 316. Picard1917:448. Thaxler 1931:171. generic assignmenl of OIlehose uncer13in. Banhegyi1940: 47. Lcpesmc1941: 483, Stadelmann & Pocll 1962:131. Baluue 1974:348; Hungary. Francc:(6) 1"'mrom}ws l'u/go"is Thaxler1900:431, trnnsf,adSy",plecrron,}wJ",,/garis(Thaxter)byThaxlcrl'Xl8:315.Pieard 1913b:527. generieassignmemofhosluncenain, Banhegyi1940:47. Sla delmann&Poell1962:131, Seheloske 1%9: 151. Bala/uc 1971b: 211;1915b:48, 1917:661 Peyrirscltiell"ani"'I'I,.,.",(Spegan;ni)). Thaxtcr 1931:17.Colla 1934:36.

PAGE 53

Stadelmann&.Poeh 1962;12.5; luly;(8) Dirlwmycr&bijormi&Thaxter 1900: 422.1908: 2$4; U.S.A. (NewYorl:); (9) Dirhonl>v:nj..rdjrrl'hax.tef,ThaxtCf 1908::BO. 1931: 16; U.S.A. ("NewEngland"). Ceyloo, Gren.ada,Gu;llrm;tb.Argentina; (10) DklromycnhybridulThaxlrr1900: 423, 1908: 253; India(Auam,lknpI), U.S.A. (MassadauellS.NrwYorl:), 0;11:1, Hong Kane; (II) NtrrKr,.,(Thaxtrl). Sprgaztini1915lY.$0,Colb1934: 32. 19-'1: 481, Stadrlmann&f'Ilcll1962;Ill,Baluuc: 1914: J6O;Ital)'. (12) Dk#Iomyrn"",,upsThaxlrf,Thaxltt 1908: 257,Picard19lJb:5l2, Sprpuini 1914:30,1915b:.so, Colla 19l5: l.52, Th ....tt 1931: 17, Colla 19).4: 35, Sugiyama 1972: 261, 1974: 360; FI1Uln:,Autnlia. India, SI, Ar gentina,ltaly, 19OO: 4l4,1908' 2.5I,Sprgilzzini 1915a:454.191x:51,CoIla 19H:254.llinhrg)'i1940:43,Sladelmann&.POdl 1962:12.5; Hong Kong, AU!ndia, Chile, Somalia, Grenada, Hungary; (14) Rhachmnycrs plri/onthill"s1900: 435, 1908:424,Picard1913b:.5,56,lIakel923:81,6;mhcgyi 1949: 98, SUdel mann & POdl 1962: 131, Balazuc 1973a: 465; Grcal Brilain, Romania;(l.5)ThaxtttI896:343, 1908: 3.58,Spcgazzini 1917: 633, Sdt<:lo5.ke1969: 129; U.S,A.(F\orida, "NewEngland').SaJthAm::rica; (16) L.;bo..lbe"i"dubioBriedis 1932; 131, Senlmann &. Poelll962: l27; U.S.S.R. (utvia): (17) MonoiromyuIStJIIC,proSl1ppro,,,,,i 1902: .51.l908:347:SudanP/ol'iotltnIlJfarms Sharp: DiclrlHn>'Cr1pnul"!mu,s 1908' 257; BtalilQl,rllim",l("'''sSoIsk)':DirhomYCr1prinupsThaxter 1908:2.57;Me1tico.Qurdi",Slephrns.Su.At.$)AIt(l/{.udi",. ClrrilocoJplu. Hrml/fUrdillS."The!flInsf.ad$pIIa!rromyrrlo/ropl"PU,ftlS(Tha.uc:r)bylbaxte:r1908: 324.trans(.adatroptMrptlrrwl(lbaxte:r)byTha.\te:r 1931:9; Pan-Qo.rdi'"bm.,sEric:hson: ElIIirllS a""'lIIpsin""Walker.Donischorpe 1938: 74, frompupaoChosc;Engbnd."

PAGE 54

aM/WS (Paykull) (z Q. imprtsSlcn.Hil"$Chmann19S2: 349.tnnSf.IldParoiKOlaibyPanItlOOO"&.SobolcY 19S-l:211.lJ:J.rtSf.lidUoiodipiogostuwTCOrariws(Borooicn)byMcyll96C):ll.tnnSf.adFiclOrWTC"ororius(8OI'icn)byGoodcy 1963:1&6.Poirw1975: 113;Gc:nnitny. colloris (Erich$Oll);Sympltcfromps.... /gor;s(Thaxter).Majcvo'$ki1974: 281; Poland.Q/,ulgaris Tha.l.IC1 1908:315.Picard. 1913b: S27. Siemaszko 1932: 173. Sladelmann&.Podt1962:"tdl-llrdsiSharp:insig"isTlInler 1901b: 36,1908: 317,1931: 17Q;NewZealaoo.QllfiiiliS /lar.'ictuldlisSharp:dtiri'l"tll$isTlInler 190 I b:40. 1908:32S.tramf.IldM;, .. 9;Panana.Qllfiiilisjwlgidtis(FabricillS): (I) l"1i/goriSThuter: 1900: 431.II'lIIlsLadSympl .... tromy .... s .... lgraris(n-Ier)byThuter1908: 315. Picard 1913b:527. Tlw.terI931:168.SicmaszlooI9J2:173.Stadelmann&l\lcll 1962: 131.ScheIoske 1969:UI.Majcwski1974:2111, Balazuc 1974:3SO;Germany. Spain, Poland; (2) TtmlOmycuqutdio1lUSThaxler.Moes:1. 1931: 167,Banhegyi 1940: 48; lIungary.QI.rdiusjuliginos s (Gl""d"enhorsl):TrTOlOmy.... s ""IgorlsThaxter 1900:431. .... 315.Picard 1913b: 527. ThiUlcr 1931: 168,Sicmauko 1932: 173, Scheloskc 1969:lSI,Balazuc 1974: 350; Gcrmany.graci/i"rn"isSharp:SphDluomycnOITQP'''f'''rru,ThllJsf.by11laxter 1908: 324.trllllSf.lidMi_OtIl)'usart'llf'"'JH'""s(Thuler)byThulcr193I:9:Panama.(}wtdilOSimpurtefluSobky:SpIlalrromyus 'l"fiilQtfllrlliThaxter 1901b:39. II; Mexico(Vcncrw:)... s insoli,.. S SIwp:ualandim11Iaxter 1908: 316;New Zealand. 46

PAGE 55

10000korni,Knaalz:S,mp/lromyeU'"lIlgar"(Th::lXlcr),Sd>eloske 1969:151,B,duuc 1971b:211, 1974: 350; F ... oce, Gernuny.@led,",_rorujlU (G ..... "t:nhorst):S)"mp/n:lrom)US ,"/f;(Jri,{11I;t.ll;ter),SdleIoske1969: 151,B.t.Lull(" 1974: 350; Germany.(}ImJilfS(Manllalll) (=Q. orrJI11"sBoiWuv.1&:Laconlaire): (I) HiJlioUOMasapronl}7JJ"'''' (DJfour),1lKodoriw19S4: 195. 1955:165; Rhabditidaindet.,Pauli...1941:267.lModondes1954: 194. from larva.dhost: France: (3) S}-mpItrtMl)Us ....Ipris(Thaxter).Thauer1908: 315. Siemasdo 1932: 173. Midlkthoek 1943a; 60, I94Jb: 94,CoIlarll945:tOJ,SUtdelnunn&:Pwhl962:lJI.Sd>eloskel969:151.Balazuc 1974:J50. Majewski 1974: 28l,Rossi 1978:73: NorthAmeriea. Yutmlavia, Netherlands, Poland. Germany. [Ialy, Belilium; (4) lsar'"glliS"",di Maheu 1906:lIS, as synonym nf rum (Nees) byPeteh 1932:47: France Qlled/lls ochrop/er"s EriehsOlI: S}'mplfrrrom)"Cts 'UlgMi, (Thaxter),Rossi 1978: 73;,haly. @ltd/us pertgrinus(GflI\'i:nhorsl):S,mpllromyets,,,,Igar,s (Thauer). Qutdi",purtl;liro/li,(/lIolIu(xI)(I< Q. mhinitnsiJJoIIalUtn. '" Q. la/porulflDc-'i1Ie):(I)SpilomicnlJ/ripani/usKieffer. Paulian 1941: 15, fromPUpild:host:(2)SJtnpItromyets'lIl8flris(Thaxln),HinckJ1960: 100. Sehdo$u1969: 151. &aluuc 1974: 350;EDgIand:(3)EMlIlJIt)'.rlif;(JtIlJ(Nees).Rosenberg 191):43, frornlarva.d:host(EMlIlJIt)'XisliSledasls)'n OII)'m d:Cod",s by II.(l951). sorombinationisCod",s Ii gofliS(Nees;Denmuk.QunJiusnlfirolli,(GIlIVetlhorst):Didtom)'Cts awlmlieflS'sThIllItS1901b: 28,1908:256;Auslrlllil. (}lied/usSnlUI(Gravenhorsl):S)'mplulrr!myetJ 'ulgaris (Thaxter), Rossi 1978: 73: haly.Qutdiuss/mplicijrQflSFairmaire (.Q. hispanicus (Bernhauer:(I) Codr.. s lig(l/"s (Ns),Weidemann1%2: 30,1965; 445. from larva<:ihost:Ger.many: (2) "a/c(l' (Hlliday). Weidemann 1962: 31. 1965: 460. fromlarvaofh<:>st:Germany(}lItdilU''tn/roli,(AraJlPlUl)('" Q. r'u"",kolaFairmait"t:&.LaboulbCne):Tu/I/Omyen .. If;(Jr;sThv.ler 1900: 431, lnnsf.adS)"mplKlromyetS ntlf;(Jris(llwuer)byThv.terl908:315,Pic.rd191Jb: 521, Hake1924:80,Thv.ter19JI:I68.SiemuzkoI932:173.Sdldoskel969:151.BaluucI974:J5O;GruIBrilain.f}IIrdi .. s .......aflSEppelsbeim: (I) CDtJnulif;(J11U(Nees).Smeuolla 1951:336. from larvadhost;CzedJoslavllkia;(2)CDtJnubrt\'iCOl''';s(HaJiday),SmelJIlII 1951: 336, Wcidemann 1962:30,1965:458.fromlarv>ld:host:CudlO$loteIosu 1969: 107; Germany, 47

PAGE 56

QurdiltSx/JIl/hopusErimson:Sy"lpitc/romyus,,,,I,.,ris(fhuter).Majew$l.:i 1974: 281;Poland.Thefollowingtopecic:Jname. allributrd 10 lkmhaDer.appearInallObe>':llid."QIlrdilU_rplwllU":(I)Mi-...](tldrcipirllSThaxler 19123:164. 1931:7; Argenlirg;(2)Mi_yrrs9"nliotwdli(Thaxle!"). Thaxler 1931: Qutdiusspp.indel.:(I)Ttffi/IJI'l)'CtsillJigllisllw::lt/1901b:36.1908:317. 1931:170;New Zealand; (2) Ttr/Jtomycrsprtio/arlisl'haKtr:r 1901b:36.1908: 316;New Ztaland;(3)SympltClTomycrs ',,{gur;s(ThaKler).ThUler 1908: 315.S<,;hciosl.:e 1969: 151;India.C.nada; (4) Sondtrsolliomyrtsdi.l"tlric/JllisB<,;njamin1968a:I; U.S.A.(California); (5)X/JllonyxligeIoske1969:Su/plrJ"lillUl rorsllrrusCrderhjelm;ActillOUpluJlus strt/i/OT",;sSchneider,WdlmerI911:137.FoerslcrI938:ln;Poland.SIUplryli'UiJ dimidiOlkornisGemminger (=S. porllm/omtnlOSllsSlein): in del. garnaine mites.Gn:<,;n & Wilkinson 1950: 144;Wales.SlOphylillus try/lrroplerusLinnaeus:Aclinoupha{uJsIrm/ormisSdmeidcr. WcllmerI911:137.FoerslerI938:172;Poland. The following species name. atlribulCd 10 Beml\auer.appeanPOlIObevalid."SulphyIiIlMSIU_lrtllSis": (l) DiduJltlyuspTt/iollls'Thaxler 1931: IS; In donesia(Sumatrli): (2) Didtomyussfllphy/iniThulei' 1931: IS: Indonesia (Sumatra).SiOpIrylinNJsp.illliel.;"Codnu""IIiIMI Jurine.'K .... '111 IUS: 261. from l;uvarlhosl.EUioa&.Morky1907: 10. 1911: 4S3(specifoeepithelmparltIiitecitedas"plIl1idipes").Mor\eyI922:I3S.F..a$thamI929:2.(hoslrnis ciled asOQ'P"soluu.specific epithetofplIrasileciledupIll/idiprs).Weidemann 1965:452 (hoSI rnisciled as Oqpuso/rns.p;Il'asitr ciled .$ Plroenourphus pol/iprs(Latreille); Gtrmany. Xunlhopygus caUdus(E(ichson) (=X. so/sky; Sharp): PqritJchiel/aXl/mhop)giTha.xter 1901b: 29.1908:261 (QI"iginofhoslPOlmlcd.perhapsBruil). TRiCHOPHYINAE Tricloop/fylJpiliror,,;s(Gyllenhal):Polyasro
PAGE 57

TACHVPORINAE ?Br)'oporus obscurus(Ericllson):C/onophoromycu grenadinusThaxler 1931:262, host givenas"Br)'OfWmus ",rialisEr.'aIlOmenincognitum, and ge ncricnamemuslbeancrrorbecau$eofinlandcoliectionlocalityandspecific namei,mosllikely asaboYe (see also Blackwelder 1943: 529); Grenada CorwsomaKraIt.SEEThe following lWQspecies names. auribuled10 Bernhaucr, appear IlOilO bevalid,bulareprobablyreferablcloSq)edophilus "Cooosomatrinidaden"''': Smeringomyeu IrinitrllisThaxler J931: 212; Trinidad"Co/tOsol>1a kamerunensis": Stichomyces lepidus Thaxter 1931: 248; Came Coproporus bernhaueriSclteerpch1. ('" C. "entralisBcrnllaucr);CorerhromycesehaelOphilusThaxter1931: 191;lndooesia(Sumatr3) Coproporus hypocyploides Bernllauer.RidiunigrescensThaxter 1916: 44, 1926:485; Malaysia (Sar3wak) and Philippines. Coproporus lalus Motscltulsky: (I) Ridiainc/usaThaxter 1916; 36, 1926: 418; Philippines; (2jRickiaintrm'ersaThaxter 1916:34. 1926: 419; Philippines;(3)RidianignfjmbrialaThaxlerI916:35.1926:486:Philippines;(4) Misgom)"Us plJilippirwsThaxter 1931: 302; Philippines. Coproporusp/mensisBernhauer.EcteinomycesplalerrsisSpegaJ.1.ini 1917: 543.tmnsf. ad Misgomyccsp/Ofensis(Spegauini) by Thaxler 1931:303; Argentina. ('oproporus pu/chellus(Ericltson):Misgomyces grenadi""s Thaxter 1931: 301; Grenada Coproporus rUlilus(Erich son) ('" C.terminalls(Eriehson)): (I)Eclei"omyces filarius Thaxter 1912a: 212,transf, ad Mjsgomycesfilarills(Thaxter) by Thaxler 1931: 301; Argentina: (2) EeleillOm)'Cn copropori Thaxter 1912a: 213,trnnsf, adMisgomycescopropori(Thaxter) 1931:300andMisgomyces argeminensis (Spega1.1.ini)transf. exEeteinomyccsargeminensis Spegaz l.iniI917:533.eonsideredasPOSiiblysynonym;Argentina:(3)Misgom)'C'esbicornisThaxter 1931: 299; Trinidad: (4) Misgom}'C<'sdh'exiroslris (Spe. ga1.zini) Thaxter 1931: 300, hoslasCoprOf>Qrllslermina/is (Erichson): Trin idad CoproporllSCerelllSBernhallCr. (I) RickiafastigjOfaThaxter 1926: 473; Philippines;(2)Rickiatcssella/a Thaxter 1926:S02; Philippines.Coproporus Sllmatrensis Bernhaucr:Misgom)'CI'sappl'ndiclllmus Thaxler 1931: 298;lndonesia(Sumatra). The following unanributcd species name appears not 10 be valid. "

PAGE 58

"Copropomsorgtnlim,,":Ecuinonlysdi,..xiroSI';SSpcgauini 1917:536. transLadMisgomyusdi.oo:iroslris(Spegauini) by Thaxtcr 1931: 300;Argentil\ll.$pp.indc:t.: (I) Dimtrmtyuscopropori1lIuter192Oa:266, 1924:342:Camcroon;(2)DilllO'ploomycnbrn-irosrris1lluterI92Oa:219. 1924: 324; Guar=.ala, Brazil. Jamaica; (3)RidiQ Ntrofi",briolQThuter1915:35.1926:486;InOOnesia (Sumalr'll); (4)RidiQMticolQ1lIu1tt 1926: Indonesia(Sumalr1l); (6) Mis,om)'Cts ('Qritl(liUSThuter 1931: 299:IndoDesia(Sumal1ll).I_dirhorllhoracicus(Fabricius):DiplogwltroitkssliglfttJlIIsSteiner.KOrner1954: 334. transf.adAnrllidiplogosltmidusligmal"s(Steiner)byParaITlOl"II.7>'1964: 243. ttansf.adRhabdoll/o/aimus srigmulus (Steiner) by Poinar 1975:172: Germany.StptdOf,hil" . an1lus/"s(Bcrnhaucr):S/ichom)'f:tsc"",,'lsis Thaxter 1931:2SO:Soulh Africa.&ptdaphi!us"""JUS(Boheman):(I)OJ/hfOfnyctlca!}'('ulalulThalller 1931:191: Cameroon; (2) CQfflhrom)'CtscornululThaxler 1931: 192;Cameroon; (3) CoufhromyctlffllUlfolUSThuter 1931: 214; DII1Cl'QOII;(4)ColhromplsptClQbilisThuler 1931: 217; Canxroon;(5)Slicftamyctl...siCflIiftrulThaxter1931;249,nameemelllkdl(l$.,..siCfllifrrbylknjamin 1971: 146:Camaoon."..... t(Bcmhauer):StidlomycnSJOlIII/lImtThuter 1931; 249; Indonesia (Sumatra). 25. lnnsf.adSmuillgOm)'ula_Ius(Thaxler)byThuler1908: 297,scus);(2)$lichom)'('tlCOtlOSOmatThaxler 1901b: 38, 1908: 321. hoslgiven aSCOOOSQf/l/lpubtlunsPaykull.nameemended 10C. conosoma/isbyMaire 1920: 147, Thaxter 1931: 248. Benjamin1971:129:U.S.A. (Ma_sachu. settsandMaine). (3) $Iirnomycuca/(lUllllt Thaxler1912a: 192. 1931:248,hoSlgivenlls'Cl)nOsoma'eJ/(lceumL..aI."andisonlydoubtfully rdel1lblcto$eptdOl,I,i!UJI('JI(.ceuswithlI1e name Septdophilus Itslaceus(SoIier); Argentina;(4')$/ichomyctlf'UropaeusM.ajcwskiI97Ja;121:PoIand.StpttiopJliluslibialisShatp:(l)S_rillgOmyculritlalat;s11laxler,Tenw;Ia19n:128;.!apan;(2)Stidlom}t:uCDtfO_,is"Thaxter,Terada 1m: 129;",.,.lala(laK:un).Triffin&Oldham 1927: 44. transf.adPelodtracoottlOlQ(laK:br't)byDoughcny 19S3:70, infcebonexperimentally.notobscrvedlliKul1llly;England.50

PAGE 59

Tudliru.sjrigidusErichson: .,EntOntOCosmasp. indct.,Thuttt 1920b: 16, hostas1'.. bul see Campbell 1973: 71; U.S.A. (Massadlu$ells). TudlillUsl"ridusErich$Oll(=T.jla>iJNllnisHelUhaw):Ag
PAGE 60

BI.'o'ien.Sachs 1950: 215. lransr.adParoigolDirMllas/rrrorarius(BO'o'icn)byPara/OOl'KJOl&.SoboIeYI954:218.lran$f.aIJHoIodiplogtlSruslerrororius(BO'o'icn)byMeyI1960: 33. ad FiClQl"SlerrororillS(Bovien)byGoodey1963, 186. Poinar 1975: 171;Grnnany;(5)RJrobditis doIirlu
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A,M,a l .. ritla (Erichson):(I) DilPlOrpltotrt)TUTIluter 1912a: 159. Spcpuini 1911: 519.TIluler1924:..... brSUIlSTIlutcrSpcgazzini 1911: 465,Thnler 1931: 59: Argenlina: (3) MOllOicomycu homalOiatThUkr,Spegaaini 1917: Sd>closke 1969: 14Q;Argenlina.(Erichson):MOtWic01/l)'Cestligrf'Scetlsl1Iaxler,Mlddclhod1943b:94.SlaotPIaf_llIaxter,MiddelhoekGermany.AIMIa,Ia",lropllS('Thomson):MOllOicomyr:eshomalOiaeThancr.Middel hoek, 1947b: 232. Schdoske 1969:140: 1l>c:followingtwospecicsnarnt'S,atl1'ibuled 10 Bernhalltr, appearnot 10 bevalid."AwlodlifelUis":MottofcomycesrolodtrruThv.ter,andsyll.lrf.oc:afroeSpcpzzini 1917: 660.Thv.ttr 1931: J8:0IJe."Alhelo.'trw:::oIUlw":Thaxter 1931: 33; Vcnetuela. spp. il'ldet.: (I) DimOt"plrQllt)'Ces"ulicu!isl1Iaxler 1912a: 159, 1924:"

PAGE 62

325.Spegau:ini 1917: 519; Argentinaand (2) MOIttJirom'jUs bri"(JlliCllJThula.Picard1917:443.Lep:sme1941:482.namecmended10M.brilannicusbySchdO$ke 1969: 133;FI'llIlCe.Germany;(3)MOIttJiromyetlvellelUSSpegauini 1915b:69. ThaJIlcr 1931: 51.generie idenlil'iel' lionoflhe boSIdoublful. Colla1934:45. Sladelmann&l'oeh1962: 131; Italy: (4) Monoicomyces lta/GlrdiellSThaxler. Thaxler 1931: 51; Chile; (5) A",.".,momyce,i,alinlsSpegazzini 1915b:38. Thuler 1931:57.Colla1934: 56.Sladdmann & POell 1962: 124. identirlCllOOno(thetosHloublful; Italy;(6)AltttXpltamycu ",lNsceflS "Thu1Ct.Thula 1931: 59;Argenlilll;(7)MQtl(Jicomycu/tamDJ(}IoeThnla,1'ha.lta"1911a: 223. Sdtdosu1969: lransf.ad Paroigo/aimtlla caprophagtS(de Man) byPanrl'lOl'lOl' 1952: 350. Poinar 1975:171: Germany; (9) Dip/ogasr.. r erlange,uis Sachs 1950:261.lransf. adAlJodipiagamrer/angeltsis(Sadls)byParaIJlOll(l\'&Sobolev 1954: 210; Germany; (10) Diplogasltr IteMiC'hatSadis 1950:260. mmsf.(Sachs)byPuamono:w&Sobolev1954:209:Germany; (II) Dip/ogasler moMYJleroi6n BulSdlli.Sxlls 19.50:21S. IIlInsf.adDiplaK4SlnllusmonhysIeroides(BulSdlti)byJ'an1JlOll(l\'1952:348, Poinar1975: 171; GerllDny; (12) Diplagos,..rStUCorarillSBoylen. Sachs 1950: 215. lransf. adP/lraigoluimellas'ercomrius(Boyien) byParl TnOIlOI' & SoboIev1954: 218.lransf.IdHoiodiplogoSler srercororius (Boy jen) by Mcyl 1960:33. transf. ad Ficl(N" SltrconJrillS (BOYien) by Goodey 1963: 186. Poinar1975: 171; Germany; (Il) R1wbditiscoarclulu(ltvckart).Sachs 1950: 215.1rans(.adPdOtkrucoarnola(Ladart)byCoulherly 1955:10. Poinar1975: 171; GcrIlWly; (14) Rhobdilistr'lKilie-dadeSachs 1950: 215, Poinar 1975: 172; Germany; (IS) Rhubdilis_hausiSachs19SO:215,p1accdassyn.ofR.cyliltdricaCobbbyOscheI952:258; Germany; (16) Rhabditis spiculigerlJ Sleiner, Sachs 1950: 247; Ger many;(I7)MOtWicomyeelll/herael1Iaxler. Schcloske 1969: 138; Germany: (18) MlJtIOicomyasnigreJ("eru11w.ter,Scheloske1969; 140: Germany.Bca115ernanylu\horso(lhc:lllCI9lhllldearly2OlhCCTIluricscontinucdlOpbcesptt'ksbdc..:inglOlhc:&eoosAIIteIa"IbonuonundcTlhcgcnerielWl1eH_IOfaMannc:rhcim. someortheunidcntiroedspec:M:$0("HamaIOfo {see below) pos:sjblybelong 10 lhegenusAlhellJ.Ble/iharYrlU'flUsSulier.SBEEchidlillglQssllBrochidurey;Sharp: Telraltdromyas brad!idlJe "T'hu:ler 1912a: 168. 1931:7]; Argmtina.QIOtkraspp.inr;lec.;(I)McIftOiCDlflycescaJOtkruel1wHer 1912: 162and$yn.M. oroJeoeSpepzzini 1917: 660.Thula"1931:38;Argenlilll;(2)Monoicomyees ni&rescerul1Iaxler 1902:10,1908: 210,Schdo$u19'69: 140. Rossi 1978; 66:U.S.A. (NewMaine)DieSIOlUleSlUeeaThaxler 1931: 39; Indo nesil{SUm3.I..:).

PAGE 63

sp.indet.:AmorpItonrY''Tb.:o;ltr 191z..: 167; AIFII'liM.DuryloniaWasmann.SEEOc)p/OriUS.DuryloniJIaWasmann:MOIIOiCVlll)"C"tSdury/lJrliJJeu1ltallltr 1931: O".,i1loL.each.SEEAUOM)T"_dcnioO",sillo amalicula/o (F.lbricius):Sleiner. Sdluur 1929: 265. Theodoridi::s 1955: 117.placcdassyn.ofD.,na"l)(uiJ\J!ISbyHirschmann 1952: 397,D. rnlomophaguSleinc:r lransf.ad ruroigoloimd/u (Sleiner)by Paramooov & Sobolev 1954: 214. lrand. ad IiIrwdipiogusur MIlt.posi (POliS) byGoodcy ]963: 182, Poirwl97S: 171:HoIbnd. Thefollowingspeciesnamc.anribuledlOF.luvd.appeanooclobc... lid. ThegenqienameEchidnogfos,a \\loIlaston is a synonym ofBlrphoT}""""'"Solier."c1lidlWgIOlsaameric"II(I":MOIIOicOnt)"ctsechidnog/ouoe 1901b: n.I908:269:U.S.A.(CoIorado).EudtrllFauveJ.SEI!OpIIioglossu. (I) MoItoicomyus tJ/httQe'Thnlcr.Sclldoske1969: 138: Cimnany: (2) MoNJiromyces homofaQtThula.Schelosl;e1969:140:Germany."Il"ySlts(Fauvcl):MOtloicomyces homo/maeThaxler. Maire 1916a:8.Thuler 1931: 43, Scheloske1969: 140; Algeria, NIQgriocoon:Jicoilis F;U,lve!:"'oNJiconfyces/tJlogriur'Tb.:o;1C1' 1931:41. Rossi1978:71:CarntlllUl. NIQgrio concin""Erichson (= F.WaIl_OIl):Amorp/wtr(yusfaJogriol'Thaxler. Spegu1.ini 1917: 464: Argenlina. Fa/ogria disJl'("/tl Erichson:(I) Dimorphomyusdl!nlicu/aluJThaxler 1893: 157, ]896: 266.1924: 322: U.S.A. (Massaehuseus. Maine):(2)DimorphomyrumuliouThulCr1894: 104. 1896: 267. 1924: 322; U.S.A. (MawdluKUS.Maine); (3) AmorpItoIffyusfaJogritUTIw;ltI" 1893: ISH.1896:'296. 1931: 56,Ta>'a!"eS1970: 743; U.S.A. (Mass.ehusens.Maine.NewYork).FO/Ilg,;oImmlllr!;i"",,, Bernhauer: (I)Mmwifom)'cts 1931' 47: Indonesia (Sumalra):biformis Thallter 193]: 55: In donesil.(SurRau:I). F(llugrio tplrrttktuKr:aatz:MUNJiCOMjCtsnilUSUtlSRossi 1978: 71;]tlIly.FO{(lgria'1'. indel.;Thaxter 1931:56:U.S.A. (Ohio). Jamaica. Gr""iban'Ofllson.SuE,un)Jlts. "

PAGE 64

cited astrIIIId.-uaBanh..specifIC qMthetemcndcdb)'Balazuc(l971b:212);lnOOncsia(Sumall1l). The folJowing spcciesnanx,anributed 10 BernhallCT. appc:arsnot tobc valid.Gpvphaeoo /lm'cipennis":Stigmotomy<:esgyrophaenaeThaxter 1931: 1M, transf.adActJllomyces(Thaxter) by Tavares 1973: 933. Sugi yama1978.1:1S<':lamaica.GyroplrMNlspp.19201: 268, emendedby"Thu;ler 1924: 341:Cameroon;(2)Di_romyusrouriThuter192Qa:266, 1924: 340;Trinidad:(3)kallomyusI"(Thaxter), SlIgiyama197b:IS<':hp;lnHomtJlota Manncrheirn, Sill!AuoAtlletaANDSlfnatntJsrax. l1le folJowing species name, anributoolO Bernhaucr. appcars 00110 bc valid. "H_lafapsrvdocribru",":tJS)mmtuiCllSThuter 1931: 16;lndoncsil{StmRtra).Some of lhc(oIlowingspeciesof"H_IOfa"po$Sibly bclons 10 If(Noolula spp. indel.: (1) britrUllicusThaxter, SpegaZzini 1915b:66, Thaxter 1931:3a.Colla 1934: 42. Stadelmann&: Poe1l1962:130, idenliflCalioIlI. of ho$tunea1lin. name emc:nded 10 M.briftJnniClls by SdlcIosU 1969: 138:Thaxter 1908; 268,Colb1934: 41, Stadelmann&.Poell 1962: 130; U.S.A.and II aly;(3jMON.IiCQflfyulsiltlilis"l'lw.ter 1905:305.1908:269; U,S,A. (Ma;,.,); (4) Acallomyrcs homal()ltJe"Tha:lter 1902:24, 1908:300: U.S.A. (NewHampshire); (S) Amo'pltom)'Cesm;I1;SCU/UsThaxter 1931: 56: Indonesia (Sumatra): (6) Anwrphom)'Cts,ubesrrnsThaxter 1912a: 167; Argentina.HopitJndria smithi Cameron:lwpIulldritJc"Tha:lter 1931: 33; Grenad.1. The follolllingI"""speciesnames. Illributed 10 Bcmhaucr.appea.rOOllObevalid."lIop/tJndriacar;nico/li{':KleiditJm)Y."cs hoplandriacThaxter 1931: 33; Trinidad "Uoplandr;fj qutJdritknltJIO": Klrid"(J
PAGE 65

[58,pbced as synonymd D. SpegauinibySpegauini 1917, Thuta" 1924: 323(nanxd junior synonym emended 10D .......roowraoe);Argentina;(2)Monoicomycoesnig,uCl'1I.IThaxter, ThlUllcr 1912a: 223, Spe Argentina. Mimrxyplus,lobulusCameron:Ridiapal/uulI$Thaxler '916: 45. 1926.: 488.bostfirsl recordcdcrroncouslyasCoproporwssp.;Philippinoes!befOllowingspccic:smmc.allributed to Fauvd,appearsIlllt to bevalid. lhough ilis possible lbal lhe altribulion "''ISmistakenly made to insleadd 10 SoIsky.M)'TmI'dQltiuErichsoo is a synonyrn of Drusillal..ea<:h;however.lhcnanx has been applied by many aUloorslO lhe species belonging 10 the genus ZyrosSiephens.My,......donia f1a>kornis' .. Dimorphomyeu my,mtdt)lliaoe1ltaxler1\lOO:409.1908:240, 1924: 324; Guau.maIa. .. AmorpIJomycoesabliquoesepUlla1lwller1\lOO: 431, trand".adDioirom)'usabliquoesep/Ql#s(1lwlta")byThlUller1901b:33,I908:2%;Braz:il.Nehoemi"'JPiasomida (Marshum): (ljDichQmyushomlllOlaeThaxter 1901b:29, 1908: 259,Spegazzini 1912: 185,1911:5IJ,ThaxlerI93J: 16;U.S.A. (MilSSachuselU.M;tinc).Arg<'nlina; (2) Porosilylettdru.sDlhoerDoeWachek1955:64,Shephard 1974: 205,givengencricSIaIUS,IltusPT"J'GrNrosiluwCameron. SEE AUIOPfagiuJiI.NrosiluSGcoeylQltica(KraulZ): Monoicom)'Cuslemuaoe1915: 30. 1931: 49; Indonesia (Java). OcaleafllMbrisl.ynch: (I) MonoicomycoescaloderoeThuter.Spegazzini 1917:660 (asM.oraloe
PAGE 66

0xypcldDspp.indt:I.; (I) DimorpllDtfr)'Us wrrirolis1lw.1Cr 1912a: 159. 1924; 325; Arccntina; (2)MOI'IOiCOOOl)'Cl'IQl)podat"1lw.ter 1902;10. 1908; 271;U.S.A. (NewPhl(}wpora clN'linl1is (Gravenhorst): Vinwrphomyc:es Ihlt'OfH'rtlr Thaxter1900:410,1908:241. 1924: 323,spccificepithetcmendedl0phlot'opMrlt'byHincksl960: 102. Balazuc 1971b; 212;Madeira.PhIOpOlTl'l'I,rxw.(Mannerbcim) ( :: P. "plQllSEridlson);Gelisarea/Ol"(Panzer)(HymtlqllCnl.Idlneumonidae)(givenasHe"uleles El Idt&:Mor1cyl907:9.butlhisisrecordotassociaiioomly.noteYidcnccofpansilism(known to parasilize Hymenopter1l.notaulhc>rofhostname P. r('plUtUcited as Gravenhorst. presumably by error. England. 1bcfollowing species name, auribuled10 Bernhauer,appeann(lltobe valid.ll>c:genericnamePla,ilUaBernhauer is a synonym otNrosilusaCatn=Jn."P10lillSiJ,rocilicomis":MOI'IOiCOOOl)USpla,i"JiUlllaxter 1931: 47; IndoJlt'$ia(Sull1llu-.).'TIle:following lpeCies name, allributedtoBcrMauer.appears not10 be valid. "PIa/yolophilippina":kallom)'CtIplatyulot'Thaxter 1931: roo;l't1iHpPU"lCs.T'I'II':foliowingspedcsnamc:. allribuled10 Bernhauer. appears not10 be valid."Pronomat'QS'''_'"III'S'':AmorpJtamyaspmntJmQfflt'ThllXler 1931: $8;Illdonesia(Sumatn).?PuutJodinNSi>sp.:Eelt"_yasbatlarit'ftS'SSpepuini 1917: $3$,du biously assignedtoEclt'inom)'Ct's.possibly belongstoStichom)'Cl'I. Thaxter 1931: 289.doesllOtbclonj;lot;clrinomycesbutllOlassigncdelscwhere;Ar gemina Cameroon.Theboosl is p ......b1y!hal....hidlBernhwer later PYSOI"'"'IS this name isasynonym dT)p/llOf'O"t'm)'S""lNsuIIs(Was manll) fidc Kistner(l9$8).Sclliswgenhlc""icQI/iJKraalz:Amorphom)'rts s,hi./ogrniarThaxler 1931: $S;Ma1.aysia(Sarawak)."SU"satmNnt""'ftSis":Tbaxll,r 1931: 49:Comoooo.crib,um(Fll\Jvel): (I) Monoicom)'ct'JtcibbosusTh.axter 19J1: 42;Illdonesia (Sumatra); (2) Amo'phomycrs millisculusThaxter 1931: $6;IndOllesia(Sumalra);hostofbolhparasilcsgivenas"Holttillo/uCft'brum Fauver'."

PAGE 67

N,"JaIlS(nU\"d):Mf;wJiromyus tUtUklt/antS Tbaxler 1915: 32,1931:39;lndone$ia(.bYa).Tbcrollowingspecies ruuTle,altribuled 10 8eTnhauer,3ppei1r11>01 10bc Vlllid... ruilsis':AffWI'phomyasSltTUlSatThaxler 1931: 59: Malaysia(Sarawalr.).Sii/lSa Erichson.SEEAUOSttnKla.PfagiUSQ.TadyuS'ricola: Cameroon.gen ...sandspecies indel. (Alcocharinae):Dimorphomyasgrt"'adiTUls ThaXler 192Oa:221.1924:322;Grenada.geoosandspec:iesindet_(A\et:ldwinae):Di_,.",.yus,racil;sTbaxIer192Oa;261,1924:340:Cameroon.genll' and inde1.(AleodIarinae):Ca"tharom,.,tSlIIQgtllaniOlSThu.lerI918:213,1931:24;Argentina. SUBFAMILIAINCOGNITA ThefollowingJ:!:ntrieandspecifIC names, lltlribuled 10 Bernhauer .lppellTnolbcvalil!;"LtplOfrodtdajalWUl":Munoicom,.,tsThaJller 1915: 30, lltsoasM.lfplOtradlfli,1931:45;lndonesia(Java).genusandspecies indct.;Dichom)'Cf$!IO"wlo/at Thaxlcr, Speganini1<}15b'SO,Tha!
PAGE 68

1912: 194; Argeruina.gerwand5pC:cicsildcl.:Ul,"harom)'C'e5 'YMIIUSpepnini 1915b:43. Thaxter 1931:26.CoI111 1934: 39. S ...ddmann & Puelt1962;123;IlIly.genus and speciesindel.:Monoicom)'C'tsQ/finisSpo;:gauini 1915b:65.placed assynonymofM.im'isibilis{Thnxlcr)by Thaxler 1931:43, Sladclrrunn & Pochl962:130;llaly.genus and speciesindcl.:Monoicom)'C'es ,,,mJlIlSSpegauini1915b: 61. Thaxter 1931: 50, Col;"1934:44.Sladclmann&PocIt1962:lJO:1wy.genusandspccies irdc:I.:Monoirotllyccs",,;lDu'roUsSpcgauini 1915b: 68,ThaJ.tcrI931:50,SuOclmann&Poclt1962: 131: Italy.gcllllsandspcciesindcl.:ChallffflllSiops;sdccll".bttllSllw:;lcr 1914:248; In doncsia(Java).Thaxler 1900:421.1908: 261:BlUil.Lcatherdale1958:I04:En:gland.gcnusandspcciesindcl.:HirsurIlQt'lftidlcfQlOf1lm(Nees).PeIchl943:297.LtlllhcnblcI958:104:England. 60

PAGE 69

PARASITE: HOST LISTClass DEUTEROMYCETESOrder GLOEOHAUSTORIALESGLOEOHAUSTORIACEAE Amphoromol'phtJThaxler, 1914 CHll.Of'OOA, DERMAPTERA. ORTiiOPTERA, COLEOPTERA:Carabidx,HisterKbe,Staphylinida!:(P'aederinae, Staphylininae)A.ell/omophilQ'Thaxter:Dio<:llll$(Suphylininae), DERMAPTERAA.ltlirabifisSiemaszto&f1IiIOlllhlls(Staphylininae),CanbidaeA. subminula (Spcgazzini):EchiQSlU(Paedc:rinac:)ChantransiOflsisThaxter,1914 DIPTERA. COLEOPTERA: Hydrophilidae.Slaphylinidae (Osoriinae. Tachyporinae.Slaphylininae) C. bona"'''''sisSpcgazzini;boriinae).XQnllto/iflUS (Xan IhoIininae).DIPTERA C.dumbrlls11Iaxler:: 1eenus(?SlJbfamily)C.plQlrluisSpegazzini:Sd_dws(St<>phylinil\lll:)C.stipofllsThuter:?gcNls(TacIlyporinae) C. som/wli,,;Thuler:G)TVh)pnus (Xanlholininae) C. sp.indet.:Xllnlhoii/Ws(Xantholininae)l:,'nI01J/OCQSmaSpegauini,1918COLEOP'TERA:Hydrophilidae, SUlphylinidac (Tachyporinae)?EmomocrJ$mtJ sp. indet.;Turltinus(TlIdlyporinae)Spquzini, 1918 DERMAP'TERA. ca..E:CPTERA:Scar.>lJ,ae;dae,Sl3phylil'lidael'Iil13c) T. i,,/ltKtJIUSpegazzini:BdO#l1Jchus.Phi/uti/hits(Slap!lyli"inac). DERMAP TERA ?genus(?ubfall'lily)

PAGE 70

ClassASCOMYCETESOrderLABOULBENIALESPEYRlTSCH1ELLACEAE Camptom,enThaxttr,1894 COLEOPTERA: Slaphylinidac(Pxdmnae)C.Tlwtler:A.lleIlllS (Paedcrinae) C.falclltll.lThuler:Asrcl\IIs C. gualcmiJlelJ.lis Thaxler:A.lte""sC.n,,!lOIlOf'lIsThaxlcr:AJlenUr C. rtCllnVIIISThaxler:ASletllu C.sllbsi,tnaitklls'ThaxIer:Asl .. "".I C. .lllmDlra ..Tlwtla:Asl..nusC.sp.indet.:AsltnusQmrhiuumycuThada, 1890 COLEClP'ffiRA: Byn1lid.Je, Hydrophilidac. Pamidac:. Slaphylinid
PAGE 71

DiQphoromycnThaXler, 1926 COLEOPTERA: Tcnebrionidae. Staphylinidae (Pieslinac. Osoriinac. Oxytdinae)D.lispi";(Thaxter):Uspinus. NtUI4S(Osoriinae) ( :01D.ar8t'l/ifWllIis(Speguzini)):1Corpeliltl#l(OJ;)1clinae)D.;iropbori(Thaxler):Piu,us (Pieslinac)DidlomycnThaxler,l89J COLEOPTERA: Slaphylinidac (Xanlholininae, Staphylininae, Aleo charinae) D,ango/e'lSisThaxler:Philomlms(Staphylin;nac)D.anisople"rusSpepllini:Philomhus D, Spegazzini:Xant1tQ/i""s(Xant!-dininac) D. Dri_misThaxler:8e/tJlfUchus(SllIphylininac) D. "lSlroliellSisThaxler:Ql-ediNs(Suphylininae)D.belonudliThaxler:BelorrudrusD.bicdorlbaxll:r.Plti/ul/lu" D. bifidus Thaxler.Philom"NsD.biformisThaxIer.PhilontlwsD.cOfiQlUlsThaxler:Cafius(Slaphylininae) O. chi/emisThaxler.Cheiloco/plls(Slaphylininae) D. dubius Thulcr:Philomhus O. culissiThaxterEMENOATION:Xanlholimu D,exilisThaxler:Philomhus.1JeIOlluc:/",sD.fumosus ThaXler: Huperus(Slapllylininac)D.furcikrThurcr:F.uliJlus(Xanl!-dininae).Phi/on/hus. Gubrius(Slaphy lininac)D.,rarilisn'aller:HespeI1lSD.1Iomn/QuJeThuler:Nellemi,,...ia(Aleocharinac)D."}VrithuThaxler:PIJi/O/I/!uu D. ift/ectusThaxler:Gyroh}'P"'s.Xlln/1IoIi... s (Xamholi.unae) D. insignisllwr.ler. 1genus(1subramily)D.j(nVlIlfslbaxler:Philomhus I).lepidus lllal'ler:Phi/omhus O. modaguscurellIisThaxter:Plii/omhusD.lIIe,(ic01/f1sThaxter:Phi/omhllsD."igrUCt'"s(1113ller):Philomhlls(:oD.i"ae'l'",lisThaxler):PhilQl/lhusD.pe""'iallUsTbaxler:Nord,,s.Plociop/erus(Slap/lylininae) D. pr4'liosus Thaxur.S,apII}lilllls(SllpIlylininar) D. pri..upsThuler.Phi/OfIIhus.Ql-ediomacl1ll(Sl.aphylininae) 63

PAGE 72

D. quedii Scltelosle:Qutdius D. SlUpltJlini Th:UICr.SlUpItJliIlUSD.subinatquilllln'NsSpepuini:PhilOfltltus D. tltJrroupluJ1iThUltr.TItJrrouphDius (Xanlholininae) D .....lgtl'us11lv.lCr.PhiiOll//tusDiIM"""1JThaxler.1896ACARINA. ORTHOPTERA.DERMAPTERA. DlPTERA. COLEOPTERA: Anlhicidae, ea....bi
PAGE 73

EumoooicomycrJThaXlcr,1901COLEQlYrERA:E,POP/I/lIll'JTlIlIXlcr.AltOI)'//ls. OXJldrlS ( "'? E. Spcgazzini):Pl/ll)'S/t/h"s(Ollytdinac)Hap/omJUSllunICT,I893 COLEOPTERA;Stapllylinidac (Oxytdinac)H.rolijor"i(MS11wlter::B/edilU(Ollytdinac)H.tut>_s11wllcr:BltdilU H. ir,i,ull_s11wlter.Bledi"sKlridiom}'CUThuln.l908COLEOPTERA: K.f"mUIl/us (11wller): Ale/ldlllro(Alcocharinac) K. hopIllndriutThaxter::HopIundrill (Ateocbarinac) K.''rntt,oIu""s11wlter;Arhtlll(Alcocharinac) MimtoOmyasThaxter, 1912 COL.EOPTERA: StapllyHnidae (Slapllylininae, Pacdcrinac) M. umlillf's(S[lCgazzini):Chti/ocolpus (Staphlininae)M. afrfJ(!urp/lrt!us (Thaxler): Qutdi/l'(Staphylininae) M, bfllclryd;ri(Thaxter)Nl;wEMENDAnoN: Nord,.s(Stapllylininae)M. chiriqrwl$is(Thulcr):Que

  • PAGE 74

    M.dcl1lic"lalllS Thaxter: Sterumuu/= (Aleocharinac) M.dics/Olac Thaxter.OieJlOW(Aleocharinae) M. doryloniae Thaxter: Ocypltmus (Aleocharinae)M.doryloni//ae Thaxler; Daryl"nil/a (Aleocharinae) M, edtidnoglo$$oe Thaxler; Blepllorymemu (Aleocharinae) M. ele ....inus Thaxter:Eleusis (Osoriinae) M.j,dugriae Thaxler: Fillogria (Aloocharinae) M.jragilis Scheloste: Ocaleu M.jurmlllsThaxtcr:AlWtyl"s M. gibbosus Thaxter:Stellomlwax M.l!.ll)'ptwe Thaxler;Gnypetil (Aleocharinae) M. homoJotae Thaxter:A/hew.El"lm)'sles.Honwlota (Ale<.>Charinae).Curpe Iimus(Oxyle[inae) M. infusca/us (Xantholininae)M. im'isibilisThaxter:Anotylus, Oxyte!us (=M.affi"isSpegazzini):?genus(?subfamily)(=? M. a'gemine,uis(Spegau.ini: Platyslelhus (Oxytelinae) M.jmonus Thaxter: Oxytelus M. kilmeruneusis Thaxler: ? genus (Oxylelinae) M. leplochiri Thaxler:Borolin"s, uptDChi,us, P,iochims (Osoriinac) M. leptomuhelae Thaxler. "Lel,tOlruchelo" (?subfami[y,Staphylini dae) M. uig'escens Thaxter: A/hem, Culodera. Falagrio. Meranero, Ocaleu, Tw:hytlSu(Aleocharinae) M. oso,ianus Thaxter. Neosvri"s (Osoriinae) M. oxypodaeThuler:Ox)poJa (Aleocharinae) M. plagius"e ThaXler:NeQsil".fO (Aleocharinae) M.,omosusThaxler:Falagria M.swlCtaehelenoeThaxter:Oxytelus.and?Pltilomhus(Staphylininae) (=M. roccae Colla): O-<)'telus,PlaI)'slelhus M.si",ilisThaxter:?Honw/OIu M.sillgu/arisThaxler:O-
    PAGE 75

    Peyritschie/laThaxrer, 1890COLEOPTERA: Carabidae. Slaphylinidae (Slaphylininae Aleocharinae. Oxytelinae) P. lamp'opygi Thaxler: PhUMhalpus (Staphylininae)P. p'OIea Thaxter:AIIQ/ylus, Blediu_l, Manda, Oxy/e1us, Pianeuslc,"wS(= P. oxyUliCepede & Picard) (Oxytclinae)P. t,ichodoniueThaxterNl>wEMI>NDATlON:Triclwdonia(Alcocharinae)P.xMuhopygiThaxtcr;Xanrhopygus(Staphylininae) P. zyricolo Thaxter Nl>wEMI>NDAT10N:Zyras (Aleocharinae) PolyascomycesThaxter,19oo COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidae (Trichophyinae) P. trichophyae Thaxter: T,ichophya(Tri<:hophyinae) RickiaCavara.1899ACARINA, ORTHOPTERA, HYMENOPTERA, COLEOPTERA: Corylo phidae, Cryplophagidac. Endomychidae. Erotylidae, Hydrophilidae, Niti.dulidae. Passalidae. Phalaeridae.Scarabaeidae.Scydmaenidae.Tenebrionidae. Slaphylinidae (Tachyporinac, Osoriinae, Staphylininae, Omaliinae)R. comp,usa Thaxlcr: Leplochirus(Osoriinae) R.jusligiura Thaxter: COPrrJPorus(Tachyporinac)R. inclusaThaxler:Cop,opo'usR.intrOV<'rsaThaxler:Coproporas R. leptochiri (Thaxler):LeplochirasR./ispiniSugiyama:UspinusR.nigresansThaxter:CopropOTlfS R.nigrofimb,imaThaxter:Copropo'l/S R. pallescens Thaxlcr; Mimocypms (Aleocharinae)R. phloeonomi Thaxler; Phloeonomus (Omaliinae)R. ros/ellma Thaxtcr. Halosus(Osoriinae)R.rosl'OIoThaxler:Alanygna/hus(Staphylininae) R. uticola Thaxter:Coproporus R.lessellmoThaxtcr:CopropofllS R ........ IaiensisSugiyama: P,iochirus (Osoriinae)R. zanenii Rossi &CcsariRossi:Omalium(Omaliinae)R.sp.indcl.:Micralymma(OmaJiinac) 67

    PAGE 76

    LABOULBENIACEAE Ac:allomycesThaxler, 1902 COLEOPTERA: Slaphylinidac (Alcocharinae) A. gyrophaenae (Thaxler): Gyrophaena (Aleocharinae) A.homa/otae Thaxler: ? Hama/o{Q (Alcocharinae)A. pla/yo/aeThaxter:PIa/yolo(Aleocharinae) Amorphomyces Thaxter,1893 COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidac (Aleocharinae, Oxylelinae, Staphylininae)A.hi/armis Thaxler: Fulagria (Aleocharinae) A:falasriaeThaxter:Fi.l!agria A. italicusSpeganini:CarllelirrUls (Oxylelinae).Philofllh"s (Slaph ylininae), ?Alhela(Aleocharinae)A.minisculus Slenamo.sla;<,Op"iog/ossa (Aleocharinac) A. ophiaglossae Thaxler:Oph/oglossaA.pronomaea Thaxter:Protwm<,ea(Aleocharinae) A. Tl,bescen.
    PAGE 77

    CompsomJl:1tSThaxter, 1894 COLEOPTERA: SllIpllylinidx (Paedcrinac, Omaliinae)(Otnaliinae)C./'Dlomilli1ll:axICrNEwEMUIIMTION:1'tJlanUlIUS(Paederinae) C. slilktJPsis Thuler:Sli/iJPsis(Pxdcrinx)... s COtft'lhromycnllllu:ter,1892 DERMAPTERA. HEMIPTERA. COLEOPTERA: Carabidac,Ldodidx,Psclapllidae. s."ymaenidae. Stapllylinidae(Paedcrinac,Slaphylininae. Tadlyporinac, Pieslinac:. Euaesthetinae,Owriinae,"Xanlholininae) C. ucumhog/ossat Thaxtcr:Aramhoglossu(Pacdcrinae) C. utuminal". Thaxler: Dioc/lUs(Staphylininae) C. Thaxter:Odl/hrpltilllm(P-Jcderinae) C. 'l""lI/IISThaxtcr:RlIgillls (Paederinae) C. bro:ilitltlusThaxler:Ot::hthtphii/lmC.brun"rollisThaxter:RugillisC.buulis1ll:axter:RlIgillis C. eu/plumsThulcr:SqNdophifMS (fadlyporinac) C. duJtwphilusThutcr:CDproponIS(Taehypori_) C. Tha:uer:Mtdol!(Pxdc:rinx) C. mSfll/lls(Thaxter):l.lltllrobill,..(Paederinae) C. 1lIaxler:C,rptobillm.HotrratOlIlTSOlS(P,l\'ckrinae) C. nmiprsThaxter:lilhodw,is,Mtdol!(Paedcrinx) C. ducw>dli/i1lIaxtcr NEW EMEf'oII)ATtOS:DocMJdrUliS(Paedainac) C. tkcipiens'Thaxlcr:MtdOfl,lilhodfilris(Paederinac)C.dioc/ri1llaxler:DiochusC.di''t'gtllsThaxtcr:SlilomrdOll(P-"Jedcrinae)C.rl/atslh,liThaxlcr:r:/lU'Slh.. ",s(EuacSlhelinac)C.lmfu Thaxler: Slilidtrl/s(Paedcrinac)CflogrllllrisThaxter:SlilidmlsC.flerlllll/S ThaxlCr:Rligi/usC.jlJ'mirtlorUmSpcgazzini:llflfrrKIrcpS(Staphylininae)C.grtJrilicoll/is1llutcr:RlIgilus C.grtJri!is Thuter:Lobruthium. SltrtocqJhol"s(Paederinae)C.grtNJdituUThuIer:Di#ulsC.guultmo/tIUisThuter:?SIilOfftttt/ollC.i.wC1u(Thaxtel'):PitlOfJhillls(Paedcrinae) C. ilttrol'rrDS'Thuler:MtdotI 69

    PAGE 78

    C.jacohimuThaxter: LobrathiumC.jamaiansisThaxter: Stilomedoll C. k",,,erulleIlSi.f Thaxter: Medon C.lomi"ifer Thaxter: Li/hocharis, Medon C. Imhrohii (Thaxlcr):Lalhwbium C.lingu/atusThaxter:Coproporus C.longicoulisThaxter:Rllgillls C./IlZO/lensisThaxtcr:Sti/iderus C. lllOCropUSThuter:Heterothops C.medonisThaxter:Medon.Uthocharis C.miniscu/usThaxter:Scopaeus(Paederinae) C.notlJ'sThaxter:Diochus C.obtusus(Thaxtcr):Doliwon(Paederinae) C.occidema/is(Thaxtcr):Pirwphilus C. ophitis Thaxter. Opi/hn (Paederinac) C. QTiemo/isThuter:Rugi/us C. pallidus (Thaxter): Lathrobium. umrathium(=C.crist(llus(Thuter C. perdegons Thaxtcr: Medon C. pies/ieola Thaxter: Piestlls (Picstinac), Priochirus (Osoriinac) C.p/wensisThaxlcr.umrathium(= ?C. ;wntllOlini Spesauini):Xamho/imls (Xanlholininae) C. podophilus Spcgazzini: Rugi/us C.propinquus (Thaxlcr):Do/icaon. Lobruthium C. pr(Jlrudens Thaxler: Medon C. psi/otrw:heli Thaxter: Stiliderus C.pulcheliusSpegazzini:Pinophi/usC. pllrpllrascens Thaxter: Biocr)plO, OdIthephi/llm (Paederinae)C. pygmael4S Thaxter:RugUlIs c.rec/usSresazzini:RugilusC.reclIfWllll,NOATION: Scymbalium (Paederinae) C. se/icola Thaxter: Medo" C.St/igerThuter:Lathrobium C. sigmoideus Thaxter. Rugi/us C. .f(Nctubi/i.fThaxter:Se(Ndophi/us C. speilmcalis (Maire): Herermhops 70

    PAGE 79

    C. Thuter.....(F'..edcrinae)(=C.pal/id'uSpcgazr.ini) c. sli/it;iThaucr.Ru8i1usC.s,ilidrol"(Thuln"):HugilusC.s,rangukuusl1lv.Ia:S,iI_d... C. mi"oduuifUlsl1Iv.1er:T/linodreJris(Paederin:oe) C. ullCigt'r"Thuter:Ru,ilusC.IlIlCi""lou"I1wbidx

    PAGE 80

    IdiQmycesThaxler, 1893COLEOPTERA: Slaphyl inidae (Oxyle1inae)I. peyrirsc!riiThaxleT:(OxyleJinac)llyomycesPicard,1917 COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidae(Steninae) I. Labou/beniaMQntagne&Robin,t8S3 ACARINA. ISOPTERA. ORTHOPTERA. BLATTARIA, HEMIPTERA. DIPTERA, HYMENOPTERA, COLEOPTERA: Carabidae, Cicindelidae, Gyrinidae, Heteroeeridae, Slaphylinidae{Paederinae, Staphylininae. Ox ytelinae,Aleocharinae.Omaliinae,Osoriinae)L. (Pacdcrinac) L.ar/OIllica1baxter:Lohralhillm(Paederinae),Carabidae L.barbaraMiddelhoek.&Boelens:Phi/onrhl
    PAGE 81

    L."u/gar;,PeyTilsdl:Carabidac. ? (Omaliinae)L. sp. indcl.nu.rjDJt:i<:uIQlaE't:yritsdl:La,hrobiultlLsp.indel.: GlypfOlVTllJ(Paederinae) MtionomJ'D'SThul<:r,1931COLEOPTERA: CoIydiidK. SIaph)'linidac(Pxdainae.Euawhetinae) M. aIM";Thuler:,u,..-.sM.QJU'tW!;JThuter.A,U'"u, M. dibtlmrlis1baJ;leo-Nl!.wEMEN"DATlON:Dibt/_,u(Paederinae)MisgomyusThaxler.1900 COLEOPTERA: Carabidae. Trichopterygidae, Slaphylinidae (ThchyporiM.ImJaWJUlhochari$.Scopaeus(Paederinae)M.Thaxler:COProplXU$(Tachyporinae)M.bi<:or,,;sThuler:Coproporus M.cariJl(JluJ llwlIC:r:Copropon.tJ M.copropori(Thuler):C(lproponu M. dpdliri;Th:u.lcr. Clrabidac ( ..M.lm'IJ8MPicard):8ledl..s (Oxytdinac:) Mfi/ariul (lbuICl");CopropwlnIIMlunadimuThuler.QlproporvIM./ispiniThuler:Ulpi-.s.NaronlJ (Osoriinae) M. philippi""sThUler:CtJPIlI"'S M. AdlefllNflOl'phus(Pacderinae).Coproponu M. rh;l.ophorus Thaxler:Rugilus (Paederinae) M.SliliciThaxler:RugiluJM.,hinvcharinJlJ(Thaxler):Thinocharis(Pacdcrinae)Moschomyu,Thaxler, 1894 COLEOPTERA: Slaphylinidae (Paederinae)RhadromyasThuler.189SIhoIininae,Staphylininae) R. orbuJC"U11tSThuter.?cetUsnurLmhrobill'"(Pxdcrinae) R. alyr"MrlJiJThuter.Ocft,Mphil.",(Paederinx) 13

    PAGE 82

    R. crJPlObiamlsTha:
    PAGE 83

    StigrlUllomycesKarsten, 1869DIPTERA. COLEOPTERA: Scydmaenidae, Staphylinidae S. auslralisThax1er:Scopaeus (Paedcrinae)S. cl1lidicola Thaxtcr:Srereocepha/us (Paederinac) S.[uscipesSpcgazzini:Scopaeus S.molllelidunsisSpegazzini:Lobrmhium(Paederinac) S.oriema/islbax1er.Scopaells S.pselldamedalisThaxter:Lirhocharis(Paederinae) S. stilid Thax1er: RugUus (Paederinae) SymplecrromycesThaxter,1908 COLEOPTERA: S1aphyl inidac (Staphylininae)S. w./garis (Thaxter):Quedius. ? I'hi/omhus (Staphylininae) ,TerotomycesThaXler, 1893COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidae(Staphylininae) T.aclobiiThaxtcr: t:richSOllius(Staphylininae)(=T.arropurplireusMaire) "f.atartygnathiThax1er:Atanygnalhus(5Iaphylininae) T.brClicalilisThax1er:ErichsoniusT. i"siC"is Thax1er:Qlledius(Staphylininac) "f.miriflcus Thaxtcr: Acylophorus (S1aphylininae) T.petiola/lls Thaxtcr:Quedius T.philonthi Thaxler: Gabrius, ?Phllort/hus(Staphylininae)T. quedim",s Thaxter: Hemiquedius,Quedius(Staphylininae)T.ualartdicaThax1er:Qi.ediusTetrandromycesThu.ler,19t2 COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidae (Aleocharinac)T. brac/ridae Thaxter: Bmchida (Aleocharinae)CERATOMYCETACEAEEuceraromycesThaxler,1931COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidae (Paederinac) E.terresrri.(Thaxter):Lathrobium(Paederinae) KoinomycesThaxter,I901 COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidac (Osoriinae, Aleocharinae)K. alf./ellaeThaxter:Eleusis(Osoriinae) 75

    PAGE 84

    K.hyaliIJllsTcrada:EleusisK.i$lJfooIiThaxler:Maseochara(Alcocharinac).E/eusis Class ZYGOMYCETES Order ENTOMOPHTHORALESENTOMOPHTHORACEAE EntomophthoraFresenius, 1856 D1PLOPODA. ACARINA, ORTHOPTERA, HOMOPTERA, HEMIP.TERA.LEPIDOPTERA, DIPTERA, HYMENOPTERA, COLEOPTERA: Camharidac,Chrysomelidae, Elaleridae, Stapltylinidac(?subfam iiy)E. nng/icn I'etch: ? gcnus(? subfamily), Camharidae, Chrysomclidae, ElateridaeClass HYPHOMYCETES (not partofmain of fungi, no ordersorfamilies included) Hlrsule/IlJPatouil1ard,1892 ORTHOPTERA, HOMOPTERA, HETEROPTERA, LEPIDOPTERA, DIp TERA, HYMENOPTERA, COLEOPTERA: Rhizophagidae, Stapltylini, dae(Paederinae) H. eleUlheralOmm (Nees); Paederus (Pacderinae) (= H. guigoordi (Maheu: Quedius (Stapltylininac)Phylum PROTOZOA Class SPOROZOA Order GREGARINIDAACTINOCEPHAUDAEAetinocepholusStein,1848CHILOPODA. OPILIONIQA, OOONATA. SIPHONAPTERA, OlPTERA, COlEOPTERA: Carabidae, Dytiscidae, Lucanidae, Scarabaeidac. Silphi. dac, Tencbrionidae, Slapltylinidac(Osoriinae, Slaphylininae) A.cra.'Sus (El!is):Leplochirus (Osoriinae) A.Sll'lIiformi.Scltncidcr:Ocyp"s, PhilOl1lilus, Siaphylinll' {Stapltyli n(nae) StiiocystisUger, 1899 DlPTERA, COLEOPTERA: Slapltylinidae Oxylclinae) S. em;ijera (Ellis): u/llochirus (Osoriinac),AIlaty/us (Oxytclinac)

    PAGE 85

    GREGARIN1DAE Grqarina Dufour,1828 COI..LEMBOLA,PLECOP'TERA, PSOC'OPTERA, DERt-IAPTERA. OR TH(PTERA, D1PTERA, COlEOPTERA: Anlhicidae.Byrrhi."'l"E..\IATlDA..E D1PTERA, ax..E(PTERA:Curculiorlidx, Hydrxnidac,Sc1rabKidx.Staph)'linidx(Staphylininae)A. phi/omit;Wxhet:Gobri"s. Phi/OfIthus(Staphylinilllle)Prmuiry/enmoitk$Wachek,19S5 COLEOPTERA: AlK.lbiidae. CoIydiidae, Hislaidac, Leiodidx, Slaphylini.Paedcrinac, 13chyporinae, Alcocharinae)P.p(U!,leriWachek:Pacdrms(l'acdcrinae)P.rhcochllfarWachck:Alcochura(Alcocharinae) P.srcniWachek:Strnas(SIl:ninac:) P. sp.indel.:TacII)"fKX"S(Tachyporinae) ProporruitJkrrchlUWacllek,l9SSC(LF.cFTERA:Staphylinidx (Oxytdinae.Pacdainae.Altodwinae)P."thrIMV.'acttck.:Nrltcmilropia(AlcocNrinae)P.boopiniWachek:C"rprlim'<$(Ox)'ldinae)P._dotI;sw..ehek.:Medolt(Pxdcrinae)P."'yr_doni"rWacho:'k:lyros(AJeocharinae) n

    PAGE 86

    P.ox)'le/iWachek:AnOlyIU$(Oxylclinae) P.pIQl)'sle/lliWaehek:Plmys/e/llr,s(Oxylelinac)l'.lrogopllloeiWachck:Carpelimus Stict)'lusThorne,1941(=SphaeruloriopsisWachek,1955)COLEOPTERA: Anobiidac, Scolylidac, not Staphylinidac (Slaphylininae) S.pllilomlli aucl.:Typographicalcrror,noIWachek.no such species. ENTAPHELENCHIDAEEntaphelenchusWachek,19SSCOLEOPTERA: $Iaphylinidae (Oxylclinac, Xanlholininac. SlaphyJininac. Alcocharinac) E.alianuuWachek:Aliama(Aleocharinac).b1ediiWachek:Bledius(Oxylelinae) E.o;r)'leliWachck:OxyreluS(Oxylelinae) E. pllilotl/Ili Wachek; Pililomhus ($laphylininae)E. plal)'steilli Wachek: PIQI)'slelllus(Oxylehnac) E. ;ramllolin; Wachck: Gyrohypnus,X'l1IIIuJlj",
    PAGE 87

    D. m(",hysleroidesO;ryle/IISA/eve/lara, Alhe/a(Alcocharinae),Scarabaeidae FiclorParamonov,1952COLEOPTERA: Carabidae, Hisleridae, Hydrophihdac. Scarabacidae, Sla phyJinidac(Oxylciinae,Slaphylininac,Alcocharinae)F. srercoruriu$(Bl,JIIicn):O;rylelus (Oxylclinac), HmllS,Phi/om/ills,Qr,edius (Slaphylininae).Aleochura.Arhelu{Aleocharinac), Carabidac, Hislcridae. HydrophiJidae,SiJphidae G
    PAGE 88

    DiplOSi:apterCobb,1913 ANNELIDA, HYMENOPTERA, COLEOPTERA: Hislcridac, Scarabaei dac,Silphidac,Slaphylinidae(Slaphylininae)D, lycoslOma Yolk: PhilQmhus(Slaphylininac), Histcridac, Scarabaeidae, Silphidae, HYMENOPTERA, ANNELIDA PeloderaSchneider,1866 COLEOPTERA: HiSleridae, Hydrophilidae, Scarabaeidae, Slaphylinidac (Oxylcllnac,Slaphylininac,Alcocharinac), ?andOlhcrsP. c()(m;lala(Leuckarl):Anoly/"J.O:ryle!UJ(Oxyte1inae),EmJjJ (Staphylini nae),Arhem (Alcocharinae), Hisleridae, Hydrophi Iidae,ScarJbaeidaeI'lrelze!i(Sachs):Enu's. Hydrophilidac,Scarabaeidae P''Qelki(Sachs):Emus, Hislcridac, Hydrophilidac, ScarabaeidaeRhabdirisDujardin,1845 VERTEBRATA, ANNELIDA, COLEOPTERA: Histeridae, Hydrophilidac, Silphidae,Slaphylinidae(Staphylininac),?andOlhcrs R.asperaBUlsdlli:PhilomhuJ (Staphylininac), Histerida,e,Hydrophilidac, Silphidae, ANNELIDAR. cylinJrica Cobb:O:ryrelu,<(Oxyteiinael, A/eochara. Alhela(Aleochari(eo R. IlCr,hausi (Sachs)) nae), ANNELIDA R.gmci/icaudadeMan:O:rylell'$.AI1Iera.ScarabaeidaeR.1IartmanniSachs:Aleochara,ScarabaeidacR./abimaYolk:Phi/onthas, Histcridac, Scaraoocidac, SilphidacR.IOI'gispinaReiler:Phi/OI1II",s R.sl'icu/igeraStcincr:O:rJle!us,Aleochara.AI1IelO.Scarabaeidae R. wohlgemuthiVolk: Phi/omhas,SilphidaeR.sp.inde1.:Philomhus RhabditophancsFuchs,1930(=CheilobusCobb,1924,notRafinesque, 1817) COLEOPTERA: Hydrophilidac, Scarabaeidae, Slaphylinidae (Slaphylini nae),?andOlhersR. ap1lodii(Sachs): Emus(Slaphylininae), Hydrophilidae, Scarabaeidae80

    PAGE 89

    Class ADENOPHOREA DORYLAlMlDA ONhomcmnisPoinar.1955D1PTERA, ca...EOPTERA: SUphylinidae (Oma1iinae) O. oedobrundI,.,Poinar.Omolililf/(Omaliinae), D1PTERA NEMATA INCERTAESEDIS Agumont/ll(l Diesing, 1851(a group nemalodes,lIOl a COLEOPTERA: Scarabacidac, Silphidae, SlaphyJinidae (Thchypnrinae) A. migrons Christie:Tachin": (Tachypminae), Scarabacidae, Silphidae Phylum NEMATOMORPHAClassGORDIOIDEAGORDIIDAE GonliusUIlJlllCU5,1758ORTHOPTERA, ()()QNATA, OJI..ECI"TERA:Canbidae,Scarabac:idx,S.ylinidae(SUphylininae) G, Qqtlot;CliSLinnacus:Crphilli,(SQlphylininae), Scanlbaeidae, ODON ATA.ORTIiCll"ITRA"Currenl dassificalinnsNemralOmorphaOO1il meminn oflaulbe levelsoffamilyInddus. BlackwcJd ... (1967) has explained (I)1hal the useof ordinal nameS isnotobliptory in a zoologic:alclusificltion,aM (2) thatalthou&h1hesuffi,oiaMis tlOI"tn:lllyuscdincntomologyforlhcl'l:lmesofsupetf.milics.lhisllnolthecaselhrough OOllhca.umal kingdOO1andlhe.ndill/lsol"namesofwahigh<:rthan family1 ..... 1 arc001f(:IlUlalcdbylhe InlernationalCo;!edZoologicalNomenclalure.How..........lherec
    PAGE 90

    Phylum ARTHROPODA Class ARACHNIDA Order ACARINAANOETIDAE HistioSQma Kramer,1876 MYRIAPODA, DERMAPTERA. DIPTERA, HYMENOPTERA, CO LEOPTERA: Carabidae, Scarabaeidae, Silphidac. Tcnebrionidac, Slaphy linidac(Slaphylininae,Paederinae) If.sapromYl,llrum (Dufour): Quedius (Staphylininac), Scarabacidae, Si!phi dae. DlPTERA, MYRIAPODAH. 'p_ indcl.: (notH. sapromywrum):Paederus(PacdcrinaeL SilphidaeEUiTHIDIDAEThinQseiusHalbert,1920DIPTERA, COLEOPTERA: Slaphylinidae (Slaphylininac) T.!uciw/(, (Halberl):C"/ius (Slaphyhninae), DIPTERA familyIOOe!.ofGAMASlNA gcnusindcl.,Spccicsindcl.:Oc)pus.Sraphylillus(Slaphylininac) Class INSECTA Order COLEOPTERACOLYDIIDAEAglenus ErkhSlln, 1845COLEOPTERA: Cucujidac, Slaphylinidac (Olllaliinae)A. brUIIIlIIS (Gyllcnhal): Xylodromus (Omaliinae). CucujidaeOrder HYMENOPTERABRACONIDAE BlacusNees,1818LEPIDOPTERA, HYMENOPTERA. DIPTERA, COLEOPTERA: Curcu lionidae, Dasylidac,Scolylidac, Slaphylinidac(1achyporinac) B. m/iwrnis(Nees):Tarhyporus (Tachyporinae)82

    PAGE 91

    CentistesHaliday,1835 COLEOPTERA: Slaphylinidae (Tachyporinae),?and others C.lucidmor(Nees):T(J(;hyporus(Tachyporinae) EULOPHIDAE EulophusOlivier, 1791LEPIDOPTERA, COLEOPTERA: Slaphylinidae (Slaphylininac)E. umempsimusWalker.Qlledi"s [pupa] (Staphylininae)MYRMARIDAE lilus Haliday,1833 HETEROPTERA, COLEOPTERA: Slaphylinidac (Slaphylininae) L.krygeriKieffcr:Ocypus[cgg](Slaphylininae) PROCTOTRUPIDAE Codrll$Panter, 1801 COLEOPTERA: Carabidae. Staphylinidae (Omaliinae, Xanlholininae, Slaphylininae, Tachyporinae) C. mer (Nees):Creophilus[larva) (Staphylininac) C.brevicornis(Haliday):Quediu,,(larva](Staphylininae) C.grot:ilis(Nixon):Tachyporusllarva](Tachyporinae) C.ligalus(Nees):Phi/onthus, Quedir.. [larva) (Slaphylininae),Xontholimls(larva] (Xanlholininac) C,longicornis(Nees):Leslf.'vo[larva](Omaliinae) C. microcerus Kieffer. Xantl,oIinus [larvaJ (Xanlholininae), ? genus [larva] (Tachyporinae) C. niger Panzer. Oc>'Pus [larva]C,philonlhiphagus(Williams):Philonlhus[larva] Peri/itus Nees, 1818aJLEOPTERA: Coccinellidac, Curculionidae, Slaphylinidae (Paedcrinae) p.sp. indel.: Paederus (Paederinae)PhaenoserphusKieffer,1914COlEOPTERA:Carabidae,Slaphylinidae (Slaphylininae)P.calcar(Haliday):Qlledius [larva] (Staphylin;nae)

    PAGE 92

    P.polli,NS(Lalrtilk):Sraphylimjs[larva)
    PAGE 93

    THENATURE OFTHEPARASITE-HOST ASSOCIATIONSDeuteromycelcs Madelin (1966) reviewed the lilt",ture on theas par3sitcsofinslS. but included 110 information on thegeneraAmphoromorphu. Chan/rtmsicpJis, ntomoroSmtJ,andTW",iQlu. It seemsthatnoxhillll is knownof the lbrir$UUClun:maybeobtained from theorigiiWdescriptionscited in the hostAscomycetesMadclin(I966)sitcsofinsecls.ll"\'cabriefaccounlollhestrU("luredlhesefungi,andreportedmost of 1Mhosubeklng 10 !heCoIWpter.l.especially 10 Call1bidac and Slaphy (1979) a$$ocialCd....ithexhpar2$itiudinsect family, andwmmarizedlhell1OlJlllOk!licaJc:tw3C'Ieristicsofeadlpanositesenus...",1populations is very varia.blcxconting 10 Hincks(I960), and heroncurred wilh an earlier estimate by Thulerofbel..5% and 50'1>,'ThesileofauadllTlenlf$lheparasileStOlhchoslisvcryspecificina minorily of lhc parasile s(X'cies. according 10 Hinc:ks (1960). HClllsOS1lltcd: "lhcfungi penclnne only lhc
    PAGE 94

    ancmpledcopulation wilh mcmbersd!hewrongsaurwilhmcmbersdcios'lyrdaledspecies.Thec:onccpldsporelransfa-durinshoslcopulalionisdifficulllOm:onrilewilhthaldsa4-1lO$1speciflCilydpansikSnoIedbyBenjamin (1967). Benjamin&; Shanor (19SI) pl'eX'flled.Sludydlhcde'o'dop"",nlalStagndE;ttwdiOtrrJlCt's 1974) hasmonogr.lphedlhe speciesoccuning in FI1II1CC.II5Cl.:ms 10 methallhe LaboulbeftiaJes are_IIsuited 10 laboratory Audies wilh living m;llmaldS.ylinidae,andthaIlhesesludiesc:wldhedirtttedlOlnswenngquesrions!loslsOlhcrthanlhellsualone:lhelasldlhesc:quesliooscouldhelptoeluci<.blc IlH:phylogcnyofbolhlhcparllsilcsandlhchosls.Sche1oske(I969)alreadyhasslIggosledlhallhcdislriblllionofccrlainspecicsoflheparasilcsonlhcirhoslSmaygive informalionon agcand life e:ocpcclancyoflheoosl.ZygomycetesTheEnlomophlhorales are chiefly parasilic and cnu.nosenous. "'ilh a fewsaprophyli<:species and a fcwparniticonplanu.ThelilCf111u",onthcenlOm().guoousspccies\\"lISreviewedbyMad...eod (I 963)andMaddin(1966).'Theyarebeukl'lO\lollas nalural enemiesdagricuhorally imporwll pestsbekq:ing 10 KYenlIinscaorden.ernployedsuccessfully IOcomb;olOlllbruks ofpeSls.HyphomycetesTheliler-uun:onenlornogcnous HyphomycclCS..... s reviewedbyJl>bdelin (1963. 1(66).Formanyspecicsiln:mainslobcprO'l'cdwhelhcrlhcy arcpa.... silicorsaprophylic, and mosl grow readily in arlificial cullurc. MOSIcnlortlOgenous species are inlcrnal palhogens Sporozoa Manyspcciesoflheorda"Cregarini<.barefoundinlhedigestiveU'llCtS.lhebodycavily or. rarcly,lheMalpighilnlubulesofinsecu.Slcinhaus(I949)esIlllQlcdthall80spccic:sofCo/copla"llhadbcenreoordedasharboringthcsetlfpnisms. bill Theodori&s (195S) staled thai, wilh lheaceptioo dcertainrarnilies,CVU)'spcciesdtheColcoplenpmbablycontainsonetlfse'l'a'lllspesidcrgrcgarineslObcparnikS,ilhasnollbeen shownthallhcy:mespeciallyharmfullolhcirhosls.aJlhoughal'!nenldebilitatingeffeclispossible.andlhcydodcwoyIhccpilhclialcdlsof lhe digcSliveU1lCIdlhchosI.

    PAGE 95

    Somelbe speciesMicrosporida are highly important insecl palhogens. ","usingepizOlJCics in sil!;'M)I"ffiS.nd in bees (Wciser,1963).Stcinbaus(I949)noted thai e:tpenmenUllio!l haslhI1wnlhal insects may be 5US'ptibie 10 sporidareo:orded from enlirdyunrelated hosts.portancclOrSUphylinidae. in w1tidt many 5peciesarepre
    PAGE 96

    Acarina Thiodorides (1955) providedbiologic;oldusifrellionofparasitic and plio relic Acarinaofinsects, and ciled earlierindicatingthaI lite deuto nymphsofspeciesof!he genusHistWsOfllllhave1phorelic,IlOlpansilic,re1alionship wilhanhropods.ThiltOuioufitciroia andlite unidentifiedgamasilll':mitesllso"'erebdievedlObephoretic(Elllli$haw.I966;G1ftlI&.Wilkinson.I".,.wingle$$ooIydiidbeelleAf',,_sbnt.-.uwufoundIObepho retic0111C\lCUjidbcellc 19(7). ThefamiliaBraoonidae. Eulophidae, M)'lllIIridac. and Procwtrupidae belong 10 whal:Ire called, lC:Ir.lboots,lheparasitic Hymenople:t1l. In fac:I,11teIar"ll.1state$of!heenlOlnClphagousspeciesare para. sitoids ...fuding(DouIl, 19(3). Cl;lusen(I940)devoced more lhan one third ofhisboolt on enlomophagous insects 10an accounlofthebiologyoflheseinsecls, bul was able10 menlioll only I small pert"entltge of the loud numberofspecies becauseof timilalions of both spaa:andknowledge. P$dlorn-Walcher(1958) pl'QI'ided abriefl"C\liewofPalacarclicProclotTupidae,menlioninglhehoslfamilyofeach parasilcgcnus NodiplerouSPllJ'llsilcsorparasiloid.ufSlaphylinidae wcre lisled byvan Em deo(l950) F"uTlhcrinformationonlhcstruclureandbehavioroflhespc:ciesofparasiles,panSil0ids,andphoreliC$isobtainablefromlherefcrcncescilediolhehoslparll$ilelist, 88

    PAGE 97

    DISCUSSIONBACKGROUND discussion represents an ancmpl to dcmonwate, from the evidence at hand,whcthcTtheparnilestheSlaphyJinidaearchelpfulinclucida(ingtherelaliooships between the various subfamiliesofSlaphylinidac. To dale. at lemplcdphyJogcnclicgroupingsofThefamilyhavebeenbasedlargclyorenlirely upon structure rAaduhs.lt is lrue thai phylogenetic groupings have bl,."(;nattcmplcdfromthccvian even more Jimited exlenl, the 'life-slyle' (Tik homirova. J97J.1973). fossiJ rccord(Tikhomirova. 1968, 1973) and embry ogenesis (Tikhomirova& Mclnikov, 1970; Tikhomirova. J973) have becn examined for clues to phylogeny. Noncoflheseauemptshasyetresultedina generallyaeeepled phylogenetic classification oflhe family. Further Jeading evidence from allofthe above-menlioned approaches is anticipaled. bUlnumer ousahernaliveapproachcsseemncverwhavcbeenlried.Ananalogy for this efforl lo;nvestigale syslems Olherthanthctrdd ilionalsys ternsof external Slructure. comes from lhe planl family Gramineae. Thisisoneoflhclargeslplanlfamilics. wilhappruximately9.000spccieS,andtradilionalclassification has been based up,m spikelet slrueture. Conlinuing work is show inglhal a morc natural c1assificationcanbe achieved with theaidofsuchfealurcs as internal leaf Slrueture, photosynthelic palhway, basic ehrQntQsome nllmbcr.andembryoslruclUrc(Claylon.197SjThe idea ofusing parasite-hosl associalions asanaid lothc invcsligalionofCVOIUlionisfarfromnew.andwasdiscussedbyMelCalf{J929).lnlhecaseofthe Sraphylinidae, one group of parasites, the Laboulbeniales, offersespcci al advantages, and it aJonc isdiscussed in the foJlowing pages. Thcrearc I womajorreasons for this seleClion which cause.allhe same lime, the rejectionofc"nsid eralioo of lhe Olher groups of parasites. Thcsc arc firstly. the largenllmbcrof species known from StaphyJinidae, and secondly lhefactlhalalmosl alloflhesc spccies were described by one person. Roland ThaxtCt.Thaxter'scarly.dedi cated and voluminousconlribulions 10lhe classificalionofthe LaboulbcniaJesseem10 have prccludedtheallentioosofall but a fewOlher workers in lhefic1 d TIlisprovides a siogular advantage. namely lhatofeonsistencyand slabilityofc1assifieatory eonc<:pts for lhese parasites. which can bcc
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    II should benolcdlhalinwrncgroopsofparasilcs,classificmionisdiffocul I. As carlyas 1896, ThaAlerslalcdlhmclassifica!ion,lI"cerlaingrOlJpshadbeen "reduced10 a coodilionof chaos lhrough Ihe;ndiscriminatepublicalionofnew f<,>rmsbasedlargdyonthecharacteroftheoosloronilshabilat ...thesearebul uncertain guides in recogni1.ing thespe<;es."Theconlinuingproble m wasrc sl31ed by Slcinhaus in 1949./n lhc Laboolbeniales, species havc bcen cia ssifiedaccordinglolheslructureoftheirindividuals,noIaccordinglOlhcirpruvenance,as is madeclearbyThaxler(1931:303),A poim of uncertainly remains: <"CTlainspecies mighl be cafl3bleof infecting w,'eralunrclaledhosls,y<:llhcgrowthformoflheind;v;duaIsondifferenlhostsmighl differ. Such a possibilily is suggesledbythe commenlS of Couch &Urnphlell(1%3) concerningCoelQ"Wmyus (Fungi, Phycomycetes, B1aslocladi funhcrcommcnlsby Maire (1916a,1920), concerning the probable synonymy ofMisgomyces """lgnei (from a slaphylinid hoSl)withM. dysc!lirii (from a car abid. known lobcprcdatoroftheslaphylinid).This secms 10bcanlInuslialcaseresulting from an obligatc predalor-prey relalionship bctween lhehoslsoflheparasite. The subjecl was raised again by Schcloske(1969),whonotc
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    THEEVIDENCEFORCOEVOLUTION Oflhesl"'cies of Laboulbcnialcs recorded from more than onehoSl genus, lhe following35speciesparasiliuhostsbclonginglol....llormoregcncraoflhcsamc subfamily; COl1lhoromycts IhMIUi, Diophorom)'cts Iispini, Dichom)'cts exili.., D. infectus. D. puuvianus. D, princeps, Dinwrpholtl)'ces argellfinensis, D ''erlica!is, Eumonoicom)'ctSlmpuanus. MOmRCVItl)'t:esa5)'mltltlricus. M. alhelaC.M. brillanicus(oneoflhe lwohoSI records is dubious), M. ca/ifomicllS, M ca/odcroc, M. i""isiNUs, M, Icplochiri.M. nigrescens. M. sam;tachc/cnac, Peyrilschicl/a prO/ea, Amorphomyccs miniscu/us.A. rubesctns. Cortthromyces cryp/obii,C.curtipcs,C.dccipictl$.C.graci/is.C./omii'ifer,C.p"rpurasce"s,Diplom)'t:Cs (oneof lhe twohoSl records is dubious), Lnlxmlbe"i(l cofti, Misgomycesonsmu$,M. lispini. Rhat:homyt:Cs Imhrobii, R. philollfhinus, S)'mp/cc/rmn)'cts ,'ulgoris (one oflhe twohoSI'ulgilris,Misgom)'ctsdyschiril andRhachomyets /osiophorus havebeen recorded fromhoSISbelonging toSlaphylinidaeasweliashoSlsbclongtoCarabidae.lnlhecaseofL.subler' ranca, specimens occurringnnPaedcrinaehave been suggesled In belongtoaspecies(L. slilicicola) OIherthan lhal found on Carabidae.In lhe case of L.at.larrtlc(l,lheopinionofPieard(1913b:508)WdsthalL.otlomicaisaparasileof Slaphylinidae. while a morphologically almosl indislinguishabJccongener.l. tWtlophili Cepede &Picard. paruitizes Carabidae.Inlhe case ofL.J't'dict//a/(l. Maire (l920)considered Ihal lhe (usual) earabid and (exceplional) siaphylinid hoSlssharedlhesamehabilat,andperhapsthalthccarabidpreysonlheslaphy linid.Inthe case ofL. vu/garis,lhep.arasilewasimmalurcanditsidcnlilywasuIICc-rtain.InlhecaseofL./uefWdcmtltandR.lasiapham ..Balazuc(197Ib'169, 1973b: 280) doubled lheir occurrence on lhe abnormal (earabid and Sla phylinidrcspcelivdy)hosiS;inlheeaseofL.crisIQlu,hc(1974:20)suggesled!hallherceordfromaearabidhostneededfurlhervcrifiealionandhe(l973b:249) qucslionedthe recordofE. 100hrabiifrom a earabid. Any suggestionofa dose relalionship belween Staphylinidae and Cambidaemaybediscounled for a variely of reasons. Iflhe hostsorparasiles ....'Cre 001misidentified. th en itisprobable lhal these six Lnbou/beniu species. one Misgum}'t:es species, one Rhllchom}'ces spccicsand onc Euzodiomyces sl"'ciesare exceplionalin bcingcapableof paras iiizing a widevarielyofhoslS.AslalislicalleSIof signifieanceis hardly necessary 10demonstrate lhe improbabilily ofsix Lnboulbenio species havingearabidandstaphylinidhoslsbychance,andlhcgcnusLnIxm/beniomuSI be cnnsideredexceplional. Benjamin (l967) alsocnnsidered/.nlxmlbenia ex ccplionalin havinghosls belonging loeighl arthropod orders. Fourparasile species are recorded from more lhan one hostgenus. bUlwilh somequcslionasto lhe accuracy oflhc identifications. Where lhe hosls belong10disparale subfamilies, lhc record from one of lhehoslSis dubious. There is

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    IhuseOllsiderabledoublaboutparasilismofmorelhanonehoslsubfamilybylhe four parasile speciesCumh'lrolMycn oriemalis.Diaphoromyceslispini.MOIwi cOnJ)"cessanClaehele'UJe. andCorelhrOIM)'cnpllllensis.Se"en parasite species arereeorded,wilhoolc:o:pressuneertainly, from morelhan one host subfamily: DichonJycnfurcifer(Slaphylioinae Xamholioinae),MoitoicomrcesholMalo1M(Aleocharinae Oxylelinae),Amorphomyces illl/icus (Oxylelinae SlaphyJioinae,dubiouslyalsoAleocharinae),Cofl'thrOl11)"uspiesticola(Picstinae Osoriinae). t::uZQ(liomyces Imhrobii(Paederinae Xantoolininae,du_biously also Slaphylininac and Carabidac).Misgomyasplllleitsis (Tachyporinae Paederioae), and Kainom)"ces isomali (Osoriinae Aleocharinae), These scven parasite species reprcsenl lesslhan 2%of!henumber of speeies ofLaboulbenialesreeordedasparasi!izingSlaphylioidae,lnlheprceedinglisllhefirst-namedhoSIsubfamily is lhe principal or first one recorded: thus. Dicho.nJycesjurciferisrecordedfromseveralspcciesoflhegenusPhi/onrhus(SIaphy_ linioae),bUIonlyon one occasion from ahostbclongiogto lhe geous Eu/issus (Xanlltolininae);lhcsignifieanceofthisrecordrcstsOlIlheaccliracyofidenlifiCalionofbolhparasileandhosl.locasessliehaslhis,ilseemsunwisclOSlressIherelmionshipofXantholioinaeloSlaphylininaeslronglybeforere-examinalionoflhcspecimens.beeauseaecuraleidemificalionofthcpardSiletolhespecilic level isrC
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    safely be assumed that lhe number ,:of in this group of genera is much greater than 212. With regard to thc parasitc specics, thcpublishcd informationsu ggcststhm thcy are highlyspecializcd in host prefcrcnce, with ca. 325 specics (>8 5%)restrictcdtoasinglchoslgcnus.35moretoasinglehostsubfamily, 71010more tOlhesinglc family Staphylinidae, and 1t09moretothesingleorderColeoptera.The numbcrrewicted toa single host species may be large,bulmayootbc abstracted from thc)istsa!xNc,bcx:ause manyhost specimens have been iden lified only10genus. Confirmalion of lhis specialization is best obtaine dbycxpcTlmemattOll. Inthe ease of the parasite gene...the ratio ofspe<:ics 10 genera (34:17, 24:7, 104:7,:16)incachofthefooraforememiollCdgroopsofgencraindicmes lhat ilis Ihe genera Wilh fewer species which are the more highly restricted inhost prefcrence, and the genera with more species which are less restricted Centralto lhe invesligalionof reasons for this spccialization is whelherthe they arerestrictedbeacuseofhoslspe<:ies-associalionsasaresultofhoSlhahitatprcf ercnee. Again, the most direct evidenee might be obtainedby experimentation, butin ilsabscllCc wemight consider the implieations of host chcmistr y and of spcciesdiversily.l"he genusPaedems (sensu lato) eontainsO"er450species, aoo nlOStofthese havea lropical or subtropical distribution. Many,ifnOl.all.ofthese species producea complcx and highlylOXic venompederin. According to the lilerature, specimens of 25 named species of Paedcmshave been foond infested with la boulbeniaceoosparasites, all of the parasites belonging to thc singl espe<:icsta boll/beniu rri$UHlI,kl1<)Wn only from PlIcdulIS(except fora single, dubious rccord from a carabid beelle). The genus Loboll!ben;lI is large and its hosts are diverse. but ITlI)SI of its species are restrictedinhost prcference. severaloftllem kl1<)Wn from genera ofPaedcrinaeOlllertllan Paedcn<$. Inmy PacdUU$OOes001 occupy a unique habitat. but one which issharcdwitl101herCo leOpR'I"a; the genus Srcml$. inparticular. scems often10 Ihe Ilabitalof Pan/cms. The genera P"edcru$ and Stem,sarcbUIllclassified witllin1heSta pllylinidaebUIare only distantly related within tllisfamily.Thcdefensivese erclions of tileIwOgeIlCraare vcrydiffercnt: andalthoogh tllehabitatsocc upied byindividualsoflhegeneraarc-,imilar,-,othatcollection methods used f or spec imens of the one genus may produce specimensof theOIhergenus, tlleyhave 110parasitesincommon. Unfortunately, tile defensive secrelions of very few spe cies ofStaphylinidae Ilaveyet been analyzed (WCalllcrston & Percy, 1978) On the subjcct of species diversily. Williams (1964) dispuled the conccpt that. insmall animal communities. th<.'J'Care fewer congenericspedes than would be expected ina rnrl
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    scpar:ltedgenus.Wcmaythusapc:c:tlllatspecicsofSUlphylinidaeinllgiveni",e""ironment"MIIIldpredict.This has obvious implications for lhe diSJl"salmparasites.butignoreslhequcstionafre\.alicabundanceofpotcntialhDsIindividuals.Foraamplc:. in a woodland habital in E",land.Frank (1967) fWndtllatthemostabundant stapllylinid.uindka.cdbypitfilll tr.lpcatches. wasl'tliItMthMSMCDnlS(Gl"a\'Cnhom); IS IIIhcrl'tlilo-ltllliSspecicSOCC'\Ir=! in the.same habital. but specimensofall m ... ucunoomTllllll.sothatlflCfP./kcon-s.lhe next most abundanl staphylinids 11,1 thegeneraQurdiIiS.lArhro biu .... GJmhJptUls.andTodri/'fl,/s.ortoeadtOlhcr. Thus. allhough 16 spcciesofPhilOi1C:arc.00:I'=tlC.onlikelyIQbe:suittd. .., ThisCOOf:"CJl',Ocrived from considerations.argIleSfor !he co-evoIution m parasite and hosl:. 11 issupportedOVCf\\'hclmi",ly by theaiSlCnoeofparasitegeIlmIsudlasContp"""yet"J ....-ilh sevmspecies. allmlhcmI:n'.... nonlyfrom speciescllhcgenusAn.. n ..s. 111<"oflhe randomOOX\lITeOCCofComptonf}\"n species00anyanhropodhnstoocupying thesameh3bital as ASf<'''''S is unlenable. cspecially because lheASI<'''''sCmnplotn)USrceordsha.\'eoriginaledfromSC'oer.ldiffcrcmparlScilheworld.1lIerac1lhal any parasite genus is reslriclcd 10individuals 01" any hosl genusdeniesIhc n ull 11 gent'f1l and morc than85%01"species are so restricted destroys the argument. lhat Ihe major factorrcgulating the association is lhc host's habital 1llcforeb'OingacCQUnldemollStraleshosl-specifieilybyLllboolbeniales.buthave bccn elucida.led.Sudlreaclionsmigltl range from Ioicraocc IQgroomingbchaviorlodcfensivesecretions.lltId...-ouldnecdlobcdemonstraledbyapcriGiven the demonstrated levelofhlstspecificily by Laboulbe:niales .0 Staphylinidae. i ..... ould be:remarkable if Staphylini
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    RELATIONSHIPS AMONGTHEHOSTSAmong the ca. 490 namedspe<:ies ofStaphylinidac from which Laboulbcni ales are rccorued. most (ca. 380) are known to host ooly a single species of par asiteofthis oruer. while ca. 70 have 2 parlininae (3) Subfamily Omaliinae. This has parasites of the generaludJ(IldlJe'llaRidia.Sa/uzudl<.andCompsvm)'Ct's. ullJoulbenia and Ricki"arenoI restricted to Staphylinidae. whereasBa/azu("iais restricted 10Omaliinae.Co"'psom) .... s has four species known from Paederinae and one from Omaliinae. Thus. theonl)' L'VidclICesuggeSl'iareialionshipofOmaliinactoPacderinae95

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    (4) Subfamily OxytcHnac. This has parasites belonging tofi"e genera which arc no! restrictedtoStaphylinidac: Cantlwromyus,Dimorphom)",'s. Peyril sdliella. Dioicom)'us. and L<,bolllbmia. Also,ithas parasiles of two genera which are reslricled10Staphylinidae Monoicom)'us and AmorpllOm)'ces;moSIparasite specicsofbolh gcncrahave hosts belonging to Aleocharinac, wit h OJlylelinchoslgeneralcssnumcrous,bulsuggcst;ngarel3tionshipofOxylclinae to Aleocharinac. MQlwicom)' .... s also hashoS1S belooging to Osor;inac and Xan tholin;nae{wilh asingle,pcrhapslloubtful,recordfromStaphylininae),whileAmorp/lOmyccs iwlicushas been recorded without express uncertainty from Corpelin",s (Oxytelinae) andPhilomhl1S (Staphylininae). and w;lh express un ,:\'na;ntyfromAlhcw(Aleocharinae).!I1onoicomyceshomalomeapparentlyhasAI{.'QCharinaeasprincipal hosts, bUI is recorded alsofl'llm Carpelimus(Oxytc !inac). Eumonoi<:om)'ces is related 10MmlOicom)X"
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    hoSIsbeloogingtoPaederinaeandOmaliinae;thissuggeslsarelationship of the tWQ subfamilies. Five gener...are restricted10Paedcrinae and are: Camplomyces. and There are lhreeparasile species each having a paederine hoSland a nonpaederinchosl ; lheseare:(a)Cornhromycesplmensiswhich paraSili1.es Lobrathillm (Paedcri nae). but also and with uncertainty XamllO/l"'ms (Xanlholininae). and (b)Mis gomycuplalrnsiswhichis recorded fromAdlenomorplllls (Paederinae) and alsoCoproporus (Tachyporinae). and(c) Eurodiomyces /athrobiiwhich is recorded from paederine genera andfromXantholimls(Xanlholininae),bUIalso. and wilh uncerlainly. from Nemiquedius (Slaphylininae). [n summary, evidellCe sug geStSthcslrongeslrclatiunshipofPaederinacistoSlaphyJininae.Xanlholininae. and Tachyporinae, less slronglyto Omaliinae and perhaps 10Seydmaenidae (8) Subfamily Xanlholininae. This isparasilized by Corethromyces and Rhwhom)'c<'S.which are1101 rcStriclcd to Staphylinidae. Also. il isparasilizedby Diclromyces and Mmwicomyces. which are soremicled.Dich01llYccs has several species which arc parasiles of membcrs of the subfamily Slaphylinin ae. lhree which parasitize Xantholininae andooe which parasilizes Aleocharinae. This provides evidence forrelalionsbip of Xanlholininae10Staphylin inae.less so10Aleoclmrinae. Also. Dichom)'usfurciferisrel:orded from a xanlhoJinine host as"'"til as slaphylinioe hosts.MOI1oic01llycesisaparasile primarilyof Aleo charinae.bUIalso of Oxytelinae and Owriinae wilh oncspecies known only from a xantholinioehosl and one specicsWilhadoublful recordfromaslaphy lininehosl.lnsummary,relalionships ofXanlholininae are to Slaphylininae. but also 10Paederinae (lhroughCorelilrom)"asplot<'t1sisandEuzodiomyces /mhrobii) and Aleocharinae, andlhcre is some supporl forrelaiionShips IoOxylelinaeandOsoriinac. (9) Subfamily Staphylininae. This has parasilesofthegeneraPeyrit schiella, Rich". Corelhrom)'ceJ, Laboulbenio. andRltachomyces which are1101restricted 10Staphylinidae, as well asDiplomyces. Sllndersoniomyces. andSympleclro myces which arc rcslrietcdtoStaphylininac. Also, thcre are five OIh ergencraofparasiles whichhave slaphylinineIIoS1Sas well as hosts of OIhcrsubfamilies.MOSIhosts of Dichomyces belong10Slapbylininae. with a few10Xanlholininac and one 10 Aleocharinac. Most hoSlSof Mimeomyces belong to Slaphylininac. with one10Paederinae. MoslhoSlSof Amarpl101llycesbelong 10Aleocharinae, wilh some10OxylcJinac. bulA. ira/ieusisrecorded from Phi/omlt .. s (Staphy hninae) as well as OxyleJinae and. dubiously. Aleocharinac. MOSIhoslsofMon oicom)"ces belongtoAleocharioae, wilh some to Oxylclinac. one 10 Xantholininae. andM. sancltlehelenaereeordcd doubtfullyfromPhilonthus(Slaphylininae) as wellasfrom Oxytclinac.MOSI hoSlSofEuzodiomyces belong to Paederinac, andtherc is also a doubtfulrecordofE. Imltrol>ii fromHemique dius (Slaphylininae)as",<:IIasfrom its normal, hoslS and from a xa,, lholinillC.lamsceplicaloflhevalidityofrecordsofAmorpltomycesilalicusand Monoiwmyces sancraehe/enae from hoSlS anribulcd10genus Phi/on/hus. fromllaly;lheserecordsprovidelheonlyreasoolosupposcarelalionshipofSlaphy-

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    lininac 10 Oxylelinac and Osoriinaeandmuchoflhereason 10 suppose a rela lionship 10 Alo:oeharinae. In summary. evidence suggeSb a relalionshipof Slaphylininae10 Xanlholininae. 10 Paederin.te. 10 Akod.arinae.and dubiously100xytelinaeandOsoriinac (10)Subfamily Trichophyinae. The only P'ftiiteg<:IlUSrttOrded fromthissubflmily is PoI)'/lSrotrIyeu,,1>idl is unk:IlO"'lI fromany OImhosl.Tha"e isno evidenoeforlherelaIicnshipofTrichop/lyinaeloanyOlmwbfamily.Ht""evtt.spc:cimrnsofTrichop/lyi.-I7J.Id>leucommonly prne1lt in eoIlections thanare specimensorSleninae.somalthere is leureason to in lhe isolated posilionorTridlophyillKthanIhefeisorSltninae.many specirrEnSof.....idlha\-ebemeuminedfocparasites. (II) SubfamilyTachyporill3e.Fiw:ofparasikSwhidlareIlOIrestriC'ltd 10 StaphylinidKareblown from Tachyporinaeandan:: Di .....r<:WIIJ""'"s.Dimo.-pJtom)ru.Rictia.C""thromyUJ. and MislO'"yces.lbm.IlC'no:nan:blown only from hoslS bdonging 10 the Tac:hyporinae. and areCiawJpIIoro"'yees. S_rillgOfffyt:es. and Sridtomyeu.MislO'"ycespla/ensis is rttorded from Adle-.orphlfs(P:Ioederinae)and from Coproporus(Tachyporinae). Thus. (12) Subfamily Aleod>atinac. This has 0(lhe:IlC'IlenCQfllha'O' "'yees. Ol'mtrpmyees.Dimorphomyns.Peyrifsc/riel/a. DiQicom)'Ct's. and Laooll/benia.whicharenOlreslricledloStaphylinidac. All spc:ciesofthe genera Diandrom)'Cts. K/eMiomyces. Acal/omyctS. and Tt'frondrom)'Cts are reSlriclCd 10Aleocharinae. l1Iegenus Kainomycts conlains species recorded from Osoriinae. bUIK. isomaliisrecorded also from M
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    adequale. alone. to pml'irdcdhoslsamong tile (predalo'ry) CarabidaeandSlaphylinidae.bulnolamonglltc(parasilie)Cureulionidae(Hineks.19(0). ahhoughlhelunerfamilyisthelargeslinltrmsofnumbcrsofdescribedspeeies. ISuspectlhallhishas much10dowilh lhemobililyoflhcindividuals.oflhepredalory families rendcring them more likely loconlacl spores of the fungal 99

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    pardsites.lllToogh their own activity.In contrastthc relatively inactiveliooidae would he Icss likely10beeome infccted with the parasites, andadaptivc radiationoftheparasites among these hosts v.oold have difficulty in commenc ing.Conversely,mobilityofthestaphytinidho,tsITlliyaccountalsoforthesITlliII number of species ofhymenopterous parasitoids known from them. and for com_plele absence of any recordsofdipterous parasitoids. since the mobiJity ofthehostsi,herelikelyto decrease rathcr than incrcascthechaoceofsueeessfu linfectionbythese parasitoids Laboulbenialeshave bcen recorded as parasites onlyof the adultsofStaph y linidae. Although the charge is surely justified that very fewofthe imTrulturu stages have been ooamincd for these parasitcs. muehrnaterialhavingheeneolIeeted from adult museum specimens. there are OIherreaSOllS,The immature stagesof most Staphylinidae for which information is available. develop rapidly. within a fcwweeks. The larval cuticle is shedatpupation. and the pupal cuticleat aduhemcrgence. Thus. a fungal parasitc which allached to cuticleof Iarvaor p.ipa'I'KlUldbe losl. evenifithad sufficient time to develop from the spore. Restrictionofparasitetothcpolentiallylong-livcdadultstageissurelya benerinvestment. This lineofargument has been expandedbySehcloske (1969) and dc-vcloped inTOan explanationforhc>st specificity, His hypothesis suggestcdthat spores are relatively shon-Jived and that the parasite must produce them at a time when adult potential hosts are likelytoeneoonterthem.Productionofspores at the wrong timeofyear "'oold leadtotheir lossortheir infectionofthe immaturestagesofthehost-a"blindalley"fordcvclopmcnI.Thus.tifeeycleofthe parasite mustbealluned tothatofhost Cotrl'ersely, manyofthe hymenopterous parasitoids attack immobile egg and pupal stages.orrelatively unprOlected and rclativcly immobile larval stages, perhaps simplyl:>e<;ause these arc easier to attack than arc adults, Immature statesofthe parasitoid develop rapidly. and developmentofthe hostispre vcnTcd. so that theparasitoid is able to eomplcte itsdevclopmenl. Host lllObility may thusaffeetprobabilityofellCOtlntcrwith the pardsite. t hus opportunity for successful auack and parasitism. and it seems todo so di ffer cndy for mobile and immobile parasites. If a parasiteis unable to attack a hostbecauseofthelattersmobilily.orifsueccss(ulallaekrdleis\'erylow,lhenitisevidemthaltltcrewillbclittleornoopportunityfortheparasitetounderl,'{ladaplivespeciatioo wilhin that host. IfimlllObility ofthe host avoids encounterwitit the parasite, then an idcntical re,ultmaybeachieved However. mohilily ofinfected hosts issuggeslcd (price. 1977)toreduceop portunityforspeeiationofparasites.bceauseilmayincrcasegeneflowbclween parasitiepopulations.llwouldbeinterc,tingtodisclJVcrwhetherinfestationbyLaboulbeniales reduces mobility ofin".,ethosts. Bro Larsen (1952) Itas 00servedthalthisdocsoccurinheavyinfestationsofthesefungi.ltwouldalsobeintercstingludetcrmincwhethcrgrooming behavior by Staphylinidac (Valen tine, 1973) is effective in rem"ving parasites. Valentine (pers.ha, re marked upon the cxtraordinary diversityandabundanecofetenidia. presumably for grooming. found on these bcctlcs_ 100

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    I hope lhis p;aper willspur public31ionofhosl;parasilcrerords from thefilcsolbochenlomologistsandparasilologists. Evenmore, I hop;thaI il"'illslimu' IalcllCWstudicsconductcdsyslcmalically. WilhpanosiICSrcc:orucdfromfe-.:rlhan 2'J,oldcSCTibedsptticsdSlaphylinidae,and wilhlillie I;nownaboollifccydcsolcidwrhoslsorparasilcs.klalonr:fKlOrsregulalingpopulalionsofcilhcr, lhc:opponunilyI'or Thisop ponunityisOOlresuietcdlOnaluralhisKy.buIClllendslobchavior,biod'ICm. 101

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    LITERATURE CITED A"muss, E.P.1858. einigt.Inseclen, in dellenich Gordiaceen antraL WieneremomologischeMonalschrift2: 177-181 Bala'.uc.J.19718. Bibliographic des Laboulbeniales (Ascomycetes). Bulletin mcnsuclde laSociete Llnneennede Lyon 40: 134-149.Balazne.J.1971b. NOles sur les Laboulbcnialcs: til.Reclifications. synonymies el mises au point. BuliClinmensue!dela Societe Linnccnnede Lyon 40:168-171,21)J6 Balazuc.J.197Ic.Plaidoycrpouruncflorcfran,aisedesLaboolbenialcspara sites. EntomologislC27: 113. Baluzuc,J. 1973a.Ebauchcd'unefloredesLaboolbcnialcsdcRournanic(Ascomycc!cs).LivrcducinquantcnaircdcrJnsliluldeSpwlogic"EmilcRa covitza,"ColluqlJC nationalde Spixllogie, SucuresliCluj. 2 Octobrc 1971:463. Balazuc, J. 1973b. LaboulbcniaJcsdc Bulletin mensuel de la SocieteLinncenr.edeLyon42:244-256.280. Balazue.J.1974.ibid.43:12.57-64.73.253.295,346-368.Balazuc. J. 1975. Description de 4 espcces!>OUvel1es de IAboulbeniu (Asco mytttcs). parasites decolwpteres.AclaMycologica 11:67 Bala7.Uc. J.1978. Laboulbeniales (Ascomycetes)delaregion franpise An lillesGuyane. Bulletin mensuel dela Societe Linneennc de Lyon 47:488 500. Banhegyi.J.1940. Elilmunkalatok a magyarorstagi IAboulbeniu-felek mono grafiajatlOz.lndex Horli Botanici Universitalis Budapcslinensis4: 39+pI.7.Banhegyi,J.1944. A Balalon kornyekcnckl.
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    Baumgarlner, R. 1934.Quc1lllleSque$liOll$relalivc$auXLaboulbeniale$ (cham pignonswrinseclesviV"dnls).Milleilungen dcr NalulfOTKhendenGeiIC:ll$dIaflBern1933:x:uxv,"u:lVii.Benjamin, R.K. Ncwgc:lW:!'1IofLaboulbeniales. ElAliso3(2):183. Benjamin. R.K. 1967. Laboulbeniales on semiaquatie Hemipcera.l.tJhottlMllil'l. E!Aliso6(3):111. IknjJ.min. R.K. 1968.a.SI'llllkrsotli/'llfryces. a newsa-SofLa.boulbenialesalFJAliso6(4): 1. Benjamin, R.K. 1968b.8ofl'l:JInl'l.1_genus of Laboulbeniales allied 10 CIICI'jom)"CUSpegazzini.EIAliso 6 (4): 47. Benjamin. R.K.1971.lnlroduc:lion andwppkmenllo Roland 'lllaxler'scon lribulion lov.",rds a monogrnph of the Laboulbcniaceae. J.Cramer; Lchre. WesIGc:rmany,155p. Benjamin. R.K.&Shanor,L.1951. Morphology ortlleimtnature stages of tmliomycu.Ar1ll.:ricanJournal of BOlany38:555. Bernhauer, M.1935. ZweineueSlaphylinidenganungen aus Afrika. (39. Bei lrag). Slylops4: 213. Bernhauer. M. & Sch<:=pr:ltz, O.1926. Coleoplerorum calalogus.pars 82. Slapllylinidx.W.Junk;lkrlin.BernhaLH:r.M.&.Sdluberl. K. 19JB.1916. CoIeopIaorum e-taIogus,partes19.29.40,57,67.Staphylintdae.W.Junk;Berlin.8lackwelder, R.E. 1943.MOIlOl.oftheWesllndian bee1lesofl"" family Slaphylinidae. UniledStalCSNalion:alMuseum Bullelin 182: ivii+ 1. Blackwelder, R.E. 19-14.OlecklisllllhecokoplcrousinsUofMaico,eer. lral America, lhe WeSllndies.andSouthAmerica. Pari I. Uniled Slales Na liorul Museum Bullclin 185:IJ88. Blackweidcr.R.E.1952.Thegc:ncricnamesoflhebeellefamilyStaphylinidaewilh an essay on gellOlypy. UniledStalC$ National Museum Bulletin 200: iiv+1. Blackwelder. R.E.1967. l'Jxonomy, a lexl and reference book. Wiley:NewYork,1iv+698p.Briedis. A. 1932. Laboulbc:niacellcin Latvia. Aclll Hurti Universilatis 7:])JI33.Bro E. 1952.On subsocial beellcs from lhe $all-marsh. their care ofprtlFnyandadaplalionloSlllllndlilk.T"'nsa<:lionsoflhe9lhlnlcmational CongressofEnlOlnOloi:y(AmSlmbm. 1951)I:502. CampbdI.J. M.I913.A revisionoflhegcwsTadliJtIU(CoIeopIera:StaphylinofCanada 90: 1.])7. '03

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    Sicmasu.o. J.& W. 1932. O ....adoroslypolskieip,alearl:lycznc.ll.(uboulbenialespoklnicietpalac:arelid, 11).ibid.10:149-188+1'1.7-10. Smetan:I, A. 19$7.EinebishaunbebnnleLarvederGanun8Qttuli .. SU'J'lh.aus NeslcmvonlJf\ulisPallas.Bauige zur Entomologie 7: 333.Smdana. A.1977. ThennmicgenusBur;QH:llch. l'lu:onomy.diSU"iburion and ecology (Coleqllmo: SUphylinidae). Enlomologia Seandinavica 8: 177-190. Spcgll1.1,ini. C.1912. Conlribueioo al eSludiode las laboulbeniomieelas argen liMS. Ana1cs del Musco nacional de Hisloria natural de Buenos 23: 167. Spegv.zini,C.1914.PrimocOlllribmnalloconoscenzadellelaboulbcnialiilallane. Redia10: 21.7$ + pI. 1 Spegv.zini.C.191S,a.LaboulbenialirillVo'alenellecollezionidialcuni II'l.lici415-$11.Speganini.C.19ISb.SegundacontriIll.lciOnalronocimic'llodelasLaboulbenialesitali.J.ll3.$.A",,1esdelMuseGnacionaldeHisloria ""IuraldeBuenosAin:s27:37-74.Spegazzini, C.1917. RevisiOn deIllSLabouibenillies arg<'nlinas.AmlesdelMusroIIlIcionaIdeHisloriamturalde8uenosAires29:44S,688. Spegw.zini. C. 1918. Obscrvacionesmicrobiologicas.Analesde laSocicdad cicnlifica Argcmina8S: 311-323. Sladelman.M.& Poell.J.1962.ZurKenntnis dcr millelcuropaischen Laboul beniales. BerichlderbayerischcnbcunischenGf,sellsdtaftzurErfenFIora3S: 120-132. Sled.W O.1970. ThelarvaeoflhegmerarAOmaliinae(Coleoplc:ra: Sl3phy linidac:) wilh p31tiC\lLarrclerenceIOlheBritisb fauna.TranuctionsrAlhe 122: 1-47.Sleinhaus.E. A. 1949. PrinciplesrAinsenJNlhology. MeGQW-HilI;NewYorl<.J.1+757p.Sugiyama. K.1972.On fivt:speciesoflhc Laboulbeniales rollec:red in Peru. Transactionsoflhe MycologiealSocielyolhpan13:260-264. Sugiyama. K. 1973. Species and generJ of llle Laboulhenialcs (Ascomycetes) in Japan. Ginkgoana2: 1+pl. 1. Sugiyama. K. 1974. A guide to the siudy oflheLaboulbcniales. Naluml His lory ofthc Tokai DiSlriel I: 67 lin Japanc:sc). SUlliyama. K. 1978a. Theofeaslern Asia (2).On cightnewspecies from Japan and Formosa ineludinglWOnewspeciesorR;dja.bJrnalofJapanc:seBotany53:154-160. Sugiyama. K.1978b. The LaboulbeniomyttlesofC;l;S\ernAsia (3). On nine species includingtlOOnc:wspecies.bJrnalofJapanescBotanyS3: 281.

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    Sugiyama K. &.Shnawa, E.1977. Notes on Labouibeniomytttcs<:LFormosa.TransaetionsollheM)'<:ologieal Soo;ietyofJapan 18: 27Q.278.Tavues, I. I. 1970. The appendaged Amoophom}'Us(Laboulbenialcs). MycoIogia62:741_749.Tavarcs.I.I. 1973. MycoIogia6S:929-934.Tavares. I.I.\979. TheLaboulbeniaksandtheirIrthropodhosts.(Chapla-9. p. 229, inl Batra., L.R. (cd.) II'I$ed-fungus symbiosis.Allanbdd.Osrwn;MOllldair. NewJcrscy. +276p. 1lJvares.I.I.&.BallZUC. J.1977. MisgomyrUntaSfOOS (Laboulbenialcs) its 5trUClurelndhostrelationsllip.MyooIogia69: 1069-1073. TC1'1lda. K.1976. Somespeciesofthe LabQlil!leni.lcs from Tli",1I.0. Tran:;ae. tionsofthe Mycological SociclyolJapan17:23-34.TC1'1lda. K.1977. Some species ofIhe Labuulbeniales newlyI'orded from Japan. Hikubia8: 124. Tenlda, K.1918. Addili(KIs to the LaboolilenialcsofTaiwan, wilb descriplioll$oltwonewspecies.Tr:IIlSllCti(KIsofthe Mycological Societyof.Japan19:55-64.Thultr, R_1890.On some Nortb AmericanspecicsdLaboulbeniacne.ProCeedinllsdlheAmerican Academyol Arts andSciences2S: 5-14. Thuler, R. 1891.Suppkmcnwy110lC on Nortb AmericanLaboulbeniacuc.Procoedin:softhe American Acao;IemyolArtsandStiences24: 261. Thuttr. R. 1892. Funheraoiditions tOlhe Nortb AmericanspeciesofLaboul.beniaceac.Procecdinpd!beAmerican AcademyofAnsandSciencu27: 29-45.Thuttr, R. 1893. Ncwsp:icsd:Laboolbeniaceacfromvariouslocalilies.Proceedings<:LlbeAmcric.nAcldemyof Artslnd Scienr:u28:156-188.Thuttr, R. 1894. Newgcncra Ind spcciesofLaboolbeniaccK willi 1 synopsisdlheknown spec:ies.ProcecdiogsollheAmericanAeademyof Ans and Sci. enees29:92-111Thaxler, R.1895. NOlesonlhe Laboulbeniaceae Wilb deseriplions ofnew species. ProceedingsofIhe American Academy ofArls and Sciences 30: 467-481 R.1896. Contribution lowardsamonographof1hcLaboulbeniaccac. MemoirsoflbeAmencanAcademyofArts 100 Stiences12: 187-429+pl.1-26 Thuter, R. 1899. Prdiminarydiagnosesofncwspe
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    III. Proceedingsof the American AcademyofArtS and Sciences36: 395-414. Thaxter,R. 1901b. Preliminary diagnoses ofnewspecies of Laboulbeniales. IV.Proceedings of thc American AcademyofArts ane.!Sciences 37: 19-45 Thaxter, R. 1902, Preliminary diagnoses ofnew specicsofLaboulbeniales.V.Proceedingsofthe American Academy of Arts and Scieoces 38:7. Thaxter, R.1905. Preliminuy diagnosesofnew spcciesofLaboulbeniales. VI. Proceedingsofthe American AcademyofArts and Sciences41: 301-318. Thaxter. R.1908. Contribution toward a monogrdph ofthe Laboulbeniaceae. Parlil. Memoirsoftile American AcademyofArts and Sciences13: 217-469+pL28.Thaxter, R. 1912a. Neworcritical Laboulbeniales from the Argcntine. Pro eeedingsofthe American AcademyofArts and Scieoces48: 153_223. Thaxter. R.1912b. Preliminary descriptionsofnew speciesofRickia and Tretlomyces. Proceedingsofthe American Academyof ArtS and Sciences48:363 Thaxter, R.1914. On certain fungusparasitesof living insects. BotanicalGuclte58:235 +pI. 26.Thaxter, R.1915. NewIndo-Malayan Laboulbeniales. Proceedingsofthe American AcademyofArls and Scicnces 51: 1-51'Thaxter, R.1916.Neworcritical speciesofChilorwm)'asandRickio. Proceed ingsof the American AcademyofArts and Sciences 52: 1. Thaxter, R.1918. New Laboulbcniales from Chilc and New Zealand. Proceed ingsofthe American AcademyofArts and Scienccs 54: 207-232. Thaxter. R. 1920a. NewDimorphomycetaceae. Proceedingsofthe American Academyof Arts and Sciences 55: 209-282 Thaxter, R.1920b. Sewndnote on certain peculiar fungus-parasitesofliving insects. BOianicalGuene69: 1+pL1-5. Thaxter. R. 1924. Conuibution towards a monographofthe Laboulbcniaceae Memoirsofthe Amcrican AcademyofArts and Scicnces 14: 309 +pI1l2Thaxter,R.1926. Contribution towards a mooographofthe Laboulbeniaccae. Part IV. Memoirsofthe American AcademyofArts and Sciences. 15:427 5l:\0 +pI.1_24Thaxter,R.1931. Contribution toward a mooographofthe Laboulbeniaceac. Part V. Memoirsofthe American Academyof Arts and Sciences16;1-432+pl.I-57. ThcodoridCs,J. 1952. Conlribulion al"CiudcecologiqucdcsparasitcSelcommcnsaux dc Colcopll:reS (2e note). Transactionsofthe 9th International Con gressofEnlomoloGY (Amsterdam, (951)I:454.459 Theodorides.J. 1954. Parasites et p!>ori:liques des colwpleres des grOltCS dc l"Ariege.Notesbiospeologiques9, 187.

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    TheodoridcS,J. 1955. Conlribulion a l'elude des parasiles et phoreliques deco IcoplereslC1TCslres. Hcrm:lnn;PariS,310p. 11>omson, H.M.1960. A lisl andbriefdcscriptionofthe Microsporidia infccl inginsects.Jour1l3.1 ofInsect Pathology 2: 34611>oroo, G. 1961. Principlesofnemalology. McGraw-Hill;NewYork, xiv+553p Tikhomirova, A.L. 1968. Jurassic mvebeelles ofthe Karalau (Coleoplera. Slaphylinidae).In:JurassicinseClSoftheKaralau. Naoka: Moscow: 139-154[inRossianj. Tikhomirova, A.L,1971. Ecological featores and evolution of Staphylinidae Proceedings of lhe13th Internalional CongressofEntomology (Moscow, 1968)1:565. Tikhomiro'la. A.L.1973. Morpho-ecological charaeleristics and phylogeny of Slaphylinidae(wilh a calalogoeoflhefaunaoftbcU.S.S.R.). Naoka: Moscow,19IplinRossianj. Tikhomirova. A.L.& Mclnikov. O.A.1970. The laIc embryogenesis of Sla phylinidaeandnaturc<.>faleocharo_ andstaphylinomorphous larvae. Zool ogischerAn?eiger184:76-87. Triffin.M,J. and Oldham, J.N.1927. Observalionsonlhe morphology and bionomicsof Rhabdi/is coarc/ara Leock. occorringOndong beelles, JournalofHelmintoology 5: 33-46. TroIter,A.1926.LaboulbcniomyeetaePeyr.SyllogeFllnl,'Orllm24:68_221. Valentine, B.D.1973. Grooming behavior in Coleoptera. ColeopleriSlS Bolle tin 27: 63.vanEmden.F.I.1950. Dipleroos parasiles of Coleoplera. Entomologisl's Monlhly Magazioe 86:182-206. Verllocff,K_ W,1919.SludienubcrdieOrganisalionondBiologiederSlaphy_ linoidea IV. Zor Kennln;s der Slaphylinidcn_Larven. Archiv fiir Nalurgc schiclue85 (A.6):1-48+pI.1-2 Volk, J. 1950. Die Nemaloden der Regenwiirmerondaasbesuchcnden Kafer Zoologischc Jahrbiicher(kna)AblCilfur Syslcmalik 79: 1-70. Waehek,F.1955, DieenloparasitischcnTylenchiden.?-arasilologischcSchrif tenrcihc3:1-119. Wailes, G. 1859. [Uebcreinen parasilischcnPlarymischus (Hymen.)]. Berliner enlomologische Zcilschrift (1859): 98Watsoo,M.E.1916.SlUdiesongregarinesincludingdescriplionsoftwemy one new spccics and a synopsisofthe ellgregarine records fromthe Myria poda, Coleoptera and Orlooplcraoflhe "'<:>rld. Illinois Biological Mono grdphs 2 (3): 2l1-258+pL1. WeatherSlon, J.& Percy, J. E. 1978. of Coleoptera. [Chapter 19, p 511-554, in)Bellini, S. (cd.). Arthropod venoms. Handbllchdcrexpcrimcn-

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    tellenPharmakologie.Vol.48,Springer; Berlin, xxxiii +977p. Weidemann. G. 1962. DbVerbrcitung. PhiillOlogie und Biologie der Prototru pidae (Hymenoptera. ProctOlrupoidea) Faunislische Miueilungen aus Norddcutschland2:26. Weidemann,G.1965. Okologischeund biometrischc Untersuchungen an Proc totrupiden(Hymcnoptcra: Proclotrupidaes.SIr.)der Nordseckiiste unddes Binnenlandes. fiir Morphologic und Okologie der Ticrc 55: 425 514.Wciscr.J.1961.DieMikrosporidienalsPardsitenderlnseklen.MonographienzurangewandlcEnlomologie17:1. Weiser,J.1963.Sporo:waninfeelions.[Chaplcr9,p.291-334,in]Sleinhaus.E. A.(ed.) Insect pathology. an treatise. Vol.2. Academic Press; NewYork, xiv+689 p. Welch.H.E. 1965. Entomophilic nematodes. Annual Review of Entomology 10:275.Wellmer. L. 1911. Sporozoen ostpreussischer Arthropoden. Schriftende.phy sikalischokonomischen Gesellschaft zu Konigsbcrg52:103-164Williams.C.B.1964.Patternsintheoolanceofnatureandrelatedproblcmsin London.324p.Williams.F.X.1932. Exallon)'xphilomhiphagus. anewproctotrypid waspinHawaii. and its host. Proceedings of the Hawaiian Entomological Society 8: 205-208. Woodroffe, G. E. 1%7. Phoretic behavioorofadultAglenusbrunneus (Oyllen hal) (Col., Colydiidae). Entomologist's Momhly Magazine 103: 44. Zwaluwenburg.R.H. van. 1928. The interrelationships and round worms. Bulletinofthe Experiment Stalionofthe Hawaiian Sugar Planters' Association 20:1.

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    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Special!hanks.-edue to Carda:Zimmmnan(Vern Beach) for Iypingse-cnldraftsofthismaruscripl:. RcvieIros;u\1IrlwsstagCSbyR. K. Benjamin(C1aremorll:),D.A.Cl1lig(Edmt'lllm), L.H. He:rman(NewYort:). T. A.Jenssen(Blacbburg). R.1. Sailer. J.Kimbrwgh. arxI L. S!glloI"{Gainesvillc).and E. McCoy(TampiI)helped its progress.andadditional lilcr.lwrereferences on theparasitesweregivenby R. CarlSOl'laoo E.E. Grissdl(Washilli1onl. D.W. Hall{Gainesvillc). R.W. Lundgren (Nonna1), P. Ma!'sh (Wash ington).w.R. Nickle (Beltsville), G. O. Poinar (Berkdey), I.I. Tavares (Berkeley). H. E. \\\:ldi(Winnipeg), and especially byJ. Batazuc (Eaubonnc). Copies of articles frcrntile literature werepr""ided byP.M. Hammond(london). J. Jaed:lson (Gainesville),J.B.Kitzmiller(Ver,) Beam),T.Majewski (Warsaw),W.Rossi(Rome).K. Sugiyama(Shizud;a). K. Tcrnda(Hiroshirna),andl.ZeIler(Budapcsl).llelpwasgivtnintnlnslations. rromPolishbyJ.D. Edman(Amersl).into Spanish byJ.R. Rcy (Vero Beach). and franJapaneseby T. Royama (Fredericton). I am >'ttygnndul forall their help. givensorreely.

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    ADDENDUMBayford, E.G.1924.NOle on the rearing of E;r;allonyX(1ler Nees. Entomolo gist's Monthly Magazine 60:233. Records:Codms aler (Nees) (Hymenop tera: PrOCIOlrupidae) from a carabid larva in England, and cites 'MlTk of Frooawk(1886).niCOl, L. 1924. Observ3tions biologique:>surdiveninscctes des environs deVicnneenDauphine.BulielindelaSocieleemornologiquedeFraoce(1924):221-224. Records:Phygadeuon IJfWldiceps Thomson (Hymenoptera:khncu lOOI1idae) fromlarvae ofQuedills a:hripelVlisMcnc.ries fromFrance,andalhides10 work ofRO$enberg (1913)inDenmark. According to Muesebecket a1.(195 I) the members0(PhygadeuOtlarc parasites ofmuscoid Diplcra. Hoebeke, E. R. 1978. NolesOlllhcbiologyofCodms carolinensis (Hymenop tera: PrOCIOlrupidae). a parasite of PlatydmClls violm:eus (CoiropH:ra" StaphyJinidae). Jrurnal oftheKansasEntomological Society 51: 507-511.Describes: developmenl oflarvaeof Codrus caroi/ru!nsis(Ashmead) col lecled fromlarvae of P/l/Iydracl.S \'ioiaceus (Gravenhorsl) from U.S.A. (Michigan and Ne\VYork) Rossi, W.&CesariRossi,M.G. 1980. Nuovocootribuloallaconoscenzadcllelaboolbeniali (ASCQmyceles)parassiledi slafilinidi ilaliani (Insecta, Coleop. tern). Giornalc bolanico ilaliano 114; 187-192. Describes: Camplomyus eurapoeus Rossi&Cesari Rossi fromAs/enus rhorru:icus Baudi and Core/hTo",)'cessardOi'S Rossi& Ccsari Rossi fromPu"dobi"m labi/e(Er-oichsoo), bolh from Ilaly. Records: Comfllomycesl"er/icilllUus(Thaxter) from As/enus/horacicus Baudi, Hapio"'yces(Thaxta) from Bledi"s graells; Fauvel andB. cribricollisHeer,Sm.,ringOlllyusanoma/IIS (Thaxter) fromCOllOS{}lllll/esroceum (Fabricius), and TerOlI)"'ycesru:llJbiiThaxlCf fromEr ichsOlli"scilU'rasurlS (Gravenhorst), all for thc first time from llalySmith, F.1868. [Parasites of aXanrlwl/mls larval. Enlomologist's Monlhly Magazine 5: 26. Records: pupac ofanunidenlified proctOirupid(Hymcooplera) from a larvaofan unidenlifiedXomhoiirU/s. originunSlalcd.perhaps England.Smilh.K. M. 1927. Asludyof H)'/emyia(ChorlOphi/(I)bross/caeBouclte, lhe cabbagerootOyandilsparasilcs. Wilh 110leson some OIherdiptC1"ouSpeSIS of cruciferous planIS.AnnalsofApplied Biology 14:312+pl.XXIIl.Rec ords: Cod,,,s /igallls (Nees) (Hymenoplera: PrOClotrupidac) fromlarvaeofAleoch(lTa hililU'lU" Gyllenhal TCI'"
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    Sharp, Label./beniamoi ...a ..Taadafromcmssicornis Sharp. andRickin lac/liniTcrnda from Tadrinusimpu"CIIII,lS Sharp.allfrom Japan. 118

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    This public documem was promulgated al an annual costof$S,713.78or$2.91per copy,toprovide information about species which para sitile theStaphylinidae (Coleoptera). AIproeramsalllrelaledaetivities sponsored or assistedbytheAgricuItur.llage,teX,orllmliap.


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  • The parasites of the Staphylinidae (Coleoptera)
    CITATION SEARCH PDF VIEWER PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
    Full Citation
    STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
    Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027462/00001
     Material Information
    Title: The parasites of the Staphylinidae (Coleoptera) a contribution towards an encyclopedia of the Staphylinidae
    Series Title: Bulletin Agricultural Experiment Stations, University of Florida
    Uncontrolled: Encyclopedia of the Staphylinidae
    Physical Description: vii, 118 p. : ; 23 cm.
    Language: English
    Creator: Frank, J. H ( John Howard ), 1942-
    Publisher: Agricultural Experiment Stations, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
    Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla.
    Publication Date: 1982
     Subjects
    Subjects / Keywords: Staphylinidae   ( lcsh )
    Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
    bibliography   ( marcgt )
    non-fiction   ( marcgt )
     Notes
    Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 102-115.
    Statement of Responsibility: J.H. Frank.
    General Note: Summary also in Spanish.
     Record Information
    Source Institution: University of Florida
    Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
    Resource Identifier: aleph - 000410098
    oclc - 09178086
    notis - ACF6850
    System ID: UF00027462:00001

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    Table of Contents
        Front Cover
            Page i
            Page ii
        Table of Contents
            Page iii
            Page iv
        Summary
            Page v
            Page vi
        Preface
            Page vii
            Page viii
        Methods and materials
            Page 1
            Page 2
            Page 3
            Page 4
            Page 5
        Host: Parasite list
            Page 6
            Page 7
            Page 8
            Page 9
            Page 10
            Page 11
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            Page 56
            Page 57
            Page 58
            Page 59
            Page 60
        Parasite: Host list
            Page 61
            Page 62
            Page 63
            Page 64
            Page 65
            Page 66
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            Page 83
            Page 84
        The nature of the parasite-host associations
            Page 85
            Page 86
            Page 87
            Page 88
        Discussion
            Page 89
            Page 90
            Page 91
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            Page 94
            Page 95
            Page 96
            Page 97
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            Page 100
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        Literature cited
            Page 102
            Page 103
            Page 104
            Page 105
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            Page 111
            Page 112
            Page 113
            Page 114
            Page 115
        Acknowledgement
            Page 116
        Addendum
            Page 117
            Page 118
        Back Cover
            Page 119
        Historic note
            Page 120
    Full Text







    The Parasites of the Staphylinidae (Coleoptera)

    A Contribution Towards an Encyclopedia
    of the Staphylinidae







    J. H. Frank






















    Dr. J. H. Frank is an entomologist with the University of Florida Agricultural
    Experiment Stations, at the Florida Medical Entomology Laboratory, Vero
    Beach, Florida, and is a research associate with the Florida State Collection of
    Arthropods, Bureau of Entomology, Florida Department of Agriculture and
    Consumer Services.










    CONTENTS

    SUMMARY .............................................. v

    PREFACE ............................................. vii

    METHODS AND MATERIALS ............................... 1
    Literature Search ................ ...................... 1
    Names of Hosts ............................. .......... 1
    Explanation of Host:Parasite List ............................. 2
    Explanation of Parasite:Host List ............................. 3
    Emendations to Names of Laboulbeniales ...................... 3
    Unpublished Bernhauer Names .............................. 5

    HOST:PARASITE LIST ...................................... 6
    Piestinae 6; Osoriinae 6; Omaliinae 8; Oxytelinae 9; Steninae 16;
    Euaesthetinae 16; Paederinae 17; Xantholininae 31; Staphylininae 33;
    Trichophyinae 48; Tachyporinae 49; Aleocharinae 51; Subfamilia
    Incognita 59.

    PARASITE:HOSTLIST .................................. 61
    Gloeohaustoriaceae 61; Peyritschiellaceae 62; Laboulbeniaceae 68;
    Ceratomycetaceae 75; Entomophthoraceae 76; Hyphomycetes 76;
    Actinocephalidae 76; Gregarinidae 77; Nosematidae 77;
    Allantonematidae 77; Entaphelenchidae 78; Diplogasteridae 78;
    Rhabditidae 79; Mermithidae 81; Gordiidae 81; Anoetidae 82;
    Euithididae 82; Colydiidae 82; Braconidae 82; Eulophidae 83;
    Myrmaridae 83; Proctotrupidae 83.

    THE NATURE OF THE PARASITE-HOST ASSOCIATIONS ........ 85

    DISCUSSION ........................... .............. 89
    Background ............................................. 89
    The Evidence for Co-Evolution .............................. 91







    Relationships Among the Hosts ............................. 95

    Conclusion ............................................ 98

    LITERATURE CITED ...................................... 102

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................................. 116

    ADDENDUM ........................................ 117













































    iv










    SUMMARY

    A literature search revealed the existence of records of parasites from more
    than 540 species, representing all larger subfamilies, of Staphylinidae. A
    host:parasite list and a parasite:host list were compiled to give easy access to the
    literature.
    Many of the names of parasites are based on names of their hosts, and in a few
    instances parasites were named in misunderstanding of names of the hosts;
    emendations to names of seven species of Laboulbeniales are made in the inter-
    ests of clarifying the nomenclature of host:parasite relationships.
    About 470 species of parasites are recorded. Most (>380) belong to Laboul-
    beniales (Fungi: Ascomycetes) and are considered to be true parasites. Twelve
    species of Gloeohaustoriales (Fungi: Deuteromycetes), one of Entomophthor-
    ales (Fungi: Zygomycetes), and one of Hyphomycetes (Fungi) are recorded.
    Almost 50 species of Nemata are listed, some of which are parasites, and others
    are phoretics. Seventeen species of Hymenoptera (Insecta) are parasitoids. At
    least five species of Gregarinida and Microsporida (Protozoa) are parasites. One
    species of parasitic horsehair worm (Nematomorpha: Gordioidea), one phoretic
    beetle (Insecta: Coleoptera), and four species of phoretic mites (Arachnida:
    Acarina) are listed.
    Evidence for co-evolution of Laboulbeniales and their staphylinid hosts is
    strong. Occurrence of genera of Laboulbeniales restricted to hosts belonging to
    the Staphylinidae, and where hosts belong to two or more subfamilies, is con-
    sidered to be reason for supposing the phyletic proximity of host subfamilies.
    This supposed proximity may be used as an aid to cladistic analysis by conven-
    tional methods. Suggested reasons for the extensive adaptive speciation of La-
    boulbeniales on staphylinid hosts are large size of the host family and high
    mobility of adult individuals of its species. Conversely, high mobility is seen as
    a barrier to adaptive speciation by hymenopterous parasitoids.
    Parasites of Staphylinidae provide a challenging field for new research in sev-
    eral biological disciplines.


    Una busqueda en la literature revel6 la existencia de registros de parasitos en
    mas de 540 species, representando todas las subfamilias mayores, de Staphy-
    linidae. Listas de huesped:parisito y parasito:hu6sped fueron compiladas para
    facilitar el acceso a la literature.
    Muchos de los nombres de los parasitos estan basados en el nombre de sus
    huespedes y en algunos casos los parasitos fueron nombrados bajo malentendi-
    dos acerca del verdadero nombre del huesped. Se han hechto enmiendas a los
    nombres de siete species de Laboulbeniales para clarificar la nomenclatura ac-
    erca de las relaciones entire los huespedes y parasitos.







    Cerca de 470 species de parasitos han sido registradas. La mayoria (>380)
    pertenecen a los Laboulbeniales (Fungi: Ascomycetes) y son consideradas como
    parasitos verdaderos. Doce species de Gloeohaustoriales (Fungi: Deuteromy-
    cetes), una de Entomophthorales (Fungi: Zygomycetes), y una de Hyphomy-
    cetes (Fungi) han sido registradas. Casi 50 species de Nemata han sido listadas
    algunas de las cuales son parasitos y otras son forticas. Diecisiete species de
    Hymenoptera (Insecta) son parasitoids. Por lo menos cinco species de Gregar-
    inida y Microsporida (Protozoa) tambien son parasitos. Una especie de gusano
    de crin (Nematomorpha: Gordioidea) un coleoptero foretico (Insecta: Coleop-
    tera) y cuatro species de icaros foreticos (Arachnida: Acarina) se encuentran
    en la lista.
    La evidencia acerca de la co-evoluci6n de los Laboulbeniales y sus huespedes
    estafilinos es fuerte. Se consider que la ocurrencia de generos de Laboulbeni-
    ales limitados a huespedes que pertenecen a la Staphylinidae, cuando los
    huespedes pertenecen a dos o mis subfamilias, como raz6n suficiente para su-
    poner que las subfamilias hospederas son fileticamente cercanas. Esta supuesta
    proximidad se puede usar como ayuda a anilises cladisticos con m6todos con-
    vencionales.
    Se sugiere que algunas de las razones por la extensa diversificaci6n de espe-
    cies de Laboulbeniales en huespedes estafilinos son el gran tamaiio de la familiar
    hospedera y la alta mobilidad de individuos adults de sus species. A la inversa,
    esta alta mobilidad es considerada como una barrera a la diversificacion adaptiva
    de species de los parisitos himen6pteros.
    Los parasitos de la Staphylinidae proven un campo desafiante para nuevas
    investigaciones en varias disciplines biological.











    PREFACE

    For several years, I have claimed that I am interested in the natural history of
    Staphylinidae. The extent of my knowledge has never satisfied me, regardless
    of whether I could answer specific questions asked me by colleagues wanting
    information. If I am required to have an encyclopedic knowledge to support my
    claim, then I shall have to construct an encyclopedia by scouring the literature
    and assembling the information thus abstracted into a form usable to others.
    These pages contain an abstract of all I have learned about parasites of Staphy-
    linidae.
    Parasites of Staphylinidae are only one aspect of the natural history of the
    family. Size of the family, with more than 28,000 species described by 1965,
    and at least 3,416 species extant in America north of Mexico (Frank & Curtis,
    1979), has the effect that even though natural history of only a very small per-
    centage of species has been studied at all, the volume of information is large.
    Most monographic works on the family unfortunately make little reference other
    than to structure of adults, giving the reader the impression that little else is
    known or is worth studying. My view is that structure of adults and classifica-
    tion based on this structure are only a beginning to an adequate understanding
    of the family. This publication will begin to set the record straight and will stim-
    ulate further study by entomologists, parasitologists, and ecologists.











    METHODS AND MATERIALS

    LITERATURE SEARCH

    The literature from which host:parasite and parasite:host lists were compiled
    was assembled during a period of almost three years, from late 1976 until mid
    1979. These lists are intended to be complete up until mid 1979, but the diver-
    sity of literature makes it probable that I have overlooked some records. I should
    be grateful if users of this publication would bring errors and omissions to my
    attention, so that corrections and additions may be made at some future date.
    I have seen an original or photocopy of all publications listed among the ref-
    erences. Thus, any errors of citation are mine.
    Dates of publication of some articles on Laboulbeniales, especially some of
    the articles by Thaxter, are obscure. For example, the first part of Thaxter's
    "Contribution towards a monograph of the Laboulbeniaceae" bears the date
    1895 on the title page and the date 1896 at the end of the introductory note. It is
    referred to as 1895 by Picard (1917) and Colla (1925), as 1896 by Hake (1924)
    and Hincks (1960), and as 1902 by Lepesme (1942) and Balazuc (1971a). In all
    cases of uncertainty, I have accepted date of publication as cited by Benjamin
    (1971a).

    NAMES OF HOSTS

    In the majority of records, names of hosts have been cited by authors more
    familiar with the classification and biology of parasites than of hosts. This lack
    of familiarity may have led to misidentification of hosts, though this is difficult
    to demonstrate and no new attempt has been made to do so here. Where an author
    has expressed doubt on identity of a host genus, this is noted in both host:parasite
    and parasite:host lists. Where an author has expressed doubt on the identity of a
    host species, this is noted in the host:parasite list. Certainly, lack of familiarity
    has led to misspelling of the names of some hosts; where this has occurred, the
    correct spelling is used in the host:parasite and parasite:host lists, and the incor-
    rect spellings used are noted in the host:parasite list, in case the presumed cor-
    rection has introduced new errors.
    Several host names cited by authors are nomina nuda. This has occurred be-
    cause authors (especially Thaxter) had access to unpublished names on speci-
    men labels attached to hosts, or to unpublished manuscript names, or had
    specimens determined by authorities on Staphylinidae, and unpublished (in
    litt.) names were applied. In a number of instances, Thaxter cited unpublished
    host names attributed to Bernhauer. These instances are noted in the host:parasite







    list; here, the generic name of the host is established, but the species remains
    obscure though possibly determinable by examination of Bernhauer's collection
    in conjunction with his unpublished notes, manuscripts, and letters. A list of
    these unpublished Bernhauer names is included at the end of the methods and
    materials section.
    Changes in the nomenclature of the Staphylinidae are unavoidable given the
    present state of knowledge of the family. In several instances, authors of records
    have cited generic and/or specific names which are junior synonyms, or which
    for other reasons are not now accepted. Accepted generic names are listed in
    both the host:parasite and parasite:host lists; the host:parasite list is cross-in-
    dexed so that unaccepted generic names are referable to accepted name, while
    specific synonymies are indicated under accepted specific name. In a few in-
    stances, where host names were cited as unidentified species of unaccepted ge-
    neric names, it is unclear as to what generic name to apply, and in these instances
    I have had no option but to retain the unaccepted generic name.
    In deciding the correct generic and specific names to apply, I have consulted
    Bernhauer & Schubert (1910-1916), Bernhauer & Scheerpeltz (1926), Scheer-
    peltz (1933-1934), Blackwelder (1943, 1944, 1952), Lohse (1964, 1974), Her-
    man (1970, 1976), and Hammond (1977), using Blackwelder (1952) almost
    exclusively as a guide to generic synonymy.


    EXPLANATION OF HOST : PARASITE LIST

    Subfamilies of Staphylinidae from which parasites are recorded are: Pies-
    tinae, Osoriinae, Omaliinae, Oxytelinae, Steninae, Euaesthetinae, Paederinae,
    Xantholininae, Staphylininae, Trichophyinae, Tachyporinae, and Aleochari-
    nae. This arrangement of subfamilies conforms to conservative classification in
    both North America and Europe, perhaps with the exception that Xantholininae
    are treated as a subfamily following Coiffait (1972) and Smetana (1977). Para-
    sites do not seem to have been recorded from the subfamilies Proteininae,
    Phloeocharinae, Pseudopsinae, Leptotyphlinae, Oxyporinae, Megalopsidiinae,
    and Habrocerinae. Subfamilies of Staphylinidae are treated in sequence indi-
    cated above. Genera within each subfamily and species within each genus are
    treated alphabetically, except that unidentified species of each genus are listed
    following named species, unidentified genera of each subfamily are listed after
    named genera, and unidentified Staphylinidae (subfamily unknown) are listed
    following Aleocharinae. Unaccepted generic names of hosts used in literature on
    parasites are cross-referred to accepted names.
    Following each host specific name are listed names of parasites recorded from
    that host, all citations known to me of the association between host and each
    parasite, a record and citation of subsequent changes in nomenclature of each
    parasite, indication of the developmental stage of host parasitized if this is not
    the adult stage, authors' comments on validity of identification of host where







    this was known to be in doubt, notes establishing identity of host if original ci-
    tation was unclear and identity can be established, and names of countries where
    host:parasite association has been recorded.


    EXPLANATION OF PARASITE : HOST LIST

    Parasites, parasitoids, and phoretics of Staphylinidae belong to order Gloeo-
    haustoriales (Fungi: Deuteromycetes), order Laboulbeniales (Fungi: Ascomy-
    cetes), order Entomophthorales (Fungi: Zygomycetes), class Hyphomycetes
    (Fungi), orders Gregarinida and Microsporida (Protozoa: Sporozoa), orders Ty-
    lenchida and Rhabditida (Nemata: Secernentea), order Dorylaimida (Nemata:
    Adenophorea), family Gordiidae (Nematomorpha: Gordioidea), order Acarina
    (Arthropoda: Arachnida), and orders Coleoptera and Hymenoptera (Arthro-
    poda: Insecta). Names of phyla, classes, orders, families, genera, and species
    in the list conform to the most recent nomenclatural publications available to
    me. Within Gregarinida, Tylenchida, Rhabditida, and Hymenoptera, families
    are listed alphabetically, while within Laboulbeniales they are listed according
    to accepted and stable classification, and within remaining orders only a single
    family is listed. Genera are listed alphabetically within families, and species
    alphabetically within genera.
    The author and date of publication of each generic name are given. Following
    the name of each genus of parasites are given names of orders parasitized, and
    additionally for Coleoptera, names of families parasitized. These notes of "other
    organisms" parasitized may be incomplete, especially for hosts of the Nemata.
    Where such incompleteness is strongly suspected, I have added the notation:
    "? and others."
    Following each species name are listed names of genera of Staphylinidae par-
    asitized. A note is added on the staphylinid subfamily to which the host genus
    belongs only'at first mention (for each parasite genus) of a host generic name.
    Following names of genera of staphylinid hosts are given firstly names of other
    families of Coleoptera parasitized and secondly names of other orders of animals
    parasitized by that species of parasite.


    EMENDATIONS TO NAMES OF LABOULBENIALES

    Names of many species of Laboulbeniales were derived from names of genera
    of Staphylinidae, individuals of these genera of Staphylinidae having been re-
    corded as hosts. The names of species of parasites thus serve to identify the host
    genus. It is unfortunate that some generic names of hosts have proven to be junior
    synonyms; these junior synonyms have been cross-indexed in the host:parasite
    list to the senior synonym.
    It is also unfortunate that names of some species of Laboulbeniales were pro-
    posed in an apparent misunderstanding of the names of the hosts. This may have







    happened by typographical error, as the result of mis-lettering or mis-reading of
    the museum labels of host specimens, or from some other cause. The result is
    that the host genus is not clearly identifiable. Some of these erroneous names
    have already been emended. Thus, Corethromyces setigerus Thaxter (1893:181)
    was emended to C. setiger by Saccardo (1895:449) (orthography), Dichomyces
    furciferus Thaxter (1895:184) was emended to D.furcifer by Saccardo (1895:447)
    (orthography), Cantharomyces blidii Thaxter (1890:10) was emended to C. ble-
    dii by Thaxter (1896:271) (host is Bledius), Stichomyces stilicolus Thaxter
    (1902:24) was emended to S. stilicicola by Saccardo & Saccardo (1905:917)
    (orthography), Stichomyces conosomae Thaxter (1901b:38) was emended to S.
    conosomatis by Maire (1920:147) (orthography), Dimorphomyces meronevae
    Thaxter(1912a: 158) was emended toD. meronerae by Thaxter(1924:323) (host
    is Meronera), Dimeromyces gyrophaeniae Thaxter (1920a: 268) was emended to
    D. gyrophaenae by Thaxter (1924:321) (host is Gyrophaena), Corethromyces
    uncigerus Thaxter (1912a: 188) was emended to C. unciger by Trotter (1926:135)
    (orthography), Dimorphomyces thleoporae Thaxter (1900:410) was emended to
    D. phloeoporae by Hincks (1960:102) (host is Phloeopora), Corethromyces
    euaesthetae Thaxter (1931:196) was emended to C. euaestheti by Scheloske
    (1969:105) (host is Euaesthetus), Monoicomyces brittanicus Thaxter (1900:413)
    was emended to M. britannicus by Scheloske (1969:138) (orthography), Cor-
    ethromycesfiliferus Thaxter (1931:196) was emended to C. filifer by Benjamin
    (1971:145) (orthography), Corethromyces laminiferus Thaxter (1931:202) was
    emended to C. laminifer by Benjamin (1971:145) (orthography), Stichomyces
    vesiculiferus Thaxter (1931:249) was emended to S. vesiculifer by Benjamin
    (1971:146) (orthography), Peyritschiella trichodomiae Thaxter (1931:19) was
    emended to P trichodoniae by Benjamin (1971:142) (host is Trichodonia), and
    Rickia lispinae Sugiyama (1973:78) was emended to R. lispini by Common-
    wealth Mycological Institute (1976:335), but thus became a homonym of R. lis-
    pini Thaxter (1912a: 160) (nowDiaphoromyces lispini (Thaxter)).
    The following emendations are newly proposed here, and are incorporated
    into host:parasite and parasite:host lists. They are made under Article 73, Rec-
    ommendation 73H of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Lan-
    jouw and Stafleu, 1966). Compsomyces palameni Thaxter (1931:317) becomes
    C. palamini (host is Palaminus); Corethromyces dachnochili Thaxter (1931:193)
    becomes C. dacnochili (host is Dacnochilus); Dichomyces eulyssi Thaxter
    (1931:12) becomes D. eulissi (host was stated to be "Eulyssus illucens Er.",
    error for Eulissus illucens (Erichson), but see Xantholinus in host:parasite and
    parasite:host lists); Meionomyces dibelonitis Thaxter (1931:270) becomes M.
    dibelonetis (host is Dibelonetes); Peyritschiella xyricola Thaxter (1931:19) be-
    comes P zyricola (host isZyras); Sphaleromyces brachyderi Thaxter (1900:442)
    later transferred to Mimeomyces brachyderi Thaxter (1931:9) becomes M.
    brachydiri (host is Brachydirus, synonym of Nordus); and Corethromyces scim-
    balii Rossi & Cesari Rossi (1978:64) becomes C. scymbalii (host is Scymbal-
    ium).







    Four species names remain problematical. Dimorphomyces eleusinus Thaxter
    (1920a:220) was originally reported from a host of the genus Eleusis (Staphy-
    linidae), but Thaxter (1924:409) admitted that the host had been misidentified
    and actually belonged to the genus Inopeplus (Cucujidae); D. eleusinus is not
    mentioned in host:parasite or parasite:host lists. Monoicomyces leptotrachelae
    Thaxter (1915:30) misspelled by Thaxter (1931:45) as M. leptotracheli, was re-
    ported to be from a staphylinid "Leptotrachelajavana Bernhauer"; Bernhauer
    appears not to have described a staphylinid under this name, and the identity of
    the host remains obscure since Leptotrachela seems not to be a valid generic
    name in zoology. Monoicomyces trypetae Thaxter (1931:50) was emended to
    M. gnypetae by Balazuc (1979b:212) (host is Gnypeta), but Benjamin (1971:143)
    stated that the epithet trypetae is legitimate according to article 62 of the Inter-
    national Code of Botanical Nomenclature (loc. cit.) and must be retained. There
    is no evidence that Thaxter believed the host to be a fly of the genus Trypeta
    rather than a beetle of'the genus Gnypeta, and it is more satisfactory to treat the
    original epithet of the parasite as a simple misspelling, and to accept the emen-
    dation by Balazuc as justified under article 73. Meinomyces thaxterelli Thaxter
    (1931:271) was described from a host stated to be Thaxterellus sulcicollis Bern-
    hauer, although Bernhauer had not then published a description of the host, and
    when he did so (1935:213), he named it Thaxterius sulcicollis. It is not entirely
    clear to me that emendation of the parasite's specific epithet is justified, and this
    would serve little entomological purpose, because Thaxterius is now considered
    a synonym of Octavius.


    UNPUBLISHED BERNHAUER NAMES

    The following names of hosts apparently were supplied to Thaxter by Bern-
    hauer. I have found no trace of their publication by Bernhauer and I presume that
    they are unpublished manuscript and/or label names. Much of Bernhauer's col-
    lection is in the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, and it would be a
    worthwhile task for someone there to attempt to associate these names with valid
    species names.
    OSORIINAE: Eleusis reynoldsii, E. schwabi; OXYTELINAE: Oxytelus semisul-
    catus; PAEDERINAE: Dibelonetes piceus, Medon kamerunensis, M. suma-
    trensis, M. tristis, M. vulneratus, Stilicus thaxteri, S. venezolanus,
    Thinocharis curticeps; XANTHOLININAE: Thyreocephalus venezolanus;
    STAPHYLININAE: Hesperus jacobsoni, Quedius sorecocephalus, Staphyli-
    nus sumatrensis; TACHYPORINAE: Conosoma kamerunensis, C. trinida-
    dense; ALEOCHARINAE: Atheta chilensis, A. venezolana, Gyrophaena
    parcipennis, Homalota pseudocribrum, Hoplandria carinicollis, H. quad-
    ridentata, Maseochara sumatrensis, Plagiusa gracilicornis, Platyola phi-
    lippina, Pronomaea sumatrensis, Pygostenus kamerunensis (probably is
    Typhlonemys pubescens (Wasmann)), Silusa kamerunensis, Stenusa bor-
    neensis; Subfamilia incognita: Leptotrachela javana.










    HOST: PARASITE LIST

    PIESTINAE

    Piestus bicornis Laporte: Corethromyces piesticola Thaxter 1931: 208;
    Costa Rica.
    Piestus minutes Erichson: Diaphoromyces zirophori (Thaxter), Thaxter 1926:
    508; Trinidad.
    Piestus penicillatus (Dalman) (= P striatus (Gray)): Corethromyces piesti-
    cola Thaxter 1931: 208; Brazil.
    Piestuspygmaeus Laporte: Diaphoromyces zirophori (Thaxter), Thaxter 1926:
    508; Trinidad.
    Piestus spinosus (Fabricius) (= P oxytelinus Perty): Corethromycespiesticola
    Thaxter 1931: 208; Venezuela.
    Piestus sp. indet. near furcatus Sharp: Diaphoromyces zirophori (Thaxter),
    Thaxter 1926: 508; Trinidad.
    Piestus sp. indet.: Rickia zirophori Thaxter 1916: 52, transf. ad Diaphoro-
    myces zirophori (Thaxter), Thaxter 1926: 508; Trinidad.

    OSORIINAE

    Borolinus bicornis Nakane & Sawada: Monoicomyces leptochiri Thaxter,
    Sugiyama 1978a: 156, Terada 1977: 126; Japan.
    Borolinus javanicus (Laporte): Monoicomyces leptochiri Thaxter 1905: 304,
    1908: 272, Sugiyama 1978a: 156; Indonesia (Java).
    Borolinus minutus (Laporte): Monoicomyces leptochiri Thaxter 1905: 304,
    1908: 272; Indonesia (Java).
    Eleusis alutella Fauvel: Kainomyces alutellae Thaxter 1931: 365; Cameroon.
    Eleusis coarctata Sharp: Kainomyces alutellae Thaxter, Sugiyama 1973: 38,
    1974: 73; Japan.
    Eleusis conradti Fauvel: Kainomyces isomali Thaxter 1901b: 45, 1908: 445,
    1931: 364, Sugiyama 1978a: 155; Tanzania.
    Eleusis humilis Erichson: Kainomyces hyalinus Terada 1978: 56; Taiwan.
    Eleusis kraatzi Fauvel: Kainomyces isomali Thaxter, Thaxter 1931: 364,
    Sugiyama 1978a: 155; Philippines, Indonesia (Sumatra), Taiwan.
    Eleusis lunigera Fauvel: Kainomyces isomali Thaxter, Thaxter 1931: 364;
    Philippines, Indonesia (Sumatra).







    Eleusis nigerrima Fauvel: Chantransiopsis bonaerensis Spegazzini 1918:
    317; Argentina.
    Eleusis picto Eppelsheim: Kainomyces isomali Thaxter, Collart 1947: 26;
    Zaire.
    The following two species names attributed to Bernhauer appear not to be valid.
    "Eleusis reynoldsii": Monoicomyces eleusinus Thaxter 1931: 41;
    Venezuela.
    "Eleusis schwabi": Kainomyces isomali Thaxter, Thaxter 1931: 364,
    Sugiyama 1978a: 155; Cameroon.
    Eleusis sp. indet.: (1) Dimeromyces decipiens Thaxter 1920a: 263, transf. ad
    Dimorphomyces decipiens (Thaxter), Thaxter 1924: 325; Cameroon; (2)
    Kainomyces isomali Thaxter, Thaxter 1931: 365; Cameroon, Indonesia (Java),
    Malaysia (Sarawak).
    Holosus sp. indet.: Rickia rostellata Thaxter 1926: 496; Indonesia
    (Sumatra).
    Leptochirus edax Sharp: (1) Stylocephalus ensiferus Ellis 1912: 686, transf.
    ad Stylocystis ensifera (Ellis), Ellis 1913: 274, Watson 1916: 157, Paulian
    1941: 16; Guatemala; (2) Stephanophora crassa Ellis 1912: 688; transf. ad
    Actinocephalus crassus (Ellis), Ellis 1913: 278, Watson 1916: 141, Paulian
    1941: 15; Guatemala.
    Leptochirus spp. indet.: (1) Rickia compressa Thaxter 1915: 16, 1926: 461;
    Indonesia (Java); (2) Distichomyces leptochiri Thaxter 1905: 308, 1908:
    249, transf. adRickia leptochiri (Thaxter), Thaxter 1912b: 365, 1926: 482;
    Solomon Islands, Philippines; (3) Monoicomyces leptochiri Thaxter 1905:
    304, 1908: 272, 1931: 45; Indonesia (Java, Sumatra), Philippines.
    Lispinus Erichson. SEE ALsoNacaeus.
    Lispinus asper Sharp: Rickia lispinae Sugiyama 1973: 78, 1974: 73, host
    given as "Lispinus aper," emended to R. lispini Sugiyama (not Thaxter
    1912a: 160) by Commonwealth Mycological Institute 1976: 355; Japan.
    Lispinus propinquus Cameron: Laboulbenia jarrigei Balazuc 1975: 74;
    Reunion.
    Lispinus spp. indet.: (1) Misgomyces lispini Thaxter, Thaxter 1931: 302: Ma-
    laysia (Sarawak), Solomon Islands, China, Philippines; (2) Rickia lispini
    Thaxter, Thaxter 1916: 54, transf. ad Diaphoromyces lispini (Thaxter),
    Thaxter 1926: 508; Brazil, Trinidad, Guatemala, U.S.A. (California), Ca-
    meroon.
    Nacaeus castaneus (Fauvel): Misgomyces lispini Thaxter, Thaxter 1931: 302;
    Solomon Islands.
    Nacaeus impressicollis (Motschulsky): Misgomyces lispini Thaxter 1915: 48,
    1931: 302, Terada 1976: 31; Indonesia (Java, Borneo), Ceylon, Taiwan.







    Nacaeus tenellus (Erichson): (1) Rickia lispini Thaxter 1912a: 160, Spegaz-
    zini 1917: 666, transf. ad Diaphoromyces lispini (Thaxter), Thaxter 1926:
    508; Argentina, Guatemala; (2) Chantransiopsis bonaerensis Spegazzini
    1918: 317; Argentina; it is possible that host specimens (of both parasites)
    from Argentina belong to Lispinus spegazzinii Bernhauer.
    Neosorius opaculus (Eppelsheim): Monoicomyces osorianus Thaxter 1931:
    46; Cameroon.
    Osorius Latreille. SEE ALSONeosorius.
    Osorius intermedius Erichson: Scelophoromyces osorianus Thaxter, Thaxter
    1931: 267 misspelled as Skelophoromyces; Trinidad.
    Osorius sexpunctatus Bernhauer: Scelophoromyces osorianus Thaxter 1912a:
    211, 1931: 267 misspelled as Skelophoromyces; Argentina.
    Osorius sp. indet.: Scelophoromyces osorianus Thaxter 1912a: 211, 1931:
    267 misspelled as Skelophoromyces; Brazil.
    Priochirus tonkinensis Bernhauer: Rickia wulaiensis Sugiyama 1978a: 158;
    Taiwan.
    Priochirus unicolor (Laporte): Monoicomyces leptochiri Thaxter 1905: 304,
    1908: 272, Sugiyama 1978a: 156; Indonesia (Java).
    Priochirus spp. indet.: (1) Monoicomyces leptochiri Thaxter, Sugiyama 1978a:
    156, Taiwan; (2) Corethromyces piesticola Thaxter, Sugiyama 1972: 261;
    Peru.
    Rhopalopherus gestroi Bernhauer: Ecteinomycesperpusillus Spegazzini 1917:
    543, Thaxter 1931: 289; Argentina.

    OMALIINAE

    Geodromicus plagiatus (Fabricius): Laboulbenia geodromici Baumgartner
    1923: 261, 1934: xxxxvii, Balazuc 1971c: 116; Switzerland.
    Lesteva hanseni Lohse: (1) Codrus sp. probably longicornis (Nees), Steel
    1970: 21, from larva of host; England; (2) Compsomyces lestevae Thaxter,
    Maire 1916a: 32, Picard 1917: 457, Thaxter 1931: 316, Lepesme 1941:
    488, Hincks 1960: 101, host given erroneously asL.fontinalis, but stated to
    be L. hanseni by Balazuc 1973b: 250; France, Algeria, England.
    Lesteva heeri Fauvel ( = L. sicula Ganglbauer): Compsomyces lestevae Thax-
    ter 1900: 439, 1908: 428, Picard 1913b: 556, Hake 1923: 81, Balazuc
    1973b: 250; Scotland, England.
    Lesteva pubescens Mannerheim: Compsomyces lestevae Thaxter, Thaxter
    1908: 428, Picard 1913b: 556, Balazuc 1973b: 250, 1974: 367, Majewski
    1973b: 231, Rossi 1978: 64; Scotland, Poland, Italy.
    Lesteva villardi Rey: (1) Compsomyces lestevae Thaxter, Balazuc 1973b:







    250; France; (2) Laboulbenia ? vulgaris Peyritsch, Balazuc 1974: 314;
    France.
    Lesteva sp. indet.: Compsomyces lestevae Thaxter, Thaxter 1908: 428, Picard
    1913b: 556, Balazuc 1973b: 250, France.
    Micralymma marina (Stroem) ( =M. brevipennis (Gyllenhal)): (1)Rickia sp.
    indet. Balazuc 1974: 368; Sweden; (2) Platymischus sp. indet. (Hymenop-
    tera, Diapriidae), Wailes 1859: 98, Elliott & Morley 1907: 11, probably in
    error because Platymischus is a parasite of Diptera; England.
    Omalium caesum Gravenhorst: Orthomermis oedobranchus Poinar 1965:
    504, Shephard 1974: 131, Poinar 1975: 172; England.
    Omalium excavatum Stephens: Rickia zanettii Rossi & Cesari Rossi 1978:
    71; Italy.
    Omalium rivulare (Paykull): Gregarina omalina Foerster 1938: 186; Poland.
    Paraphloeostiba sonani Bernhauer: Rickia phloeonomi Thaxter, Sugiyama
    1978b: 287; Japan.
    Phloeonomus singularis Kraatz: Rickia phloeonomi Thaxter 1926: 494,
    Sugiyama 1978b: 287; Indonesia (Sumatra).
    Phloeonomus sp. indet.: Balazucia bilateralis Benjamin 1968b: 47; Mexico
    (Chiapas).
    Xylodromus concinnus (Marsham): Aglenus brunneus (Gyllenhal), Wood-
    roffe 1967: 40; England.

    OXYTELINAE

    Acrognathus Erichson. SEE Manda.
    Ancyrophorus Kraatz. SEE Ochthephilus.
    Anotylus complanatus (Erichson): Parasitylenchus oxyteli Wachek 1955: 66,
    subgenus given generic status, thus Proparasitylenchus oxyteli Wachek, by
    Nickle 1967: 86, Shephard 1974: 205, Poinar 1975: 172; Germany.
    Anotylus hostilis (Bernhauer): Monoicomyces invisibilis (Thaxter), Thaxter
    1931: 43, Indonesia (Sumatra).
    Anotylus insecatus (Gravenhorst): Peyritschiella protea Thaxter, Picard 1913b:
    512, Thaxter 1931: 20, Siemaszko 1932: 165, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962:
    131, Scheloske 1969: 141, Balazuc 1974: 361; North Africa, France,
    Poland.
    Anotylus insignitus (Gravenhorst): (1) Eumonoicomyces papuanus Thaxter,
    Spegazzini 1917: 547, Thaxter 1931: 52, Uruguay; (2) Monoicomyces
    furcatus Thaxter 1931: 41; Jamaica, Haiti, Guatemala.
    Anotylus inustus (Gravenhorst): (1) Eumonoicomyces californicus Thaxter,
    Maire 1920: 130, transf. ad. Monoicomyces californicus (Thaxter) by Thax-







    ter 1931: 38, Algeria; (2) Monoicomyces sp. indet. Middelhoek 1943a: 60,
    1943b: 94, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 130; Netherlands.
    Anotylus rugosus (Fabricius): Peyritschiella protea Thaxter 1900: 427, Cepede
    & Picard 1908a: 784 (as Rheophila oxyteli sp. n.), Thaxter 1908: 260,
    Cepede & Picard 1908b: 251, Picard 1913b: 512, 1917: 443, Thaxter 1931:
    20, Siemaszko 1932: 165, Lepesme 1941: 481, Middelhoek 1943b: 90,
    1974b: 232, Banhegyi 1944: 50, 1949: 93, Collart 1945: 102, Stadelmann
    & Poelt 1962: 131, Scheloske 1969: 141, Balazuc 1973a: 475, 1974: 361,
    Rossi 1975: 83; England, France, Poland, Romania, Hungary, Belgium,
    Germany, Italy, Netherlands.
    Anotylus sculpturatus (Gravenhorst): (1) Rhabditis coarctata (Leuckart),
    Triffitt & Oldham 1927: 44, Zwaluwenburg 1928: 30, Paramonov &
    Sobolev 1954: 146, transf. adPelodera coarctata (Leuckart) by Dougherty
    1955: 70, Poinar 1975: 172; England; (2) Monoicomyces californicus Thax-
    ter, Middelhoek 1943a: 60, 1943b: 94, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 130,
    Balazuc 1974: 359, Rossi 1975: 83; Netherlands, France, Italy.
    Anotylus sulcifer (Fauvel): Monoicomyces invisibilis (Thaxter), Thaxter 1931:
    43; Venezuela.
    Anotylus tetracarinatus (Block): (1) Stylocystis ensifera (Ellis), Foerster
    1938: 667; Poland; (2) Parasitylenchoides koerneri Wachek 1955: 83,
    Shephard 1974: 205, Poinar 1975: 173; Germany; (3) Rhabditis coarctata
    (Leuckart), Triffitt & Oldham 1927: 44, Zwaluwenburg 1928: 30, Para-
    monov & Sobolev 1954: 146, transf. ad Pelodera coarctata (Leuckart) by
    Poinar 1975: 173; England.
    Apocellus argentinus Bernhauer: Dimorphomyces vulgatissimus Spegazzini
    1917: 520, Thaxter 1924: 321; Argentina, Uruguay.
    Apocellus mendozanus Steinheil: Dimorphomyces vulgatissimus Spegazzini
    1917: 520, Thaxter 1924: 321; Argentina, Uruguay.
    Apocellus opacus Bernhauer: Dimorphomyces vulgatissimus Spegazzini 1917:
    520, Thaxter 1924: 321; Argentina, Uruguay.
    Apocellus sp. indet.: Dimorphomyces furcatus Thaxter 1920a: 218, 1924:
    320; Guatemala.
    Bledius annularis LeConte: Cantharomyces bledii Thaxter, Thaxter 1908:
    282; U.S.A. (Iowa).
    Bledius assimilis Casey: Cantharomyces blidii Thaxter 1890: 10, name
    emended to C. bledii by Thaxter 1896: 271, 1931: 21; U.S.A. (Utah).
    Bledius basalis LeConte: (1) Laboulbenia bledii Thaxter 1902: 27, 1908:
    358; U.S.A. (Florida); (2) Amorphomycesfloridanus Thaxter 1893: 159,
    1901b: 33, transf. ad Dioicomycesfloridanus (Thaxter) by Thaxter 1908:
    295; U.S.A. (Florida).







    Bledius bellicus Blackwelder ( = B. armatus Say): Cantharomyces occiden-
    talis Thaxter 1893: 161, 1896: 272, possibly a misidentification ofB. stren-
    uus Casey (Herman 1976: 136); U.S.A. (Utah).
    Bledius bicornis (Germar): (1) Peyritschiella protea Thaxter 1900: 427,
    1908: 260, Picard 1913b: 513, Siemaszko 1932: 165, Stadelmann & Poelt
    1962: 131, Scheloske 1969:141; Europe, Germany; (2)Haplomyces texanus
    Thaxter, Thaxter 1908: 275, Picard 1913b: 516, Balazuc 1974: 358; Ger-
    many.
    Bledius cribricollis Heer: Haplomyces texanus Thaxter, Maire 1916b: 102,
    Thaxter 1931: 31, Balazuc 1974: 358; France.
    Bledius emarginatus (Say): (1) Haplomyces virginianus Thaxter 1893: 160,
    1896: 270; U.S.A. (Virginia); (2) Dimorphomyces bledii Thaxter 1920a:
    217, 1924: 321; U.S.A. (Kansas).
    Bledius fergussoni Joy ( = B. arenarius (Paykull)): Laboulbenia parriaudi
    Balazuc 1974: 257, described and illustrated but not named by two earlier
    authors cited by Balazuc (1974: 258); France.
    Bledius gallicus (Gravenhorst) ( = B. fracticornis (Paykull)): Haplomyces
    texanus Thaxter, Middelhoek 1943b: 94, 1947a: 91, Stadelmann & Poelt
    1962: 125, Balazuc 1974: 358; Netherlands.
    Blediusjacobinus LeConte: Laboulbenia bledii Thaxter 1902: 27, 1908: 358;
    U.S.A. (California).
    Bledius niloticus Erichson: Cantharomyces sp. indet. near C. platystethi
    Thaxter, Siemaszko 1932: 172; Egypt.
    Bledius nitidicollis LeConte: Cantharomyces bledii Thaxter, Thaxter 1908:
    282; U.S.A. (Michigan).
    Bledius opacus (Block): (1) Haplomyces texanus Thaxter, Thaxter 1908: 275,
    Picard 1913b: 516, Hake 1923: 79, Balazuc 1974: 358; England; (2) Enta-
    phelenchus bledii Wachek 1955: 107, Goodey 1963: 158, Shephard 1974:
    206, Poinar 1975: 172; Germany.
    Bledius ornatus LeConte: Haplomyces californicus Thaxter 1893: 159, 1896:
    269; U.S.A. (California).
    Bledius rubiginosus Erichson: Haplomyces texanus Thaxter 1893: 160, 1896:
    270, Middelhoek 1943b: 94; U.S.A. (Texas).
    Bledius spectabilis Kraatz: (1) Peyritschiella protea Thaxter, Picard 1913b:
    513, 1917: 443, Thaxter 1931: 20, Siemaszko 1932: 165, Lepesme 1941:
    481, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 131, Scheloske 1969: 141, Balazuc 1974:
    361; North Africa, France, Austria; (2) Misgomyces lavagnei Picard 1913b:
    520, placed as probable synonym ofM. dyschirii Thaxter by Thaxter 1931:
    291, discussed by Maire 1916a: 12, 1920: 148, placed as a synonym of M.
    dyschirii by Scheloske 1969: 134, placed as subspecies of M. dyschirii by







    Balazuc 1973b: 252, Rossi 1975: 74; France, Italy; (3) Haplomyces texanus
    Thaxter, Balazuc 1974: 358; France.
    Bledius subterraneus Erichson: (1) Haployces texanus Thaxter, Thaxter 1908:
    275, Balazuc 1974: 358; Germany; (2) Cantharomyces bledii Thaxter, Sie-
    maszko 1932: 169, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 125; Poland.
    Bledius unicornis Germar ( =B.juvencus Erichson): (1) Haplomyces texanus
    Thaxter, Thaxter 1980: 275, Balazuc 1974: 358; France; (2) Laboulbenia
    parriaudi Balazuc 1974: 257, described and illustrated but not named by
    two earlier authors cited by Balazuc (1974: 258); France.
    Bledius spp. indet.: (1) Dioicomyces floridanus (Thaxter), Thaxter 1908:
    295, U.S.A. (Massachusetts); (2) Peyritschiella protea Thaxter, Balazuc
    1974: 361, France.
    Carpelimus Leach. SEE ALSO Thinodromus.
    Carpelimus atramentarius Lynch: Amorphomyces trogophloei Spegazzini
    1917: 465; Argentina.
    Carpelimus bilineatus Stephens: (1) Parasitylenchus trogophloei Wachek
    1955: 67, subgenus given generic status, thus Proparasitylenchus trogo-
    phloei Wachek, by Nickle 1967: 86, Shephard 1974: 205, Poinar 1975: 174;
    Germany; (2) Rickia argentinensis Spegazzini 1917: 664, placed as syn. n.
    ofDiaphoromyces lispini (Thaxter) by Thaxter 1926: 508, although host be-
    lieved misidentified; Argentina; (3) Cantharomyces thaxteri Maire, Picard
    1917: 443, Siemaszko 1928: 196, 1932: 170, Lepesme 1941: 482, Middel-
    hoek 1949: 255, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 125, Scheloske 1969: 95, Bala-
    zuc 1974: 359; France, Poland, Netherlands.
    Carpelimus corticinus (Gravenhorst): (1) Cantharomyces abbreviatus Maire
    1920: 131, Thaxter 1931: 21, Siemaszko 1932: 170, Stadelmann & Poelt
    1962: 125, placed as synonym of C. orientalis Spegazzini by Scheloske
    1969: 94; Algeria, Poland, Germany; (2) Cantharomyces thaxteri Maire,
    Middelhoek 1949: 255, stated incorrectly identified and is C. orientalis
    Spegazzini, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 125, Scheloske 1969: 95, Balazuc
    1974: 359; Holland.
    Carpelimus exiguus (Erichson): (1) Cantharomyces exiguus Thaxter 1931:
    23, Sugiyama 1973: 20, 1974: 72; Cameroon, Japan; (2) Amorphomyces
    stipitatus Thaxter 1931: 58; Indonesia (Sumatra); (3) Amorphomyces itali-
    cus Spegazzini, Thaxter 1931: 57, Rossi 1978: 71; Cameroon.
    Carpelimusfuliginosus (Gravenhorst): Parasitylenchus boopini Wachek 1955:
    62, subgenus given generic status, thus Proparasitylenchus boopini Wachek,
    by Nickle 1967: 86, Shephard 1974: 205, Poinar 1975: 174; Germany.
    Carpelimusfulvipes (Erichson): Cantharomyces haytiensis Thaxter 1931: 23;
    Haiti.







    Carpelimus halophilus (Kiesenwetter): Amorphomyces italicus Spegazzini,
    Maire 1920: 136, Rossi 1978: 71; Algeria.
    Carpelimus mundus (Sharp): Amorphomyces italicus Spegazzini, Thaxter
    1931: 57, Rossi 1978: 71; Ecuador.
    Carpelimus puncticollis (Solier) ( = C. obscurus (Solier)): Cantharomyces
    andinus Thaxter 1918: 210, 1931: 22; Chile.
    Carpelimus rivularis (Motschulsky): Cantharomyces venetus Spegazzini,
    Siemaszko 1932: 171, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 125; Poland.
    Carpelimus subtilicornis (Roubal): Cantharomyces orientalis Spegazzini,
    Scheloske 1969: 95; Germany.
    Carpelimus tenuipunctus Bernhauer: (1) Cantharomyces trogophloei Spegaz-
    zini 1917: 470, Thaxter 1931: 25; Argentina; (2) Dimorphomyces trogo-
    phloei Spegazzini 1917: 519, Thaxter 1924: 321; Argentina.
    Carpelimus spp. indet.: (1) Cantharomycespusillus Thaxter 1894: 100, 1896:
    273, 1931: 21, Siemaszko 1932: 171; U.S.A. (Maine and Massachusetts);
    (2) Monoicomyces homalotae Thaxter, Thaxter 1908: 268, Sugiyama 1978b:
    286; U.S.A. (Maine and New Hampshire); (3) Cantharomyces abbreviatus
    Maire, Siemaszko 1932: 171, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 125, placed as syn-
    onym of C. orientalis Spegazzini by Scheloske 1969: 94; Poland; (4) Can-
    tharomyces thaxteri Maire, Banhegyi 1944: 49; Hungary.
    Deleaster dichrous (Gravenhorst) ( = D. adustus Kiister): Idiomyces peyrit-
    schii Thaxter 1893: 162, 1896: 258, 1908: 314, Picard 1913b: 527, Baum-
    gartner 1923: 260, Hake 1923: 80, Thaxter 1931: 168, Siemaszko 1932:
    172, Binhegyi 1940: 47, Middelhoek 1943a: 60, 1947b: 232, Banhegyi
    1960: 49, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 126, Balazuc 1974: 348, Rossi 1978:
    66; England, Scotland, Switzerland, France, Poland, U.S.S.R. (Caucasus),
    Austria, Netherlands, Yugoslavia, Italy, Hungary.
    Deleaster yokoyamai Adachi: Idiomyces peyritschii Thaxter, Terada 1977:
    125; Japan.
    Manda mandibularis (Gyllenhal): Peyritschiella protea Thaxter 1900: 427,
    1908: 260, Picard 1913b: 513, Scheloske 1969: 140; Europe.
    Ochthephilus aureus (Fauvel): Euhaplomyces ancyrophori Thaxter 1901b:
    25, 1908: 281, Picard 1913b: 516, Hake 1923: 79, Balazuc 1971c: 116;
    Scotland.
    Ochthepilusflexuosus (Mulsant & Rey): Cantharomyces ancyrophori Picard
    1917: 444, Thaxter 1931: 21, Lepesme 1941: 481, Balazuc 1974: 359;
    France.
    Oxytelus Gravenhorst. SEE ALSOAnotylus.
    Oxytelus alutaceifrons Wollaston: Monoicomyces sanctaehelenae Thaxter
    1900: 413, 1908: 272, 1931:48, Siemaszko 1932: 166; St. Helena.







    Oxytelusferrugineus Kraatz: Monoicomyces sanctaehelenae Thaxter, Thax-
    ter 1931: 48; Malaysia (Sarawak).
    Oxytelusfulvipes Erichson: Peyritschiella protea Thaxter, Siemaszko 1932:
    165, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 131, Scheloske 1969: 141; Poland.
    Oxytelus grandis Eppelsheim: Monoicomyces singularis Thaxter 1931: 49;
    Cameroon.
    Oxytelus laqueatus (Marsham) ( = 0. luteipennis Erichson): (1) Monoico-
    myces sanctaehelenae Thaxter, Thaxter 1908: 272, Picard 1913b: 516,
    Maire 1916a: 9, Thaxter 1931: 48; Germany (fide Maire, not Algeria); (2)
    Monoicomyces invisibilis Thaxter, Siemaszko 1932: 167, Stadelmann &
    Poelt 1962: 130; Poland.
    Oxytelus nimius Casey: Monoicomyces barber Thaxter 1931: 37; U.S.A.
    (Maryland).
    Oxyteluspiceus (Linnaeus): (1) Monoicomyces sanctaehelenae Thaxter 1908:
    272, Picard 1913b: 516, Maire 1916a: 9, Thaxter 1931: 48, Siemaszko
    1932: 166, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 130; Algeria (fide Maire, not Ger-
    many), Poland; (2) Entaphelenchus oxyteli Wachek 1955: 104, Goodey
    1963: 158, Nickle, 1970b: 385, Shephard 1974: 206, Poinar 1975: 172;
    Germany.
    The following species name, attributed to Bernhauer, appears not to be valid.
    "Oxytelus semisulcatus": Monoicomyces sanctaehelenae Thaxter, Thaxter
    1931: 48; Cameroon.
    Oxytelus spp. indet.: (1) Eumonoicomyces papuanus Thaxter 1901b: 22,
    1908: 274, 1931: 52; New Guinea; (2) Eumonoicomyces papuanus Thaxter,
    Thaxter 1931: 52; Indonesia (Sumatra); (3) Eumonoicomyces californicus
    Thaxter 1901 b: 22, 1908: 274, transf. ad Monoicomyces californicus (Thax-
    ter) by Thaxter 1931: 38; U.S.A. (California); (4) Monoicomyces javanus
    Thaxter 1931: 44; Indonesia (Java); (5) Monoicomyces roccae Colla 1925:
    254, placed as syn. n. of M. sanctaehelenae Thaxter by Thaxter 1931: 48,
    Colla 1934: 43; Italy; (6) Monoicomyces sanctaehelenae Thaxter, Spegaz-
    zini 1915b: 67, Thaxter 1931: 48; Italy; (7) Peyritschiella protea Thaxter,
    Thaxter 1908: 260, Siemaszko 1932: 165, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 131,
    Scheloske 1969: 141; U.S.A. (Massachusetts); (8) Diplogaster coprophages
    de Man, Sachs 1950: 215, transf. adParoigolaimella coprophages (de Man)
    by Paramonov 1952: 350, Poinar 1975: 172; Germany; (9) Diplogaster hen-
    richae Sachs 1950: 259, transf. ad Allodiplogaster henrichae (Sachs) by
    Paramonov & Sobolev 1954: 209; Germany; (10) Diplogaster monhyster-
    oides Blitschli, Sachs 1950: 215, transf. ad Diplogastrellus monhysteroides
    (Biitschli) by Paramonov 1952: 348, Poinar 1975: 172; Germany; (11) Di-
    plogaster schwemmlei Sachs 1950: 263, transf. ad Eudiplogaster schwe-
    mmlei (Sachs) by Paramonov & Sobolev 1954: 212, transf. ad Prosodontus
    schwemmlei (Sachs) by Goodey 1963: 189; Germany; (12) Diplogaster ster-







    corarius Bovien, Sachs 1950: 215, transf. ad Paroigolaimella stercorarius
    (Bovien) by Paramonov & Sobolev 1954: 218, transf. ad Holodiplogaster
    stercorarius (Bovien) by Meyl 1960: 33, transf. adFictor stercorarius (Bov-
    ien) by Goodey 1963: 186, Poinar 1975: 172; Germany; (13) Rhabditis
    coarctata (Leuckart), Sachs 1950: 215, transf. ad Pelodera coarctata
    (Leuckart) by Dougherty 1955: 70, Poinar 1975: 172; Germany; (14) Rhab-
    ditis dolichura Schneider, Sachs 1950: 254, transf. ad Caenorhabditis doli-
    chura (Schneider) by Dougherty 1953:71 by raising subgenus Caenorhabditis
    Osche 1952: 265 to generic rank, Poinar 1975: 172; Germany; (15) Rhab-
    ditis gracilicauda de Man, Sachs 1950: 215, Poinar 1975: 173; Germany;
    (16) Rhabditis neuhausi Sachs 1950: 248, placed as syn. of R. cylindrica
    Cobb by Osche 1952: 258; Germany; (17) Rhabditis spiculigera Steiner,
    Sachs 1950: 246; Germany.
    genus (and species) indet. near Oxytelus: Monoicomyces kamerunensis Thax-
    ter 1931: 44; Cameroon.
    Planeustomus miles Scriba: Peyritschiella protea Thaxter, Maire 1920: 129,
    Thaxter 1931: 20, Siemaszko 1932: 165, Scheloske 1969: 141; Algeria.
    Platystethus arenarius (Fourcroy): Entaphelenchus platystethi Wachek 1955:
    106, Shephard 1974: 206, Poinar 1975: 173; Germany.
    Platystethus cornutus (Gravenhorst): (1) Entaphelenchus platystethi Wachek
    1955: 106, Goodey 1963: 158, Shephard 1974: 206, Poinar 1975: 173; Ger-
    many; (2) Cantharomyces platystethi Thaxter, Thaxter 1908: 282, Picard
    1913b: 516, Maire 1916a: 9, Hake 1923: 79, Thaxter 1931: 21, Balazuc
    1971c: 116; England, Morocco; (3) Parasitylenchus platystethi Wachek
    1955: 60, subgenus raised to generic status, thus Proparasitylenchusplatys-
    tethi Wachek, by Nickle 1967: 86, Shephard 1974: 205, Poinar 1975: 173;
    Germany.
    Platystethus fallax Lynch: Eumonoicomyces argentinensis Spegazzini 1912:
    188, 1917: 547, placed as syn. of E. papuanus Thaxter by Thaxter 1931: 52;
    Argentina.
    Platystethus operosus Sharp: Cantharomycesplatystethi Thaxter, Terada 1977:
    125; Japan.
    Platystethus spectabilis Kraatz: Eumonoicomyces platystethi Thaxter 1931:
    52; Indonesia (Sumatra).
    Platystethus spinosus Erichson: Laboulbenia gridellii Colla 1926: 177; Italy.
    Platystethus sp. indet.: Monoicomyces roccae Colla 1925: 254, Colla 1926:
    158, placed as syn. n. of M. sanctaehelenae Thaxter by Thaxter 1931: 48,
    Colla 1934: 43; Italy.
    Styloxys des Gozis. SEEAnotylus.
    Thinodromus arcuatus (Stephens): Cantharomyces numidicus Maire, Rossi
    1978: 63; Italy.







    Thinodromus dilatatus (Erichson): Cantharomyces thaxteri Maire 1916b:
    100, Picard 1917: 443, Thaxter 1931: 25, Siemaszko 1932: 170, Scheloske
    1969: 95, Balazuc 1974: 359; France.
    Thinodromus grandipennis (Bernhauer): Cantharomyces valdivianus Thaxter
    1918: 212, 1931: 26; Chile.
    Thinodromus mannerheimi (Kolenati): Cantharomyces numidicus Maire 1920:
    132, Thaxter 1931: 24, Rossi 1978: 63; Algeria.
    Thinodromus sericatus (Sharp): Cantharomyces japonicus Sugiyama 1973:
    20, 1974: 73, Rossi 1978: 64; Japan.
    Thinodromus signatus (Erichson): Cantharomyces chilensis Thaxter 1918:
    212, 1931: 22, author of name of host given as Solier, presumably by error;
    Chile.
    Trogophloeus Mannerheim. SEE Carpelimus AND Thinodromus.

    STENINAE

    Stenus aceris Stephens (= S. elegans Fairmaire): (1) Acallomyces lavagnei
    Picard 1913: 462a, transf. ad Ilyomyces lavagnei (Picard) by Picard 1917:
    445, Thaxter 1931: 99, Lepesme 1941: 482, Balazuc 1971c: 116, 1974:
    355; France; (2) Ilyomyces mairei Picard 1917: 446, Thaxter 1931: 99, Le-
    pesme 1941: 483, Balazuc 1971c: 116, 1974: 355; France.
    Stenus biguttatus (Linnaeus): Parasitylenchoides steni Wachek 1955: 78,
    Shephard 1974: 205, Poinar, 1975: 173; Germany.
    Stenus bimaculatus Gyllenhal: Parasitylenchoides steni Wachek 1955: 78,
    Shephard 1974: 205, Poinar, 1975: 173; Germany.
    Stenus binotatus Ljungh: Parasitylenchoides steni Wachek 1955: 78, Shep-
    hard 1974: 205, Poinar, 1975: 174; Germany.
    Stenus boops Ljungh (= S. buphthalmus Gravenhorst): Parasitylenchoides
    steni Wachek 1955: 78, Shephard 1974: 205, Poinar, 1975: 174; Germany.
    Stenuspallitarsis Stephens: Parasitylenchoides steni Wachek 1955: 78, Shep-
    hard 1974: 205, Poinar, 1975: 174; Germany.

    EUAESTHETINAE

    Euaesthetus americanus Erichson: Corethromyces euaesthetae Thaxter 1931:
    196, emended to C. euaestheti by Scheloske 1969: 105; U.S.A. (Massachu-
    setts).
    Euaesthetus ruficapillus Boisduval & Lacordaire: Corethromyces euaestheti
    Thaxter, Scheloske 1969: 105, Balazuc 1971c: 116; Germany.
    Octavius sulcicollis (Bernhauer): Meionomyces thaxterelli Thaxter 1931: 271,
    undescribed host genus cited as Thaxterellus, described later as Thaxterius







    Bernhauer, but still later placed as synonym of Octavius Fauvel; Cameroon.
    Thaxterius Bernhauer. SEE Octavius.

    PAEDERINAE

    Acanthoglossa intermixta Eppelsheim: Corethromyces acanthoglossae Thax-
    ter 1931: 187; Cameroon.
    Achenium tenellus Erichson: Laboulbenia achenii Maire 1920: 153; Algeria.
    Achenomorphus latro (Sharp): Misgomyces platensis (Spegazzini), Thaxter
    1931: 303; Venezuela.
    Astenus angustatus (Paykull) (=A. gracilis (Paykull)): (1) Camptomyces sp.
    indet., Scheloske 1969: 94; Germany; (2) Campsomyces verticillatus (Thax-
    ter), Scheloske 1969: 103, Balazuc 1973b: 250; Germany.
    Astenus bimaculatus (Erichson): Camptomyces recurvatus Thaxter 1926:
    548; Philippines.
    Astenus cognatus Sharp: Meionomyces asteni Thaxter 1931: 268; Guatemala.
    Astenus fimetarius Fauvel: Schizomeromyces astenalis Thaxter 1931: 313,
    author of name of host given as Motschulsky, presumably by error; Came-
    roon.
    Astenus gratellus (Fauvel) ( =A. pulchellus Kraatz): (1) Meionomyces asten-
    alis Thaxter 1931: 269; Indonesia (Sumatra); (2) Meionomyces astenicola
    Thaxter 1931: 269; Indonesia (Sumatra).
    Astenus kraatzi Bernhauer: Camptomyces sumatrae Thaxter 1926: 549; In-
    donesia (Sumatra).
    Astenus longiusculus (Mannerheim): (1) Camptomyces melanopus Thaxter
    1894: 101, 1896: 275; U.S.A. (Maine); (2) Moschomyces insignis Thaxter
    1894: 97, 1908: 429, 1931: 318; U.S.A. (Maine); (3) Cantharomyces ver-
    ticillata Thaxter 1890: 9, transf. ad Compsomyces verticillatus (Thaxter) by
    Thaxter 1894: 97, 1896: 367, 1931: 316, Scheloske 1969: 103; U.S.A. (Il-
    linois and Maine).
    Astenus maculipennis Kraatz: Camptomyces brunneomarginatus Thaxter 1926:
    547; Philippines.
    Astenus paranensis Lynch: (1) Compsomyces macropoda Spegazzini 1917:
    484, described as a form of C. verticillatus (Thaxter), status raised to spe-
    cific rank by Thaxter 1931: 317; Argentina; (2) Compsomyces verticillatus
    (Thaxter), Spegazzini 1912: 181, Scheloske 1969: 103; Argentina; (3)
    Camptomyces melanopus Thaxter, Spegazzini 1917: 468; Argentina.
    Astenusprolixus (Erichson): (1) Camptomyces melanopus Thaxter 1894: 101,
    1896: 275; U.S.A. (Massachusetts); (2) Moschomyces insignis Thaxter
    1894: 97, 1896: 369, 1931: 318; U.S.A. (Massachusetts).







    Astenus signatus Sahlberg: Compsomyces verticillatus (Thaxter), Spegazzini
    1917: 484, Scheloske 1969: 103; Argentina.
    Astenus spp. indet.: (1) Camptomyces falcatus Thaxter 1926: 547; Philip-
    pines; (2) Camptomyces guatemalensis Thaxter 1926: 548; Guatemala; (3)
    Camptomyces subsigmoideus Thaxter 1926: 549; Philippines.
    Biocryptafulvipes (Erichson): Coreihromyces purpurascens Thaxter, Thaxter
    1931: 211; Grenada.
    Cryptobium Mannerheim. SEE ALSO Ochthephilum, Biocrypta, Pseudocryp-
    tobium ANDHomaeotarsus.
    Cryptobium sharpi Fauvel: Corethromyces cryptobii Thaxter, Spegazzini
    1915b: 452, Thaxter 1931: 193, states identification of parasite doubtful;
    Burma.
    The following, unattributed species name appears not to be valid.
    "Cryptobium capitatum": (1) Corethromyces purpurascens Thaxter 1900:
    433, 1908: 318, 1912a: 219, 1931: 211, Brazil; (2) Rhachomyces cryptobi-
    anus Thaxter 1900: 437, 1908: 424, 1931: 285; Brazil.
    Dacnochilus laetus LeConte: Corethromyces dachnochili Thaxter 1931: 193,
    NEW EMENDATION TO C. dacnochili, Guatemala.
    The following species name, attributed to Bernhauer, appears not to be valid.
    "Dibelonetes piceus": Meionomyces dibelonitis Thaxter 1931: 270, NEW
    EMENDATION TOM. dibelonetis, Grenada.
    Dolicaon densiventris Fauvel: Laboulbenia dolicaontis Maire 1920: 151, Sie-
    maszko 1932: 180; Algeria.
    Dolicaon illyricus Erichson: (1) Sphaleromyces obtusus Thaxter 1900: 440,
    1908: 326, Maire 1916a: 17, transf. ad Corethromyces obtusus (Thaxter) by
    Thaxter 1912a: 180, Picard 1913b: 530, Thaxter 1931: 206, Siemaszko
    1932: 176, Banhegyi 1960: 50, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 125; Algeria,
    Yugoslavia; (2) Sphaleromyces propinquus Thaxter, Maire 1916a: 16, transf.
    ad Corethromyces propinquus (Thaxter) by Thaxter 1931: 206; Tunisia.
    Dolicaon lathrobioides Laporte: Rhachomyces dolicaontis Thaxter 1896: 39,
    1908: 425, 1931: 285; South Africa.
    Dolicaon melanocephalus Reiche: (1) Corethromyces obtusus Thaxter, Sie-
    maszko 1932: 175, Israel; (2) Laboulbenia dolicaontis Maire, Siemaszko
    1932: 180, Binhegyi 1960: 50; Israel, Yugoslavia.
    Domene lithocharina Fauvel: Corethromyces sp. indet. Maire 1916a: 16; Al-
    geria.
    Echiaster depressus Solier: Amphoropsis subminuta Spegazzini 1918: 313,
    transf. ad Amphoromorpha subminuta (Spegazzini) by Thaxter 1920b: 19;
    Argentina.







    Echiaster melanurus Erichson: Amphoropsis subminuta Spegazzini 1918:
    313, transf. ad Amphoromorpha subminuta (Spegazzini) by Thaxter 1920b:
    19; Argentina.
    Glyptomerus cavicola Miller: (1) Rhachomyces glyptomeri Thaxter 1901b:
    39, 1908: 423, Picard 1913b: 555, Thaxter 1931: 285, Lepesme 1942: 78,
    Th6odorides 1954: 191; Yugoslavia; (2) Laboulbenia sp. indet. Picard
    1913b: 555; Europe.
    Homaeotarsus bicolor (Gravenhorst): (1) Corethromyces cryptobii Thaxter,
    Thaxter 1893: 181, 1896: 303, 1908: 318, 1931: 193; U.S.A.; (2) Euzodi-
    omyces lathrobii Thaxter, Benjamin & Shanor 1951: 555, Balazuc 1973b:
    249; U.S.A. (Illinois).
    Homaeotarsus pallipes (Gravenhorst): Corethromyces cryptobii Thaxter 1892:
    36, 1896: 303, 1908: 318, 1931: 193; U.S.A.
    Lathrobium Gravenhorst. SEE ALSO Lobrathium AND Glyptomerus.
    Lathrobium angusticolle Boisduval & Lacordaire: Euzodiomyces lathrobii
    Thaxter, Picard 1917:458, Lepesme 1941:488, Balazuc 1973b: 249; France.
    Lathrobium angustatum Boisduval & Lacordaire: Rhadinomyces pallidus
    Thaxter, Thaxter 1908: 318, transf. ad Corethromyces pallidus (Thaxter) by
    Thaxter 1912a: 180, Hake 1923: 80 (as Rhadinomyces pallidus); England.
    Lathrobium armatum Say: Euzodiomyces lathrobii Thaxter, Benjamin &
    Shanor 1951: 555, Balazuc 1973b: 249; U.S.A. (Illinois and Missouri).
    Lathrobium brunnipes (Fabricius): (1) Euzodiomyces lathrobii Thaxter,
    Thaxter 1908: 444, Picard 1913b: 563, Collart 1945: 103, Scheloske 1969:
    114, Balazuc 1973b: 249; England, Germany, Belgium; (2) Rhadinomyces
    pallidus Thaxter, Thaxter 1908: 318, transf. ad Corethromyces pallidus
    (Thaxter) by Thaxter 1912a: 180, Picard 1913b: 528, Thaxter 1931: 208,
    Hincks 1960: 100, Scheloske 1969: 105, Balazuc 1973b: 284; England,
    France, Germany; (3) Corethromyces cristatus (Thaxter), Siemaszko 1932:
    174, Collart 1945: 103, Hincks 1960: 100, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 125
    (placed as subspecies of C. pallidus by Balazuc 1973b: 285); Poland, Bel-
    gium, Scotland.
    Lathrobium castaneipenne Kolenati: (1) Corethromyces cristatus Thaxter,
    Siemaszko 1932: 174 (placed as subspecies of C. pallidus by Balazuc
    1973b: 285), Collart 1945: 103, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 125; Belgium,
    Poland; (2) Rhachomyces pilosellus (Robin), Siemaszko 1932: 183, Stadel-
    mann & Poelt 1962: 131, Scheloske 1969: 142, Balazuc 1973b: 281; Poland;
    (3) Euzodiomyces lathrobii Thaxter, Binhegyi 1960: 50, Stadelmann &
    Poelt 1962: 125, Balazuc 1973b: 249; Yugoslavia.
    Lathrobium elongatum (Linn6): (1) Corethromyces cristatus Thaxter, Sie-
    maszko 1932: 175, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 125, (placed as subspecies of
    C. pallidus by Balazuc 1973b: 285); (2) Corethromyces pallidus (Thaxter)







    (as Rhadinomyces pallidus Thaxter), Middelhoek 1943a: 60, 1943b: 95,
    Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 131, Scheloske 1969: 105; Poland, Netherlands;
    (3) Rhachomyces pilosellus (Robin), Siemaszko 1932: 183, Stadelmann &
    Poelt 1962: 131, Scheloske 1969: 142, Balazuc 1973b: 281; Poland; (4)Eu-
    zodiomyces lathrobii Thaxter, Middelhoek 1943a: 60, 1943b: 101, Stadel-
    mann & Poelt 1962: 125, Balazuc 1973b: 249; Netherlands.
    Lathrobium fovulum Stephens: Euzodiomyces lathrobii Thaxter, Scheloske
    1969: 114, Balazuc 1973b: 249; Germany.
    Lathrobiumfulvipenne (Gravenhorst): (1) Laboulbenia pilosella Robin 1871:
    912, redescribed as Acanthomyces brevipes Thaxter by Thaxter 1893: 177,
    the latter name placed in synonymy by Thaxter 1895: 467, then new combi-
    nation Rhachomyces pilosellus (Robin) made by Thaxter 1896: 363, 1908:
    422, Picard 1913b: 554, Thaxter 1931: 287, Siemaszko 1932: 183, Collart
    1942: 103, Lepesme 1942: 77, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 131, Scheloske
    1969: 142, Balazuc 1973b: 281, Rossi 1975: 83; France, Germany, Italy,
    Belgium; (2) Rhadinomycespallidus Thaxter 1893: 180, 1902: 306, 1908:
    318, transf. ad Corethromyces pallidus (Thaxter) by Thaxter 1912a: 180,
    Picard 1913b: 528, Thaxter 1931: 208, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 131,
    Scheloske 1969: 105; France, Germany; (3) Corethromyces cristatus Thax-
    ter, Siemaszko 1932: 174, Collart 1945: 103, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962:
    125, (placed as subspecies of C. pallidus by Balazuc 1973b: 285); Poland,
    Belgium.
    Lathrobium geminum Kraatz: (1) Corethromyces cristatus Thaxter, Sie-
    maszko 1932: 174, Collart 1945: 103, (placed as subspecies of C. pallidus
    by Balazuc 1973b: 285), Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 125; Belgium, Poland;
    (2) Euzodiomyces lathrobii Thaxter, Middelhoek 1943b: 101, Stadelmann
    & Poelt 1962: 125, Scheloske 1969: 114, Balazuc 1973b: 249; Netherlands,
    Germany.
    Lathrobium impressum Heer (= L. filiforme Gravenhorst): Euzodiomyces
    lathrobii Thaxter 1900: 449, Thaxter 1908: 444, Picard 1913b: 563, Ma-
    jewski 1973b: 234, Balazuc 1973b: 249; England, Poland.
    Lathrobium laevipenne Heer: (1) Corethromyces cristatus Thaxter, Sie-
    maszko 1932: 174, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 125, (placed as subspecies of
    C. pallidus by Balazuc 1973b: 285); Poland; (2) Euzodiomyces lathrobii
    Thaxter, Baumgartner 1923: 265, Middelhoek 1943b: 101, Stadelmann &
    Poelt 1962: 125, Balazuc 1973b: 249; Switzerland, Netherlands.
    Lathrobium longulum Gravenhorst: Euzodiomyces lathrobii Thaxter, Sche-
    loske 1969: 114, Balazuc 1973b: 249; Germany.
    Lathrobium magistrettiorum Koch: Corethromyces pallidus (Thaxter), Rossi
    1975: 72; Switzerland.
    Lathrobium nitidulum LeConte: (1) Sphaleromyces lathrobii Thaxter 1894:
    95, 1896: 365, transf. ad Corethromyces lathrobii (Thaxter) by Thaxter







    1912a: 180, 1931: 202; U.S.A. (Maine); (2) Corethromyces setigerus Thax-
    ter 1893: 181, 1896: 305, name emended to C. setiger by Saccardo 1895:
    449, Benjamin 1971: 123; U.S.A. (Massachusetts); (3)Rhadinomyces cris-
    tatus Thaxter 1893: 180, 1896: 306, 1908: 318, transf. ad Corethromyces
    cristatus (Thaxter) by Thaxter 1912a: 180, 1931: 193, possibly only a vari-
    ety of Corethromyces pallidus, placed as subspecies of C. pallidus by Bala-
    zuc 1973b: 285; U.S.A.; England.
    Lathrobium punctulatum LeConte: (1) Ceratomyces terrestris Thaxter 1894:
    94, 1896: 377, transf. ad Euceratomyces terrestris (Thaxter) by Thaxter
    1931: 343; U.S.A. (Massachusetts and Maine); (2) Sphaleromyces lathrobii
    Thaxter 1894: 95, 1896: 365, transf. ad Corethromyces lathrobii (Thaxter)
    by Thaxter 1912a: 180, 1931: 202; U.S.A. (3) Corethromyces pallidus
    (Thaxter), erroneous citation by Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 131, Scheloske
    1969: 105.
    Lathrobium quadratum (Paykull): (1) Sphaleromyces lathrobii Thaxter, 1908:
    203, Picard 1913b: 529, transf. ad Corethromyces lathrobii (Thaxter) by
    Thaxter 1912a: 180, 1931: 202, Petch 1944: 93, Hincks 1960: 100; Europe;
    (2) Rhadinomyces pallidus Thaxter, Thaxter 1908: 318, Picard 1913b: 529,
    transf. ad Corethromyces pallidus (Thaxter) by Thaxter 1912a; 180, Hake
    1924: 80; England.
    Lathrobium ripicola Czwalina: Corethromyces cristatus Thaxter, Siemaszko
    1932: 174, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 125, (placed as subspecies of C. pal-
    lidus by Balazuc 1973b: 285); Poland.
    Lathrobium simile LeConte: Euzodiomyces lathrobii Thaxter, Benjamin &
    Shanor 1951: 555, Balazuc 1973b: 249; U.S.A. (Illinois).
    Lathrobium terminatum Gravenhorst: (1) Rhadinomyces pallidus Thaxter,
    Thaxter 1908: 318, Picard 1913b: 529, transf. ad Corethromyces pallidus
    (Thaxter) by Thaxter 1912a: 180, Thaxter 1931: 208, Scheloske 1969: 105,
    Balazuc 1973b: 285; France; (2) Corethromyces cristatus (Thaxter), Hincks
    1960: 100, (placed as subspecies of C. pallidus by Balazuc 1973b: 285);
    England.
    Lathrobium zetterstedti Rye (=L. punctatus Zetterstedt): Euzodiomyces lath-
    robii Thaxter 1900: 449, 1908: 444, C6epde & Picard 1909: 262, Picard
    1913b: 563, Hake 1923: 82; England.
    Lathrobium spp. indet.: (1) Acanthomyces lathrobii Thaxter 1893: 178, transf.
    adRhachomyces lathrobii (Thaxter) by Thaxter 1895: 467, 1896: 363, 1931:
    286; U.S.A. (Pennsylvania); (2) Corethromycesjacobinus Thaxter, Thaxter
    1896: 304; U.S.A. (Massachusetts); (3) Euzodiomyces lathrobii Thaxter,
    Poelt 1952a: 34, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 125, Benjamin & Shanor 1951:
    555, Balazuc 1974:367, Sugiyama 1973: 33, 1974:73; U.S.A. (Michigan),
    Japan, Germany; (4) Sphaleromyces propinquus Thaxter 1900: 441, 1908:
    326, Picard 1913b: 529, transf. ad Corethromyces propinquus (Thaxter) by







    Thaxter 1931: 206; Europe; (5) Rhadinomyces cristatus Thaxter, Thaxter
    1908: 318, transf. ad Corethromyces cristatus (Thaxter) by Thaxter 1912a:
    180, 1931: 193, possibly only a variety of Corethromyces pallidus, (placed
    as subspecies of C. pallidus by Balazuc 1973b: 285), U.S.A.; England; (6)
    Laboulbenia sp. indet. nr. L. fasciculata Peyritsch, Picard 1913b: 530;
    France.
    ? genus (and species) near Lathrobium: Rhachomyces arbusculus Thaxter
    1896: 362, 1931: 285; Liberia.
    Lathropinusfulvipes Erichson: Laboulbenia lathropini Thaxter 1912a: 193,
    Laboulbenia oedodactyli Spegazzini 1912: 223 (from same host, but host
    given as "Latrobium", by error) placed as synonym by Spegazzini 1917:
    611; Argentina.
    Lathropinus major Blanchard: Laboulbenia lathropinicola Spegazzini 1917:
    613; Argentina.
    Lithocharis Dejean. SEE ALso Medon.
    Lithocharis curtus (Kraatz): (1) Corethromyces medonis Thaxter 1915: 38,
    1931: 205; Malaysia (Sarawak), Indonesia (Java); (2) Corethromyces deci-
    piens Thaxter 1915: 38, 1931: 194; Indonesia (Java), Malaysia (Sarawak).
    Lithocharis ochracea (Gravenhorst): (1) Corethromyces curtipes Thaxter 1931:
    193; Cameroon: (2) Corethromyces laminifer Thaxter 1931: 202; Malaysia
    (Sarawak); (3) Misgomyces ansatus Thaxter 1931: 298; Trinidad; (4) Cor-
    ethromyces decipiens Thaxter 1915: 38; Indonesia (Borneo).
    Lithocharis simplex (Casey) ( =L. californica (Bernhauer & Schubert)): Mis-
    gomyces ansatus Thaxter 1931: 298; U.S.A. (California).
    Lithocharis thoracica (Casey): Stigmatomyces pseudomedalis Thaxter 1931:
    167; U.S.A. (Maine).
    Lithocharis vilis (Kraatz): (1) Corethromyces laminiferus Thaxter 1931: 202,
    name emended to C. laminifer by Benjamin 1971: 145; Indonesia (Sumatra);
    (2) Corethromyces vilis Thaxter 1931: 222; Indonesia (Sumatra).
    Lobrathium anale (Lucas): Euzodiomyces lathrobii Thaxter, Maire 1916a:
    32, Balazuc 1973b: 249; Algeria.
    Lobrathium collare (Erichson): Corethromyces jacobinus Thaxter, Thaxter
    1896: 304; U.S.A. (Maine).
    Lobrathium dimidiatum (Say): (1) Corethromyces gracilis Thaxter, Spegaz-
    zini 1917: 491, Thaxter 1931: 199; Argentina; (2) Corethromyces platensis
    Thaxter 1912a: 183, Spegazzini 1917: 494, Thaxter 1931: 209 states C.
    xantholini Spegazzini 1912: 183 a possible synonym; Argentina and Uru-
    guay; (3) Stigmatomyces montevideensis Spegazzini 1917: 675, Thaxter
    1931: 166; Uruguay.







    Lobrathium jacobinum (LeConte): Corethromyces jacobinus Thaxter 1893:
    181, 1896: 304; U.S.A. (California).
    Lobrathium longiusculum (Gravenhorst): Acanthomyces lathrobii Thaxter
    1893: 178, transf. ad Rhachomyces lathrobii (Thaxter) by Thaxter 1895:
    467, 1896: 363, 1931: 286; U.S.A. (New Hampshire).
    Lobrathium manueli (Fauvel): Euzodiomyces lathrobii Thaxter, Rossi 1975:
    72; Italy.
    Lobrathium multipunctum (Gravenhorst) (= L. multipunctatum auct.): (1)
    Euzodiomyces capillarius Cepede & Picard 1908a: 782, 1908b: 263, Thax-
    ter 1931: 332, Collart 1945: 103, Balazuc 1973b: 249; France, Belgium; (2)
    Euzodiomyces lathrobii Thaxter 1900: 449, 1908: 444, C6epde & Picard
    1908a: 782, 1908b: 262, Picard 1913b: 564, 1917: 458, Baumgartner 1923:
    265, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 125, Balazuc 1973b: 249, Rossi 1975: 72;
    France, Switzerland, Italy: (3) Rhadinomyces pallidus Thaxter, Picard 1913b:
    528, transf. ad Corethromyces pallidus (Thaxter) by Thaxter 1912a: 180,
    Thaxter 1931: 208, Scheloske 1969: 105, Balazuc 1973b: 284; France; (4)
    Laboulbenia atlantica Thaxter 1908: 336, Picard 1913b: 536, 1917: 451,
    Lepesme 1941:484, Collart 1945: 103, Balazuc 1974: 13; Madeira, France,
    Belgium.
    Lobrathium nitidum (Erichson): (1) Corethromyces platensis Thaxter 1912a:
    183, Spegazzini 1917: 494, Thaxter 1931: 209 states C. xantholini Spegaz-
    zini 1912: 183 a possible synonym; Argentina: (2) Corethromyces gracilis
    Thaxter 1912a: 183 originally as a variety of C. platensis, raised to specific
    status by Spegazzini 1917: 491, Thaxter 1931: 199; Argentina.
    Medon angulipennis Eppelsheim: Corethromyces introversus Thaxter 1931:
    201; Cameroon.
    Medon birmanus Fauvel: (1) Corethromyces medonis Thaxter 1915: 38, 1931:
    205; Malaysia (Sarawak); (2) Corethromyces decipiens Thaxter 1915: 38;
    Indonesia (Borneo).
    Medon crassulum Sharp: (1) Corethromyces perelegans Thaxter 1931: 195;
    Trinidad; (2) Corethromyces sciopori Thaxter 1931: 215; Trinidad.
    Medonplanatus Bernhauer: Corethromyces circinellus Thaxter 1931: 192; In-
    donesia (Sumatra).
    Medon ripicola (Kraatz): Parasitylenchus medonis Wachek 1955: 61, subgenus
    raised to generic status, thus Proparasitylenchus medonis Wachek, by
    Nickle 1967: 86, Shephard 1974: 205, Poinar 1975: 172; Germany.
    Medon schwarzi Blackwelder: Neohaplomyces cubensis Benjamin 1955: 193;
    Cuba.
    The following four species names, attributed to Bernhauer, appear not to be
    valid.







    "Medon kamerunensis": Corethromyces kamerunensis Thaxter 1931: 201;
    Cameroon.
    "Medon sumatrensis": (1) Corethromyces laminiferus Thaxter 1931: 202,
    name emended to C. laminifer by Benjamin 1971: 145; Indonesia (Sumatra);
    (2) Corethromyces protrudens Thaxter 1931: 210; Indonesia (Sumatra); (3)
    Corethromyces seticola Thaxter 1931: 216; Indonesia (Sumatra).
    'Medon tristis": Rhachomyces medonalis Thaxter 1931: 286; Grenada.
    "Medon vulneratus": Corethromyces introversus Thaxter 1931: 201; Came-
    roon.
    Medon spp, indet.: (1)Neohaplomyces medonalis Benjamin 1955: 190; U.S.A.
    (California and Arizona); (2) Corethromyces curtipes Thaxter, Terada 1976:
    24, 1978: 64; Taiwan.
    Neomedon arizonense Casey: Neohaplomyces neomedonalis Benjamin 1955:
    192; U.S.A. (Arizona).
    Ochthephilum agile Erichson: Corethromyces argentinus Thaxter 1912a: 181,
    Spegazzini 1917: 488, Thaxter 1931: 188; Argentina.
    Ochthephilum basale Blanchard: Corethromyces brazilianus Thaxter, Thax-
    ter 1931: 189; Argentina.
    Ochthephilum brasilianum Lucas: Corethromyces brazilianus Thaxter 1900:
    432, 1908: 318, Thaxter 1931: 189; Brazil.
    Ochthephilumfasciatum (Erichson): Corethromyces brazilianus Thaxter 1900:
    432, 1908: 318, Thaxter 1931: 189; Venezuela.
    Ochthephilumflohri Sharp: Corethromyces brazilianus Thaxter 1900: 432,
    1908: 318, Thaxter 1931: 189; Mexico.
    Ochthephilum paranense Lynch: Corethromyces brazilianus Thaxter, Spe-
    gazzini 1912: 181, 1917: 489, Thaxter 1931: 189; Argentina.
    Ochthephilum similipenne Say: Corethromyces brazilianus Thaxter 1900:
    432, 1908: 318, Thaxter 1931: 189; Mexico.
    Ochthephilum venustum Sharp: Corethromyces brazilianus Thaxter 1900:
    432, 1908: 318, Thaxter 1931: 189; Mexico.
    Ochthephilum spp indet.: (1) Corethromyces purpurascens Thaxter 1900:
    433; Grenada; (2) Corethromycespurpurascens Thaxter, Thaxter 1931: 211;
    Trinidad; (3) Corethromycespurpurascens Thaxter, Thaxter 1931: 211; Ar-
    gentina; (4) Rhachomyces cayennensis Thaxter 1900: 438, 1908: 423, 1931:
    285; French Guiana; (5) Corethromyces brazilianus Thaxter 1900: 432,
    1908: 318, 1931: 189; Colombia.
    Oedichirus spp. indet.: (1) Laboulbenia oedichiri Thaxter 1902: 48, 1908:
    354, Brazil; (2) Rhachomyces oedichiri Thaxter 1916: 38, 1908: 424, 1931:
    286; Brazil.







    Oedodactylus fuscobrunneus Fairmaire & Germain: Laboulbenia oedodac-
    tyli Thaxter 1899: 189, 1908: 336, Spegazzini 1912: 223, Maire 1920: 152;
    Chile, Argentina.
    Opithesfauveli Lynch: Corethromyces ophitis Thaxter 1912a: 182, Spegaz-
    zini 1917: 492, Thaxter 1931: 207; Argentina.
    Paederus alfierii Koch: Perilitus sp. indet., Kamal 1951: 237, Egypt.
    Paederus australis Guerin-Meneville: Laboulbenia cristata Thaxter, Thaxter
    1908: 354; Australia.
    Paederus balcanicus Koch: Laboulbenia cristata Thaxter, Balazuc 1974: 20;
    France.
    Paederus baudii Fairmaire: Laboulbenia cristata Thaxter, Siemaszko 1932:
    179, Banhegyi 1940: 53, 1960: 51, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962; Spain, Hun-
    gary, Albania, Austria; but SEE ALSOR lusitanicus and P schoenherri.
    Paederus brasiliensis Erichson: Laboulbenia cristata Thaxter, Spegazzini
    1912: 203, 1917: 620; Argentina.
    Paederus brevipennis Lacordaire: Laboulbenia cristata Thaxter, Banhegyi
    1940: 52; Poelt 1952a: 36, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 126; Hungary, Ger-
    many.
    Paederus bruchi Bernhauer: Laboulbenia cristata Thaxter, Spegazzini 1912:
    203, 1917: 620; Argentina.
    Paederus coarctatus Erichson: Laboulbenia cristata Thaxter, Thaxter 1908:
    354; Brazil.
    Paederus duplex Eppelsheim: Laboulbenia cristata Thaxter, Thaxter 1908:
    354; ? Ethiopia.
    Paederus erythroderus Erichson: Laboulbenia cristata Thaxter, Thaxter 1908:
    354; Mexico.
    Paederusfuscipes Curtis (= P longipennis Erichson): Laboulbenia cristata
    Thaxter, Thaxter 1908: 354, Picard 1913b: 541, Spegazzini 1914: 49,
    Baumgartner 1923: 265, 1927: xix, Colla 1925: 261, 1926: 175, 1934: 107,
    Siemaszko 1932: 179, Binhegyi 1940: 53, 1944: 56, Kurosa 1958: 265,
    Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 126, Sugiyama 1973: 47, Balazuc 1974: 20, Su-
    giyama & Shazawa 1977: 276; India, Italy, Switzerland, France, Hungary,
    Japan, Taiwan.
    Paederus limnophilus Erichson: Laboulbenia cristata Thaxter, Siemaszko
    1932: 179, Banhegyi 1960: 51, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 126; Poland, Al-
    bania.
    Paederus littoralis Gravenhorst: (1) Laboulbenia cristata Thaxter, Picard
    1913b: 541; Spegazzini 1914: 49, 1915a: 492, Siemaszko 1932: 179, Colla
    1926: 176, 1934: 107, Baumgartner 1934: xxxxvii, Binhegyi 1940: 53, Le-







    pesme 1941: 486, Collart 1945: 103, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 126, Bala-
    zuc 1974: 20; Italy, Belgium, France, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Switzerland,
    U.S.S.R.; (2) Parasitylenchoides paederi Wachek 1955: 77, Nickle 1967:
    85, Shephard 1974: 205, Poinar 1975: 173; Germany.
    Paederus littorarius Gravenhorst: Laboulbenia cristata Thaxter 1893: 174,
    1896: 330; U.S.A. (Maine).
    Paederus luridiventris Sharp: Laboulbenia cristata Thaxter, Thaxter 1908:
    354; Panama.
    Paederus lusitanicus Aube: Laboulbenia cristata Thaxter, Siemaszko 1932:
    179; Portugal; it is possible that the record of L. cristata from "Paederus
    baudii" from Spain should be attributed to this species.
    Paederus madagascariensis Erichson: Laboulbenia cristata Thaxter, Spe-
    gazzini 1915a: 492; Madagascar.
    Paederus obliteratus LeConte: Laboulbenia cristata Thaxter, 1893: 174,
    1896: 330; U.S.A. (Maine).
    Paederus parallelus Weise: Laboulbenia cristata Thaxter, Sugiyama 1973:
    47, 1974: 73; Japan.
    Paederus power Sharp: Laboulbenia cristata Thaxter, Sugiyama 1973: 47,
    1974: 73; Japan.
    Paederus riparius (Linnaeus): (1) Laboulbenia cristata Thaxter, Picard
    1913b: 540, Spegazzini 1914: 49, Siemaszko 1932: 179, Colla 1934: 107,
    Kossen 1936: 281, 1938: 153, Banhegyi 1940: 53, Middelhoek 1943b: 97,
    Collart 1945: 103, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 127, Balazuc 1974: 20; Italy,
    France, Netherlands, Belgium, Hungary, Austria; (2) Goffartia heteroceri
    Hirschmann 1952: 349, Poinar 1975: 173; Germany; (3) Hirsutella eleuth-
    eratorum (Nees), Petch 1948: 297, Leatherdale 1958: 104; England.
    Paederus rubrothoracicus (Goeze) (= P longicornis Aube): Laboulbenia
    cristata Thaxter, Spegazzini 1915: 49, Siemaszko 1932: 179, Colla 1934:
    107, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 127, Balazuc 1974: 20; Italy, Poland,
    France, Yugoslavia.
    Paederus ruficollis (Fabricius) ( =P gemellusKraatz): (1) Laboulbenia cris-
    tata Thaxter 1893: 174, 1896: 330, Picard 1913b: 541, Spegazzini 1914:
    49, Picard 1917: 454, Baumgartner 1923: 265, Siemaszko 1932: 179, Colla
    1934: 107, Banhegyi 1940: 53, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 126, Scheloske
    1969: 119, Balazuc 1974: 20; Austria, France, Italy, Switzerland, Poland,
    Hungary, Germany; (2) Histiosoma sp. indet., Th6odorides 1955: 165;
    France.
    Paederus rutilicornis Erichson: Laboulbenia cristata Thaxter, Thaxter 1908:
    354; Colombia.
    Paederus schoenherri Czwalina: it is possible that the records of Laboulbenia







    cristata from "Paederus baudii" from Austria, Hungary, and perhaps Al-
    bania should be attributed to this species and result from mistaken identity.
    Paederus tamulus Erichson: Laboulbenia cristata Thaxter, Lepesme 1941:
    486; Bangladesh.
    Paederus spp. indet.: Laboulbenia cristata Thaxter 1893: 174, 1896: 330,
    1908: 354, Colla 1926: 175, Lepesme 1941: 486, Ishikawa 1952: 7, Bin-
    hegyi 1960: 51; Mexico, Nicaragua, Venezuela, Indonesia (Java), Japan, It-
    aly, Yugoslavia.
    Palaminus sp. indet.: Compsomyces palameni Thaxter 1931: 317, NEW
    EMENDATION to C. palamini; Trinidad.
    Pinophilus bergi Lynch: (1) Corethromyces pulchellus Spegazzini 1917: 495,
    Thaxter 1931: 211; Argentina: (2) Laboulbenia bergiana Spegazzini 1917:
    609; Argentina.
    Pinophilus densus LeConte: Sphaleromyces occidentalis Thaxter 1895: 469,
    1896: 366, transf. ad Corethromyces occidentalis (Thaxter) by Thaxter
    1912a: 180, 1931: 207; U.S.A. (Utah).
    Pinophilus latipes Erichson: Chaetomyces pinophili Thaxter 1893: 179, 1896:
    364, 1908:429, Spegazzini 1917:478, Thaxter 1931: 273; U.S.A. ("south-
    ern states").
    Pinophilus suffusus Erichson: (1) Chaetomyces pinophili Thaxter, Thaxter
    1912a: 219, Spegazzini 1917: 478, Thaxter 1931: 273; Argentina; (2) Cle-
    matomyces argentinensis Spegazzini 1917: 480, Thaxter 1931: 315, does
    not belong to genus Clematomyces; Argentina; (3) Corethromyces rhinocer-
    alis Thaxter 1912a: 189, Spegazzini 1917: 496, Thaxter 1931: 213; Argen-
    tina.
    Pinophilus spp. indet.: (1) Dimeromyces borelli Colla 1926: 157, placed as
    synonym of Chaetomyces pinophili Thaxter by Thaxter 1931: 273, uniden-
    tified host here assumed to be a species of Pinophilus; Bolivia; (2) Chaeto-
    myces pinophili Thaxter, Thaxter 1908: 429,.1931: 273; Nicaragua; (3)
    Clematomycespinophili Thaxter 1900: 440, 1908: 427, 1931: 315; Burma;
    (4) Sphaleromyces indicus Thaxter 1901b: 41, 1908: 324, transf. ad Coreth-
    romyces indicus (Thaxter) by Thaxter 1912a: 180, 1931: 200; Burma, India.
    Pseudocryptobium spinolae (Guerin-Meneville): (1) Corethromyces latonae
    Thaxter 1901b: 41, transf. ad Sphaleromyces latonae (Thaxter) by Thaxter
    1908: 326, transf. ad Mimeomyces latonae (Thaxter) by Thaxter 1931: 9;
    Colombia; (2) Laboulbenia latonae Thaxter 1902: 45, 1908: 353; Colombia.
    Psilotrachelus Kraatz. SEE Stiliderus.
    Rugilus angularis (Erichson): (1) Corethromyces longicaulis Thaxter 1902:
    21, 1908: 319; U.S.A. (Massachusetts); (2) Corethromyces stilici Thaxter,
    Thaxter 1908: 319, 1912a: 219, Spegazzini 1917: 498, Thaxter 1931: 218,
    Scheloske 1969: 105; U.S.A. (Massachusetts); (3) Stichomyces stilicolus







    Thaxter 1902: 24, 1908: 321, name emended to S. stilicicola by Saccardo
    & Saccardo 1905: 917, transf. ad Corethromyces stilicicola (Thaxter) by
    Thaxter 1912a: 186, Spegazzini 1917: 503, Thaxter 1931: 219, Benjamin
    1971: 129; U.S.A. (Massachusetts).
    Rugilus ceylanensis (Kraatz): (1) Corethromyces buccalis Thaxter 1931: 190;
    Indonesia (Sumatra); (2) Corethromyces gracilicaulis Thaxter 1931: 198; In-
    donesia (Sumatra); (3) Corethromyces orientalis Thaxter 1915: 40, 1931:
    207; Indonesia (Java and Sumatra); (4) Corethromyces rectus Spegazzini,
    Thaxter 1931: 212; Indonesia (Sumatra) (5) Misgomyces rhizophorus Thax-
    ter 1931: 303; Indonesia (Sumatra); (6) Misgomyces stilici Thaxter 1931:
    304; Indonesia (Sumatra); (7) Stigmatomyces stilici Thaxter 1915: 35, 1931:
    167; Malaysia (Sarawak) and Ceylon and Indonesia (Sumatra).
    Rugilus chilensis (Solier): (1) Corethromyces armatus Thaxter 1912a: 188,
    1931: 189; Argentina; (2) Corethromyces pygmaeus Thaxter 1912a: 186,
    Spegazzini 1917: 501, Thaxter 1931: 211; Chile; (3) Corethromyces stilici
    Thaxter, Spegazzini 1912a: 182, Thaxter 1931: 218, Scheloske 1969: 105;
    Argentina, Chile.
    Rugilus elegans (Lynch): (1) Corethromyces pygmaeus Thaxter 1912a: 186,
    Spegazzini 1917: 501, Thaxter 1931: 211; Argentina; (2) Corethromyces
    stilici Thaxter forma rectus Spegazzini 1917: 499, raised to specific rank as
    Corethromyces rectus Spegazzini by Thaxter 1931: 212; Argentina; (3) Cor-
    ethromyces brunneolus Thaxter 1912a: 185, 1931: 190, includes synonym
    Corethromyces sternalis Spegazzini (which was described as forma ster-
    nalis of C. stilicicola (Thaxter)) Spegazzini 1917: 504; Argentina; (4) Cor-
    ethromyces stilicicola Thaxter variety podophilus Spegazzini 1917: 504,
    raised to specific rank as Corethromyces podophilus Spegazzini by Thaxter
    1931: 210; Argentina; (5) Corethromyces sigmoideus Thaxter 1912a: 187,
    Spegazzini 1917: 500, Thaxter 1931: 216: Argentina; (6) Corethromyces
    stilici Thaxter, Spegazzini 1917: 498, Thaxter 1931: 218, Scheloske 1969:
    105; Argentina and Uruguay; (7) Corethromyces stilicicola (Thaxter), Thax-
    ter 1912a: 186, Spegazzini 1917: 503, Thaxter 1931: 219; Argentina and
    Uruguay; (8) Corethromyces uncigerus Thaxter 1912a: 188, Spegazzini
    1917: 503, name emended to C. unciger by Trotter 1926: 135, Thaxter 1931:
    220, Benjamin 1971: 145; Argentina; (9) Corethromyces stilici Thaxter va-
    riety verrucifer Spegazzini 1917: 502, raised to specific rank as Corethro-
    myces verrucifer Spegazzini by Thaxter 1931: 222; Argentina.
    Rugilus erichsoni (Fauvel): Laboulbenia subterranea Thaxter (as L. stilici-
    cola Spegazzini), Baumgartner 1923: 261, Siemaszko 1932: 180, Stadel-
    mann & Poelt 1962: 129; Switzerland.
    Rugilus fragilis (Gravenhorst) ( = R. angustatus (Fourcroy)): Laboulbenia
    stilicicola Spegazzini 1915:431, Siemaszko 1932:180, placed as a probable
    synonym ofL. subterranea Thaxter by Colla 1934: 81; Italy.







    Rugilus geniculatus (Erichson): Laboulbenia subterranea Thaxter, Thaxter
    1908: 335, Picard 1913b: 535, parasite subsequently considered by Spegaz-
    zini not to be a form ofL. subterranea but a new species, L. stilicicola Spe-
    gazzini 1915:41, Siemaszko 1932: 180, but this name reduced to a probable
    synonym ofL. subterranea by Colla 1934: 81; England.
    Rugilus orbiculatus (Paykull): Laboulbenia subterranea Thaxter, Thaxter
    1908: 335, Picard 1913b: 535, parasite subsequently considered by Spegaz-
    zini not to be a form ofL. subterranea but a new species, L. stilicicola Spe-
    gazzini 1915: 41, Picard 1917: 454, Siemaszko 1932: 180, but this name
    reduced to a probable synonym of L. subterranea by Colla 1934: 81, Le-
    pesme 1941: 484, Middelhoek 1943b: 97, 1947b: 233, Stadelmann & Poelt
    1962: 129, L. stilicicola treated as a distinct species by Balazuc 1974: 306,
    Rossi 1975: 72; France, Poland, Netherlands, Italy.
    Rugilus pruinosus (Cameron): Corethromyces flectatus Thaxter 1931: 197;
    Indonesia (Sumatra).
    Rugilus rufipes Germar: (1) Corethromyces stilici Thaxter 1901b: 42, 1908:
    319, 1912a: 219, Picard 1913b: 529, Thaxter 1931: 218, Middelhoek 1943b:
    94, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 125, Scheloske 1969: 105, Rossi 1975: 72;
    Italy, Germany, Netherlands; (2) Laboulbenia subterranea 'Thaxter, Mid-
    delhoek 1943b: 97, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 129; Netherlands.
    Rugilus sericeus (Motschulsky): (1) Corethromyces gracilicaulis Thaxter
    1931: 198, author of specific name of host given as Bernhauer, presumably
    in error; Indonesia (Sumatra); (2) Corethromyces rectus Spegazzini, Thaxter
    1931: 212; Indonesia (Sumatra); (3) Corethromyces stilici Thaxter, Thaxter
    1931: 318, Scheloske 1969: 105; Indonesia (Sumatra).
    Rugilus similis (Erichson): Laboulbenia subterranea Thaxter, Thaxter 1908:
    335, Hake 1923: 80, by error as "L. stilici Thaxter", Siemaszko 1932:180,
    Rossi 1975: 72 and Balazuc 1974: 306 as L. stilicicola Thaxter; England,
    Italy, France.
    Rugilus spp. indet.: (1) Stigmatomyces stilici Thaxter 1915: 35, 1931: 167;
    China; (2) Corethromyces stilici Thaxter 1901b: 42, 1908: 319, 1912a: 219,
    Picard 1913b: 529, Baumgartner 1923: 260, Thaxter 1931: 218, Stadel-
    mann & Poelt 1962: 125; Switzerland.
    Scopaeus apicipennis Sharp: Misgomyces ansatus Thaxter 1931: 298, host
    placed in genus Scioporus presumably in error; Trinidad.
    Scopaeusfrater Lynch: Corethromyces scopaei Thaxter 1912a: 184, Spegaz-
    zini 1917: 497, Thaxter 1931: 215; Argentina.
    Scopaeus laevis Sharp: Zeugandromyces australis Thaxter 1912a: 178, transf.
    ad Stigmatomyces australis (Thaxter) by Thaxter 1915: 36, 1931: 164; Ar-
    gentina.







    Scopaeus lugubris Lynch: Stigmatomyces fuscipes Spegazzini 1917: 675,
    Thaxter 1931: 165; Argentina.
    Scopaeus nitidulus Motschulsky ( = S. subfasciatus Kraatz): (1) Corethro-
    myces scopaeicola Thaxter 1931: 216; Philippines; (2) Stigmatomyces or-
    ientalis Thaxter 1931: 166; Philippines.
    Scopaeus spp. indet.: (1) Corethromyces minisculus Thaxter 1931: 205; Ar-
    gentina; (2) Stigmatomyces urophilus Spegazzini 1917: 677, transf. ad Cor-
    ethromyces urophilus (Spegazzini) by Thaxter 1931: 221; Argentina.
    Scymbalium anale (Nordmann): Corethromyces scimbalii Rossi & Cesari
    Rossi 1978: 64, NEW EMENDATION To C. scymbalii; Italy.
    Stereocephalus seriatipennis Lynch: (1) Corethromyces gracilis Thaxter,
    Spegazzini 1917: 491, Thaxter 1931: 199; Argentina; (2) Stigmatomyces
    caudicola Spegazzini 1917: 674, Thaxter 1931: 165 doubts generic assign-
    ment and suggests belongs to Corethromyces but no new combination made;
    Argentina; (3) Corethromyces stereocephalus Thaxter 1931: 218, new name
    for Corethromyces pallidus Spegazzini 1917: 493 not C. pallidus (Thaxter)
    1893: 180; Argentina.
    Stilicopsis setigera Sharp: Compsomyces stilicopsis Thaxter 1931: 318; Phil-
    ippines.
    Stilicus Berthold. SEE ALSO Rugilus.
    The following two species names, attributed to Bernhauer, appear not to be
    valid.
    "Stilicus thaxteri": Corethromyces uncinulus Thaxter 1931: 220; Cameroon.
    "Stilicus venezolanus": Corethromyces venezolanus Thaxter 1931: 221;
    Venezuela.
    Stiliderus crassus (Kraatz): (1) Corethromyces psilotracheli Thaxter 1931:
    210; Malaysia (Sarawak); (2) Corethromyces recurvatus Thaxter 1931: 212;
    Malaysia (Sarawak).
    Stiliderus sculptipennis (Kraatz): (1) Corethromyces filiferus Thaxter 1931:
    196, name emended to C. filifer by Benjamin 1971: 145; Philippines; (2)
    Corethromyces flagellaris Thaxter 1931: 197; Philippines; (3) Corethro-
    myces luzonensis Thaxter 1931: 204; Philippines.
    Stilomedon insularum (Cameron): Corethromyces jamaicensis Thaxter 1931:
    201, generic name of host given by error as Stilicus; Jamaica.
    Stilomedon strigicollis Sharp: Diclonomyces stilomedonis Thaxter 1931: 255;
    Guatemala.
    Stilomedon triseriatum Sharp: (1) Corethromyces divergens Thaxter 1931:
    195; Guatemala; (2) Corethromyces strangulatus Thaxter 1931: 219; Gua-
    temala.







    ?Stilomedon sp.: Corethromyces guatemalensis Thaxter 1931: 200, unknown
    genus possibly Stilomedon; Guatemala.
    Sunius sp. indet.: Laboulbenia gracilis Spegazzini 1915b: 55, (notL.flagel-
    lata Peyritsch var. gracilis Spegazzini), Picard 1917:454, Colla 1934: 119,
    Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 127; Italy.
    Taenodema cinerea Sharp: Laboulbenia taenodemae Thaxter 1899: 204,
    1908: 346; Brazil.
    Taenodema sp. indet.: Laboulbenia taenodemae Thaxter 1899: 204, 1908:
    346; Brazil.
    Thinocharis exilis (Erichson): Ecteinomyces thinocharinus Thaxter 1912a:
    213, Spegazzini 1917: 546, transf. adMisgomyces thinocharinus (Thaxter)
    by Thaxter 1931: 304; Argentina.
    Thinocharis pygmaea Kraatz: Corethromyces thinocharinus Thaxter 1915:
    39, 1931: 219; Indonesia (Java and Sumatra).
    The following species name, attributed to Bernhauer, appears not to be valid.
    "Thinocharis curticeps": Corethromyces thinocharinus Thaxter 1915: 39,
    1931: 219; Indonesia (Sumatra).



    XANTHOLININAE

    Eulissus Mannerheim. SEE ALSO Xantholinus.
    Eulissus chloropterus Erichson: Dichomyces furciferus Thaxter, Spegazzini
    1915b: 453, Scheloske 1969: 106, host given as "Xantholinus chloropte-
    rus"; Australia.
    Gyrohypnus punctulatus (Paykull): Entaphelenchus xantholini Wachek 1955:
    109, Goodey 1963: 158, Shephard 1974: 206, Poinar 1975: 174; Germany.
    Gyrohypnusfracticornis (Miller) (= G. obsidianus (Melsheimer)): (1) Di-
    chomyces infectus Thaxter 1894: 102, host given as "Xantholinus obsidi-
    arius Melsh.", 1896: 284, 1908: 257, 1931: 17; U.S.A. (Massachusetts):
    (2) Chantransiopsisxantholini Thaxter 1914: 249; U.S.A. (Massachusetts).
    Othius brevipennis Kraatz: Rhachomycesfurcatus (Thaxter), Siemaszko 1932:
    182, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 131, Scheloske 1969: 141; Yugoslavia.
    Othius lapidicola Kiesenwetter: Rhachomyces furcatus (Thaxter), Balazuc
    1973b: 256; France.
    Othius angustatus Stephens (= 0. melanocephalus (Gravenhorst)): Rhacho-
    mycesfurcatus (Thaxter), 1908: 424, Picard 1913b: 555, Thaxter 1931:
    285, Siemaszko 1932: 183, Lepesme 1942: 77, Scheloske 1969: 141, Rossi
    1975: 83; England, Italy.







    Othius myrmecophilus Kiesenwetter: Rhachomycesfurcatus (Thaxter), Thax-
    ter 1908: 424, Picard 1913b: 555, Thaxter 1931: 285, Lepesme 1942: 77,
    Scheloske 1969: 141, Balazuc 1973b: 256; England, France, Germany.
    Othius pilifer Quedenfeldt: Rhachomyces furcatus (Thaxter), Maire 1916a:
    32, Thaxter 1931: 285, Siemaszko 1932: 183, Lepesme 1942: 77, Scheloske
    1969: 141; Algeria.
    Othius punctulatus (Goeze) (= O. fulgidus (Paykull) = 0. fulvipennis (Fa-
    bricius)): (1) Acanthomycesfurcatus Thaxter 1893: 177, transf. ad Rhach-
    omycesfurcatus (Thaxter) by Thaxter 1895: 467, 1896: 362, 1908: 464,
    Picard 1913b: 555, Maire 1920: 155, Siemaszko 1928: 206, 1932: 182,
    Thaxter 1931: 285, Lepesme 1942: 77, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 131,
    Scheloske 1969: 141, Balazuc 1973b: 256, Rossi 1975: 83; Germany,
    France, Italy, Poland, Algeria; (2) Rhachomyces lasiophorus Thaxter, Sta-
    delmann & Poelt 1962: 124; Germany.
    Othius transsilvanicus Ganglbauer: Rhachomyces furcatus (Thaxter), Ban-
    hegyi 1949: 98, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 131, Scheloske 1969: 141, Bal-
    azuc 1973a: 465; Romania.
    The following unattributed species name is unlikely to be referable to Othius
    crassus Motschulsky, a species not recorded from Africa.
    "Othius pallidus": Rhachomycesfurcatus (Thaxter), Spegazzini 1915a: 507,
    Siemaszko 1932: 183, Scheloske 1969: 141; Uganda.
    The following species name, attributed to Bernhauer, appears not to be valid.
    "Thyreocephalus venezolanus": Dichomyces thyreocephali Thaxter 1931:
    16; Venezuela.
    Xantholinus Dejean. SEE ALSO Gyrophynus.
    Xantholinus andinus Fauvel: Monoicomyces infuscatus Spegazzini, Thaxter
    1912a: 163, Spegazzini 1917: 659, Thaxter 1931: 43; Argentina.
    Xantholinus bonariensis Gemminger & Harold (= X. gracilis Boheman):
    Monoicomyces infuscatus Spegazzini 1912: 192, Thaxter 1912a: 163, Spe-
    gazzini 1917: 659, Thaxter 1931:43; Argentina.
    Xantholinus illucens Erichson: Dichomyces eulyssi Thaxter 1931: 12, host
    given as "Eulyssus illucens", NEW EMENDATION to D. eulissi: Trinidad,
    Grenada.
    Xantholinus linearis (Olivier): Entaphelenchusxantholini Wachek 1955: 109,
    Shephard 1974: 206, Poinar 1975: 174; Germany.
    Xantholinus subtilis Boheman: (1) Monoicomyces infuscatus Spegazzini
    Thaxter 1912a: 163, Spegazzini 1917: 659, Thaxter 1931:43; Uruguay; (2)
    Dichomyces argentinensis Spegazzini, Spegazzini 1917: 512, Thaxter 1931:
    11; Uruguay and Argentina; (3) Corethromyces xantholini Spegazzini 1912:
    183, Thaxter 1931: 209, as possible synonym of Corethromyces platensis







    Thaxter; Argentina; (4) Chantransiopsis bonaerensis Spegazzini 1918: 317;
    Argentina.
    Xantholinus tricolor (Fabricius): Entdphelenchus xantholini Wachek 1955:
    109, Shephard 1974: 206, Poinar 1975: 174; Germany.
    The following unattributed species name appears not to be valid.
    "Xantholinus agilis": Dichomyces argentinensis Spegazzini 1912: 183, Ar-
    gentina.
    Xantholinus spp. indet.: (1) Dichomyces infectus Thaxter, Thaxter 1931: 17;
    Indonesia (Sumatra); (2) Chantransiopsis sp. indet. Thaxter 1914: 249;
    Philippines; (3) Euzodiomyces lathrobii Thaxter, Scheloske 1969: 114, Bal-
    azuc 1973b: 249; Germany; (4) Codrus ligatus (Nees), Hedqvist 1963: 63,
    from host larva; Sweden; (5) Codrus microcerus Kieffer, Hedqvist 1963:
    63, from host larva; Sweden; (6) Proctotrupidae indet., Elliott & Morley
    1911: 434, from host larva; ? England.

    STAPHYLININAE

    Actobius Fauvel. SEE Erichsonius.
    Acylophorus darlingtoni Blackwelder ( = A. longicornis var. thaxteri Bern-
    hauer MS.): Teratomyces mirificus Thaxter, Thaxter 1931: 170; Trinidad.
    Acylophorus flavicollis Sachse: Teratomyces mirificus Thaxter 1893: 182,
    1896: 355, 1931: 170; U.S.A. (Pennsylvania and Kansas).
    Acylophorus lecontei Duvivier ( = A. flavipes LeConte): Teratomyces mirifi-
    cus Thaxter, Thaxter 1896: 355; U.S.A. (Florida).
    Acylophorus pronus Erichson: Teratomyces mirificus Thaxter 1893: 182,
    1896: 355; U.S.A. (Maine and Massachusetts).
    Amichrotus Sharp. SEE ALSO Hesperus.
    Amichrotus apicipennis Sharp: Rhachomyces philonthinus Thaxter, Thaxter
    1908: 424, Lepesme 1942: 79, Ishikawa 1952: 7; Japan.
    Amichrotus sp. indet.: Rhachomyces philonthus Thaxter, Thaxter 1908: 424,
    Scheloske 1969: 142; Japan.
    genus (and species) indet., near Amichrotus: Rhachomyces philonthinus
    Thaxter, Thaxter 1908: 424, Lepesme 1942: 79, Scheloske 1969: 142; Ja-
    pan.
    Anaquedius vernix (LeConte): Laboulbenia quedii Thaxter 1893: 167, host
    given as "Quedius vernilis LeC.", 1896: 347; U.S.A. (Illinois).
    Atanygnathus ruficollis (Kraatz): (1) Rickia rostrata Thaxter 1915: 10, 1926:
    497; Malaysia (Sarawak) and Indonesia (Java); (2) Diplomyces atanygnathi
    Thaxter 1931: 173; Cameroon and Malaysia (Sarawak); (3) Teratomyces
    atanygnathi Thaxter 1931: 169; Philippines and Malaysia (Sarawak).







    Belonuchus cognatus Sharp: Dichomyces arimensis Thaxter 1931: 11; Trini-
    dad.
    Belonuchusfuscipes Fauvel: Dichomyces belonuchi Thaxter 1901b: 27, 1908:
    251; New Guinea.
    Belonuchus haemorrhoidalis (Fabricius): (1) Thaxteriola infuscata Spegaz-
    zini 1918: 315; Argentina; (2) Chantransiopsis platensis Spegazzini 1918:
    319; Argentina.
    Belonuchus rufipennis (Fabricius) ( =B.formosus Sharp): Dichomyces exilis
    Thaxter, Thaxter 1908: 258; Mexico (Jalapa).
    Brachydirus Nordmann. SEENordus.
    Cafius bisulcatus Solier: Laboulbenia cafii Thaxter 1899: 162, 1908: 406;
    Chile.
    Cafius canescens Maklin: Laboulbenia cafii Thaxter 1899: 162, 1908: 406;
    U.S.A. (California).
    Cafius catenatus.Fauvel: Laboulbenia cafii Thaxter, Thaxter 1908: 406; Aus-
    tralia (New South Wales).
    Cafius puncticeps White: Dichomyces cafianus Thaxter 1900: 425, 1908:
    258; South Africa.
    Cafius seminitens Horn: Laboulbenia cafii Thaxter 1899: 162, 1908: 406;
    U.S.A. (California).
    Cafius sericeus (Holme): Laboulbenia cafii Thaxter 1899: 162, 1908: 406,
    Picard 1913b: 542, Hake 1923: 81, Colla 1926: 183, 1934: 110, Rossi 1978:
    63; Great Britain, Italy.
    Cafius xantholoma (Gravenhorst): (1) Laboulbenia cafii Thaxter, Collart
    1945: 103; Balazuc 1974: 17; Belgium, France; (2) Platymischus dilatatus
    (Westwood) (Hymenoptera, Diapriidae) Elliott & Morley 1907: 11, 1911:
    454, but these records are dubious; the latter is only a record of association,
    not evidence of parasitism, whereas elsewhere P dilatatus is recorded as a
    parasite of Diptera, of which C. xantholoma is doubtless a predator; Eng-
    land; (3) Thinoseiusfucicola (Halbert), Egglishaw 1966: 14; England.
    Cafius spp. indet.: Laboulbenia cafii Thaxter 1899: 162, 1908: 406, Picard
    1913b: 542; Europe, Hong Kong, U.S.A. (Maine).
    Cheilocolpus impressifrons (Solier): (1) Dichomyces chilensis Thaxter 1918:
    210, 1931: 12; Chile; (2) Corethromyces valdivianus Thaxter 1918: 220,
    transf. adMimeomyces valdivianus (Thaxter) by Thaxter 1931: 9; Chile; (3)
    Corethromyces andinus Spegazzini 1917: 670, transf. ad Sphaleromyces an-
    dinus (Spegazzini) by Thaxter 1918: 221, transf. ad Mimeomyces andinus
    (Spegazzini) by Thaxter 1931: 8; Argentina, Chile.
    Creophilus erythrocephalus Fabricius: genus and species indet. of Nosema-
    tidae, Meyer-Rochow 1972: 175; Australia.







    Creophilus maxillosus (Linnaeus): (1) Proctotrupes water Nees, Frohawk 1886:
    225, Elliott & Morley 1911: 453, Verhoeff 1919: 34, Morley 1922: 183,
    Eastham 1929: 2 (host mis-cited as Ocypus olens), placed in genus Codrus
    by Pschorn-Walcher 1958: 62, Weidemann 1962: 30, Hedqvist 1962: 63,
    Weidemann 1965: 442, from larva of host; England; (2) Gordius aquaticus
    Linnaeus, Assmuss 1858: 178, Zwaluwenburg 1928: 30; Austria; (3) Alysia
    manducator (Panzer), Marshall (cited by Elliott & Morley 1907: 9), stated
    to be from larva of host, butA. manducator is recorded as a parasite of dip-
    terous larvae of which C. maxillosus is a predator and record is suspect; ?
    France; (4) Phaenoserphus pallipes (Latreille) (given as Proctotrypes palli-
    dipes Jurine, presumably by misspelling and misattribution) Elliott & Mor-
    ley 1911: 453, from larva of host, the parasites attributed later to P viator
    (Haliday) by Morley 1922: 158; England.
    Diochus conicollis Motschulsky: Amphoromorpha entomophila Thaxter 1914:
    251, 1920b: 18; Philippines.
    Diochus nanus Erichson: (1) Corethromyces acuminatus Thaxter 1931: 188;
    Trinidad; (2) Corethromyces diochi Thaxter 1931: 194, host given asD. tar-
    salis Sharp but this considered a synonym of D. nanus by Blackwelder
    (1943); Argentina; (3) Corethromyces grenadinus Thaxter 1931: 199, Trin-
    idad; (4) Corethromyces nanus Thaxter 1931: 206; Trinidad.
    Emus hirtus (Linnaeus): (1) Diplogaster coprophages de Man, Sachs 1950:
    214, transf. ad Paroigolaimella coprophages (de Man) by Paramonov 1952:
    350, Poinar 1975: 172; Germany; (2) Diplogaster stercorarius Bovien,
    Sachs 1950: 214, transf. ad Paroigolaimella stercorarius (Bovien) by Para-
    monov & Sobolev 1954: 218, transf. ad Holodiplogaster stercorarius (Bov-
    ien) by Meyl 1960: 33, transf. ad Fictor stercorarius (Bovien) by Goodey
    1963: 186, Poinar 1975: 172; Germany; (3) Diplogaster zurstrasseni Sachs
    1950: 266, transf. adSachsia zurstrasseni (Sachs) by Meyl 1960: 36, transf.
    ad Diplogasteritus zurstrasseni (Sachs) by Goodey 1963: 174; Germany;
    (4) Cheilobus aphodii Sachs 1950: 256, Poinar 1975: 172; Germany; (5)
    Rhabditis coarctata (Leuckart), Sachs 1950: 214, transf. adPelodera coarc-
    tata (Leuckart) by Dougherty 1953: 172; Germany; (6) Rhabditis tretzeli
    Sachs 1950: 251, Th6odorides 1955: 114, transf. adPelodera tretzeli (Sachs)
    by Dougherty 1953: 70 by transferring certain species groups of Rhabditis
    sensu Osche 1952 to Pelodera, Poinar 1975: 172; Germany; (7) Rhabditis
    voelki Sachs 1950: 251, transf. ad Pelodera voelki (Sachs) by Dougherty
    1953: 70 by transferring certain species groups of Rhabditis sensu Osche
    1952 toPelodera, Poinar 1975: 172; Germany.
    Erichsonius basalis (Motschulsky): Teratomyces brevicaulis Thaxter, Thaxter
    1931: 170; Ceylon.
    Erichsonius cinerascens (Gravenhorst): Teratomyces actobii Thaxter, Thaxter
    1908: 316, Hake 1923: 80 (indicates possible error in identification of host),







    Thaxter 1931: 169, Scheloske 1969: 151, Balazuc 1971c: 116; England,
    Germany.
    Erichsonius nanus (Horn): (1) Diplomyces actobianus Thaxter 1895: 469,
    1896: 358, 1931: 173; U.S.A. (Massachusetts); (2) Teratomyces actobii
    Thaxter 1894: 98, 1896: 356, Scheloske 1969: 151; U.S.A. (Maine and
    Massachusetts); (3) Teratomyces brevicaulis Thaxter 1894: 99, 1896: 357;
    U.S.A. (Maine, Massachusetts, and Connecticut).
    Erichsonius signaticornis (Mulsant & Rey): (1) Teratomyces actobii Thaxter,
    Hake 1923: 80; England; T. atropurpureus Maire 1920: 145, but this name
    placed as synonym of T actobii by Thaxter 1931: 169, Scheloske 1969: 151,
    Balazuc 1971c: 116, Rossi 1978: 66; Mauretania; (2) Diplomyces clavifer
    Rossi & Cesari Rossi 1978: 65; Italy.
    Gabrius exiguus (Nordmann): Rhachomyces philonthinus Thaxter, Thaxter
    1908: 424, Siemaszko 1932: 182, Lepesme 1942: 79, Scheloske 1969: 142:
    Europe.
    Gabrius nigritulus (Gravenhorst): Teratomycesphilonthi Thaxter, Rossi 1978:
    73; Italy.
    Gabrius pennatus Sharp: Teratomyces philonthi Thaxter, Scheloske 1969:
    151, Balazuc 1971b: 212, 1974: 348, Rossi 1978: 73; Germany.
    Gabrius trossulus (Nordmann): Teratomyces philonthi Thaxter, Middelhoek
    1943a: 60, 1943b: 95, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 131, Scheloske 1969: 151,
    Balazuc 1971b: 212, 1974: 348, Rossi 1978: 73; Netherlands, Germany.
    Gabrius osseticus (Kolenati) (= G. vernalis (Erichson)): (1) Allantonema
    philonthi Wachek 1955: 40, Shephard 1974: 205, Poinar 1975: 173; Ger-
    many; (2) Sphaerulariopsis philonthi auct., typographical error, not Wachek
    1955, Sphaerulariopsis placed as synonym of Stictylus by Riihm 1956: 161,
    Poinar 1975: 173, no such species; (3) Dichomycesfurcifer Thaxter, Peyr-
    itsch as cited by Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 125; Austria.
    Hemiquediusferox (LeConte): (1) Euzodiomyces lathrobii Thaxter, Benjamin
    & Shanor 1951: 555, Balazuc 1973b: 249; U.S.A. (Illinois); (2) Terato-
    myces quedianus Thaxter 1896: 356, 1931: 171, Benjamin 1968a: 6; U.S.A.
    (Massachusetts).
    Hesperus laevigatus Fauvel: Dichomyces gracilis Thaxter, Thaxter 1931: 13;
    Indonesia (Sumatra).
    The following species name, attributed to Bernhauer, appears not to be valid,
    though conceivably it might be an error forAmichrotusjacobsoni Bernhauer.
    "Hesperus jacobsoni": Dichomyces fumosus Thaxter 1931: 13; Indonesia
    (Sumatra).
    Hesperus sp. indet.: Dichomyces gracilis Thaxter 1915: 29, 1931: 13, host
    first stated to be of unknown genus; Indonesia (Java).







    Heterothops binotatus (Gravenhorst): Mimeomyces zeelandicus Middelhoek
    & Boelens, Middelhoek 1943b: 101, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 130, Bala-
    zuc 1971c: 116; Netherlands.
    Heterothops dissimilis (Gravenhorst): Gregarina omalina Foerster 1938:
    186; Poland.
    Heterothopsformicetorum Bernhauer: (1) Corethromycesformicetorum Spe-
    gazzini 1917: 490, Thaxter 1931: 198; Argentina; (2) Corethromyces rostra-
    tus Thaxter, Spegazzini 1917: 496, Thaxter 1931: 214; Argentina.
    Heterothops praevius Erichson var. nigrus Kraatz: Sphaleromyces spelun-
    calis Maire 1916a: 17, transf. ad Corethromyces speluncalis (Maire) by
    Maire 1920: 147, Thaxter 1931: 218, Lepesme 1941: 483; Algeria.
    Heterothops thaxteri Bernhauer: Corethromyces macropus Thaxter 1912a:
    190, 1931: 204; Argentina.
    Heterothops sp. indet.: Corethromyces rostratus Thaxter 1912a: 191, 1931:
    214; Argentina, Guatemala.
    Nordus antennatus (Sharp): Sphaleromyces brachyderi Thaxter 1900: 442,
    1908: 324, transf. adMimeomyces brachyderi (Thaxter) by Thaxter 1931: 9,
    NEW EMENDATION to M. brachydiri; Peru.
    Nordus simplex (Sharp): Dichomyces peruvianus Thaxter 1900: 426, 1908:
    257; Peru.
    Ocypus alpestris (Erichson): Serphus viator (Haliday), Verhoeff 1919: 33,
    from larva of host, transf. ad Phaenoserphus viator (Haliday) by Nixon
    1938: 453; Germany.
    Ocypus ater (Gravenhorst): (1) Codrus niger Panzer, Weidemann 1962: 29,
    from larva of host; Germany; (2) indet. gamasine mites, Green & Wilkinson
    1950: 144; Wales.
    Ocypus olens (Miiller): (1) Actinocephalus stelliformis Schneider 1876: 588,
    Wellmer 1911: 137, Foerster 1938: 172, Paulian 1941: 16, Thbodorides
    1955: 75, from larva and adult of host; France; (2) Litus krygeri Kieffer,
    Paulian 1941: 15, from egg of host; ? France; (3) Exallonyx niger (Panzer),
    Paulian 1941: 17, Jones & Moore 1978: 150, from larva of host; France,
    England, (Exallonyx is listed as a synonym of Codrus by Muesebeck et al.
    (1951), so combination is Codrus niger Panzer); (4) Apanteles sp., Elliott
    & Morley 1907: 9, from larva of host, by error, because host attributed to
    Creophilus maxillosus and parasite to Codrus sp. by Elliott & Morley 1911:
    453, Weidemann 1965: 459; England; (5) "Proctotrupespallidipes," Eas-
    tham 1929: 2, by error, miscitation from Elliott & Morley 1911: 453, no
    such record; (6) Codrus ater (Nees), Hedqvist 1963: 63, Weidemann 1965:
    459, by error, miscitation from Elliott & Morley 1911:453, no such record;
    (7) Phaenoserphus pallipes (Latreille), Hedqvist 1963: 63, Wiedemann
    1965: 461, by error, miscitation from Elliott & Morley 1911: 453, no such







    record; (8) Phaenoserphus viator (Haliday), Morley 1922: 158, from larva
    of host; England.
    Ocypus scutiger Sharp: Rhachomyces ocypi Sugiyama 1973: 72, 1974: 73;
    Japan.
    Philonthus Curtis. SEE ALso Gabrius.
    Philonthus abyssinus Fauvel (= P holomelas Eppelsheim): Dichomyces subi-
    naequilaterus Spegazzini 1915b: 453, Thaxter 1931: 17, host given as "Phi-
    lonthus holomallus"; Somalia.
    Philonthus accedens Sharp: Laboulbenia philonthi Thaxter, Thaxter 1908:
    358, host given as "Philonthus acciderus"; Guatemala.
    Philonthus acroleucus Kraatz: Dichomycesfurciferus Thaxter, Thaxter 1931:
    16, Scheloske 1969: 106, host given as "Philonthus ochroleucus"; Indone-
    sia (Sumatra).
    Philonthus aeneipennis Boheman (= P lewisius Sharp): (1) Dichomyces hy-
    bridus Thaxter 1900: 423, 1908: 253, Terada 1976: 24, 1978: 64; Gulf of
    Oman, Japan, Taiwan; (2) Dichomyces pallidus Thaxter 1931: 14; Philip-
    pines.
    Philonthus aequalis Horn: Laboulbenia philonthi Thaxter 1893: 174, 1896:
    343, Scheloske 1969: 129; U.S.A. ("Lake Superior").
    Philonthus aeruginosus Nordmann: Dichomyces vulgatus Thaxter, Spegaz-
    zini 1912: 186, 1917: 513; Argentina.
    Philonthus agilis (Gravenhorst): Dichomyces vulgatus Thaxter, Thaxter 1908:
    251, Picard 1913b: 511, Balazuc 1974: 361; Austria, France.
    Philonthus albipes (Gravenhorst): (1) Dichomycesfurcifer Thaxter, Thaxter
    1908: 250, Picard 1913b: 511, Middelhoek 1943b: 92, Stadelmann & Poelt
    1962: 125, Scheloske 1969: 106; England, Netherlands; (2) Rhachomyces
    philonthinus Thaxter, Thaxter 1908: 424, Picard 1913b: 555, Siemaszko
    1932: 182, Lepesme 1942: 79, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 131, Scheloske
    1969: 142; Sweden; (3) Dichomyces vulgatus Thaxter, Middelhoek 1943a:
    60; Netherlands.
    Philonthus amicus Sharp: Dichomycesfurcifer Thaxter, Sugiyama 1973: 29,
    1974: 73; Japan.
    Philonthus atriceps Sharp: Dichomyces mexicanus Thaxter 1901b: 28, 1908:
    256; Mexico (Jalapa).
    Philonthus bonariensis Bernhauer: Dichomyces princeps Thaxter, Spegazzini
    1917: 513, Thaxter 1931: 17; Argentina.
    Philonthus borneensis Bernhauer: Dichomyces bicolor Thaxter 1931: 12; Ma-
    laysia (Sarawak) and Philippines.
    Philonthus centralis Sharp: Dichomycesfurcifer Thaxter, Thaxter 1908: 250,
    Scheloske 1969: 106; Mexico.







    Philonthus cephalotes (Gravenhorst): Dichomycesprinceps Thaxter, Thaxter
    1908: 257, Picard 1913b: 512, Collart 1945: 102, Middelhoek 1947a: 91,
    1947b: 238, Majewski 1973b: 232; Belgium, Poland; (2) Dichomyces vul-
    gatus Thaxter, Middelhoek 1943b: 91, 1947b: 238, Stadelmann & Poelt
    1962: 125; Netherlands.
    Philonthus cinctipennis Fauvel: Dichomyces furcifer Thaxter, Thaxter 1908:
    250, Scheloske 1969: 106. The origin of the host was not stated by Thaxter,
    but the range of R cinctipennis is northeastern Africa to southeastern Asia
    according to Bernhauer & Schubert (1910-1916).
    Philonthus circumductus Fauvel: Dichomyces lepidus Thaxter 1931: 14, au-
    thor of specific name of host given as Bernhauer presumably in error; Phil-
    ippines.
    Philonthus concinnus (Gravenhorst): (1) Rhachomyces philonthinus Thaxter,
    Maire 1920: 155, Thaxter 1931: 287, Lepesme 1942: 79, Hincks 1960: 100,
    Scheloske 1969: 142; Algeria, England; (2) Entaphelenchusphilonthi Wachek
    1955: 110, Goodey 1.963: 158, Shephard 1974: 206, Poinar 1975: 173; Ger-
    many; (2) Laboulbenia philonthi Thaxter, Rossi 1975: 73; Italy.
    Philonthus convexicollis Lynch: (1) Peyritschiella subinaequilatera (Spegaz-
    zini), Spegazzini 1917: 661, transf. ad Dichomyces subinaequilaterus Spe-
    gazzini by Thaxter 1931: 17; Argentina; (2) Dichomyces furcifer Thaxter,
    Spegazzini 1917: 513, Thaxter 1931: 16, Scheloske 1969: 106; Argentina;
    (3) Dichomyces vulgatus Thaxter, Spegazzini 1912: 186, 1917: 513; Argen-
    tina; (4) Laboulbenia philonthi Thaxter, Spegazzini 1912: 230, 1917: 633,
    Scheloske 1969: 129; Argentina; (5) Thaxteriola infuscata Spegazzini 1918:
    315; Argentina.
    Philonthus cruentatus (Gmelin) ( =P. bipustulatus (Panzer)): (1) Dichomyces
    vulgatus Thaxter 1900: 424, 1908: 251, Picard 1913b: 511; Europe; (2)
    Rhachomyces philonthinus Thaxter, Middelhoek 1943a: 60 (by error as R.
    philonthi), 1943b: 101, Scheloske 1969: 142, Balazuc 1973b: 281, Rossi
    1975: 83; Netherlands, France, Italy.
    Philonthus cunctans Horn: Laboulbenia philonthi Thaxter 1893: 174, 1896:
    343, Scheloske 1969: 129; U.S.A. ("New England").
    Philonthus debilis (Gravenhorst): (1) Peyritschiella nigrescens Thaxter 1893:
    184, 1896: 281 and Dichomyces inaequalis Thaxter 1894: 103, 1896: 283,
    Sugiyama 1978b; 281, considered to be synonyms by Thaxter 1908: 260
    and, on the grounds that the former was considered to represent an atypical
    form of the latter, andDichomyces to be the correct generic assignment, D.
    nigrescens (Thaxter) was placed as a synonym ofD. inaequalis Thaxter; this
    contravened the rule of priority and was corrected by Scheloske 1969: 106,
    and noted by Balazuc 1974: 360; U.S.A. (Maine, Massachusetts), Scotland,
    Germany; (2) Laboulbenia philonthi Thaxter 1893: 174, 1896: 343, Sche-
    loske 1969: 129; U.S.A. ("New England"); (3) Allantonema philonthi
    Wachek 1955: 40, Nickle 1967: 78, Shephard 1974: 205, Poinar 1975: 173;







    Germany; (4) Dichomycesfurcifercus Thaxter 1893: 184, 1902: 282, name
    emended toD.furcifer by Saccardo 1895: 447, Benjamin 1971: 127;U.S.A.
    (Maine and Massachusetts); (5) Sphaerulariopsis philonthi auct., typo-
    graphical error, not Wachek 1955, Sphaerulariopsis placed as synonym of
    Stictylus by Riihm 1956: 161, Poinar 1975: 173, no such species.
    Philonthus decorus (Gravenhorst):Laboulbenia sp. indet. Thaxter 1908: 353,
    named asL. philonthicola Spegazzini 1915a: 61, but this placed as synonym
    ofL. dubia Thaxter by Scheloske 1969: 119; Germany.
    Philonthus discoideus (Gravenhorst): Dichomyces furcifer Thaxter, Thaxter
    1908: 250, Picard 1913b: 511, Maire 1916a: 9, Thaxter 1931: 16, Scheloske
    1969: 106; U.S.A. (Massachusetts), Scotland, Canary Islands, Algeria.
    Philonthus ebeninus (Gravenhorst): Dichomyces vulgatus Thaxter, Thaxter
    1908: 251, host given as "Philonthus ebeneus", U.S.S.R. (Siberia); Eu-
    rope.
    Philonthus fimetarius (Gravenhorst) ( = P xanthomerus Kraatz): (1) Allan-
    tonemaphilonthi Wachek 1955: 40, Shephard 1974: 205, Poinar 1975: 173;
    Germany; (2) Entaphelenchusphilonthi Wachek 1955: 110, Shephard 1974:
    206, Poinar 1975: 173; Germany; (3) Rhachomyces philonthinus Thaxter,
    Siemaszko 1932: 181, Hincks 1960: 100, Middelhoek 1943b: 100, Stadel-
    mann & Poelt 1962: 131, Scheloske 1969: 142, Balazuc 1973b: 281; Eng-
    land, Poland, France, Netherlands; (4) Dichomyces exilis Thaxter 1900:
    420; Mexico (Veracruz); (5) Dichomyces biformis Thaxter, Siemaszko 1932:
    163, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 125; Poland; (6) Sphaerulariopsisphilonthi
    auct., typographical error, not Wachek 1955, Sphaerulariopsis placed as
    synonym of Stictylus by Riihm 1956: 161, Poinar 1975: 173, no such spe-
    cies.
    Philonthusflavocinctus Motschulsky: (1) Dichomycesfurcifer Thaxter, Sugi-
    yama & Shazawa 1977: 272; Taiwan; (2) Dichomyces inaequalis Thaxter,
    Sugiyama 1978b: 281; Taiwan.
    Philonthus flavolimbatus: Dichomyces vulgatus Thaxter 1900: 424, 1908:
    251; Panama and Mexico.
    Philonthusfulvipes (Fabricius): (1) Rhachomyces philonthinus Thaxter, Sie-
    maszko 1928: 206, 1932: 181, Thaxter 1931: 287, Lepesme 1942: 79, Sta-
    delmann & Poelt 1962: 131, Scheloske 1969: 142; Poland, Germany; (2)
    Entaphelenchus philonthi Wachek 1955: 110, Shephard 1974: 206, Poinar
    1975: 173; Germany; (3) Diplogaster stercorarius Bovien, Hirschmann
    1952: 349, transf. ad Paroigolaimella stercorarius (Bovien) by Paramonov
    & Sobolev 1954: 218, transf. ad Holodiplogaster stercorarius (Bovien) by
    Meyl 1960: 33, transf. ad Fictor stercorarius (Bovien) by Goodey 1963:
    186, Poinar 1975: 173; Germany; (4) Rhabditis longispina Reiter, Hirsch-
    mann 1952: 349; Germany; (5) Laboulbenia philonthi Thaxter, Scheloske







    1969: 129, Majewski 1973a: 117, Balazuc 1974: 296, Rossi 1975: 73; Ger-
    many, Poland, Turkey, Italy.
    Philonthusfumarius (Gravenhorst): (1) Rhachomyces philonthinus Thaxter,
    Balazuc 1973b: 281, Rossi 1975: 83; France, Italy; (2) Laboulbenia bar-
    bara Middelhoek & Boelens, Rossi 1975: 73; Italy.
    Philonthus furvus Nordman: Laboulbenia philonthi Thaxter, Thaxter 1896:
    343, 1908: 358, Scheloske 1969: 129; U.S.A. (California) and Mexico.
    Philonthusfuscipennis (Mannerheim): (1) Laboulbenia dubia Thaxter, Picard
    1917: 452, Siemaszko 1928: 205, 1932: 178, Briedis 1932: 131, Lepesme
    1941: 486, Collart 1945: 103, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 127, Scheloske
    1969:119, Balazuc 1974: 21; France, Belgium, Poland, U.S.S.R. (Latvia);
    (2) Laboulbenia philonthicola Spegazzini, Lepesme 1941: 486, but this
    placed as synonym ofL. dubia Thaxter by Scheloske 1969: 119 and Balazuc
    1974: 20; France.
    Philonthus gastralis Sharp: Rhachomyces philonthinus Thaxter, Thaxter 1908:
    424, Lepesme 1942: 79, Ishikawa 1952: 7, Scheloske 1969: 142; Japan.
    Philonthus gemellus Kraatz: Dichomyces hybridus.Thaxter, Thaxter 1908:
    253; Ceylon.
    Philonthus hepaticus Erichson (= P parvimanus Sharp): (1) Peyritschiella
    anisopleura (Spegazzini) Spegazzini 1917: 661, transf. adDichomyces an-
    isopleurus Spegazzini by Thaxter 1931: 17; Argentina; (2) Dichomycesfur-
    cifer Thaxter, Spegazzini 1912: 184, 1917: 513, Thaxter 1931: 16, Scheloske
    1969: 106; Argentina, Uruguay; (3) Dichomyces vulgatus Thaxter, Thaxter
    1908: 251, Spegazzini 1917: 513; Nicaragua, Argentina; (4) Laboulbenia
    philonthi Thaxter, Spegazzini 1912: 230, 1917: 633, Scheloske 1969: 129;
    Argentina.
    Philonthus incertus Solsky: Laboulbenia philonthi Thaxter, Thaxter 1908:
    358; Mexico.
    Philonthus intermedius (Boisduval & Lacordaire): Amorphomyces italicus
    Spegazzini, Colla 1925: 255, 1934: 56, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 124,
    Rossi 1978: 71; Italy.
    Philonthusjurgans Tottenham: (1) Rhachomyces philonthinus Thaxter, Sche-
    loske 1969: 142, Balazuc 1973b: 281, Rossi 1975: 83; France, Italy, Ger-
    many; (2) Dichomyces vulgatus Thaxter, Balazuc 1974: 361; France.
    Philonthus longicornis Stephens (= P scybalarius Nordmann): (1) Rhacho-
    mycesphilonthinus Thaxter 1900:435, 1908:424, Lepesme 1942: 79, Sche-
    loske 1969: 142; St. Helena; (2) Dichomyces princeps Thaxter, Thaxter
    1908: 257, Colla 1934: 35, Rossi 1975: 83; Madeira, Italy; (3) Dichomyces
    vulgatus Thaxter 1900: 424, 1908: 251, Picard 1913b: 511, Colla 1925:
    254, 1926:158, Thaxter 1931: 17, Hincks 1960: 100, Sugiyama& Shazawa
    1977: 275; St. Helena, Ceylon, Italy, Madeira, Scotland, Australia, U.S.A.







    (Missouri), Taiwan; (4) Dichomyces furcifer Thaxter, Spegazzini 1917:
    513, Scheloske 1969: 106; Argentina; (5) Rhabditis sp., Zwaluwenburg
    1928: 30; U.S.A. (Hawaii).
    Philonthus marginatus (Stroem): Rhachomyces philonthinus Thaxter, Mid-
    delhoek 1943b: 100, Collart 1945: 103, Scheloske 1969: 142, Balazuc
    1973b: 281; Netherlands, France, Belgium.
    Philonthus mannerheimi Fauvel: Laboulbenia dubia Thaxter, Siemaszko 1928:
    205, 1932: 178, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 127, Scheloske 1969: 119; Po-
    land, Germany.
    Philonthus micans (Gravenhorst): Laboulbenia philonthi Thaxter 1893: 174,
    1896: 343, Scheloske 1969: 129, Majewski 1973b: 117, Balazuc 1971c:
    114, 1974: 296, Rossi 1975: 73; U.S.A. ("New England"), Poland, France,
    Italy.
    Philonthus micanticollis Sharp: Dichomyces bifidus Thaxter, Sugiyama 1973:
    28, 1974: 73, erroneously recorded as D. biformis Thaxter, error corrected
    by Sugiyama 1978b: 281; Japan.
    Philonthus microphthalmus Horn: Diplomyces actobianus Thaxter, Thaxter
    1931: 173, possibly misidentified; U.S.A. (Maine and Massachusetts).
    Philonthus minutus Boheman (= P mutans Sharp): (1) Rhachomyces philon-
    thinus Thaxter, Thaxter 1908: 425, Lepesme 1942: 79, Scheloske 1969:
    142; China; (2) Dichomyces vulgatus Thaxter, Maire 1916a: 10, Colla 1925:
    253, Sugiyama & Shazawa 1977: 275; Algeria, Taiwan.
    Philonthus moquerysi Fauvel: Dichomyces vulgatus Thaxter, Thaxter 1931:
    17; Cameroon.
    Philonthus nigritus (Gravenhorst): Laboulbenia philonthi Thaxter, Rossi 1975:
    73; Italy.
    Philonthus oblitus Jarrige: Laboulbenia philonthi Thaxter, Rossi 1975: 73;
    Italy.
    Philonthus occultus Sharp: Laboulbenia philonthi Thaxter, Thaxter 1908:
    358; Guatemala.
    Philonthus ochromerus Sharp: Laboulbenia philonthi Thaxter, Thaxter 1908:
    358; Mexico (Veracruz).
    Philonthus oreophilus Fauvel: Dichomycesfurcifer Thaxter, Spegazzini 1915a:
    453, Scheloske 1969: 106; Australia.
    Philonthus oxyporinus Sharp: Dichomyces exilis Thaxter, Thaxter 1908: 258,
    host given as "Philonthus oxysporus"; Mexico (Oaxaca).
    Philonthus politus (Linnaeus) (= P aeneus (Rossi)): (1) Dichomyces dubious
    Thaxter 1900: 426, 1908: 252, Collart 1945: 102, Scheloske 1969: 106;
    U.S.A. (Massachusetts, N&w York), Belgium, Germany; (2) Laboulbenia







    dubia Thaxter 1902: 35, Hake, 1923: 81, Siemaszko 1932: 178, Scheloske
    1969: 119, Balazuc 1974: 21, L. philonthicola Spegazzini placed as a syn-
    onym; England, France; (3) Dichomyces princeps Thaxter, Collart 1945:
    102; Belgium; (4) Dichomyces vulgatus Thaxter, Hincks 1960: 100; Eng-
    land; (5) Exallonyx ligatus (Nees), Paulian 1941: 16, from larva of host;
    France, (Exallonyx is listed as a synonym of Codrus by Muesebeck et al.
    (1951), so combination is Codrus ligatus (Nees)); (6) Amphoromorpha mir-
    abilis Siemaszko cited erroneously by Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 124 (not
    recorded from this host by Siemaszko & Siemaszko (1928: 206)).
    Philonthus punctus (Gravenhorst): (1) Laboulbenia barbara Middelhoek &
    Boelens, Middlehoek 1943b: 99, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 126, Scheloske
    1969: 119, Balazuc 1974: 15, Rossi 1975: 73; Netherlands; (2) Laboulbenia
    philonthi Thaxter, Balazuc 1974: 296; France.
    Philonthus quadraticeps Boheman: (1) Dichomyces princeps Thaxter, Spe-
    gazzini 1912: 185, 1917: 513, Thaxter 1931: 17; Argentina; (2) Laboul-
    benia philonthi Thaxter, Spegazzini 1917: 633; Argentina.
    Philonthus quisquiliarius (Gyllenhal) (= P dimidiatus (Boisduval & Lacor-
    daire)): (1) Laboulbenia philonthi Thaxter, Scheloske 1969: 129, Balazuc
    1974: 296; Germany, France; (2) Dichomyces vulgatus Thaxter 1900: 424,
    1908: 251, Picard 1913b: 511, Hake 1923:78, Balazuc 1974: 361; England,
    France; (3) Diploscapter lycostoma Volk 1950: 53; Germany; (4) Rhabditis
    aspera Biitschli, Volk 1950: 19; Germany; (5) Rhabditis labiata Vilk 1950:
    47; Germany; (6) Rhabditis wohlgemuthi V6lk 1950: 41, Paramonov & So-
    bolev 1954: 152; Germany.
    Philonthus rectangulus Sharp: Dichomyces furcifer Thaxter, Thaxter 1908:
    250, Middelhoek 1943b: 92, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 125, Scheloske
    1969: 106, Sugiyama 1973: 29, 1974: 73; Japan, Netherlands, Germany.
    Philonthus sanguinolentus (Gravenhorst): Dichomyces vulgatus Thaxter, Pi-
    card 1917: 442, Lepesme 1941:481, Balazuc 1974: 361; France.
    Philonthus sordidus (Gravenhorst): (1) Dichomyces princeps Thaxter, 1895:
    479, 1896: 284, 1908: 257, Picard 1913b: 512, Maire 1916a: 11, Colla
    1925: 252, Thaxter 1931: 17, Colla 1934: 35, Middelhoek 1943a: 60,
    1943b: 91, Poelt 1952a: 36, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 125; U.S.A. (Cali-
    fornia, Massachusetts), Algeria, Italy, Germany, Netherlands; (2) Dicho-
    myces vulgatus Thaxter, Spegazzini 1917: 513, Middelhoek 1943a: 60,
    1943b: 92, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 125, (Scheloske 1969: 108; Germany,
    but identity of parasite uncertain); Uruguay, Netherlands.
    Philonthus spinipes Sharp. Dichomyces vulgatus Thaxter, Sugiyama 1973:
    30, 1974: 73; Japan.
    Philonthus tenuicornis Mulsant & Rey (= P carbonarius (Gyllenhal)): Actin-
    ocephalus stelliformis Schneider, Foerster 1938: 173; Poland.







    Philonthus turbidus Erichson: (1) Dichomyces madagascarensis Thaxter,
    Maire 1916b: 102, Thaxter 1931: 17; Egypt; (2) Exallonyx philonthiphagus
    Williams 1932: 205, from larva of host, Clausen 1940: 264; Hawaii (Exal-
    lonyx is listed as a synonym of Codrus by Muesebeck et al. 1951, so com-
    bination is Codrus philonthiphagus (Williams)).
    Philonthus umbratilis (Gravenhorst): Dichomyces biformis Thaxter 1900:
    422, 1908: 254, Picard 1913b: 512, Hake 1923: 79, Siemaszko 1932: 164,
    Collard, 1945: 102; England, Scotland, Madeira, St. Pierre & Miquelon,
    Belgium.
    Philonthus varians (Paykull): (1) Dichomyces vulgatus Thaxter 1900: 424,
    1908: 251, Hake 1923: 79; England; (2) Rhachomycesphilonthinus Thaxter,
    Siemaszko 1932: 182, Middelhoek 1943a: 69 (by error as R. philonthi),
    1943b: 100, 1947b: 237, Petch 1944: 92, 1945: 103, Shaw 1952: 117, Sche-
    loske 1969:142, Hincks 1960: 100, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 124, Balazuc
    1973b: 281; England, France, Poland, Belgium, Germany, Netherlands; (3)
    Amphoromorpha mirabilis Siemaszko & Siemaszko 1928: 206, Stadelmann
    & Poelt 1962: 124; Poland.
    Philonthus various (Gyllenhal): Rhachomyces philonthinus Thaxter, Balazuc
    1973b: 281; France.
    Philonthus ventralis (Gravenhorst): Dichomyces hybridus Thaxter 1900: 423,
    1908: 253, Picard 1913b: 512, Hake 1923: 79; England, Madeira, North
    America.
    Philonthus wuesthoffi Bernhauer: Rhachomyces philonthinus Thaxter, Sugi-
    yama 1973: 73, 1974: 73; Japan.
    The following species name, attributed to Fauvel, appears not to be valid.
    "Philonthus sikorae" : Dichomyces madagascarensis Thaxter 1900: 424,
    1908: 254; Madagascar.
    Philonthus spp. indet.: (1) Dichomyces angolensis Thaxter 1900: 421, 1908:
    257; Angola; (2) Dichomyces bifidus Thaxter 1901b: 26, 1908: 255; New
    Guinea (New Britain); (3) Dichomyces javanus Thaxter 1900: 420, 1908:
    259; Indonesia (Java); (4) Laboulbenia philonthicola Spegazzini 1915a: 61,
    Picard 1917: 452, Colla 1934: 119, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 128, placed
    as a synonym of L. dubia Thaxter by Scheloske 1969: 119; France, Italy; (5)
    Teratomyces philonthi Thaxter 1900: 432, 1908: 316, Picard 1917: 448,
    Thaxter 1931: 171, generic assignment of one host uncertain, Binhegyi
    1940: 47, Lepesme 1941: 483, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 131, Balazuc
    1974: 348; Hungary, France; (6) Teratomyces vulgaris Thaxter 1900: 431,
    transf. ad Symplectromyces vulgaris (Thaxter) by Thaxter 1908: 315, Picard
    1913b: 527, generic assignment of host uncertain, Bnnhegyi 1940: 47, Sta-
    delmann & Poelt 1962: 131, Scheloske 1969: 151, Balazuc 1971b: 211;
    Hungary; (7) Dichomyces anisopleurus Spegazzini 1915b: 48, 1917: 661 (as
    Peyritschiella anisopleura (Spegazzini)), Thaxter 1931: 17, Colla 1934: 36,







    Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 125; Italy; (8) Dichomyces biformis Thaxter
    1900: 422, 1908: 254; U.S.A. (New York); (9) Dichomycesfurcifer Thax-
    ter, Thaxter 1908: 250, 1931: 16; U.S.A. ("New England"), Ceylon, Gren-
    ada, Guatemala, Venezuela, Argentina; (10) Dichomyces hybridus Thaxter
    1900:423, 1908: 253; India (Assam, Bengal), U.S.A. (Massachusetts, New
    York), China, Hong Kong; (11) Dichomyces nigrescens (Thaxter), Spegaz-
    zini 1915b: 50, Colla 1934: 32, Lepesme 1941: 481, Stadelmann & Poelt
    1962: 125, Balazuc 1974: 360; Italy, France; (12) Dichomyces princeps
    Thaxter, Thaxter 1908: 257, Picard 1913b: 512, Spegazzini 1914: 30,
    1915b: 50, Colla 1925: 252, Thaxter 1931: 17, Colla 1934: 35, Sugiyama
    1972: 261, Balazuc 1974: 360; France, Australia, India, St. Vincent, Ar-
    gentina, Italy, Peru; (13) Dichomyces vulgatus Thaxter 1900: 424, 1908:
    251, Spegazzini 1915a: 454, 1915c: 51, Colla 1925: 254, Banhegyi 1940:
    43, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 125; Hong Kong, Australia, Chile, Somalia,
    Grenada, Hungary; (14) Rhachomyces philonthinus Thaxter 1900: 435,
    1908: 424, Picard 1913b: 556, Hake 1923: 81, Binhegyi 1949: 98, Stadel-
    mann & Poelt 1962: 131, Balazuc 1973a: 465; Great Britain, Romania; (15)
    Laboulbenia philonthi Thaxter, Thaxter 1896: 343, 1908: 358, Spegazzini
    1917: 633, Scheloske 1969: 129; U.S.A. (Florida, "New England"), South
    America; (16) Laboulbenia dubia Thaxter, Briedis 1932: 131, Stadelmann
    & Poelt 1962: 127; U.S.S.R. (Latvia); (17) Monoicomyces sanctaehelenae
    Thaxter, Colla 1934: 43, as "Phylontus sp." (I am doubtful about this rec-
    ord), Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 130; Italy; (18) Codrus ligatus (Nees),
    Hedqvist 1963: 63, from host larva; Sweden.
    Philothalpus analis (Erichson): Peyritschiella lampropygi Thaxter 1931: 18,
    name of host given as 'Lamropygus analis"; Panama.
    Phucobius simulator Sharp: Laboulbenia cafii Thaxter, Sugiyama 1973: 45,
    1974: 73, Balazuc 1974: 368; Japan.
    Platyprosopus beduinus Nordmann: Laboulbenia platyprosopi Thaxter 1902:
    51, 1908: 347; Sudan.
    Plociopterus laetus Sharp: Dichomyces peruvianus Thaxter, Thaxter 1908:
    257; Brazil.
    Quediomacrus puniceipennis Solsky: Dichomyces princeps Thaxter, Thaxter
    1908: 257; Mexico.
    Quedius Stephens. SEE ALSO Anaquedius, Cheilocolpus, Hemiquedius. The
    systematic position of Cheilocolpus is discussed by Coiffait & Saiz (1966).
    Quedius basiventris Sharp: Sphaleromyces atropurpureus Thaxter 1900: 441,
    transf. ad Sphaleromyces atropurpureus (Thaxter) by Thaxter 1908: 324,
    transf. ad Mimeomyces atropurpureus (Thaxter) by Thaxter 1931: 9; Pan-
    ama.
    Quedius brevis Erichson: Eulophus amempsimus Walker, Donisthorpe 1938:
    74, from pupa of host; England.







    Quedius cinctus (Paykull) (= Q. impressus (Panzer)): (1) Symplectromyces
    vulgaris (Thaxter), Thaxter 1908: 315, Picard 1913b: 527, Siemaszko 1932:
    173, Scheloske 1969: 151, Balazuc 1974: 350; Portugal; (2) Diplogaster
    gracilis Biitschli, Hirschmann 1952: 349, trans. adDiplogastrellus gracilis
    (Biitschli) by Paramonov 1952: 348, Poinar 1975: 173; Germany; (3)Diplo-
    gaster stercorarius Bovien, Hirschmann 1952: 349, transf. ad Paroigolai-
    mella stercorarius (Bovien) by Paramonov & Sobolev 1954: 218, transf. ad
    Holodiplogaster stercorarius (Bovien) by Meyl 1960: 33, transf. ad Fictor
    stercorarius (Bovien) by Goodey 1963: 186, Poinar 1975: 173; Germany.
    Quedius collaris (Erichson): Symplectromyces vulgaris (Thaxter), Majewski
    1974: 281; Poland.
    Quedius cruentus (Olivier): Teratomyces vulgaris Thaxter 1900: 431, transf.
    ad Symplectromyces vulgaris (Thaxter) by Thaxter 1908: 315, Picard 1913b:
    527, Thaxter 1931: 168, Siemaszko 1932: 173, Scheloske 1969: 151, Bal-
    azuc 1974: 350; Europe.
    Quedius dubius Heer: Symplectromyces vulgaris (Thaxter), Thaxter 1908:
    315, Picard, 1913b: 527, Siemaszko 1932: 173, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962:
    131, Scheloske 1969: 151, Balazuc 1971b: 211, 1974: 350; France.
    Quedius edwardsi Sharp: Teratomyces insignis Thaxter 1901b: 36, 1908:
    317, 1931: 170; New Zealand.
    Quediusflavicaudus Sharp: Sphaleromyces chiriquensis Thaxter 1901b: 40,
    1908: 325, transf. ad Mimeomyces chiriquensis (Thaxter) by Thaxter 1931:
    9; Panama.
    Quedius fulgidus (Fabricius): (1) Teratomyces vulgaris Thaxter: 1900: 431,
    transf. adSymplectromyces vulgaris (Thaxter) by Thaxter 1908: 315, Picard
    1913b: 527, Thaxter 1931: 168, Siemaszko 1932: 173, Stadelmann & Poelt
    1962: 131, Scheloske 1969: 151, Majewski 1974: 281, Balazuc 1974: 350;
    Germany, Spain, Poland; (2) Teratomyces quedianus Thaxter, Moesz 1931:
    167, Binhegyi 1940: 48; Hungary.
    Quediusfuliginosus (Gravenhorst): Teratomyces vulgaris Thaxter 1900: 431,
    transf. adSymplectromyces vulgaris (Thaxter) by Thaxter 1908: 315, Picard
    1913b: 527, Thaxter 1931: 168, Siemaszko 1932: 173, Scheloske 1969:
    151, Balazuc 1974: 350; Germany.
    Quedius graciliventris Sharp: Sphaleromyces atropurpureus Thaxter 1900:
    441, transf. ad Sphaleromyces atropurpureus (Thaxter) by Thaxter 1908:
    324, transf. ad Mimeomyces atropurpureus (Thaxter) by Thaxter 1931: 9;
    Panama.
    Quedius impunctus Solsky: Sphaleromyces quedionuchi Thaxter 1901b: 39,
    1908: 325, transf. ad Mimeomyces quedionuchi (Thaxter) by Thaxter 1931:
    8; Mexico (Veracruz).
    Quedius insolitus Sharp: Teratomyces zealandica Thaxter 1908: 316; New
    Zealand.







    Quedius longicornis Kraatz: Symplectromyces vulgaris (Thaxter), Scheloske
    1969: 151, Balazuc 1971b: 211, 1974: 350; France, Germany.
    Quedius maurorufus (Gravenhorst): Symplectromyces vulgaris (Thaxter),
    Scheloske 1969: 151, Balazuc 1974: 350; Germany.
    Quedius mesomelinus (Marsham) (= Q. occultus Boisduval & Lacordaire):
    (1) Histiostoma sapromyzarum (Dufour), Theodorides 1954: 195, 1955:
    165; France; (2) Rhabditida indet., Paulian 1941: 267, Theodorides 1954:
    194, from larva of host: France; (3) Symplectromyces vulgaris (Thaxter),
    Thaxter 1908: 315, Siemaszko 1932: 173, Middelhoek 1943a: 60, 1943b:
    94, Collart 1945: 103, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 131, Scheloske 1969: 151,
    Balazuc 1974: 350, Majewski 1974: 281, Rossi 1978: 73; North America,
    Yugoslavia, Netherlands, Poland, Germany, Italy, Belgium; (4) Isaria
    guignardi Maheu 1906: 115, placed as synonym ofHirsutella eleutherato-
    rum (Nees) by Petch 1932: 47; France.
    Quedius ochropterus Erichson: Symplectromyces vulgaris (Thaxter), Rossi
    1978: 73; Italy.
    Quedius peregrinus (Gravenhorst): Symplectromyces vulgaris (Thaxter),
    Thaxter 1908: 315, Scheloske 1969: 151; Canada.
    Quediuspuncticollis (Thomson) (= Q. othiniensis Johansen, = Q. talparum
    Deville): (1)Spilomicrus tripartitus Kieffer, Paulian 1941: 15, from pupa of
    host; France; (2) Symplectromyces vulgaris (Thaxter), Hincks 1960: 100,
    Scheloske 1969: 151, Balazuc 1974: 350; England; (3) Exallonyx ligatus
    (Nees), Rosenberg 1913: 43, from larva of host (Exallonyx is listed as a syn-
    onym of Codrus by Muesebeck et al. (1951), so combination is Codrus li-
    gatus (Nees)); Denmark.
    Quedius ruficollis (Gravenhorst): Dichomyces australiensis Thaxter 1901b:
    28, 1908: 256; Australia.
    Quedius scitus (Gravenhorst): Symplectromyces vulgaris (Thaxter), Rossi
    1978: 73; Italy.
    Quedius simplicifrons Fairmaire (= Q. hispanicus (Bernhauer)): (1) Codrus
    ligatus (Nees), Weidemann 1962: 30, 1965; 445, from larva of host; Ger-
    many; (2) Phaenoserphus calcar (Haliday), Weidemann 1962: 31, 1965:
    460, from larva of host; Germany.
    Quedius ventralis (Aragona) (= Q. truncicola Fairmaire & Laboulbene): Ter-
    atomyces vulgaris Thaxter 1900: 431, transf. ad Symplectromyces vulgaris
    (Thaxter) by Thaxter 1908: 315, Picard 1913b: 527, Hake 1924: 80, Thaxter
    1931: 168, Siemaszko 1932: 173, Scheloske 1969: 151, Balazuc 1974: 350;
    Great Britain.
    Quedius vexans Eppelsheim: (1) Codrus ligatus (Nees), Smetana 1957: 336,
    from larva of host; Czechoslovakia; (2) Codrus brevicornis (Haliday), Sme-
    tana 1957: 336, Weidemann 1962: 30, 1965: 458, from larva of host; Czech-
    oslovakia; (3) Dichomyces quedii Scheloske 1969: 107; Germany.
    47







    Quedius xanthopus Erichson: Symplectromyces vulgaris (Thaxter), Majewski
    1974: 281; Poland.
    The following species name, attributed to Bernhauer, appears not to be valid.
    "Quedius sorecocephalus ": (1) Mimeomyces decipiens Thaxter 1912a: 164,
    1931: 7; Argentina; (2) Mimeomyces quedionuchi (Thaxter), Thaxter 1931:
    8; Argentina.
    Quedius spp. indet.: (1) Teratomyces insignis Thaxter 1901b: 36, 1908: 317,
    1931: 170; New Zealand; (2) Teratomyces petiolatus Thaxter 1901b: 36,
    1908: 316; New Zealand; (3) Symplectromyces vulgaris (Thaxter), Thaxter
    1908: 315, Scheloske 1969: 151; India, Canada; (4) Sandersoniomyces di-
    varicatus Benjamin 1968a: 1; U.S.A. (California); (5) Exallonyx ligatus
    (Nees), Nixon 1938: 438, from larva of host (Exallonyx is listed as a syn-
    onym of Codrus by Muesebeck et al. (1951), so combination is Codrus li-
    gatus (Nees)), Weidemann 1962: 30, Hedqvist 1963: 63; England.
    ? Quedius sp.: Cantharomyces orientalis Spegazzini 1915b: 43, Thaxter
    1931: 25, Colla 1934: 38, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 125, Scheloske 1969:
    94; Italy.
    Staphylinus caesareus Cederhjelm: Actinocephalus stelliformis Schneider,
    Wellmer 1911: 137, Foerster 1938: 172; Poland.
    Staphylinus dimidiaticornis Gemminger (= S. parumtomentosus Stein): in-
    det. gamasine mites, Green & Wilkinson 1950: 144; Wales.
    Staphylinus erythropterus Linnaeus: Actinocephalus stelliformis Schneider,
    Wellmer 1911: 137, Foerster 1938: 172; Poland.
    The following species name, attributed to Bernhauer, appears not to be valid.
    "Staphylinus sumatrensis": (1) Dichomyces pretiosus Thaxter 1931: 15; In-
    donesia (Sumatra); (2) Dichomyces staphylini Thaxter 1931: 15; Indonesia
    (Sumatra).
    Staphylinus sp. indet.: "Codrus pallipes Jurine," Kawall 1855: 261, from
    larva of host, Elliott & Morley 1907: 10, 1911: 453 (specific epithet of par-
    asite cited as "pallidipes"), Morley 1922: 135, Eastham 1929: 2, (host mis-
    cited as Ocypus olens, specific epithet of parasite cited as pallidipes),
    Weidemann 1965: 452 (host miscited as Ocypus olens, parasite cited as
    Phaenoserphuspallipes (Latreille)); Germany.
    Xanthopygus calidus (Erichson) (= X. solskyi Sharp): Peyritschiella xantho-
    pygi Thaxter 1901b: 29, 1908: 261 (origin of host not stated, perhaps
    Brazil).

    TRICHOPHYINAE

    Trichophya pilicornis (Gyllenhal): Polyascomyces trichophyae Thaxter 1900:
    415, 1908: 300, Picard 1913b: 525, Hake 1923: 80; England.







    TACHYPORINAE


    ? Bryoporus obscurus (Erichson): Clonophoromyces grenadinus Thaxter 1931:
    262, host given as "Bryonomus serialis Er." a nomen incognitum, and ge-
    neric name must be an error because of inland collection locality and specific
    name is most likely as above (see also Blackwelder 1943: 529); Grenada.
    Conosoma Kratz. SEE ALSO Sepedophilus.
    The following two species names, attributed to Bernhauer, appear not to be
    valid, but are probably referable to Sepedophilus.
    "Conosoma trinidadense": Smeringomyces trinitatis Thaxter 1931: 272;
    Trinidad.
    "Conosoma kamerunensis": Stichomyces lepidus Thaxter 1931: 248; Came-
    roon.
    Coproporus bernhaueri Scheerpeltz (= C. ventralis Bernhauer): Corethro-
    myces chaetophilus Thaxter 1931: 191; Indonesia (Sumatra).
    Coproporus hypocyptoides Bernhauer: Rickia nigrescens Thaxter 1916: 44,
    1926: 485; Malaysia (Sarawak) and Philippines.
    Coproporus latus Motschulsky: (1) Rickia inclusa Thaxter 1916: 36, 1926:
    478; Philippines; (2) Rickia introversa Thaxter 1916: 34, 1926: 479; Phil-
    ippines; (3) Rickia nigrofimbriata Thaxter 1916: 35, 1926:486; Philippines;
    (4) Misgomyces philippinus Thaxter 1931: 302; Philippines.
    Coproporus platensis Bernhauer: Ecteinomyces platensis Spegazzini 1917:
    543, transf. ad Misgomyces platensis (Spegazzini) by Thaxter 1931: 303;
    Argentina.
    Coproporus pulchellus (Erichson): Misgomyces grenadinus Thaxter 1931:
    301; Grenada.
    Coproporus rutilus (Erichson) (= C. terminalis (Erichson)): (1) Ecteinomyces
    filarius Thaxter 1912a: 212, transf. ad Misgomyces filarius (Thaxter) by
    Thaxter 1931: 301; Argentina; (2) Ecteinomyces copropori Thaxter 1912a:
    213, transf. adMisgomyces copropori (Thaxter) 1931: 300 and Misgomyces
    argentinensis (Spegazzini) transf. ex Ecteinomyces argentinensis Spegaz-
    zini 1917: 533, considered as possibly synonym; Argentina; (3) Misgomyces
    bicornis Thaxter 1931: 299; Trinidad; (4) Misgomyces divexirostris (Spe-
    gazzini) Thaxter 1931: 300, host as Coproporus terminalis (Erichson): Trin-
    idad.
    Coproporus secrets Bernhauer: (1) Rickia fastigiata Thaxter 1926: 473;
    Philippines; (2) Rickia tessellata Thaxter 1926: 502; Philippines.
    Coproporus sumatrensis Bernhauer: Misgomyces appendiculatus Thaxter 1931:
    298; Indonesia (Sumatra).
    The following unattributed species name appears not to be valid.






    "Coproporus argentinus" : Ecteinomyces divexirostris Spegazzini 1917: 536,
    transf. ad Misgomyces divexirostris (Spegazzini) by Thaxter 1931: 300;
    Argentina.
    Coproporus spp. indet.: (1) Dimeromyces copropori Thaxter 1920a: 266,
    1924: 342; Cameroon; (2) Dimorphomyces brevirostris Thaxter 1920a: 219,
    1924: 324; Guatemala, Brazil, Jamaica; (3) Rickia nigrofimbriata Thaxter
    1915: 35, 1926: 486; Indonesia (Sumatra); (4) Rickia seticola Thaxter 1926:
    500; Indonesia (Sumatra); (5) Corethromyces lingulatus Thaxter 1931: 203;
    Indonesia (Sumatra); (6) Misgomyces carinatus Thaxter 1931: 299; Indone-
    sia (Sumatra).
    Lordithon thoracicus (Fabricius): Diplogasteroides stigmatus Steiner, Korner
    1954: 334, transf. ad Anchidiplogasteroides stigmatus (Steiner) by Para-
    monov 1964: 243, transf. adRhabdontolaimus stigmatus (Steiner) by Poinar
    1975: 172; Germany.
    Sepedophilus angustus (Bernhauer): Stichomyces capensis Thaxter 1931:
    250; South Africa.
    Sepedophilus obesus (Boheman): (1) Corethromyces calyculatus Thaxter 1931:
    191; Cameroon; (2) Corethromyces cornutus Thaxter 1931: 192; Cameroon;
    (3) Corethromyces rostellatus Thaxter 1931: 214; Cameroon; (4) Corethra-
    myces spectabilis Thaxter 1931: 217; Cameroon; (5) Stichomyces vesiculi-
    ferus Thaxter 1931: 249, name emended to S. vesiculifer by Benjamin 1971:
    146; Cameroon.
    Sepedophilus tenue (Bernhauer): Stichomyces sumatrae Thaxter 1931: 249;
    Indonesia (Sumatra).
    Sepedophilus testaceus (Fabricius): (1) Rhachomyces anomalus Thaxter 1902:
    25, transf. ad Smeringomyces anomalus (Thaxter) by Thaxter 1908: 297,
    1931: 272, host given as Conosoma pubescens Paykull; U.S.A. (Massachu-
    setts); (2) Stichomyces conosomae Thaxter 1901b: 38, 1908: 321, host given
    as Conosoma pubescens Paykull, name emended to C. conosomatis by Maire
    1920: 147, Thaxter 1931: 248, Benjamin 1971: 129; U.S.A. (Massachu-
    setts and Maine), Algeria; (3) Stichomyces catalinae Thaxter 1912a: 192,
    1931: 248, host given as "Conosoma testaceum Lat." and is only doubtfully
    referable to Sepedophilus testaceus not least because of possible confusion
    with the name Sepedophilus testaceus (Solier); Argentina; (4) Stichomyces
    europaeus Majewski 1973a: 121; Poland.
    Sepedophilus tibialis Sharp: (1) Smeringomyces trinatatis Thaxter, Terada
    1977: 128; Japan; (2) Stichomyces conosomatis Thaxter, Terada 1977: 129;
    Japan.
    Tachinus corticinus Gravenhorst (= T collaris Gravenhorst): Rhabditis coarc-
    tata (Leuckart), Triffitt & Oldham 1927: 44, transf. ad Pelodera coarctata
    (Leuckart) by Dougherty 1953: 70, infection achieved experimentally, not
    observed naturally; England.






    Tachinusfrigidus Erichson: ? Entomocosma sp. indet., Thaxter 1920b: 16,
    host given as T pallipes, but see Campbell 1973: 71; U.S.A. (Massachu-
    setts).
    Tachinus luridus Erichson (= Tflavipennis Henshaw): Agamonema migrans
    Christie 1930: 253, host given as Tflavipes Dejean, but see Campbell 1973:
    42, Poinar 1975: 174; U.S.A. (Virginia).
    genus and species indet., near Tachinus: Chantransiopsis stipatus Thaxter
    1914: 248; Indonesia (Java).
    Tachyporus chrysomelinus (Linnaeus): Centistes lucidator (Nees), Lipkow
    1965: 377, 1968: 410; Germany.
    Tachyporus hypnorum (Fabricius): (1) Centistes lucidator (Nees), Lipkow
    1965: 377, 1968: 410; Germany; (2) Codrus gracilis (Nixon), Lipkow 1968:
    409, from host larva; Germany; (3) Parasitylenchoides sp., Lipkow 1968:
    410, Poinar 1975: 174; Germany.
    Tachyporus obtusus (Linnaeus): (1) Centistes lucidator (Nees), Lipkow 1965:
    377, 1968: 410; Germany; (2) Blacus ruficornis (Nees), Lipkow 1965: 377,
    1968: 410; Germany.
    Tachyporus solutus Erichson: Centistes lucidator (Nees), Lipkow 1965: 377,
    1968: 410; Germany.
    genus and species indet.: Codrus microcerusKieffer, Hedqvist 1963: 63,
    from host larva; Sweden.

    ALEOCHARINAE

    Aleochara bohemani Bernhauer & Scheerpeltz (=A. rufipes Boheman): Mon-
    oicomyces aleocharae Thaxter 1901b: 24, 1908: 270; Tanzania.
    Aleochara repetita Sharp: Monoicomycesfurcillatus Thaxter 1901b: 24, transf.
    ad genus Kleidiomyces, Thaxter 1908: 281, 1912a: 220, 1931: 32; Panama.
    Aleochara spadicea (Erichson): Parasitylenchoides rheocharae Wachek 1955:
    81, Nickle 1967: 85, Shephard 1974: 205, Poinar 175: 171; Germany.
    Aleochara tenuicornis Kraatz: Laboulbenia pedicellata Thaxter, Maire 1920:
    148; Algeria.
    Aleochara tristis Gravenhorst: Roveaphelenchus jonesi Nickle 1970a: 107;
    1907b: 387, Shephard 1974: 119, Poinar 1975: 171; U.S.A. (Nebraska).
    Aleochara spp. indet.: (1) Diplogaster coprophages de Man, Sachs 1950:
    215, transf. ad Paroigolaimella coprophages (de Man) by Paramonov 1952:
    350, Poinar 1975: 171; Germany; (2) Diplogaster erlangensis Sachs 1950:
    261, transf. ad Allodiplogaster erlangensis (Sachs) by Paramonov & So-
    bolev 1954: 210; Germany; (3) Diplogaster monhysteroides Biitschli, Sachs
    1950: 215, transf. ad Diplogastrellus monhysteroides (Biitschli) by Para-
    monov 1952: 348, Poinar 1975: 171; Germany; (4) Diplogaster stercorarius







    Bovien, Sachs 1950: 215, transf. ad Paroigolaimella stercorarius (Bovien)
    by Paramonov & Sobolev 1954: 218, transf. adHolodiplogaster stercorarius
    (Bovien) by Meyl 1960: 33, transf. ad Fictor stercorarius (Bovien) by
    Goodey 1963: 186, Poinar 1975: 171; Germany; (5) Rhabditis dolichura
    Schneider, Sachs 1950: 254, transf. ad Caenorhabditis dolichura (Schnei-
    der) by Dougherty 1953: 71 by raising subgenus Caenorhabditis Osche
    1952: 265 to generic rank, Poinar 1975: 171; Germany; (6) Rhabditis hart-
    manni Sachs 1950: 255, Poinar 1975: 171; Germany; (7)Rhabditis neuhausi
    Sachs 1950: 215, placed as synonym of R. cylindrica Cobb by Osche 1952:
    258; Germany; (8) Rhabditis spiculigera Steiner, Sachs 1950: 246; Ger-
    many.
    Alianta incana (Erichson): Entaphelenchus aliantae Wachek 1955: 108,
    Goodey 1963: 158, Shephard 1974: 206, Poinar 1975: 171, from pupa and
    adult of host; Germany.
    Aloconota insect (Thomson): Monoicomyces brittanicus Thaxter 1900: 413,
    1908: 269, Picard 1913b: 516, Hake 1923: 79, Thaxter 1931: 38, Sie-
    maszko 1932: 167, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 130, name emended to M.
    britannicus by Scheloske 1969: 138, Balazuc 1974: 359; England, Poland.
    Amaurodera kraepelini Fauvel: Monoicomyces amauroderae Thaxter 1915:
    31, 1931: 35; Indonesia (Java).
    Astilbus Dillwyn. SEEDrusilla.
    Atheta amicula (Stephens): Monoicomyces homalotae Thaxter, Maire 1920:
    130; Thaxter 1931: 43, Middelhoek 1943b: 93, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962:
    130, Scheloske 1969: 140, Sugiyama 1978b: 286; Algeria, Netherlands.
    Atheta cinnamoptera (Thomson): Monoicomyces athetae Thaxter 1931: 36,
    Scheloske 1969: 138; England.
    Atheta conformis (Erichson): Amorphomyces rubescens Thaxter, Spegazzini
    1917: 465, Thaxter 1931: 59; Argentina.
    Atheta dilutipennis Motschulsky ( = A. putrescens (Wollaston)): Monoico-
    myces homalotae Thaxter 1900: 412, 1908: 268, 1931: 43, Siemaszko 1932:
    169, Petch 1944: 92, Hincks 1960: 100, Balazuc 1974: 360; Azores.
    Athetafungi (Gravenhorst): Monoicomyces zealandicus Thaxter 1918: 214,
    1931: 51; New Zealand.
    Atheta gagatina (Baudi): Monoicomyces homalotae Thaxter, Middelhoek
    1943a: 60, 1943b: 93, Scheloske 1969: 140, Balazuc 1974: 360; Nether-
    lands, France.
    Atheta graminicola (Gravenhorst): Monoicomyces homalotae Thaxter, Poelt
    1952a: 34, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 130, Scheloske 1969: 140; Germany.
    Atheta inornata Kraatz: Monoicomyces nigrescens Thaxter, 1931: 46, Sche-
    loske 1969: 140; Ceylon.






    Atheta lurida (Erichson): (1) Dimorphomyces verticalis Thaxter 1912a: 159,
    Spegazzini 1917: 519, Thaxter 1924: 325; Argentina; (2) Amorphomyces ru-
    bescens Thaxter Spegazzini 1917: 465, Thaxter 1931: 59; Argentina; (3)
    Monoicomyces homalotae Thaxter, Spegazzini 1917: 658, Scheloske 1969:
    140; Argentina.
    Atheta luteipes (Erichson): Monoicomyces nigrescens Thaxter, Middelhoek
    1943b: 94, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 130, Scheloske 1969: 140; Nether-
    lands.
    Atheta nigrifrons (Erichson): Monoicomyces homalotae Thaxter, Scheloske
    1969: 140, host given as "Atheta melanocephala"; Germany.
    Atheta obtusidens Eppelsheim: Monoicomyces zealandicus Thaxter, Thaxter
    1931: 51; South Africa.
    Atheta opaca Fauvel: Monoicomyces asymmetricus Thaxter 1931: 36; Indo-
    nesia (Sumatra) (host range is East Africa according to Bernhauer & Scheer-
    peltz (1926)).
    Atheta parents Mulsant & Rey: Monoicomyces homalotae Thaxter, Maire
    1920: 130, Thaxter 1931: 43, Scheloske 1969: 140, Sugiyama 1978b: 286;
    Algeria.
    Atheta pertyi Heer: Monoicomyces homalotae Thaxter, Maire 1916a: 8, Thax-
    ter 1931: 43, Scheloske 1969: 140; Algeria.
    Atheta platygaster Kraatz: (1) Monoicomyces asymmetricus Thaxter 1931:
    36, Indonesia (Sumatra): (2) Monoicomyces denticulatus Thaxter 1915: 32,
    1931: 39; Indonesia (Sumatra).
    Atheta sumatrensis Bernhauer: Monoicomyces zealandicus Thaxter, Thaxter
    1931: 51; Indonesia (Java).
    Atheta transfuga Sharp: Monoicomyces homalotae Thaxter, Sugiyama 1978b:
    285; Japan.
    Atheta triangulum (Kraatz): Monoicomyces homalotae Thaxter, Middelhoek
    1943a: 60, 1943b: 93, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 130, Scheloske 1969: 140;
    Germany.
    Atheta xanthopus (Thomson): Monoicomyces homalotae Thaxter, Middel-
    hoek, 1947b: 232, Scheloske 1969: 140; Netherlands.
    The following two species names, attributed to Bernhauer, appear not to be
    valid.
    "Atheta chilensis": Monoicomyces caloderae Thaxter, and syn. M. ocaleae
    Spegazzini 1917: 660, Thaxter 1931: 38; Chile.
    "Atheta venezolana": Kleidiomyces venezolanus Thaxter 1931: 33; Vene-
    zuela.
    Atheta spp. indet.: (1) Dimorphomyces verticalis Thaxter 1912a: 159, 1924:







    325, Spegazzini 1917: 519; Argentina and Guatemala; (2) Monoicomyces
    brittanicus Thaxter, Picard 1917: 443, Lepesme 1941: 482, name emended
    to M. britannicus by Scheloske 1969: 138; France, Germany; (3) Monoico-
    myces venetus Spegazzini 1915b: 69, Thaxter 1931: 51, generic identifica-
    tion of the host doubtful, Colla 1934: 45, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 131;
    Italy; (4) Monoicomyces zealandicus Thaxter, Thaxter 1931: 51; Chile; (5)
    Amorphomyces italicus Spegazzini 1915b: 38, Thaxter 1931: 57, Colla
    1934: 56, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 124, identification of the host doubtful;
    Italy; (6) Amorphomyces rubescens Thaxter, Thaxter 1931: 59; Argentina;
    (7) Monoicomyces homalotae Thaxter, Thaxter 1912a: 223, Scheloske 1969:
    140; Argentina; (8) Diplogaster coprophages de Man, Sachs 1950: 215,
    transf. ad Paroigolaimella coprophages (de Man) by Paramonov 1952: 350,
    Poinar 1975: 171; Germany; (9) Diplogaster erlangensis Sachs 1950: 261,
    transf. ad Allodiplogaster erlangensis (Sachs) by Paramonov & Sobolev
    1954: 210; Germany; (10) Diplogaster henrichae Sachs 1950: 260, transf.
    ad Allodiplogaster henrichae (Sachs) by Paramonov & Sobolev 1954: 209;
    Germany; (11) Diplogaster monhysteroides Biitschli, Sachs 1950: 215,
    transf. ad Diplogastrellus monhysteroides (Biitschli) by Paramonov 1952:
    348, Poinar 1975: 171; Germany; (12) Diplogaster stercorarius Bovien,
    Sachs 1950: 215, transf. ad Paroigolaimella stercorarius (Bovien) by Para-
    monov & Sobolev 1954: 218, transf. adHolodiplogaster stercorarius (Bov-
    ien) by Meyl 1960: 33, transf. ad Fictor stercorarius (Bovien) by Goodey
    1963: 186, Poinar 1975: 171; Germany; (13) Rhabditis coarctata (Leuck-
    art), Sachs 1950: 215, transf. ad Pelodera coarctata (Leuckart) by Dough-
    erty 1955: 70, Poinar 1975: 171; Germany; (14) Rhabditis gracilicauda de
    Man, Sachs 1950: 215, Poinar 1975: 172; Germany; (15) Rhabditis neu-
    hausi Sachs 1950: 215, placed as syn. ofR. cylindrica Cobb by Osche 1952:
    258; Germany; (16) Rhabditis spiculigera Steiner, Sachs 1950: 247; Ger-
    many; (17) Monoicomyces athetae Thaxter, Scheloske 1969: 138; Germany;
    (18) Monoicomyces nigrescens Thaxter, Scheloske 1969: 140; Germany.
    Because many authors of the late 19th and early 20th centuries continued to
    place species belonging to the genus Atheta Thomson under the generic name
    Homalota Mannerheim, some of the unidentified species of "Homalota" (see
    below) possibly belong to the genus Atheta.
    Blepharymenus Solier. SEE Echidnoglossa.
    Brachida reyi Sharp: Tetrandromyces brachidae Thaxter 1912a: 168, 1931:
    73; Argentina.
    Calodera spp. indet.: (1) Monoicomyces caloderae Thaxter 1912: 162 and
    syn. M. ocaleae Spegazzini 1917: 660, Thaxter 1931: 38; Argentina; (2)
    Monoicomyces nigrescens Thaxter 1902: 10, 1908: 270, Scheloske 1969:
    140, Rossi 1978: 66; U.S.A. (New Hampshire, Maine).
    Diestota testacea (Kraatz): Monoicomyces diestotae Thaxter 1931: 39; Indo-
    nesia (Sumatra).







    Diestota sp. indet.: Amorphomyces rubescens Thaxter 1912a: 167; Argen-
    tina.
    Dorylonia Wasmann. SEE Ocyplanus.
    Dorylonilla spinipennis Wasmann: Monoicomyces dorylonillae Thaxter 1931:
    40 (identity of host uncertain); Cameroon.
    Drusilla Leach. SEE ALSO Myrmedonia.
    Drusilla canaliculata (Fabricius): Diplogaster entomophaga Steiner, Schuur-
    mans Stekhoven 1929: 265, Theodorides 1955: 117, placed as syn. of D.
    maupasi Potts by Hirschmann 1952: 397,D. entomophaga Steiner transf. ad
    Paroigolaimella entomophaga (Steiner) by Paramonov & Sobolev 1954:
    214, transf. ad Mesodiplogaster maupasi (Potts) by Goodey 1963: 182,
    Poinar 1975: 171; Holland.
    The following species name, attributed to Fauvel, appears not to be valid. The
    generic name Echidnoglossa Wollaston is a synonym ofBlepharymenus Solier.
    "Echidnoglossa americana": Monoicomyces echidnoglossae Thaxter 1901b:
    23, 1908: 269; U.S.A. (Colorado).
    Eudera Fauvel. SEE Ophioglossa.
    Evanystes circellaris (Gravenhorst): (1) Monoicomyces athetae Thaxter,
    Scheloske 1969: 138; Germany; (2) Monoicomyces homalotae Thaxter,
    Scheloske 1969: 140; Germany.
    Evanystes peyerimhoffi (Fauvel): Monoicomyces homalotae Thaxter, Maire
    1916a: 8, Thaxter 1931: 43, Scheloske 1969: 140; Algeria.
    Falagria coarcticollis Fauvel: Monoicomyces falagriae Thaxter 1931: 41,
    Rossi 1978: 71; Cameroon.
    Falagria concinna Erichson (= F longipes Wollaston): Amorphomycesfala-
    griae Thaxter, Spegazzini 1917: 464; Argentina.
    Falagria dissecta Erichson: (1) Dimorphomyces denticulatus Thaxter 1893:
    157, 1896: 266, 1924: 322; U.S.A. (Massachusetts, Maine); (2) Dimorpho-
    myces muticus Thaxter 1894: 104, 1896: 267, 1924: 322; U.S.A. (Massa-
    chusetts, Maine); (3) Amorphomycesfalagriae Thaxter 1893: 158, 1896:
    296, 1931: 56, Tavares 1970: 743; U.S.A. (Massachusetts, Maine, New
    York).
    Falagria latemarginata Bernhauer: (1) Monoicomyces ramosus Thaxter 1931:
    47; Indonesia (Sumatra); (2) Amorphomyces biformis Thaxter 1931: 55; In-
    donesia (Sumatra).
    Falagria splendens Kraatz: Monoicomyces nigrescens Thaxter, Rossi 1978:
    71; Italy.
    Falagria sp. indet.: Amorphomyces falagriae Thaxter, Thaxter 1931: 56;
    U.S.A. (Ohio), Jamaica.
    Geostiba Thomson. SEE Evanystes.






    Gnypeta modest Bernhauer: Monoicomyces trypetae Thaxter 1931: 50, host
    cited as "Trypeta modest Bernh.", specific epithet emended to gnypetae
    by Balazuc (1971b: 212); Indonesia (Sumatra).
    The following species name, attributed to Bernhauer, appears not to be valid.
    "Gyrophaena parcipennis": Stigmatomyces gyrophaenae Thaxter 1931: 165,
    transf. adAcallomyces gryophaenae (Thaxter) by Tavares 1973: 933, Sugi-
    yama 1978a: 154; Jamaica.
    Gyrophaena spp. indet.: (1)Dimeromyces gyrophaeniae Thaxter 1920a: 268,
    emended toD. gyrophaenae by Thaxter 1924: 341; Cameroon; (2) Dimero-
    myces roreri Thaxter 1920a: 266, 1924: 340; Trinidad; (3) Acallomyces gy-
    rophaenae (Thaxter), Sugiyama 1978a: 154; Japan.
    Homalota Mannerheim. SEE ALso Atheta ANDStenomastax.
    The following species name, attributed to Bernhauer, appears not to be valid.
    "Homalota pseudocribrum": Monoicomyces asymmetricus Thaxter 1931:
    16; Indonesia (Sumatra).
    Some of the following unidentified species of "Homalota" possibly belong to
    Atheta.
    Homalota spp. indet.: (1) Monoicomyces brittanicus Thaxter, Spegazzini
    1915b: 66, Thaxter 1931: 38, Colla 1934: 42, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962:
    130, identification of host uncertain, name emended to M. britannicus by
    Scheloske 1969: 138; Italy; (2) Monoicomyces homalotae Thaxter, Thaxter
    1908: 268, Colla 1934: 41, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 130; U.S.A. and It-
    aly; (3) Monoicomyces similis Thaxter 1905: 305, 1908: 269; U.S.A. (Maine);
    (4) Acallomyces homalotae Thaxter 1902: 24, 1908: 300; U.S.A. (New
    Hampshire); (5) Amorphomyces minisculus Thaxter 1931: 56; Indonesia
    (Sumatra); (6) Amorphomyces rubescens Thaxter 1912a: 167; Argentina.
    Hoplandria smith Cameron: Kleidiomyces hoplandriae Thaxter 1931: 33;
    Grenada.
    The following two species names, attributed to Bernhauer, appear not to be
    valid.
    "Hoplandria carinicollis": Kleidiomyces hoplandriae Thaxter 1931: 33;
    Trinidad.
    "Hoplandria quadridentata": Kleidiomyces hoplandriae Thaxter 1931: 33;
    Grenada.
    Leptoglossula sculpticollis (Fauvel): Diandromyces chilenus Thaxter 1918:
    209, 1931: 10; Chile.
    The following species name, attributed to Bernhauer, appears not to be valid.
    "Maseochara sumatrensis": Kainomyces isomali Thaxter 1901b: 45, 1931:
    364, Sugiyama 1978a: 155; Malaysia (Sarawak).






    Meronera sharpi Lynch: (1) Dimorphomyces meronevae Thaxter 1912a: 158,
    placed as synonym of D. argentinensis Spegazzini by Spegazzini 1917,
    Thaxter 1924: 323 (name of junior synonym emended to D. meronerae);
    Argentina; (2) Monoicomyces nigrescens Thaxter, Thaxter 1912a: 223, Spe-
    gazzini 1917: 659, Thaxter 1931:46, Scheloske 1969: 140, Rossi 1978: 66;
    Argentina.
    Mimocyptus globulus Cameron: Rickia pallescens Thaxter 1916: 45, 1926:
    488, host first recorded erroneously as Coproporus sp.; Philippines.
    The following species name, attributed to Fauvel, appears not to be valid, though
    it is possible that the attribution was mistakenly made to Fauvel instead of to
    Solsky. Myrmedonia Erichson is a synonym of Drusilla Leach; however, the
    name has been applied by many authors to the species belonging to the genus
    Zyras Stephens.
    "Myrmedonia flavicornis": Dimorphomyces myrmedoniae Thaxter 1900:
    409, 1908: 240, 1924: 324; Guatemala.
    gen. et sp. indet. ? nearMyrmedonia: Amorphomyces obliqueseptata Thaxter
    1900: 431, transf. ad Dioicomyces obliqueseptatus (Thaxter) by Thaxter
    1901b: 33, 1908: 296; Brazil.
    Nehemitropia sordida (Marsham): (1) Dichomyces homalotae Thaxter 1901b:
    29, 1908: 259, Spegazzini 1912: 185, 1917: 513, Thaxter 1931: 16;U.S.A.
    (Massachusetts, Maine), Argentina; (2) Parasitylenchus athetae Wachek
    1955: 64, Shephard 1974: 205, subgenus given generic status, thus Propar-
    asitylenchus athetae Wachek by Nickle 1967: 86, Poinar 1975: 171.
    Neosilusa Cameron. SEE ALSO Plagiusa.
    Neosilusa ceylonica (Kraatz): Monoicomyces stenusae Thaxter 1915: 30,
    1931: 49; Indonesia (Java).
    Ocalea funebris Lynch: (1) Monoicomyces caloderae Thaxter, Spegazzini
    1917: 660 (as M. ocaleae Spegazzini), Thaxter 1931: 38; Argentina; (2)
    Monoicomyces nigrescens Thaxter, Spegazzini 1912: 194, Scheloske 1969:
    140; Argentina.
    Ocalea picata (Stephens): Monoicomycesfragilis Scheloske 1969: 138; Ger-
    many.
    Ocyplanus amaneensis (Eichelbaum): Monoicomyces doryloniae Thaxter 1931:
    39, Cameron.
    Ophioglossa bisulcata (Erichson): Amorphomyces minisculus Thaxter 1931:
    56; Guatemala.
    Ophioglossa cava Sharp: Amorphomyces ophioglossae Thaxter, Spegazzini
    1917: 465, Thaxter 1931: 57; Argentina.
    Ophioglossa sp. indet.: Amorphomyces ophioglossae Thaxter 1912a: 167,
    1931: 57; Argentina.







    Oxypoda spp. indet.: (1) Dimorphomyces verticalis Thaxter 1912a: 159,
    1924: 325; Argentina; (2) Monoicomyces oxypodae Thaxter 1902: 10, 1908:
    271; U.S.A. (New Hampshire).
    Phloeopora corticalis (Gravenhorst): Dimorphomyces thleoporae Thaxter
    1900: 410, 1908: 241, 1924: 323, specific epithet emended tophloeoporae
    by Hincks 1960: 102, Balazuc 1971b: 212; Madeira.
    Phloeopora testacea (Mannerheim) ( = P reptans Erichson): Gelis areator
    (Panzer) (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae) (given as Hemiteles areator), El-
    liott & Morley 1907: 9, but this is record of association only, not evidence
    of parasitism (known to parasitize Hymenoptera, not Coleoptera); author of
    host name P reptans cited as Gravenhorst, presumably by error; England.
    The following species name, attributed to Bernhauer, appears not to be valid.
    The generic name Plagiusa Bernhauer is a synonym of Neosilusa Cameron.
    "Plagiusa gracilicornis ": Monoicomyces plagiusae Thaxter 1931: 47; Indo-
    nesia (Sumatra).
    The following species name, attributed to Bernhauer, appears not to be valid.
    "Platyola philippina": Acallomyces platyolae Thaxter 1931: 100; Philip-
    pines.
    The following species name, attributed to Bernhauer, appears not to be valid.
    "Pronomaea sumatrensis": Amorphomyces pronomaeae Thaxter 1931: 58;
    Indonesia (Sumatra).
    ? Pseudodinusa sp.: Ecteinomyces bonariensis Spegazzini 1917: 535, du-
    biously assigned to Ecteinomyces, possibly belongs to Stichomyces, Thaxter
    1931: 289, does not belong to Ecteinomyces but not assigned elsewhere; Ar-
    gentina.
    The following species name, attributed to Bernhauer, appears not be valid.
    "Pygostenus kamerunensis ": Dimorphomyces pygosteni Thaxter 1926: 433;
    Cameroon. The host is probably that which Bernhauer later named Pygos-
    tenus thaxteri; this name is a synonym of Typhloponemys pubescens (Was-
    mann) fide Kistner (1958).
    Schistogenia crenicollis Kraatz: Amorphomyces schistogeniae Thaxter 1931:
    58; Malaysia (Sarawak).
    The following species name, attributed to Bernhauer, appears not to be valid.
    "Silusa kamerunensis": Monoicomyces stenusaeThaxter, Thaxter 1931: 49;
    Cameroon.
    Stenomastax cribrum (Fauvel): (1) Monoicomyces gibbosus Thaxter 1931:
    42; Indonesia (Sumatra); (2) Amorphomyces minisculus Thaxter 1931: 56;
    Indonesia (Sumatra); host of both parasites given as "Homalota crebrum
    Fauvel".






    Stenomastax nigrescens (Fauvel): Monoicomyces denticulatus Thaxter 1915:
    32, 1931: 39; Indonesia (Java).
    The following species name, attributed to Bernhauer, appears not to be valid.
    Stenusa Kraatz is a subgenus ofSilusa Erichson.
    "Stenusa borneensis": Amorphomyces stenusae Thaxter 1931: 59; Malaysia
    (Sarawak).
    Silusa Erichson. SEE ALSO Stenusa, Plagiusa.
    Tachyusa sp. indet.: Monoicomyces nigrescens Thaxter 1902: 10, 1908: 270,
    Scheloske 1969: 140, Rossi 1978: 66, U.S.A. (New Hampshire, Maine).
    Trichodonia schwabi Wasmann: Peyritschiella trichodomiae Thaxter 1931:
    19, name emended to P trichodoniae by Benjamin 1971: 142; Cameroon.
    Zyras argentinus (Lynch): Dimorphomyces argentinensis Spegazzini 1912:
    187, Thaxter 1924: 323, name of host given as Myrmedonia argentina; Ar-
    gentina.
    Zyras collaris (Paykull): Aptesis nigrocincta (Gravenhorst) (Hymenoptera,
    Ichneumonidae), (given as Microcryptus nigrocinctus) Elliott & Morley
    1907: 9, Donisthorpe 1940: 14, record of association, not evidence of para-
    sitism (known to be a parasite of Hymenoptera, not Coleoptera); England.
    Zyras lugens (Gravenhorst): Parasitylenchus myrmedoniae Wachek 1955: 63,
    subgenus raised to generic status, thus Proparasitylenchus myrmedoniae
    Wachek, by Nickle 1967: 86, Shephard 1974: 205, Poinar 1975: 174; Ger-
    many.
    Zyras sulcicollis Fauvel: Peyritschiella xyricola Thaxter 1931: 19, NEW
    EMENDATION to P zyricola: Cameroon.
    genus and species indet. (Aleocharinae): Dimorphomyces grenadinus Thaxter
    1920a: 221, 1924: 322; Grenada.
    genus and species indet. (Aleocharinae): Dimeromyces gracilis Thaxter 1920a:
    267, 1924: 340; Cameroon.
    genus and species indet. (Aleocharinae): Cantharomyces magellanicus Thax-
    ter 1918: 213, 1931: 24; Argentina.


    SUBFAMILIA INCOGNITA

    The following generic and specific names, attributed to Bernhauer, appear not
    be valid:
    "Leptotrachela javana": Monoicomyces leptotrachelae Thaxter 1915: 30,
    also as M. leptotracheli, 1931: 45; Indonesia (Java).
    genus and species indet.: Dichomyces homalotae Thaxter, Spegazzini 1915b:
    50, Thaxter 1931: 16, Colla 1934: 33; Italy.






    genus and species indet.: Monoicomyces homalotae Thaxter, Spegazzini 1912:
    194; Argentina.
    genus and species indet.: Cantharomyces venetus Spegazzini 1915b: 43,
    Thaxter 1931: 26, Colla 1934: 39, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 125; Italy.
    genus and species indet.: Monoicomyces affinis Spegazzini 1915b: 65, placed
    as synonym ofM. invisibilis (Thaxter) by Thaxter 1931: 43, Stadelmann &
    Poelt 1962: 130; Italy.
    genus and species indet.: Monoicomyces ternatus Spegazzini 1915b: 67,
    Thaxter 1931: 50, Colla 1934: 44, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 130; Italy.
    genus and species indet.: Monoicomyces unilateralis Spegazzini 1915b: 68,
    Thaxter 1931: 50, Stadelmann & Poelt 1962: 131; Italy.
    genus and species indet.: Chantransiopsis decumbens Thaxter 1914: 248; In-
    donesia (Java).
    genus and species indet.: Peyritschiella amazonica Thaxter 1900: 427, 1908:
    261; Brazil.
    genus and species indet.: Entomophthora anglica Petch 1944: 89, 1948: 290,
    Leatherdale 1958: 104; England.
    genus and species indet.: Hirsutella eleutheratorum (Nees), Petch 1948: 297,
    Leatherdale 1958: 104; England.









    PARASITE: HOST LIST

    Class DEUTEROMYCETES
    Order GLOEOHAUSTORIALES

    GLOEOHAUSTORIACEAE

    Amphoromorpha Thaxter, 1914
    CHILOPODA, DERMAPTERA, ORTHOPTERA, COLEOPTERA: Carabi-
    dae, Histeridae, Staphylinidae (Paederinae, Staphylininae)
    A. entomophila Thaxter: Diochus (Staphylininae), DERMAPTERA
    A. mirabilis Siemaszko & Siemaszko: Philonthus (Staphylininae), Carabidae
    A. subminuta (Spegazzini): Echiaster (Paederinae)

    Chantransiopsis Thaxter, 1914
    DIPTERA, COLEOPTERA: Hydrophilidae, Staphylinidae (Osoriinae,
    Tachyporinae, Staphylininae)
    C. bonaerensis Spegazzini: Eleusis, Nacaeus (Osoriinae), Xantholinus (Xan-
    tholininae), DIPTERA
    C. decumbens Thaxter: ? genus (? subfamily)
    C. platensis Spegazzini: Belonuchus (Staphylininae)
    C. stipatus Thaxter: ? genus (Tachyporinae)
    C. xantholini Thaxter: Gyrohypnus (Xantholininae)
    C. sp. indet.: Xantholinus (Xantholininae)

    Entomocosma Spegazzini, 1918
    COLEOPTERA: Hydrophilidae, Staphylinidae (Tachyporinae)
    ? Entomocosma sp. indet.: Tachinus (Tachyporinae)

    Thaxteriola Spegazzini, 1918
    DERMAPTERA, COLEOPTERA: Scarabaeidae, Staphylinidae (Staphyli-
    ninae)
    T infuscata Spegazzini: Belonuchus, Philonthus (Staphylininae), DERMAP-
    TERA
    T nigromarginata Thaxter: ? genus (? subfamily)






    Class ASCOMYCETES
    Order LABOULBENIALES
    PEYRITSCHIELLACEAE

    Camptomyces Thaxter, 1894
    COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidae (Paederinae)
    C. brunneomarginatus Thaxter: Astenus (Paederinae)
    C.falcatus Thaxter: Astenus
    C. guatemalensis Thaxter: Astenus
    C. melanopus Thaxter: Astenus
    C. recurvatus Thaxter: Astenus
    C. subsigmoideus Thaxter: Astenus
    C. sumatrae Thaxter: Astenus
    C. sp. indet.: Astenus

    Cantharomyces Thaxter, 1890
    COLEOPTERA: Byrrhidae, Hydrophilidae, Parnidae, Staphylinidae (Oxy-
    telinae, ? Aleocharinae, ? Staphylininae)
    C. ancyrophori Picard: Ochthephilus (Oxytelinae)
    C. andinus Thaxter: Carpelimus (Oxytelinae)
    C. bledii Thaxter: Bledius (Oxytelinae)
    C. chilensis Thaxter: Thinodromus (Oxytelinae)
    C. exiguus Thaxter: Carpelimus
    C. haytiensis Thaxter: Carpelimus
    C. japonicus Sugiyama: Thinodromus
    C. magellanicus Thaxter: ? genus (Aleocharinae)
    C. numidicus Maire: Thinodromus
    C. occidentalis Thaxter: Bledius
    C. orientalis Spegazzini: ? Quedius (Staphylininae), Carpelimus
    ( = C. abbreviatus Maire): Carpelimus
    C. platystethi Thaxter: Platystethus (Oxytelinae)
    C. pusillus Thaxter: Carpelimus
    C. thaxteri Maire: Carpelimus, Thinodromus
    C. trogophloei Spegazzini: Carpelimus
    C. valdivianus Thaxter: Thinodromus
    C. venetus Spegazzini: ? genus (? subfamily), Carpelimus
    C. sp. indet.: Bledius

    Diandromyces Thaxter, 1918
    COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidae (Aleocharinae)
    D. chilenus Thaxter: Leptoglossula (Aleocharinae)






    Diaphoromyces Thaxter, 1926
    COLEOPTERA: Tenebrionidae, Staphylinidae (Piestinae, Osoriinae, ?
    Oxytelinae)
    D. lispini (Thaxter): Lispinus, Nacaeus (Osoriinae)
    ( = ?D. argentinensis (Spegazzini)): ? Carpelimus (Oxytelinae)
    D. zirophori (Thaxter): Piestus (Piestinae)

    Dichomyces Thaxter, 1893
    COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidae (Xantholininae, Staphylininae, Aleo-
    charinae)
    D. angolensis Thaxter: Philonthus (Staphylininae)
    D. anisopleurus Spegazzini: Philonthus
    D. argentinensis Spegazzini: Xantholinus (Xantholininae)
    D. arimensis Thaxter: Belonuchus (Staphylininae)
    D. australiensis Thaxter: Quedius (Staphylininae)
    D. belonuchi Thaxter: Belonuchus
    D. bicolor Thaxter: Philonthus
    D. bifidus Thaxter: Philonthus
    D. biformis Thaxter: Philonthus
    D. cafianus Thaxter: Cafius (Staphylininae)
    D. chilensis Thaxter: Cheilocolpus (Staphylininae)
    D. dubious Thaxter: Philonthus
    D. eulissi Thaxter NEW EMENDATION: Xantholinus
    D. exilis Thaxter: Philonthus, Belonuchus
    D. fumosus Thaxter: Hesperus (Staphylininae)
    D.furcifer Thaxter: Eulissus (Xantholininae), Philonthus, Gabrius (Staphy-
    lininae)
    D. gracilis Thaxter: Hesperus
    D. homalotae Thaxter: Nehemitropia (Aleocharinae)
    D. hybridus Thaxter: Philonthus
    D. infectus Thaxter: Gyrohypnus, Xantholinus (Xantholininae)
    D. insignis Thaxter: ? genus (? subfamily)
    D. javanus Thaxter: Philonthus
    D. lepidus Thaxter: Philonthus
    D. madagascarensis Thaxter: Philonthus
    D. mexicanus Thaxter: Philonthus
    D. nigrescens (Thaxter): Philonthus
    ( = D. inaequalis Thaxter): Philonthus
    D. pallidus Thaxter: Philonthus
    D. peruvianus Thaxter: Nordus, Plociopterus (Staphylininae)
    D. pretiosus Thaxter: Staphylinus (Staphylininae)
    D. princeps Thaxter: Philonthus, Quediomacrus (Staphylininae)






    D. quedii Scheloske: Quedius
    D. staphylini Thaxter: Staphylinus
    D. 'ii'iia qIai/aL riii Spegazzini: Philonthus
    D. thyreocephali Thaxter: Thyreocephalus (Xantholininae)
    D. vulgatus Thaxter: Philonthus

    Dimeromyces Thaxter, 1896
    ACARINA, ORTHOPTERA, DERMAPTERA, DIPTERA, COLEOP-
    TERA: Anthicidae, Carabidae, Chrysomelidae, Cleridae, Corylophidae,
    Cryptophagidae, Cucujidae, Phalacridae, Tenebrionidae, Staphylinidae
    (Aleocharinae, Tachyporinae)
    D. copropori Thaxter: Coproporus (Tachyporinae)
    D. gracilis Thaxter: ? genus (Aleocharinae)
    D. gyrophaenae Thaxter: Gyrophaena (Aleocharinae)
    D. roreri Thaxter: Gyrophaena (Aleocharinae)

    Dimorphomyces Thaxter, 1893
    ACARINA, COLEOPTERA: Tenebrionidae, Staphylinidae (Aleocharinae,
    Oxytelinae, Tachyporinae, ? Osoriinae)
    D. argentinensis Spegazzini: Zyras (Aleocharinae)
    ( =D. meronerae Thaxter): Meronera (Aleocharinae)
    D. bledii Thaxter: Bledius (Oxytelinae)
    D. brevirostris Thaxter: Coproporus (Tachyporinae)
    D. decipiens (Thaxter): Eleusis (Osoriinae)
    D. denticulatus Thaxter: Falagria (Aleocharinae)
    D. furcatus Thaxter: Apocellus (Oxytelinae)
    D. grenadinus Thaxter: ? genus (Aleocharinae)
    D. muticus Thaxter: Falagria
    D. myrmedoniae Thaxter: Myrmedonia (Aleocharinae)
    D. platensis Spegazzini: Apocellus
    D. pygosteni Thaxter: Typhlonemys (Aleocharinae)
    D. phloeoporae Thaxter: Phloeopora (Aleocharinae)
    D. trogophloei Spegazzini: Carpelimus (Oxytelinae)
    D. verticalis Thaxter: Atheta, Oxypoda (Aleocharinae)
    D. vulgatissimus Spegazzini: Apocellus

    Euhaplomyces Thaxter, 1901
    COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidae (Oxytelinae)
    E. ancyrophori Thaxter: Ochthephilus (Oxytelinae)






    Eumonoicomyces Thaxter, 1901
    COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidae (Oxytelinae)
    E. papuanus Thaxter: Anotylus, Oxytelus (Oxytelinae)
    ( = ?E. argentinensis Spegazzini): Platystethus (Oxytelinae)
    E. platystethi Thaxter: Platystethus

    Haplomyces Thaxter, 1893
    COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidae (Oxytelinae)
    H. californicus Thaxter: Bledius (Oxytelinae)
    H. texanus Thaxter: Bledius
    H. virginianus Thaxter: Bledius

    Kleidiomyces Thaxter, 1908
    COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidae (Aleocharinae)
    K. furcillatus (Thaxter): Aleochara(Aleocharinae)
    K. hoplandriae Thaxter: Hoplandria (Aleocharinae)
    K. venezolanus Thaxter: Atheta (Aleocharinae)

    Mimeomyces Thaxter, 1912
    COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidae (Staphylininae, Paederinae)
    M. andinus (Spegazzini): Cheilocolpus (Staphlininae)
    M. atropurpureus (Thaxter): Quedius (Staphylininae)
    M. brachydiri (Thaxter) NEW EMENDATION: Nordus (Staphylininae)
    M. chiriquensis (Thaxter): Quedius
    M. decipiens Thaxter: Quedius
    M. latonae (Thaxter): Pseudocryptobium (Paederinae)
    M. quedionuchi (Thaxter): Quedius
    M. valdivianus (Thaxter): Cheilocolpus
    M. zeelandicus Middelhoek & Boelens: Heterothops (Staphylininae)

    Monoicomyces Thaxter, 1900
    COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidae (Aleocharinae, Oxytelinae, Osoriinae, Xan-
    tholininae, ? Staphylininae)
    M. aleocharae Thaxter: Aleochara (Aleocharinae)
    M. amauroderae Thaxter: Amaurodera (Aleocharinae)
    M. asymmetricus Thaxter: Atheta, Homalota (Aleocharinae)
    M. athetae Thaxter: Atheta, Evanystes (Aleocharinae)
    M. barberi Thaxter: Oxytelus (Oxytelinae)
    M. britannicus Thaxter: Aloconota, ? Homalota (Aleocharinae)
    M. californicus (Thaxter): Oxytelus, Anotylus (Oxytelinae)
    M. caloderae Thaxter: Atheta, Calodera, (Aleocharinae)
    (= M. ocaleae Spegazzini): Ocalea (Aleocharinae)






    M. denticulatus Thaxter: Stenomastax (Aleocharinae)
    M. diestotae Thaxter: Diestota (Aleocharinae)
    M. doryloniae Thaxter: Ocyplanus (Aleocharinae)
    M. dorylonillae Thaxter: Dorylonilla (Aleocharinae)
    M. echidnoglossae Thaxter: Blepharymenus (Aleocharinae)
    M. eleusinus Thaxter: Eleusis (Osoriinae)
    M. falagriae Thaxter: Falagria (Aleocharinae)
    M. fragilis Scheloske: Ocalea
    M.furcatus Thaxter: Anotylus
    M. gibbosus Thaxter: Stenomastax
    M. gnypetae Thaxter: Gnypeta (Aleocharinae)
    M. homalotae Thaxter: Atheta, Evanystes, Homalota (Aleocharinae), Carpe-
    limus (Oxytelinae)
    M. infuscatus Spegazzini: Xantholinus (Xantholininae)
    M. invisibilis Thaxter: Anotylus, Oxytelus
    (=M. affinis Spegazzini): ? genus (? subfamily)
    (= ?M. argentinensis (Spegazzini)): Platystethus (Oxytelinae)
    M. javanus Thaxter: Oxytelus
    M. kamerunensis Thaxter: ? genus (Oxytelinae)
    M. leptochiri Thaxter: Borolinus, Leptochirus, Priochirus (Osoriinae)
    M. leptotrachelae Thaxter: "Leptotrachela" (? subfamily, Staphylinidae)
    M. nigrescens Thaxter: Atheta, Calodera, Falagria, Meronera, Ocalea,
    Tachyusa (Aleocharinae)
    M. osorianus Thaxter: Neosorius (Osoriinae)
    M. oxypodae Thaxter: Oxypoda (Aleocharinae)
    M. plagiusae Thaxter: Neosilusa (Aleocharinae)
    M. ramosus Thaxter: Falagria
    M. sanctaehelenae Thaxter: Oxytelus, and ? Philonthus (Staphylininae)
    (= M. roccae Colla): Oxytelus, Platystethus
    M. similis Thaxter: ? Homalota
    M. singularis Thaxter: Oxytelus
    M. stenusae Thaxter: Neosilusa (Aleocharinae)
    M. ternatus Spegazzini: ? genus (? subfamily)
    M. unilateralis Spegazzini: ? genus (? subfamily)
    M. venetus Spegazzini: ?Atheta
    M. zealandicus Thaxter: Atheta
    M. sp. indet.: Anotylus

    Neohaplomyces Benjamin, 1955
    COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidae (Paederinae)
    N. cubensis Benjamin: Medon (Paederinae)
    N. medonalis Benjamin: Medon
    N. neomedonalis Benjamin: Neomedon (Paederinae)






    Peyritschiella Thaxter, 1890
    COLEOPTERA: Carabidae, Staphylinidae (Staphylininae Aleocharinae,
    Oxytelinae)
    P amazonica Thaxter: ? genus (? subfamily)
    P lampropygi Thaxter: Philothalpus (Staphylininae)
    P protea Thaxter: Anotylus, Bledius, Manda, Oxytelus, Planeustomus
    (= P oxyteli Cepede & Picard) (Oxytelinae)
    P trichodoniae Thaxter NEW EMENDATION: Trichodonia (Aleocharinae)
    P xanthopygi Thaxter: Xanthopygus (Staphylininae)
    P zyricola Thaxter NEW EMENDATION: Zyras (Aleocharinae)

    Polyascomyces Thaxter, 1900
    COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidae (Trichophyinae)
    P trichophyae Thaxter: Trichophya (Trichophyinae)

    Rickia Cavara, 1899
    ACARINA, ORTHOPTERA, HYMENOPTERA, COLEOPTERA: Corylo-
    phidae, Cryptophagidae, Endomychidae, Erotylidae, Hydrophilidae, Niti-
    dulidae, Passalidae, Phalacridae, Scarabaeidae, Scydmaenidae,
    Tenebrionidae, Staphylinidae (Tachyporinae, Osoriinae, Staphylininae,
    Omaliinae)
    R. compressa Thaxter: Leptochirus (Osoriinae)
    R. fastigiata Thaxter: Coproporus (Tachyporinae)
    R. inclusa Thaxter: Coproporus
    R. introversa Thaxter: Coproporus
    R. leptochiri (Thaxter): Leptochirus
    R. lispini Sugiyama: Lispinus
    R. nigrescens Thaxter: Coproporus
    R. nigrofimbriata Thaxter: Coproporus
    R. pallescens Thaxter: Mimocyptus (Aleocharinae)
    R. phloeonomi Thaxter: Phloeonomus (Omaliinae)
    R. rostellata Thaxter: Holosus (Osoriinae)
    R. rostrata Thaxter: Atanygnathus (Staphylininae)
    R. seticola Thaxter: Coproporus
    R. tessellata Thaxter: Coproporus
    R. wulaiensis Sugiyama: Priochirus (Osoriinae)
    R. zanettii Rossi & Cesari Rossi: Omalium (Omaliinae)
    R. sp. indet.: Micralymma (Omaliinae)






    LABOULBENIACEAE


    Acallomyces Thaxter, 1902
    COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidae (Aleocharinae)
    A. gyrophaenae (Thaxter): Gyrophaena (Aleocharinae)
    A. homalotae Thaxter: ? Homalota (Aleocharinae)
    A. platyolae Thaxter: Platyola (Aleocharinae)

    Amorphomyces Thaxter, 1893
    COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidae (Aleocharinae, Oxytelinae, Staphylininae)
    A. biformis Thaxter: Falagria (Aleocharinae)
    A :falagriae Thaxter: Falagria
    A. italicus Spegazzini: Carpelimus (Oxytelinae), Philonthus (Staphylininae),
    ? Atheta (Aleocharinae)
    A. minisculus Thaxter: Homalota, Stenomastax, Ophioglossa (Aleocharinae)
    A. ophioglossae Thaxter: Ophioglossa
    A. pronomaea Thaxter: Pronomaea (Aleocharinae)
    A. rubescens Thaxter: Atheta, Diestota, Homalota (Aleocharinae)
    A. schistogeniae Thaxter: Schistogenia
    A. stenusae Thaxter: Silusa (Aleocharinae)
    A. stipitatus Thaxter: Carpelimus
    A. trogophloei Spegazzini: Carpelimus

    Balazucia Benjamin, 1968
    COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidae (Omaliinae)
    B. bilateralis Benjamin: Phloeonomus (Omaliinae)

    Chaetomyces Thaxter, 1892
    COLEOPTERA: Nitidulidae, Staphylinidae (Paederinae)
    C. pinophili Thaxter: Pinophilus (Paederinae)
    (= C. borelli (Colla))

    Clematomyces Thaxter, 1900
    COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidae (Paederinae)
    C. argentinensis Spegazzini: Pinophilus (Paederinae)
    C. pinophili Thaxter: Pinophilus

    Clonophoromyces Thaxter, 1931
    COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidae (Tachyporinae)
    C. grenadinus Thaxter: Bryoporus (Tachyporinae)






    Compsomyces Thaxter, 1894
    COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidae (Paederinae, Omaliinae)
    C. lestevae Thaxter: Lesteva (Omaliinae)
    C. macropoda Thaxter: Astenus (Paederinae)
    C. palamini Thaxter NEW EMENDATION: Palaminus (Paederinae)
    C. stilicopsis Thaxter: Stilicopsis (Paederinae)
    C. verticillatus Thaxter: Astenus

    Corethromyces Thaxter, 1892
    DERMAPTERA, HEMIPTERA, COLEOPTERA: Carabidae, Leiodidae,
    Pselaphidae, Scymaenidae, Staphylinidae (Paederinae, Staphylininae,
    Tachyporinae, Piestinae, Euaesthetinae, Osoriinae, ? Xantholininae)
    C. acanthoglossae Thaxter: Acanthoglossa (Paederinae)
    C. acuminatus Thaxter: Diochus (Staphylininae)
    C. argentinus Thaxter: Ochthephilum (Paederinae)
    C. armatus Thaxter: Rugilus (Paederinae)
    C. brazilianus Thaxter: Ochthephilum
    C. brunneolus Thaxter: Rugilus
    (= C. sternalis Spegazzini)
    C. buccalis Thaxter: Rugilus
    C. calyculatus Thaxter: Sepedophilus (Tachyporinae)
    C. chaetophilus Thaxter: Coproporus (Tachyporinae)
    C. circinellus Thaxter: Medon (Paederinae)
    C. cornutus Thaxter: Sepedophilus
    C. cristatus (Thaxter): Lathrobium (Paederinae)
    C. cryptobii Thaxter: Cyrptobium, Homaeotarsus (Paederinae)
    C. curtipes Thaxter: Lithocharis, Medon (Paederinae)
    C. dacnochili Thaxter NEW EMENDATION: Dacnochilus (Paederinae)
    C. decipiens Thaxter: Medon, Lithocharis (Paederinae)
    C. diochi Thaxter: Diochus
    C. divergens Thaxter: Stilomedon (Paederinae)
    C. euaestheti Thaxter: Euaesthetus (Euaesthetinae)
    C.filifer Thaxter: Stiliderus (Paederinae)
    C. flagellaris Thaxter: Silidt, ,
    C.flectatus Thaxter: Rugilus
    C. formicetorum Spegazzini: Heterothops (Staphylininae)
    C. gracilicaulis Thaxter: Rugilus
    C. gracilis Thaxter: Lobrathium, Stereocephalus (Paederinae)
    C. grenadinus Thaxter: Diochus
    C. guatemalensis Thaxter: ? Stilomedon
    C. indicus (Thaxter): Pinophilus (Paederinae)
    C. introversus Thaxter: Medon






    C. jacobinus Thaxter: Lobrathium
    C. jamaicensis Thaxter: Stilomedon
    C. kamerunensis Thaxter: Medon
    C. laminifer Thaxter: Lithocharis, Medon
    C. lathrobii (Thaxter): Lathrobium
    C. lingulatus Thaxter: Coproporus
    C. longicaulis Thaxter: Rugilus
    C. luzonensis Thaxter: Stiliderus
    C. macropus Thaxter: Heterothops
    C. medonis Thaxter: Medon, Lithocharis
    C. minisculus Thaxter: Scopaeus (Paederinae)
    C. nanus Thaxter: Diochus
    C. obtusus (Thaxter): Dolicaon (Paederinae)
    C. occidentalis (Thaxter): Pinophilus
    C. ophitis Thaxter: Opithes (Paederinae)
    C. orientalis Thaxter: Rugilus
    C. pallidus (Thaxter): Lathrobium, Lobrathium
    (= C. cristatus (Thaxter))
    C. perelegans Thaxter: Medon
    C. piesticola Thaxter: Piestus (Piestinae), Priochirus (Osoriinae)
    C. platensis Thaxter: Lobrathium
    (= ? C. xantholini Spegazzini): Xantholinus (Xantholininae)
    C. podophilus Spegazzini: Rugilus
    C. propinquus (Thaxter): Dolicaon, Lobrathium
    C. protrudens Thaxter: Medon
    C. psilotracheli Thaxter: Stiliderus
    C. pulchellus Spegazzini: Pinophilus
    C. purpurascens Thaxter: Biocrypta, Ochthephilum (Paederinae)
    C. pygmaeus Thaxter: Rugilus
    C. rectus Spegazzini: Rugilus
    C. recurvatus Thaxter: Stiliderus
    C. rhinoceralis Thaxter: Pinophilus
    C. rostellatus Thaxter: Sepedophilus
    C. rostratus Thaxter: Heterothops
    C. sciopori Thaxter: Medon
    C. scopaei Thaxter: Scopaeus
    C. scopaeicola Thaxter: Scopaeus
    C. scymbalii Rossi & Cesari Rossi NEW EMENDATION: Scymbalium
    (Paederinae)
    C. seticola Thaxter: Medon
    C. setiger Thaxter: Lathrobium
    C. sigmoideus Thaxter: Rugilus
    C. spectabilis Thaxter: Sepedophilus
    C. speluncalis (Maire): Heterothops






    C. stereocephalus Thaxter: Stereocephalus (Paederinae)
    (= C. pallidus Spegazzini)
    C. stilici Thaxter: Rugilus
    C. stilicicola (Thaxter): Rugilus
    C. strangulatus Thaxter: Stilomedon
    C. thinocharinus Thaxter: Thinocharis (Paederinae)
    C. unciger Thaxter: Rugilus
    C. uncinulus Thaxter: Rugilus
    C. urophilus (Spegazzini): Scopaeus
    C. venezolanus Thaxter: Rugilus
    V. verrucifer Spegazzini: Rugilus
    V. vilis Thaxter: Lithocharis
    C. sp. indet.: Domene (Paederinae)

    Diclonomyces Thaxter, 1931
    COLEOPTERA: Scydmaenidae, Staphylinidae (Paederinae)
    D. stilomedonis Thaxter: Stilomedon (Paederinae)

    Dioicomyces Thaxter, 1901
    COLEOPTERA: Anthicidae, Staphylinidae (Oxytelinae, ? Aleocharinae)
    D.floridanus (Thaxter): Bledius (Oxytelinae)
    D. obliqueseptatus (Thaxter): ? genus nearMyrmedonia (Aleocharinae)

    Diplomyces Thaxter, 1895
    COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidae (Staphylininae)
    D. actobianus Thaxter: Erichsonius, ? Philonthus (Staphylininae)
    D. atanygnathi Thaxter: Atanygnathus (Staphylininae)
    D. clavifer Rossi & Cesari Rossi: Erichsonius

    Ecteinomyces Thaxter, 1902
    NOTE: The generic position of the species mentioned below has been stated
    to be wrong (Thaxter, 1931) but no transfer has been made.
    E. bonariensis Spegazzini: ? Pseudodinusa (Aleocharinae)
    E. perpusillus Spegazzini: Rhopalopherus (Osoriinae)

    Euzodiomyces Thaxter, 1900
    COLEOPTERA: Carabidae, Staphylinidae (Paederinae, Xantholininae,
    ? Staphylininae)
    E. capillarius Cepede & Picard: Lobrathium (Paederinae)
    E. lathrobii Thaxter: Lathrobium, Lobrathium, Homaeotarsus (Paederinae),
    Xantholinus (Xantholininae), ? Hemiquedius (Staphy-
    lininae), Carabidae






    Idiomyces Thaxter, 1893
    COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidae (Oxytelinae)
    I. peyritschii Thaxter: Deleaster (Oxytelinae)

    Ilyomyces Picard, 1917
    COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidae (Steninae)
    I. lavagnei (Picard): Stenus (Steninae)
    I. mairei Picard: Stenus

    Laboulbenia Montagne & Robin, 1853
    ACARINA, ISOPTERA, ORTHOPTERA, BLATTARIA, HEMIPTERA,
    DIPTERA, HYMENOPTERA, COLEOPTERA: Carabidae, Cicindelidae,
    Gyrinidae, Heteroceridae, Staphylinidae (Paederinae, Staphylininae, Ox-
    ytelinae, Aleocharinae, Omaliinae, Osoriinae)
    L. achenii Maire: Achenium (Paederinae)
    L. atlantica Thaxter: Lobrathium (Paederinae), Carabidae
    L. barbara Middelhoek & Boelens: Philonthus (Staphylininae)
    L. bergiana Spegazzini: Pinophilus (Paederinae)
    L. bledii Thaxter: Bledius (Oxytelinae)
    L. cafii Thaxter: Cafius, Phucobius (Staphylininae)
    L. cristata Thaxter: Paederus (Paederinae), ? Carabidae
    L. dolicaontis Maire: Dolicaon (Paederinae)
    L. dubia Thaxter: Philonthus
    (= L. philonthicola Spegazzini): Philonthus
    L. geodromici Baumgartner: Geodromicus (Omaliinae)
    L. gracilis Spegazzini: Sunius (Paederinae)
    L. gridellii Colla: Platystethus (Oxytelinae)
    L. jarrigei Balazuc: Lispinus (Osoriinae)
    L. lathropini Thaxter: Lathropinus (Paederinae)
    (= L. oedodactyli Spegazzini)
    L. lathropinicola Spegazzini: Lathropinus
    L. latonae Thaxter: Pseudocryptobius (Paederinae)
    L. oedichiri Thaxter: Oedichirus (Paederinae)
    L. oedodactyli Thaxter: Oedodactylus (Paederinae)
    L. parriaudi Balazuc: Bledius
    L. pedicellata Thaxter: Aleochara (Aleocharinae), Carabidae
    L. philonthi Thaxter: Philonthus
    L. platyprosopi Thaxter: Platyprosopus (Staphylininae)
    L. quedii Thaxter: Anaquedius (Staphylininae)
    L. subterranea Thaxter: Carabidae
    (= ?L. stilicicola Spegazzini): Rugilus (Paederinae)
    L. taenodemae Thaxter: Taenodema (Paederinae)






    L. vulgaris Peyritsch: Carabidae, ?Lesteva (Omaliinae)
    L. sp. indet. nearfasciculata Peyritsch: Lathrobium
    L. sp. indet.: Glyptomerus (Paederinae)

    Meionomyces Thaxter, 1931
    COLEOPTERA: Colydiidae, Staphylinidae (Paederinae, Euaesthetinae)
    M. asteni Thaxter: Astenus
    M. astenicola Thaxter: Astenus
    M. astenalis Thaxter: Astenus
    M. dibelonetis Thaxter NEW EMENDATION: Dibelonetes (Paederinae)
    M. thaxterelli Thaxter: Octavius (Euaesthetinae)

    Misgomyces Thaxter, 1900
    COLEOPTERA: Carabidae, Trichopterygidae, Staphylinidae (Tachypori-
    nae, Paederinae, Osoriinae, Oxytelinae)
    M. ansatus Thaxter: Lithocharis, Scopaeus (Paederinae)
    M. appendiculatus Thaxter: Coproporus (Tachyporinae)
    M. bicornis Thaxter: Coproporus
    M. carinatus Thaxter: Coproporus
    M. copropori (Thaxter): Coproporus
    (= ? M. argentinensis (Spegazzini)): Coproporus
    M. divexirostris (Spegazzini): Coproporus
    M. dyschirii Thaxter: Carabidae
    (= M. lavagnei Picard): Bledius (Oxytelinae)
    M.filarius (Thaxter): Coproporus
    M. grenadinus Thaxter: Coproporus
    M. lispini Thaxter: Lispinus, Nacaeus (Osoriinae)
    M. philippinus Thaxter: Coproporus
    M. platensis (Spegazzini): Achenomorphus (Paederinae), Coproporus
    M. rhizophorus Thaxter: Rugilus (Paederinae)
    M. stilici Thaxter: Rugilus
    M. thinocharinus (Thaxter): Thinocharis (Paederinae)

    Moschomyces Thaxter, 1894
    COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidae (Paederinae)
    M. insignis Thaxter: Astenus (Paederinae)

    Rhachomyces Thaxter, 1895
    DIPLOPODA, COLEOPTERA: Carabidae, Staphylinidae (Paederinae, Xan-
    tholininae, Staphylininae)
    R. arbusculus Thaxter: ? genus nearLathrobium (Paederinae)
    R. cayennensis Thaxter: Ochthephilam (Paederinae)






    R. cryptobianus Thaxter: Cryptobium (Paederinae)
    R. dolicaontis Thaxter: Dolicaon (Paederinae)
    R.furcatus (Thaxter): Othius (Xantholininae)
    R. glyptomeri Thaxter: Glyptomerus (Paederinae)
    R. lasiophorus Thaxter: Carabidae, ? Othius (Xantholininae)
    R. lathrobii (Thaxter): Lathrobium, Lobrathium (Paederinae)
    R. medonalis Thaxter: Medon (Paederinae)
    R. ocypi Sugiyama: Ocypus (Staphylininae)
    R. oedichiri Thaxter: Oedichirus (Paederinae)
    R. philonthinus Thaxter: Philonthus, Amichrotus, Gabrius (Staphylininae)
    R. pilosellus (Robin): Lathrobium
    (= R. brevipes (Thaxter)): Lathrobium

    Sandersoniomyces, Benjamin, 1968
    COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidae (Staphylininae)
    S. divaricatus Benjamin: Quedius (Staphylininae)

    Scelophoromyces Thaxter, 1912
    (= Skelophoromyces Thaxter, 1931)
    COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidae (Osoriinae)
    S. osorianus Thaxter: Osorius (Osoriinae)

    Schizomeromyces Thaxter, 1931
    COLEOPTERA: Endomychidae, Staphylinidae (Paederinae)
    S. astenalis Thaxter: Astenus (Paederinae)

    Smeringomyces Thaxter, 1908
    COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidae (Tachyporinae)
    S. anomalus (Thaxter): Sepedophilus
    S. trinitatis Thaxter: Sepedophilus

    Stichomyces Thaxter, 1901
    COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidae (Tachyporinae)
    S. capensis Thaxter: Sepedophilus (Tachyporinae).
    S. catalinae Thaxter: Sepedophilus
    S. conosomatis Thaxter: Sepedophilus
    S. europaeus Majewski: Sepedophilus
    S. lepidus Thaxter: Sepedophilus
    S. sumatrae Thaxter: Sepedophilus
    S. vesiculifer Thaxter: Sepedophilus






    Stigmatomyces Karsten, 1869
    DIPTERA, COLEOPTERA: Scydmaenidae, Staphylinidae (Paederinae)
    S. australis Thaxter: Scopaeus (Paederinae)
    S. caudicola Thaxter: Stereocephalus (Paederinae)
    S.fuscipes Spegazzini: Scopaeus
    S. montevideensis Spegazzini: Lobrathium (Paederinae)
    S. orientalis Thaxter: Scopaeus
    S. pseudomedalis Thaxter: Lithocharis (Paederinae)
    S. stilici Thaxter: Rugilus (Paederinae)

    Symplectromyces Thaxter, 1908
    COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidae (Staphylininae)
    S. vulgaris (Thaxter): Quedius, ? Philonthus (Staphylininae)

    .Teratomyces Thaxter, 1893
    COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidae (Staphylininae)
    T actobii Thaxter: Erichsonius (Staphylininae)
    (= T atropurpureus Maire)
    T atanygnathi Thaxter: Atanygnathus (Staphylininae)
    T brevicaulis Thaxter: Erichsonius
    T insignis Thaxter: Quedius (Staphylininae)
    T mirificus Thaxter: Acylophorus (Staphylininae)
    T petiolatus Thaxter: Quedius
    T philonthi Thaxter: Gabrius, ? Philonthus (Staphylininae)
    T quedianus Thaxter: Hemiquedius, Quedius (Staphylininae)
    T zealandica Thaxter: Quedius

    Tetrandromyces Thaxter, 1912
    COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidae (Aleocharinae)
    T brachidae Thaxter: Brachida (Aleocharinae)

    CERATOMYCETACEAE

    Euceratomyces Thaxter, 1931
    COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidae (Paederinae)
    E. terrestris (Thaxter): Lathrobium (Paederinae)

    Kainomyces Thaxter, 1901
    COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidae (Osoriinae, Aleocharinae)
    K. alutellae Thaxter: Eleusis (Osoriinae)






    K. hyalinus Terada: Eleusis
    K. isomali Thaxter: Maseochara (Aleocharinae), Eleusis

    Class ZYGOMYCETES
    Order ENTOMOPHTHORALES
    ENTOMOPHTHORACEAE

    Entomophthora Fresenius, 1856
    DIPLOPODA, ACARINA, ORTHOPTERA, HOMOPTERA, HEMIP-
    TERA, LEPIDOPTERA, DIPTERA, HYMENOPTERA, COLEOPTERA:
    Cantharidae, Chrysomelidae, Elateridae, Staphylinidae (? subfamily)
    E. anglica Petch: ? genus (? subfamily), Cantharidae, Chrysomelidae,
    Elateridae

    Class HYPHOMYCETES (not part of main classification of fungi, no
    orders or families included)

    Hirsutella Patouillard, 1892
    ORTHOPTERA, HOMOPTERA, HETEROPTERA, LEPIDOPTERA, DIP-
    TERA, HYMENOPTERA, COLEOPTERA: Rhizophagidae, Staphylini-
    dae (Paederinae)
    H. eleutheratorum (Nees): Paederus (Paederinae)
    (=H. guignardi (Maheu)): Quedius (Staphylininae)

    Phylum PROTOZOA
    Class SPOROZOA
    Order GREGARINIDA
    ACTINOCEPHALIDAE

    Actinocephalus Stein, 1848
    CHILOPODA, OPILIONIDA, ODONATA, SIPHONAPTERA, DIPTERA,
    COLEOPTERA: Carabidae, Dytiscidae, Lucanidae, Scarabaeidae, Silphi-
    dae, Tenebrionidae, Staphylinidae (Osoriinae, Staphylininae)
    A. crassus (Ellis): Leptochirus (Osoriinae)
    A. stelliformis Schneider: Ocypus, Pi'I,,I -lrut, Staphylinus (Staphylininae)

    Stilocystis L6ger, 1899
    DIPTERA, COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidae (Osoriinae, Oxytelinae)
    S. ensifera (Ellis): Leptochirus (Osoriinae), Anotylus (Oxytelinae)






    GREGARINIDAE


    Gregarina Dufour, 1828
    COLLEMBOLA, PLECOPTERA, PSOCOPTERA, DERMAPTERA, OR-
    THOPTERA, DIPTERA, COLEOPTERA: Anthicidae, Byrrhidae, Can-
    tharidae, Carabidae, Chrysomelidae, Ciidae, Coccinellidae, Colydiidae,
    Cucujidae, Lampyridae, Lycidae, Nitidulidae, Parnidae, Ptinidae, Scara-
    baeidae, Tenebrionidae, Staphylinidae (Omaliinae, Staphylininae)
    G. omalina Foerster: Omalium (Omaliinae), Heterothops (Staphylininae)

    Order MICROSPORIDA

    NOSEMATIDAE
    genus indet., species indet.: Creophilus (Staphylininae)

    Phylum NEMATA
    Class SECERNENTEA
    Order TYLENCHIDA

    ALLANTONEMATIDAE

    Allantonema Leuckart, 1887
    DIPTERA, COLEOPTERA: Curculionidae, Hydraenidae, Scarabaeidae,
    Staphylinidae (Staphylininae)
    A. philonthi Wachek: Gabrius, Philonthus (Staphylininae)

    Parasitylenchoides Wachek, 1955
    COLEOPTERA: Anobiidae, Colydiidae, Histeridae, Leiodidae, Staphylini-
    dae (Oxytelinae, Steninae, Paederinae, Tachyporinae, Aleocharinae)
    P koerneri Wachek: Anotylus (Oxytelinae)
    P paederi Wachek: Paederus (Paederinae)
    P rheocharae Wachek: Aleochara (Aleocharinae)
    P steni Wachek: Stenus (Steninae)
    P sp. indet.: Tachyporus (Tachyporinae)

    Proparasitylenchus Wachek, 1955
    COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidae (Oxytelinae, Paederinae, Aleocharinae)
    P athetae Wachek: Nehemitropia (Aleocharinae)
    P boopini Wachek: Carpelimus (Oxytelinae)
    P medonis Wachek: Medon (Paederinae)
    P myrmedoniae Wachek: Zyras (Aleocharinae)






    P oxyteli Wachek: Anotylus (Oxytelinae)
    P platystethi Wachek: Platystethus (Oxytelinae)
    P trogophloei Wachek: Carpelimus

    Stictylus Thorne, 1941
    (= Sphaerulariopsis Wachek, 1955)
    COLEOPTERA: Anobiidae, Scolytidae, not Staphylinidae (Staphylininae)
    S. philonthi auct.: Typographical error, not Wachek, no such species.

    ENTAPHELENCHIDAE

    Entaphelenchus Wachek, 1955
    COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidae (Oxytelinae, Xantholininae, Staphylininae,
    Aleocharinae)
    E. aliantae Wachek: Alianta (Aleocharinae)
    E. bledii Wachek: Bledius (Oxytelinae)
    E. oxyteli Wachek: Oxytelus (Oxytelinae)
    E. philonthi Wachek: Philonthus (Staphylininae)
    E. platystethi Wachek: Platystethus (Oxytelinae)
    E. xantholini Wachek: Gyrohypnus, Xantholinus (Xantholininae)

    Roveaphelenchus Nickle, 1970
    COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidae (Aleocharinae)
    R. jonesi Nickle: Aleochara (Aleocharinae)


    Order RHABDITIDA
    DIPLOGASTERIDAE

    Allodiplogaster Paramonov & Sobolev, 1954
    COLEOPTERA: Histeridae, Scarabaeidae, Staphylinidae (Oxytelinae,
    Aleocharinae) ? and others
    A. erlangensis (Sachs): Aleochara, Atheta (Aleocharinae), Histeridae, Scar-
    abaeidae
    A. henrichae (Sachs): Oxytelus (Oxytelinae), Atheta, Scarabaeidae

    Diplogasteritus Paramonov, 1952
    COLEOPTERA: Scarabaeidae, Staphylinidae, ? and others
    D. zurstrasseni (Sachs): Emus (Staphylininae), Scarabaeidae

    Diplogastrellus Paramonov, 1952
    D. gracilis (Biitschli): Quedius (Staphylininae)

    78






    D. monhysteroides (Biitschli): Oxytelus (Oxytelinae, Aleochara, Atheta
    (Aleocharinae), Scarabaeidae

    Fictor Paramonov, 1952
    COLEOPTERA: Carabidae, Histeridae, Hydrophilidae, Scarabaeidae, Sta-
    phylinidae (Oxytelinae, Staphylininae, Aleocharinae)
    F stercorarius (Bovien): Oxytelus (Oxytelinae), Emus, Philonthus, Quedius
    (Staphylininae), Aleochara, Atheta (Aleocharinae),
    Carabidae, Histeridae, Hydrophilidae, Silphidae

    Goffartia Hirschmann, 1952
    COLEOPTERA: Carabidae, Heteroceridae, Staphylinidae (Paederinae)
    G. heteroceri Hirschmann: Paederus (Paederinae), Carabidae, Heteroceridae

    Mesodiplogaster Weingartner, 1955
    COLEOPTERA: Hydrophilidae, Lucanidae, Staphylinidae (Aleocharinae)
    M. maupasi (Potts): Drusilla (Aleocharinae), Hydrophilidae, Lucanidae
    (=M. entomophaga (Steiner))

    Paroigolaimella Paramonov, 1952
    COLEOPTERA: Histeridae, Hydrophilidae, Scarabaeidae, Staphylinidae
    (Oxytelinae, Staphylininae, Aleocharinae), ? and others
    P coprophages (de Man): Oxytelus (Oxytelinae), Emus (Staphylininae),
    Aleochara, Atheta (Aleocharinae), Histeridae,
    Hydrophilidae, Scarabaeidae

    Prosodontus Paramonov & Sobolev, 1954
    COLEOPTERA: Histeridae, Scarabaeidae, Staphylinidae (Oxytelinae) ? and
    others
    P schwemmlei (Sachs): Oxytelus (Oxytelinae), Histeridae, Scarabaeidae

    Rhabdontolaimus Fuchs, 1931
    COLEOPTERA: Cerambycidae, Staphylinidae (Tachyporinae)
    R. stigmatus (Steiner): Lordithon (Tachyporinae)

    RHABDITIDAE

    Caenorhabditis Osche, 1952
    ANNELIDA, COLEOPTERA: Scarabaeidae, Staphylinidae (Oxytelinae,
    Aleocharinae), ? and others
    C. dolichura (Schneider): Oxytelus (Oxytelinae), Aleochara (Aleocharinae),
    Scarabaeidae, ANNELIDA






    Diploscapter Cobb, 1913
    ANNELIDA, HYMENOPTERA, COLEOPTERA: Histeridae, Scarabaei-
    dae, Silphidae, Staphylinidae (Staphylininae)
    D. lycostoma Volk: Philonthus (Staphylininae), Histeridae, Scarabaeidae,
    Silphidae, HYMENOPTERA, ANNELIDA

    Pelodera Schneider, 1866
    COLEOPTERA: Histeridae, Hydrophilidae, Scarabaeidae, Staphylinidae
    (Oxytelinae, Staphylininae, Aleocharinae), ? and others
    P coarctata (Leuckart): Anotylus, Oxytelus (Oxytelinae), Emus (Staphylini-
    nae), Atheta (Aleocharinae), Histeridae, Hydrophi
    lidae, Scarabaeidae
    P tretzeli (Sachs): Emus, Hydrophilidae, Scarabaeidae
    P voelki (Sachs): Emus, Histeridae, Hydrophilidae, Scarabaeidae

    Rhabditis Dujardin, 1845
    VERTEBRATA, ANNELIDA, COLEOPTERA: Histeridae, Hydrophilidae,
    Silphidae, Staphylinidae (Staphylininae), ? and others
    R. aspera Biitschli: P1,,l. ilni (Staphylininae), Histeridae, Hydrophilidae,
    Silphidae, ANNELIDA
    R. cylindrica Cobb: Oxytelus (Oxytelinae), Aleochara, Atheta (Aleochari-
    (=R. neuhausi (Sachs)) nae), ANNELIDA
    R. gracilicauda de Man: Oxytelus, Atheta, Scarabaeidae
    R. hartmanni Sachs: Aleochara, Scarabaeidae
    R. labiata Volk: Philonthus, Histeridae, Scarabaeidae, Silphidae
    R. longispina Reiter: Philonthus
    R. spiculigera Steiner: Oxytelus, Aleochara, Atheta, Scarabaeidae
    R. wohlgemuthi Volk: Philonthus, Silphidae
    R. sp. indet.: Philonthus

    Rhabditophanes Fuchs, 1930
    (= Cheilobus Cobb, 1924, not Rafinesque, 1817)
    COLEOPTERA: Hydrophilidae, Scarabaeidae, Staphylinidae (Staphylini-
    nae), ? and others
    R. aphodii (Sachs): Emus (Staphylininae), Hydrophilidae, Scarabaeidae






    Class ADENOPHOREA
    Order DORYLAIMIDA

    MERMITHIDAE

    Orthomermis Poinar, 1955
    DIPTERA, COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidae (Omaliinae)
    0. oedobranchus Poinar: Omalium (Omaliinae), DIPTERA


    NEMATA INCERTAE SEDIS

    Agamonema Diesing, 1851 (a collective group of larval nematodes, not a
    genus)
    COLEOPTERA: Scarabaeidae, Silphidae, Staphylinidae (Tachyporinae)
    A. migrans Christie: Tachinus (Tachyporinae), Scarabaeidae, Silphidae

    Phylum NEMATOMORPHA
    Class GORDIOIDEA*

    GORDIIDAE

    Gordius Linnaeus, 1758
    ORTHOPTERA, ODONATA, COLEOPTERA: Carabidae, Scarabaeidae,
    Staphylinidae (Staphylininae)
    G. aquaticus Linnaeus: Creophilus (Staphylininae), Scarabaeidae, ODON-
    ATA, ORTHOPTERA



    *Current classifications of Nematomorpha omit mention of taxa between the levels of
    family and class. Blackwelder (1967) has explained (1) that the use of ordinal names is
    not obligatory in a zoological classification, and (2) that although the suffix -oidea is
    normally used in entomology for the names of superfamilies, this is not the case through-
    out the animal kingdom and the endings of names of taxa higher than family level are not
    regulated by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature. However, the recom-
    mendation in the 1961 Code that -oidea be adopted for the endings of superfamily names
    would make it preferable to use another ending for the name of the class now called Gor-
    dioidea, e.g. Gordiacea.






    Phylum ARTHROPODA
    Class ARACHNIDA
    Order ACARINA
    ANOETIDAE

    Histiosoma Kramer, 1876
    MYRIAPODA, DERMAPTERA, DIPTERA, HYMENOPTERA, CO-
    LEOPTERA: Carabidae, Scarabaeidae, Silphidae, Tenebrionidae, Staphy-
    linidae (Staphylininae, Paederinae)
    H. sapromyzarum (Dufour): Quedius (Staphylininae), Scarabaeidae, Silphi-
    dae, DIPTERA, MYRIAPODA
    H. sp. indet.: (not H. sapromyzarum): Paederus (Paederinae), Silphidae

    EUITHIDIDAE

    Thinoseius Halbert, 1920
    DIPTERA, COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidae (Staphylininae)
    Tfucicola (Halbert): Cafius (Staphylininae), DIPTERA

    family indet. of GAMASINA

    genus indet., species indet.: Ocypus, Staphylinus (Staphylininae)


    Class INSECTA
    Order COLEOPTERA
    COLYDIIDAE

    Aglenus Erichson, 1845
    COLEOPTERA: Cucujidae, Staphylinidae (Omaliinae)
    A. brunneus (Gyllenhal): Xylodromus (Omaliinae), Cucujidae

    Order HYMENOPTERA
    BRACONIDAE

    Blacus Nees, 1818
    LEPIDOPTERA, HYMENOPTERA, DIPTERA, COLEOPTERA: Curcu-
    lionidae, Dasytidae, Scolytidae, Staphylinidae (Tachyporinae)
    B. ruficornis (Nees): Tachyporus (Tachyporinae)






    Centistes Haliday, 1835
    COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidae (Tachyporinae), ? and others
    C. lucidator (Nees): Tachyporus (Tachyporinae)

    EULOPHIDAE

    Eulophus Olivier, 1791
    LEPIDOPTERA, COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidae (Staphylininae)
    E. amempsimus Walker: Quedius [pupa] (Staphylininae)

    MYRMARIDAE

    Litus Haliday, 1833
    HETEROPTERA, COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidae (Staphylininae)
    L. krygeri Kieffer: Ocypus [egg] (Staphylininae)

    PROCTOTRUPIDAE

    Codrus Panzer, 1801
    COLEOPTERA: Carabidae, Staphylinidae (Omaliinae, Xantholininae,
    Staphylininae, Tachyporinae)
    C. ater (Nees): Creophilus [larva] (Staphylininae)
    C. brevicornis (Haliday): Quedius [larva] (Staphylininae)
    C. gracilis (Nixon): Tachyporus [larva] (Tachyporinae)
    C. ligatus (Nees): Philonthus, Quedius [larva] (Staphylininae), Xantholinus
    [larva] (Xantholininae)
    C. longicornis (Nees): Lesteva [larva] (Omaliinae)
    C. microcerus Kieffer: Xantholinus [larva] (Xantholininae), ? genus [larva]
    (Tachyporinae)
    C. niger Panzer: Ocypus [larva]
    C. philonthiphagus (Williams): Philonthus [larva]

    Perilitus Nees, 1818
    COLEOPTERA: Coccinellidae, Curculionidae, Staphylinidae (Paederinae)
    P sp. indet.: Paederus (Paederinae)

    Phaenoserphus Kieffer, 1914
    COLEOPTERA: Carabidae, Staphylinidae (Staphylininae)
    P calcar (Haliday): Quedius [larva] (Staphylininae)







    P pallipes (Latreille): Staphylinus [larva] (Staphylininae)
    P viator (Haliday): Creophilus, Ocypus [larva] (Staphylininae), Carabidae

    Spilomicrus Westwood, 1832
    DIPTERA, COLEOPTERA: Staphylinidae (Staphylininae)
    S. tripartitus Kieffer: Quedius [pupa] (Staphylininae)










    THE NATURE OF THE PARASITE-HOST
    ASSOCIATIONS

    Deuteromycetes

    Madelin (1966) reviewed the literature on the Deuteromycetes as parasites of
    insects, but included no information on the generaAmphoromorpha, Chantran-
    siopsis, Entomocosma, and Thaxteriola. It seems that nothing is known of the
    methods of infection and effect on the hosts of these four genera. Information on
    their structure may be obtained from the original descriptions cited in the host-
    parasite list.


    Ascomycetes

    Madelin (1966) also reviewed the literature on the Laboulbeniales as para-
    sites of insects, gave a brief account of the structure of these fungi, and reported
    that about 1,500 species had been described by 1950. Hincks (1960) stated that
    most of the hosts belong to the Coleoptera, especially to Carabidae and Staphy-
    linidae, and he provided a list of the families of coleopterous hosts. Tavares
    (1979) listed the parasite genera associated with each parasitized insect family,
    and summarized the morphological characteristics of each parasite genus.
    The relative proportion of infected vs. uninfected potential hosts in natural
    populations is very variable according to Hincks (1960), and he concurred with
    an earlier estimate by Thaxter of between 5% and 50%. The site of attachment
    of the parasites to the host is very specific in a minority of the parasite species,
    according to Hincks (1960). He also stated: "the fungi penetrate only the outer
    layers of the integument of the living host and at least in the vast majority of
    instances appear to behave as true parasites and not seriously to affect their
    hosts." However, Bro Larsen (1952), having noted that previous authors con-
    sidered most Laboulbeniales to be rather harmless parasites, then stated that her
    observations suggested otherwise; perhaps the only author to maintain a colony
    of Staphylinidae infected with Laboulbeniales and to note the response of the
    hosts, she attributed a considerable mortality rate of the hosts to the effect of the
    parasites. The probability that Laboulbeniales absorb nutrients from the body
    fluids of their hosts is supported by observations by Scheloske (1969), using a
    dye to trace uptake of fluid by the parasite.
    Lindroth, as cited by Madelin (1966), stated that infection of adult Carabidae
    by Laboulbenia sp. took place from spores contained in the soil rather than by
    contact with other insects. Tavares and Balazuc (1977), suggested a similar
    mechanism for dissemination of the spores of Misgomyces mastacis Balazuc.
    However, Scheloske (1969) stressed the importance of contact with other insects







    in spore transfer, especially during copulation but also in attempted copulation
    with members of the wrong sex or with members of closely related species. The
    concept of spore transfer during host copulation is difficult to reconcile with that
    of sex-of-host specificity of parasites noted by Benjamin (1967). Benjamin &
    Shanor (1951) presented a study of the developmental stages of Euzodiomyces
    lathrobii, a parasite of some Paederinae. Balazuc (1971a) published a compre-
    hensive bibliography on the literature pertaining to Laboulbeniales, and (1973b-
    1974) has monographed the species occurring in France. It seems to me that the
    Laboulbeniales are well suited to laboratory studies with living material of
    Staphylinidae, and that these studies could be directed to answering questions
    related to the nutrition of the parasites, the life cycles of the parasites, the effect
    of the parasite on the usual (or recorded) host, as well as the ability to infect
    hosts other than the usual one; the last of these questions could help to elucidate
    the phylogeny of both the parasites and the hosts. Scheloske (1969) already has
    suggested that the distribution of certain species of the parasites on their hosts
    may give information on age and life expectancy of the host.


    Zygomycetes

    The Entomophthorales are chiefly parasitic and entomogenous, with a few
    saprophytic species and a few parasitic on plants. The literature on the entomo-
    genous species was reviewed by MacLeod (1963) and Madelin (1966). They are
    best known as natural enemies of agriculturally important pests belonging to
    several insect orders, and have been employed successfully to combat outbreaks
    of pests.


    Hyphomycetes

    The literature on entomogenous Hyphomycetes was reviewed by Madelin
    (1963, 1966). For many species it remains to be proved whether they are para-
    sitic or saprophytic, and most grow readily in artificial culture. Most entomo-
    genous species are internal pathogens.


    Sporozoa

    Many species of the order Gregarinida are found in the digestive tracts, the
    body cavity or, rarely, the Malpighian tubules of insects. Steinhaus (1949) es-
    timated that 180 species of Coleoptera had been recorded as harboring these or-
    ganisms, but Theodorides (1955) stated that, with the exception of certain
    families, every species of the Coleoptera probably contains one or several spe-
    cies of gregarines. Steinhaus (1949) stated that, although most authorities con-
    sider gregarines to be parasites, it has not been shown that they are especially
    harmful to their hosts, although a general debilitating effect is possible, and they
    do destroy the epithelial cells of the digestive tract of the host.






    Some of the species of Microsporida are highly important insect pathogens,
    causing epizootics in silkworms and in bees (Weiser, 1963). Steinhaus (1949)
    noted that experimentation has shown that insects may be susceptible to Micro-
    sporida recorded from entirely unrelated hosts. This may be of considerable im-
    portance for Staphylinidae, in which many species are predators or scavengers,
    because Weiser (1963) has indicated that microsporidan-infected insects are
    more apt to be subject to predation and scavenging than are healthy individuals.
    Thomson (1960) listed nine species of Coleoptera as hosts of Microsporida, not-
    ing that the parasites were found in the Malpighian tubules, haemolymph or fat
    body of the hosts. Weiser (1961) suggested that every insect species is subject to
    parasitism by at least one microsporidan species, also that mixed infections,
    where a host is parasitized by a microsporidan and some other parasite, produce
    a synergistic effect, more deleterious to the host than would be expected; this
    synergistic effect also is achieved by combination of a microsporidan and an in-
    secticide. The record by Meyer-Rochow (1972) of a microsporidan in the eye of
    an adult staphylinid is unique both for being the first record from the Staphylin-
    idae and the first record from the compound eye of an insect; the pathogenicity
    of this organism is unknown.


    Nemata

    In contrast to the classification of Laboulbeniales, the classification of ento-
    mophilic nematodes is in a state of flux. Even the most recent comprehensive
    works on the subject (Shephard, 1974; Poinar, 1975) may soon need revision.
    Older works (Thorne, 1961; Goodey, 1963; Welch, 1965) are, however, still
    useful if subsequent changes in classifications are borne in mind.
    The Tylenchida affecting Staphylinidae appear to be true, obligatory, internal
    parasites, and knowledge of them is due mainly to the work of Wachek (1955),
    even though the majority of the species within the order are parasites of plants
    (Welch, 1965). In contrast, the Rhabditida are considered to be free-living sap-
    rophytes, but increasing numbers of species are being found to be associated
    with arthropods and annelids during some part of their life cycle (Welch, 1965)
    where the relationship is suspected to be phoretic (Triffitt & Oldham, 1927;
    Theodorides, 1955; Welch, 1965) rather than parasitic. The Dorylaimida differ
    from both Tylenchida and Rhabditida, in that they kill their hosts upon emer-
    gency (Welch, 1965) and should therefore be considered parasitoids (Reuter,
    1913; Price, 1975) rather than parasites.


    Nemathelminthes

    The Gordioidea have free-living adults, but the juveniles are parasitic in ar-
    thropods, sometimes causing degeneration of the host's reproductive system, but
    not necessarily the death of the host (Hyman, 1951; Steinhaus, 1949), so that
    parasitism or parasitoidism may occur.







    Acarina


    Th6odorides (1955) provided a biological classification of parasitic and pho-
    retic Acarina of insects, and cited earlier studies, indicating that the deuto-
    nymphs of species of the genus Histiosoma have a phoretic, not parasitic,
    relationship with arthropods. Thinoseiusfucicola and the unidentified gamasine
    mites also were believed to be phoretic (Egglishaw, 1966; Green & Wilkinson,
    1950).


    Insecta

    The eyeless, wingless colydiid beetle Aglenus brunneus was found to be pho-
    retic on a cucujid beetle and onXylodromus concinnus (Woodroffe, 1967).
    The families Braconidae, Eulophidae, Myrmaridae, and Proctotrupidae be-
    long to what are called, in many general entomological textbooks, the parasitic
    Hymenoptera. In fact, the larval states of the entomophagous species are para-
    sitoids rather than parasites, since death of the host is a normal result of their
    feeding (Doutt, 1963). Clausen (1940) devoted more than one third of his book
    on entomophagous insects to an account of the biology of these insects, but was
    able to mention only a small percentage of the total number of species because
    of limitations of both space and knowledge. Pschorn-Walcher (1958) provided
    a brief review of Palaearctic Proctotrupidae, mentioning the host-family of each
    parasite genus.
    No dipterous parasites or parasitoids of Staphylinidae were listed by van Em-
    den (1950).
    Further information on the structure and behavior of the species of parasites,
    parasitoids, and phoretics is obtainable from the references cited in the host-par-
    asite list.









    DISCUSSION

    BACKGROUND

    This discussion represents an attempt to demonstrate, from the evidence at
    hand, whether the parasites the Staphylinidae are helpful in elucidating the re-
    lationships between the various subfamilies of Staphylinidae. To date, at-
    tempted phylogenetic groupings of the family have been based largely or entirely
    upon the external structure of adults. It is true that phylogenetic groupings have
    been attempted from the evidence of the external structure of larvae (Paulian,
    1941; Crowson, 1967; Tikhomirova, 1973), but these have been hampered by
    lack of availability of reliably identified larval specimens of certain crucial taxa.
    The internal skeletal structures of adults, (Crowson, 1938, 1944, 1967; Tik-
    homirova, 1973), aedeagal morphology (Sharp & Muir, 1912; Coiffait, 1972;
    Tikhomirova, 1973), and to an even more limited extent, the 'life-style' (Tik-
    homirova, 1971, 1973), fossil record (Tikhomirova, 1968, 1973) and embry-
    ogenesis (Tikhomirova & Melnikov, 1970; Tikhomirova, 1973) have been
    examined for clues to phylogeny. None of these attempts has yet resulted in a
    generally-accepted phylogenetic classification of the family. Further leading
    evidence from all of the above-mentioned approaches is anticipated, but numer-
    ous alternative approaches seem never to have been tried.
    An analogy for this effort to investigate systems other than the traditional sys-
    tems of external structure, comes from the plant family Gramineae. This is one
    of the largest plant families, with approximately 9,000 species, and traditional
    classification has been based upon spikelet structure. Continuing work is show-
    ing that a more natural classification can be achieved with the aid of such fea-
    tures as internal leaf structure, photosynthetic pathway, basic chromosome
    number, and embryo structure (Clayton, 1978).
    The idea of using parasite-host associations as an aid to the investigation of
    evolution is far from new, and was discussed by Metcalf (1929). In the case of
    the Staphylinidae, one group of parasites, the Laboulbeniales, offers especial
    advantages, and it alone is discussed in the following pages. There are two major
    reasons for this selection which cause, at the same time, the rejection of consid-
    eration of the other groups of parasites. These are firstly, the large number of
    species known from Staphylinidae, and secondly the fact that almost all of these
    species were described by one person, Roland Thaxter. Thaxter's early, dedi-
    cated and voluminous contributions to the classification of the Laboulbeniales
    seem to have precluded the attentions of all but a few other workers in the field.
    This provides a singular advantage, namely that of consistency and stability of
    classificatory concepts for these parasites, which can be equalled in very few
    other large groups of organisms.






    It should be noted that in some groups of parasites, classification is difficult.
    As early as 1896, Thaxter stated that classification of certain groups had been
    "reduced to a condition of chaos through the indiscriminate publication of new
    forms based largely on the character of the host or on its habitat ... these are but
    uncertain guides in recognizing the species." The continuing problem was re-
    stated by Steinhaus in 1949. In the Laboulbeniales, species have been classified
    according to the structure of their individuals, not according to their provenance,
    as is made clear by Thaxter (1931:303).
    A point of uncertainty remains: certain species might be capable of infecting
    several unrelated hosts, yet the growth form of the individuals on different hosts
    might differ. Such a possibility is suggested by the comments of Couch & Um-
    phlett (1963) concerning Coelomomyces (Fungi, Phycomycetes, Blastocladi-
    ales). For Laboulbeniales it has been discussed briefly by Picard (1913b), with
    further comments by Maire (1916a, 1920), concerning the probable synonymy
    of Misgomyces lavagnei (from a staphylinid host) with M. dyschirii (from a car-
    abid, known to be predator of the staphylinid). This seems to be an unusual case
    resulting from an obligate predator-prey relationship between the hosts of the
    parasite. The subject was raised again by Scheloske (1969), who noted that the
    growth form of a specific parasite on individuals of two host species may differ,
    but also that the growth form on different body parts of the same host species
    may differ. He suggested that when these growth forms are investigated more
    adequately, changes will need to be made in the current classification of La-
    boulbeniales. This type of morphological variation would have to be investigated
    by experimentation. Yet, the fact that individuals collected from unrelated hosts
    have been identified as conspecific, argues against the widespread occurrence
    of such a phenomenon.
    Difficulty of transfer of parasites from a host to an unrelated host might be
    conceived to be restrictive, and thus a major reason for host specificity. How-
    ever, it seems that opportunities are present for this transfer. First, it seems to
    me that in at least most habitats, a host individual is likely to make physical con-
    tact with potential hosts of unrelated species, and that there is little a priori rea-
    son to believe that such contacts will be fewer with non-conspecific than with
    conspecific hosts; contacts between conspecific individuals of opposite sex may
    be of greater duration but not necessarily of greater frequency. The opportunity
    for a predator to become infected with its prey's parasites cannot be ignored.
    Second, in the previous section, it was noted that infection with species of La-
    boulbenia and Mastacis took place from spores contained in the soil rather than
    by contact with other insects. Third, Picard (1917) has noted the possibility of
    mites transferring parasites to unrelated hosts.
    It seems to me that the initial difficulties in resolving the implications of the
    host-parasite association are mainly in the reliability of identification of both
    host and parasite.







    THE EVIDENCE FOR CO-EVOLUTION

    Of the species of Laboulbeniales recorded from more than one host genus, the
    following 35 species parasitize hosts belonging to two or more genera of the same
    subfamily: Cantharomyces thaxteri, Diaphoromyces lispini, Dichomyces exilis,
    D. infectus, D. peruvianus, D. princeps, Dimorphomyces argentinensis, D.
    verticalis, Eumonoicomyces papuanus, Monoicomyces asymmetricus, M. athe-
    tae, M. brittanicus (one of the two host records is dubious), M. californicus, M.
    caloderae, M. invisibilis, M. leptochiri, M. nigrescens, M. sanctaehelenae,
    Peyritschiella protea, Amorphomyces minisculus, A. rubescens, Corethromyces
    cryptobii, C. curtipes, C. decipiens, C. gracilis, C. laminifer, C. purpurascens,
    Diplomyces actobianus (one of the two host records is dubious), Laboulbenia
    cafii, Misgomyces ansatus, M. lispini, Rhachomyces lathrobii, R. philonthinus,
    Symplectromyces vulgaris (one of the two host records is dubious), Teratomyces
    philonthi (one of the two host records is dubious), and T quedianus.
    Nine species Euzodiomyces lathrobii, Laboulbenia atlantica, L. cristata,
    L. pedicellata, L. subterranean, L. taenodemae, L. vulgaris, Misgomyces dys-
    chirii and Rhachomyces lasiophorus have been recorded from hosts belonging
    to Staphylinidae as well as hosts belong to Carabidae. In the case ofL. subter-
    ranea, specimens occurring on Paederinae have been suggested to belong to a
    species (L. stilicicola) other than that found on Carabidae. In the case ofL. at-
    lantica, the opinion of Picard (1913b: 508) was that L. atlantica is a parasite of
    Staphylinidae, while a morphologically almost indistinguishable congener, L.
    notiophili Cepede & Picard, parasitizes Carabidae. In the case of L. pedicellata,
    Maire (1920) considered that the (usual) carabid and (exceptional) staphylinid
    hosts shared the same habitat, and perhaps that the carabid preys on the staphy-
    linid. In the case ofL. vulgaris, the parasite was immature and its identity was
    uncertain. In the case of L. taenodemae and R. lasiophorus, Balazuc (1971b:
    169, 1973b: 280) doubted their occurrence on the abnormal carabidd and sta-
    phylinid respectively) hosts; in the case ofL. cristata, he (1974: 20) suggested
    that the record from a carabid host needed further verification and he (1973b:
    249) questioned the record ofE. lathrobii from a carabid. Any suggestion of a
    close relationship between Staphylinidae and Carabidae may be discounted for
    a variety of reasons. If the hosts or parasites were not misidentified, then it is
    probable that these six Laboulbenia species, one Misgomyces species, one
    Rhachomyces species and one Euzodiomyces species are exceptional in being ca-
    pable of parasitizing a wide variety of hosts. A statistical test of significance is
    hardly necessary to demonstrate the improbability of six Laboulbenia species
    having carabid and staphylinid hosts by chance, and the genus Laboulbenia must
    be considered exceptional. Benjamin (1967) also considered Laboulbenia ex-
    ceptional in having hosts belonging to eight arthropod orders.
    Four parasite species are recorded from more than one host genus, but with
    some question as to the accuracy of the identifications. Where the hosts belong
    to disparate subfamilies, the record from one of the hosts is dubious. There is






    thus considerable doubt about parasitism of more than one host subfamily by the
    four parasite species Camthli, "in %', < orientalis, Diaphoromyces lispini, Monoi-
    comyces sanctaehelenae, and Corethromyces platensis. Seven parasite species
    are recorded, without express uncertainty, from more than one host subfamily:
    Dichomycesfurcifer (Staphylininae Xantholininae), Monoicomyces homalo-
    tae (Aleocharinae Oxytelinae), Amorphomyces italicus (Oxytelinae -
    Staphylininae, dubiously also Aleocharinae), Corethromycespiesticola (Piestinae
    - Osoriinae), Euzodiomyces lathrobii (Paederinae Xantholininae, du-
    biously also Staphylininae and Carabidae), Misgomycesplatensis (Tachyporinae
    - Paederinae), and Kainomyces isomali (Osoriinae Aleocharinae). These
    seven parasite species represent less than 2% of the number of species of La-
    boulbeniales recorded as parasitizing Staphylinidae. In the preceding list the
    first-named host subfamily is the principal or first one recorded; thus, Dicho-
    mycesfurcifer is recorded from several species of the genus Philonthus (Staphy-
    lininae), but only on one occasion from a host belonging to the genus Eulissus
    (Xantholininae); the significance of this record rests on the accuracy of identi-
    fication of both parasite and host. In cases such as this, it seems unwise to stress
    the relationship of Xantholininae to Staphylininae strongly before re-examina-
    tion of the specimens, because accurate identification of the parasite to the spe-
    cific level is required (the host only to the subfamily level), and this may be
    difficult to achieve when only scanty material is available. Identification of the
    parasite specimens to the generic level should be an easier task and one less sub-
    ject to error.
    There are 17 parasite genera (with 34 species) for which each genus is re-
    corded from a single host genus. The genera, with number of species in paren-
    theses, are: Camptomyces (7), Diandromyces (1), Euhaplomyces (1), Haplomyces
    (3), Polyascomyces (1), Balazucia (1), Clematomyces (2), Clonophoromyces
    (1), Idiomyces (1), Ilyomyces (2), Moschomyces (1), Sandersoniomyces (1),
    Scelophoromyces (1), Smeringomyces (2), Stichomyces (7), Tetrandromyces
    (1), and Euceratomyces (1).
    A further seven genera (with 24 species) are recorded from a single host
    subfamily: Eumonoicomyces (2), Kleidiomyces (3), Neohaplomyces (3), Acal-
    lomyces (3), Diplomyces (3), Symplectromyces (1), and Teratomyces (9).
    Additionally, seven genera (with 104 species) are recorded from Staphylini-
    dae only: Dichomyces (35), Mimeomyces (9), Monoicomyces (39), Amorpho-
    myces (11), Compsomyces (5), Euzodiomyces (2) and Kainomyces (3).
    Then, 16 genera parasitize a variety of arthropods and have 212 species re-
    corded from Staphylinidae: Cantharomyces (17), Diaphoromyces (2), Dimero-
    myces (4), Dimorphomyces (15), Peyritschiella (6), Rickia (16), Chaetomyces
    (1), Corethromyces (81), Diclonomyces (1), Dioicomyces (2), Laboulbenia
    (26), Meionomyces (5), Misgomyces (15), Rhachomyces (13), Schizomeromyces
    (1), and Stigmatomyces (7). The number of species from non-staphylinid hosts
    is not listed here, but Lepesme (1942) has indicated a total of 47 species in the
    genus Rhachomyces, of which 11 are listed here as from Staphylinidae. It may