• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 Table of Contents
 List of bulletins
 Introduction
 Conditions under which poisonous...
 Description of poisonous plant...
 Other poisonous plants
 Plant causing mechanical injur...
 Back Cover
 Historic note






Group Title: Bulletin - Agricultural Experiment Stations, University of Florida ; 510A
Title: Plants that poison farm animals
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027460/00001
 Material Information
Title: Plants that poison farm animals
Series Title: Bulletin no. 510A
Physical Description: 55 p. : illus. ;
Language: English
Creator: West, Erdman, 1894-
Publisher: Univ. of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1960
 Subjects
Subject: Poisonous plants   ( lcsh )
Plants, Toxic   ( mesh )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by Erdman West and M. W. Emmel.
General Note: Cover title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027460
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000867916
oclc - 01434634
notis - AEG4864

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    List of bulletins
        Page i
        Page ii
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
        Page vii
        Page viii
    Introduction
        Page 3
    Conditions under which poisonous plants are eaten
        Page 4
    Description of poisonous plants
        Page 5
        Tung-oil tree
            Page 5
            Page 6
            Page 7
        Prickly poppy
            Page 8
            Page 9
        Boxwood and showy crotalaria
            Page 10
            Page 11
            Page 12
            Page 13
        Jimsonweed
            Page 14
            Page 15
        Purple rattlebox
            Page 16
        Carolina-jessamine
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
        Bagpod, coffeebean
            Page 20
            Page 21
            Page 22
        Bitterweed and hydrangea
            Page 23
        Common lantana
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
        Chinaberry
            Page 28
            Page 29
        Common oleander
            Page 30
            Page 31
        Pokeweed
            Page 32
        Eastern bracken
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
        Oaks
            Page 36
        Castor-bean
            Page 37
            Page 38
        Elderberry
            Page 39
        Graceful nightshade
            Page 40
            Page 41
        Sorghum and related plants
            Page 42
            Page 43
            Page 44
            Page 45
        Carolina laurel-cherry and black cherry
            Page 46
            Page 47
        Johnson grass and Oriental cocklebur
            Page 48
            Page 49
            Page 50
        Atamasco-lily, rain-lily
            Page 51
            Page 52
    Other poisonous plants
        Page 53
    Plant causing mechanical injury
        Page 54
        Page 55
    Back Cover
        Page 56
    Historic note
        Page 57
Full Text

Bulletin 510A november 1960


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
J. R. BECKENBACH, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA






Plants That Poison Farm Animals

ERDMAN WEST and M. W. EMMEL


Fig. 1.-Cocklebur-fruiting branch and three seedlings.












CONTENTS
Page
INTRODUCTION ................................. ...--...----.----- 3

CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH POISONOUS PLANTS ARE EATEN .................-- 4

DESCRIPTIONS OF POISONOUS PLANTS ........................- ............-....... 5
Tung-oil tree ............. ....... .......-- -- .--. --- ............... 5
Prickly poppy ......-...-..........---------------- -- ---.. -----.. 8
Boxwood ........................---- ....------- -------...... .....-- 10
Showy crotalaria .-...-... -..~........................... ............ 10
Jimsonweed............ ......--- ............................... 14
Purple rattlebox .............. .....--............... ....-...-...-----. 16
Carolina-jessamine ..........................--- ........ ...... 17
Bagpod, Coffeebean ......................... -- ... ............. .. --- 20
Bitterweed .......... ....-..-..-......-..-..---....- ..-...--- ...--- 23
Hydrangea ..........-.... ------------------.......- --------... -... ... 23
Common lantana .-..--...---...-------......-- --...- ......-..-...-..-. 24
Chinaberry ..........-----..- ------...-.--- ...-- .....-......-...... 28
Common oleander ....... .--... --.......--.. ............ ..... 30
Pokeweed ................... ... .....------ ----.. -....................... 32
Eastern bracken ...................--- --.... ...-- -..----..... ...... 33
O aks ............... ......... .. .... ... ........ ...... -.... ...................... 36
Castor-bean ...............---- ----- ....-- -- ---- .. ... ........... 37
Elderberry .........-- ..-- .--- ... ....--....- ...-....-......-...... 39
Graceful nightshade ....................---------- -- .... ............... 40
Sorghum and related plants -...--...--.........------------- ............-- ...... 42
Carolina laurel-cherry ................ .....- -.......-- .................. 46
Black cherry ............... .... ......- .......--.. -- ................. 46
Johnson grass .............. ... .. -- ........ .. ------..... ............... 48
Oriental cocklebur ............. ... ..... ... ............................. 48
Atamasco-lily, Rain-lily .......---...... ..- ......--.....- ...............-..... 51
OTHER POISONOUS PLANTS .................... -----.---......----- ..-...-- ...-- ..53
PLANT CAUSING MECHANICAL INJURY .................................. ..................... 54




Originally printed as Bulletin 468; Bulletin 510 was originally printed
in December 1952 as Poisonous Plants in Florida.







PRESS BULLETIN JANUARY 1962


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
J. R. BECKENBACH, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA




LIST OF BULLETINS
AVAILABLE FOR DISTRIBUTION AT THE
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
(Single copies free to Florida residents on request)

BULLETINS ON TRUCK CROPS AND GARDENING


Experiment Station Bulletins
438. Composition of Florida-Grown
Vegetables I (T)
444. Levels of Carotene and Ascorbic
Acid in Florida-Grown Foods (T)
457. The Sclerotiniose Disease of
Vegetable Crops in Florida
472. Labor and Material Require-
ments, Costs of Production and
Returns on Irish Potatoes
474. Labor and Material Require-
ments, Costs of Production and
Returns on Florida Tomatoes
482. Levels of Thiamine, Riboflavin
and Niacin in Florida-Grown
Foods
486. Insects Attacking Celery
488. Composition of Florida-Grown
Vegetables III
492. Diseases, Deficiencies and In-
juries of Cabbage and Other
Crucifers in Florida
501. Commercial Cabbage Varieties
530. Bush Snap Bean Production on
the Sandy Soils of Florida
534. Insects Attacking Cabbage and
Other Crucifers in Florida
543. Control of Downy Mildew of Cab-
bage with Fungicides
550. Production of Vegetable Plants
in Seedbeds on Sandy Soils
557. Production of Southern Peas
560. Containers for Shipping Florida
Tomatoes
579. Equipment for Mechanical Har-
vesting and Handling of Irish
Potatoes in the Southeast
596. Factors Affecting the Incidence
and Control of Northern Corn
Leaf Blight of Sweet Corn (T)
598. Etiology and Control of Celery
Diseases in the Everglades (T)
612. Quality and Cost of Harvesting
and Handling Potatoes with
Mechanical Equipment


629. Insects and Diseases Affecting
Strawberries
636. Competition Between Florida and
California Celery in the Chicago
Market
638. Long Distance Marketing of
Fresh Sweet Corn
SR 24. Grade Qualities of Potatoes in
Selected Retail Stores
Extension Circulars
96C. Watermelon Production Guide
100A. Snap Bean Production Guide
101B. Cucumber Production Guide
104B. Vegetable Garden Production
Guide
120. Electric Hotbeds for Sweet
Potatoes
123A. Lettuce and Endive Production
Guide
140. Some Questions and Answers on
Vegetable Pesticide Tolerances
153A. Commercial Vegetable Variety
Guide
160. Growing Sweet Potatoes
192. Hydroponic Culture of Vegetable
Crops
193A. Commercial Vegetable Insect
and Disease Control Guide
194. Fusarium Wilt of Cucumber
experiment Station Circulars
S-7. Adaptability of Vegetable Varie-
ties to the Everglades
S-15. Control of Mole-Crickets
S-25. Adaptability of Potato Varieties
to the Hastings Area
S-41. Silk Fly Control on Sweet Corn
S-47. Compatibility of Insecticides,
Fungicides and Nutrients for
Vegetables
S-48. The Value of Soil Testing Kits
in Vegetable Crops Production
S-55. Control of Disease in Celery
Seedbeds with Methyl Bromide







S-59. Manalucie, A Tomato with Dis-
tinctive Features
S-69. Control of Helminthosporium
Leaf Blights of Sweet Corn
S-71. Sweet Potato Variety Trials
S-73. Seminole Bean
S-75. Control of Damping-Off and
Root-Rot of Snap Beans
S-83. Control of Blackheart of Celery
S-92. Florigreen Pole Bean
S-101. Cause and Control of Blossom-
End Rot of Tomatoes
S-107. A Trash and Clod Eliminator
for Potato Packinghouses
Handling Mechanically Har-
vested Potatoes
S-109. Emerald-A New Early Blight-
Resistant Pascal Celery
S-111. Indian River, A New Disease-
Resistant Tomato of General
Adaptability
S-114. Harvesting Cabbage with
Mechanical Aids


S-116. Control of Insects and Other
Pests of Tomatoes, Peppers
and Eggplants
S-119. Flume Design for Receiving and
Handling Potatoes in Packing-
houses
S-122. Seminole, A Cantaloupe High-
ly Resistant to Downy and
Powdery Mildew
S-130. Topset, A New Cream-Type
Southern Pea
S-131. Manapal, A Disease-Resistant
Tomato with the Desirable
Traits of Rutgers
S-132. Producer and Climax, Two New
Southern Peas (Edible Cow-
pea) Varieties for the Home
and Market
Station Press Bulletins
567. Control of Celery Pink Rot
651. Weeding Celery Seedbeds with
Solvent Naphthas


BULLETINS ON CITRUS


Experiment Station Bulletins
386. Farmers' Cooperative Associa-
tions in Florida, V: Citrus Co-
operatives
476. Toxic Factor in Citrus Seed
Meal (T)
480. Chemical Composition of Irriga-
tion Water Used in Citrus Groves
487. Citrus By-Products of Florida
496. Grasshoppers in Citrus Groves
508. Customer Response to Varying
Prices for Florida Oranges
509. Use of Citrus Products in Me-
ridian, Mississippi, Households
511A. Naringin, A Bitter Principle of
Grapefruit (T)
519. Hedging Machine for Citrus
Groves
521. Essential Oils from Citrus
536A. Recommended Fertilizers and
Nutritional Sprays for Citrus
538. Citrus Products for Beef Cattle
549. Methods of Transportation Used
in Marketing Fresh Citrus
561. Citrus and Competing Products
Sales in 20 Meridian, Mississippi
Grocery Stores
567. Economic Relationships Involved
in Retailing Citrus Products (T)
570. Pectinesterase and Pectin in Com-
merical Citrus Juices (T)
575. Feeding Value of Citrus and
Blackstrap Molasses for Fatten-
ing Cattle
S587. Handbook of Citrus Diseases in
Florida
589. Consumer Reaction to Varying
Prices on Frozen Orange Con-
centrate
591. Insects and Mites on Citrus
592. Experimental Pricing as an Ap-
proach to Demand Analysis (T)


604. A Survey of the Mineral Nutri-
tion Status of Valencia Orange in
Florida (T)
606. Economies of Scale in the Oper-
ation of Florida Citrus Packing-
houses (T)
609. Comparative Costs of Alternative
Methods for Performing Certain
Handling Operations in Florida
Citrus Packinghouses
618. Microbiology of Citrus Fruit
Processing
620. Degreening of Florida Citrus
Fruits
622. Citrus Vinegar
626. Retail Distribution and Merchan-
dising of Fresh Limes and Frozen
Limeade Concentrate
633. A List of Species, Varieties and
Relatives in 70 Citrus Collec-
tions
634. An Annotated List of Predators
and Parasites Associated with In-
sects and Mites on Florida Citrus
(T)
Experiment Station Circulars
S-40. Dried Citrus Pulp in Dairy
Rations
S-60. Orange and Companion Type
Fruits for Flavoring Ice Cream
S-66. Safety Devices for Use with
Parathion Containers
S-90. Operation and Power Require-
ments of Tractors and Related
Equipment for Citrus Production
S-102. Indicator Papers for Detecting
Damage to Citrus Fruit

Experiment Station Book
Guide to Citrus Insects, Diseases and
Nutritional Disorders in Color $4.12





Extension Bulletins
166A. Citrus Fruit for the Dooryard
167. Using Florida Citrus Fruits
Extension Circulars
119. Should I Buy a Citrus Grove?
132A. Citrus Rootstocks


137. Insects and Mites of Citrus
180. Using Florida Fruits-Limes
184. Testing Oranges for Processing
185. Selecting a Grove Site
191. Maturity Tests for Fresh Fruit
198. Citrus Nursery Practices
200. Control of Minor Pests of Com-
mercial Citrus in Florida


GRAPES, NUTS AND TREE FRUITS OTHER THAN CITRUS


Experiment Station Bulletins
503. The Genus Aleurites in Fla. (T)
601. Pecan Growing in Florida
602. The Florida Avocado Industry
617. External Quality Factors in
Florida Avocados
619. Insects and Diseases of the Pecan
625. The Consumer Market for Flor-
ida Avocados
Experiment Station Circulars
S-34. The Sapodilla in Florida
S-36. Insect Control on Pineapples
S-56. A Tropical Black Raspberry for
South Florida
S-67. Erect and Trailing Blackberries
S-120. Blue Lake, A New Bunch
Grape for Home Gardens
BULLETINS ON FIELD
Experiment Station Bulletins
419. Chufas in Florida
477. Artificial Drying of Hay and
Seed, Slatted-Floor System
484A. Grass Pastures in Central
Florida
490. Effects of Soil Fumigation on
Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco and on
Soil Nitrogen (T)
494. Effect of Minor Elements, Par-
ticularly Copper, on Peanuts
507. Mechanical Drying and Harvest-
ing of Peanuts
512. Fertilizer Tests with Flue-Cured
Tobacco
515. Maintenance of Fertility in Min-
eral Soils Under Perm. Pasture
517. Winter Clovers in Central Fla.
523. Growing Oats in Florida
525. Agronomic Studies of Ramie
532. 2,4-D for Post-Emergence Weed
Control in the Everglades
542. Value of Alyce Clover Pasture
for Lactating Dairy Cows
554A. Year-Round Grazing on a Com-
bination of Native and Im-
proved Pasture
568. Experiments with Napier
Grass (T)
572. Yield and Quality of Flue-Cured
Tobacco as Affected by Fertil-
ization and Irrigation
573. Insect Pests of Flue-Cured To-
bacco and Their Control


S-126. Flordawon-A Peach for Cen-
tral Florida
S-127. Flordaqueen-A New Peach for
North Florida
Extension Bulletins
156A. Miscellaneous Tropical and
Subtropical Florida Fruits
170. Growing Guavas in Florida
174. Mango Growing in Florida
176. The Lychee in Florida

Extension Circulars

105. Suggested Pecan Spray Schedule
for Florida
133A. Papaya Growing in Florida
147. Mango Insect Pest Control
178A. Growing Bananas in Florida


CROPS AND GRASSES
582. Field Corn Production in South
Florida
584. Oat Pasture for Dairy Cattle
585. Pangola Grass Pastures for Beef
Production-Economics of Estab-
lishing and Fertilizing Them
590. Agronomic Studies of Fiber
Plants
593. Tobacco Seed Storage for 25
Years (T)
600. Costs of Clearing Land and
Establishing Improved Pastures
in Central Florida
607. Irrigation of White Clover-
Pangolagrass Pasture for Dairy
Cows
613. White Clover-Pangolagrass and
White Clover-Coastal Bermuda-
grass Pastures for Central Flor-
ida (T)
628. Production of Sorghum Forage
and Grain as Feed for Dairy and
Beef Cattle
630. Photosensitization in Cattle Graz-
ing Frosted Common Bermuda
Grass
631. Beef Production, Soil and Forage
Analyses and Economics Re-
turns from Eight Pasture Pro-
grams in North Central Flor-
ida (T)






Experiment Station Circulars
S-14. Torpedo Grass
S-16. Dixie Runner Peanuts
S-27. Fumigation and Equipment for
Nematode Control in Soils for
Flue-Cured Tobacco
S-35. Fertilizer Should Contain a
Source of Sulfur for Clover
Pastures in Many Areas
S-38. Nut Grass Control with 2,4-D
S-44. Plant Beds for Flue-Cured To-
bacco
S-45. Soil Fumigation for Florida
Shade Tobacco Fields
S-46. Floranna Sweet Clover
S-49. Big Trefoil A New Pasture
Legume for Florida
S-50. Chinch Bug Control and Subse-
quent Renovation of St. Augus-
tine Grass Lawns
S-52. The Early Runner Peanut
S-53. Floriland Oats
S-54. Perizoma, Potential Weed Pest
S-61. Inoculated Legumes in the Farm
Program
S-62. The Florispan Runner Peanut
S-63. Sunland and Seminole-Two
New Oats for Florida
S-64. Control of Some Insect Pests of
Improved Pastures
S-65. Dixie Shade-A New Variety of
Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco
S-76. Managing West Florida Soils
for High Corn Yields
S-93. Chemical Sucker Control for
Flue-Cured Tobacco
S-94. Gator Rye
S-95. Florida 200-A New Field Corn
S-96. Insects and Other Pests of
Lawns and Turf


S-97. Controlling Submersed Water
Weeds with Emulsifiable Sol-
vents in South Florida
S-98. Hairy Indigo
S-99. Weed Control in Plumosus Fern
Under Artificial Shades
S-103. Magnolia-A New Variety of
Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco
S-104. Irrigate Tobacco on Schedule
S-117. Growing Sugarcane for Forage
S-121A. Recommendations for Com-
mercial Lawn Spraymen
S-123. Floratine St. Augustinegrass
S-128. Florad Oats
S-129. Florigiant-A Jumbo Runner
Peanut
S-133. F. 46-136-An Early Maturing
Sugarcane Variety
S-134. Florida 22-A New Nematode
Resistant Flue-Cured Tobacco
Variety
Extension Circulars
130. Cotton Insect Control
143. Cotton Production Guide
146. Chemical Weed Control in Pea-
nut Fields
170. Flue-Cured Tobacco Plant Pro-
duction Guide
190. Angular Leafspot of Tobacco
204. Control of Flue-Cured Tobacco
Pests Under Field Conditions
210. A Comparison of Lawn Grasses
213. Home Gardeners' Lawn Insect
Control Guide
217. St. Augustine Lawn Grasses
221. Turfgrass Disease Control Guide
222. Plastic Covers for Tobacco Seed-
lings


BULLETINS ABOUT LIVESTOCK AND DAIRY


Experiment Station Bulletins
358. Comparative Feeding Value of
Silages Made from Napier Grass,
Sorghum and Sugarcane (T)
382. Manufacture of Cultured Butter-
milk and Cottage Cheese
429. Productivity of Columbia Sheep
449. A Laboratory Program for the
Dairy Plant
485. Effect of Processing Upon the
Nutritive Value of Milk
502. Liver Fluke Disease and Control
510A. Plants That Poison Farm Ani-
mals
513R. Minerals for Dairy and Beef
Cattle
538. Citrus Products for Beef Cattle
539. Some Trends and Characteristics
of the Dairy Industry in Florida
540. Productive Life-Span of Dairy
Cattle
541. Selecting, Using Beef and Veal
542. Value of Alyce Clover Pasture
for Lactating Cows


553. Sunflower-Seed Meal for Beef
Cattle and Swine
566. Low-Gossypol Cottonseed Meal
as a Source of Protein for Swine
575. Feeding Value of Citrus and
Blackstrap Molasses for Fatten-
ing Cattle
576. Building a Dairy Herd (T)
578A. Factors Affecting the Weaning
Weight of Range Calves
584. Oat Pasture for Dairy Cattle
585. Pangola Grass Pasture for Beef
Production-Economics of Estab-
lishing and Fertilizing Them
597. Feed Lot Performance and Car-
cass Grades of Brahman and
Brahman-Shorthorn Steers
599. Dairy Cattle and Their Care
603. Urea and Cottonseed Meal in the
Ration of Fattening Cattle
607. Irrigation of White Clover-
Pangolagrass Pasture
610. Palatable Creep Feeds for Pigs
611. Urea Toxicity in Cattle






616. Comparative Feeding Value of
Dried Citrus Pulp, Corn Feed
Meal and Ground Snapped Corn
in Dry-Lot
621. Value of Pangola Hay and Silage
in Steer Fattening Rations
623. Factors Influencing Pregnancy
Rate in Florida Beef Cattle
624. Genetic and Environmental In-
fluences on Weaning Weight and
Slaughter Grade of Brahman,
Shorthorn and Brahman-Short-
horn Crossbred Calves (T)
627. Diethylstilbestrol and Aureomy-
cin for Fattening Beef Cattle
628. Production of Sorghum Forage
and Grain as Feed for Dairy and
Beef Cattle
630. Photosensitization in Cattle
Grazing Frosted Common Ber-
mudagrass
631. Beef Production, Soil and Forage
Analyses and Economics Re-
turns from Eight Pasture Pro-
grams in North Central Flor-
ida (T)
632. An Economics and Statistical
Evaluation of Grading Cattle
635. Factors Influencing Winter Gains
of Beef Calves
639. Crampy or Progressive Posterior
Paralysis in Mature Cattle
Experiment Station Circulars
S-2. Sheep Production in North Fla.
S-3. Causes of and Remedies for
Certain Abnormalities of Milk
S-23. Swollen Joints in Range
Calves
S-40. Dried Citrus Pulp in Dairy
Rations
S-43. Ergot Poisoning in Cattle
S-57. Feeding Beef Cattle for Show
and Sale


S-58. Coffee-weed (Bagpod) Seed
Poisoning of Cattle
S-60. Orange and Companion Fruits
Prepared Into Injection-Type
Products for Flavoring Ice
Cream
S-78. Internal Parasites of Cattle-
Their Control with Phenothia-
zine and Management
S-89. Steer Fattening Trials in N. Fla.
S-106. Winter Feeding of Standard,
Utility and Cull Summer Beef
Calves for Slaughter
S-108. Self-Feeding Pangolagrass
Silage to Wintering Beef Cows
S-110. An Experimental Self-Feeding
Horizontal Silo
S-118. Raising Dairy Herd Replace-
ments
S-124. Climatological Records at
Range Cattle Station
Extension Bulletins
120. Butchering and Curing Pork
173. Silage Processing Equipment and
Structures for Florida
Extension Circulars
95. A Cow-and-Calf Plan for Florida
107. Screwworms and Their Control
110. Electric Pig Brocders
166. Handling the Sow at Farrowing
168. Feeding Brood Sows
186. Making Cottage Cheese in the
Home
187. Cottage Cheese in Family Meals
199. Hog Slaughtering
208. Hog Cholera Vaccination
218. Bull Evaluation

Station Press Bulletins
593. Storing Cottage Cheese in Brine
649. Processing Market Cream


BULLETINS ABOUT POULTRY


Experiment Station Bulletins
470. Etiology of Fowl Paralysis, Lu-
kemia and Allied Conditions in
Animals XIII (T)
476. Toxic Factor in Citrus Seed Meal
551. Producing Hatching Eggs in
Cages by Artificial Insemination
Experiment Station Circulars


S-20.
S-24.
S-30.

S-37.


Ramie Meal in Chick Rations
Intestinal Roundworms and
Tapeworms of Poultry
Bean Vine Meal in Chick
Rations
Dehydrated Celery Tops in
Chick Rations


Extension Bulletins
149. Selecting and Culling Poultry
154. Brooding Chicks, Producing
Broilers, Raising Pullets


Extension Circulars
55. Your Poultry and Egg Supply
84. Pullorum Disease in Chickens
111. Portable All-Purpose Poultry
House
113. An Electric Chick Brooder
154A. This Business of Egg Farming
156. Laying House Construction and
Equipment
157. Nest to Consumer
169. Newcastle, Infectious Bronchitis
and Pox Vaccination for Poultry
177. External Parasites of Poultry
189. Poultry Mash Formulas
201. This Business of Growing Re-
placement Pullets
202. Housing and Equipment for
Brooding and Growing Replace-
ment Pullets
203. Feeding Replacement Pullets







212. Managing the Small Laying
Flock
220. Using Farm Egg Cooler Space
-. A Small Display Incubator


Station Press Bulletin

575. Florida Calcareous Supplements
for Egg Production


ORNAMENTALS, FLOWERS, THE HOME


Experiment Station Bulletins
398. Cane Syrup in Infant Feeding
426. Effectiveness of the School Lunch
in Improving the Nutritional
Status of School Children
482. Levels of Thiamine, Riboflavin
and Niacin in Florida-Produced
Foods
483. The Nutritive Value of Various
Breads and Supplements in Ex-
periments with White Rats
485. Effect of Processing Upon the
Nutritive Value of Milk
500. Food Preferences of Florida Men
562. Dietary and Hematologic Studies
of the Aged
569. Relation of Calcium, Phosphorus
and Protein Deficiencies in the
Immature Rat to Defects in
Growth and Skeletal Development
of the Mature Animal (T)
588. Wrist Development of School
Children by Sex, Age and Race
637. Chrysanthemum Diseases in
Florida
Extension Bulletins
157. Termites
159R. Honey in the Home
163. Jellies, Jams and Preserves
164. Mixes Made at Home
165. Yeast Breads
167. Using Florida Citrus Fruits
172. Ornamental Vines for Florida
175. Poisonous Plants Around the
Home
Extension Circulars
62R. Making and Using Sauerkraut
112. Electricity Made Easy
114. TV Tips
127A. Mist Propagation
128A. Caladium Production in Florida
134. Farm and Home Development
Work
135A. A Good Reading Lamp
138. Good-bye, Mr. Roach
141. Propagation of Ornamental
Plants by Layering
148. Home Propagating Units


149. Terrariums
150. Freezing Prepared Foods
151A. Canning and Freezing-Oys-
ters, Crab, Shrimp, and Fish
161. Using Florida Fruits-Mango
162. Using Florida Fruits-Papaya
163. Using Florida Fruits-Coconut
164. Savory or Aromatic Herbs
165. Using Florida Fruits-Avocado
167. Using Florida Fruits-Berries
171A. Amaryllis
172A. Poinsettia Culture
180. Using Florida Fruits-Limes
182. Garden Chrysanthemums
186. Making Cottage Cheese in Home
187. Cottage Cheese in Family Meals
188. Gladiolus for the Home Gardener
205. Tips on Farm and Home Safety
-Power Mowers
207. Using Florida Fruits-Guava
210. A Comparison of Lawn Grasses
213. Home Gardeners' Lawn Insect
Control Guide
214. Using Florida Fruits-Pineapple
215. Using Florida Fruits-Straw-
berries
216. Using Florida Fruits-Pears
217. St. Augustine Lawn Grasses
221. Turfgrass Disease Control Guide

Experiment Station Circulars
S-85. Mosquito Control in Yards,
Homes, Groves, and Other Areas
S-86. Control of Moles
S-87. Control of the Pocket Gopher
or "Salamander"
S-91. Insects and Other Pests of
Gladiolus and Their Control
S-96. Insects and Other Pests of
Lawns and Turf
S-99. Weed Control in Plumosus Fern
Under Artificial Shades
S-121A. Recommendations for Com-
mercial Lawn Spraymen
S-123. Floratine St. Augustinegrass
Station Press Bulletins
556. An Adequate Diet
602A. Composting and Mulching
659A. Azalea Culture


SOILS AND FERTILIZERS


Experiment Station Bulletins
378. Water Control in the Everglades
442. Soils, Geology, and Water Con-
trol in the Everglades Region
490. Effects of Soil Fumigation on
Cigar-Wrapper Tobacco and on
Soil Nitrogen
512. Fertilizer Tests with Flue-Cured
Tobacco


515. Maintenance of Fertility in Min-
eral Soils Under Perm. Pasture
522. Effect of Rotations, Fertilizers,
Lime and Green Manure Crops
on Crop Yields and Soil Fertility
524. Physical, Spectrographic and
Chemical Analyses of Some Vir-
gin Florida Soils (T)
526. Soil Moisture Relations in the
Coastal Citrus Areas (T)





536A. Recommended Fertilizers and
Nutritional Sprays for Citrus
537. Soil Management Practices on
Red Bay Fine Sandy Loam
552. Copper Oxide as a Source of Cop-
per for Use on Everglades Or-
,ganic Soils
559. Soil Factors Related to Growth
and Yield of Slash Pine Planta-
tions
577. Magnesium and Lime Are Needed
in the Suwannee Valley Area
580. Reconnaissance Soil Survey of
Kissimmee and Upper St. Johns
Valley
614. Effect of Rotations, Fertilizers,
Lime and Green Manure Crops
on Crop Yields and on Soil Fer-
tility.


Experiment Station Circulars
S-27. Fumigation and Equipment for
Nematode Control in Soils for
Flue-Cured Tobacco
S-28. Soil Associations of Hills-
borough County, Florida
S-32. Leaching of Fertilizer Phos-
phorus
S-45. Soil Fumigation for Florida
Shade Tobacco Fields
S-48. The Value of Soil Testing Kits
in Vegetable Crop Production
S-55. Control of Disease in Celery
Seedbeds with Methyl Bromide
S-77. Soil Associations of Dade Co.
S-84. Soil Associations of Sarasota Co.
Station Press Bulletin
602A. Composting and Mulching


AGRICULTURAL ECONOMICS


Experiment Station Bulletins
386. Farmers' Cooperative Associa-
tions V: Citrus Cooperatives
460. Rural Land Ownership in Florida
472. Labor and Material Require-
ments, Costs of Production and
Returns on Florida Irish Potatoes
474. Labor and Material Require-
ments, Cost of Production and
Returns on Florida Tomatoes
508. Customer Response to Varying
Prices for Florida Oranges
528. Agricultural Activities of Indus-
trial Workers and Retirees
533. Economic Study of Farming in
the Plant City Area
549. Factors Affecting Methods of
Transportation Used in Market-
ing Fresh Citrus
561. Citrus and Competing Products
Sales
567. Economic Relationships Involved
in Retailing Citrus Products (T)
579. Mechanical Harvesting and
Handling of Irish Potatoes
583. Rural Farm Retirement
586. The Laws of Farm Tenancy and
Sharecropping in Florida
589. Consumer Reaction to Varying
Prices on Frozen Orange Con-
centrate
592. Experimental Pricing as an Ap-
proach to Demand Analysis
600. Costs of Clearing Land and
Establishing Improved Pastures
in Central Florida


606. Economies of Scale in the Oper-
ation of Florida Citrus Packing-
houses (T)
608. Agricultural Land Prices in Palm
Beach County, Florida, 1940-1955
609. Comparative Costs of Alterna-
tive Methods for Performing
Certain Handling Operations in
Florida Citrus Packinghouses
615. A Survey of the Florida Foliage
Plant Industry
617. External Quality Factors of Flor-
ida Avocados-Their Importance
to the Consumer
625. The Consumer Market for Flor-
ida Avocados
626. Retail Distribution and Merchan-
dising of Fresh Limes and Frozen
Limeade Concentrate
632. An Economic and Statistical
Evaluation of Grading Cattle
636. Competition Between Florida and
California Celery in the Chicago
Market
638. Long Distance Marketing of
Fresh Sweet Corn
SR-13. Farm Leasing Practices

Experiment Station Circulars


S-79.
S-80.
S-81.
S-82.
S-88.


Florida Field Lease Guide
Cash Rent Farm Lease Guide
Share-Tenant Lease Guide
Sharecropping Agreement Guide
Indexes of Volume of Agricul-
tural Commodities


AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING


Experiment Station Bulletins
477. Hay and Seed Drying with a
Slatted Floor System


565. Tests of Low Head, High Volume
Farm Pumps






579. Equipment for Mechanical Har-
vesting and Handling of Irish
Potatoes

Extension Bulletin
173. Silage Processing Equipment and
Structures for Florida

Extension Circulars

110. Electric Pig Brooders
112. Electricity Made Easy
114. TV Tips
120. Electric Hotbeds for Sweet
Potatoes
126. 500-Chick Infra-Red Brooder
135A. A Good Reading Lamp


173. How to Buy an Irrigation System
205. Tips on Farm and Home Safety
-Power Mowers

Experiment Station Circulars

S-66. Safety Devices for Use with
Parathion Containers
S-107. A Trash and Clod Eliminator
for Potato Packinghouses
Handling Mechanically Har-
vested Potatoes
S-114. Harvesting Cabbage with
Mechanical Aids in Florida
S-119. Flume Design for Receiving
and Handling Potatoes in
Packinghouses


MISCELLANEOUS BULLETINS


Experiment Station Bulletins
516. Grasshoppers and Their
559. Soil Factors Related to
and Yield of Slash Pine
tions


Control
Growth
Planta-


Extension Bulletins
157. Termites
171. Beginning Beekeeping
Extension Circulars
81. Handbook for Local 4-H Club
Leaders
85. Fun and Play the 4-H Way
87. Future for 4-H Club Members
90. Five-Deep Brood Frame Hive
125. Flatwoods Farm Woodland Im-
provement Pays
183. Growing Red Cedar in Florida


197. Poisons
209. Florida 4-H Speaks
Experiment Station Circulars
S-26. Safeguard Honeybee Pollinators
by Careful Use of Insecticides
S-54. Perizoma, Potential Weed Pest
S-97. Controlling Submersed Water
Weeds with Emulsifiable Sol-
vents in South Florida
S-105. Thirty-Three Years of Belle
Glade Weather

Station Press Bulletins
501. Collecting Deer Tongue Leaves
525. Yellow Pine Blister Rust
551. Web Blight of Woody Plants


Bulletins marked (T) are technical in nature.

Both the Experiment Station and the Agricultural Extension Service
issue annual reports. These are available for a number of years back.
Sunshine State Agricultural Research Report (Published Quarterly).


Extension Service


RECORD BOOKS


M. P. 25. Florida Farm Record Book (A)
M. P. 31. Florida Farm Record Book (B)
Annual Farm Inventory
Florida Farm Family Record Book

BOOKS FOR SALE

Florida Guide to Citrus Insects, Diseases and Nutritional Disorders
in Color ......................................... ............................. ...... .......... ...... ....... $4.12
Plant Nematodes, Their Bionomics and Control ............................................$3.75








Plants That Poison Farm Animals

ERDMAN WEST and M. W. EMMEL
Botanist and Veterinarian, Florida Agricultural Experiment Station

Introduction
Poisonous plants have been known to man since before the
time of Christ. A number of references in the Bible allude to the
poisonous properties of some plants. In early times, knowledge
of these plants was used largely for ulterior motive, particularly,
before much was known about metallic poisons. As civilization
progressed knowledge of the poisonous plants has increased, due
largely to the importance of grazing plants in the economy of
livestock production.
In the United States annual losses among livestock caused by
the consumption of poisonous plants has been estimated at many
millions of dollars. It is very difficult to estimate the actual loss
in Florida caused by livestock eating poisonous plants. Losses
have occurred in all parts of the state and in certain instances
have been very severe. The rapid development of the livestock
industry in this state during the past 15 years has placed in-
creased emphasis on the importance of poisonous plants. Losses
from this cause often can be largely prevented, and it is with
this thought in mind that this bulletin is being published.
It is important to realize in dealing with these plants that
publications from other states, while basically correct in the in-
formation contained, do not necessarily reflect conditions here.
Many poisonous plants which are of importance in other states
may be of little consequence in Florida; conversely, some im-
portant poisonous plants in this state are not of particular
significance in other states. Also common names of plants often
differ in many states and even localities. The name "coffee
bean," for instance, is a common name for at least eight plants in
various Southeastern states. Therefore, it is essential that as
much information as possible be at hand regarding these plants.
Early diagnosis is an important phase in controlling losses
caused by poisonous plants. In cases of suspected plant poison-
ing in livestock a graduate veterinarian, who by training and
experience should be able to give valuable assistance, should be
consulted as early as possible. In this way what might develop
into extensive losses often can be reduced to a minimum.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Conditions Under Which Poisonous Plants Are Eaten
Most animals will not eat poisonous plants under normal
circumstances. The following conditions are associated with
plant poisoning in this state.
Starvation.-Well-fed animals receiving a properly balanced
ration seldom voluntarily eat poisonous plants. Plant poisoning
is frequent in range animals grazing on scant range during the
winter months. Under this condition there is a shortage of suit-
able grazing and animals eat undesirable plants in an effort to
survive. Whenever possible winter grazing crops should be
planted to supply feedstuff to supplement pasture during periods
of shortage.
Deficient Rations.-Animals receiving a deficient ration,
either improperly balanced or actually deficient in certain re-
quired ingredients, such as often occurs on range, often develop
a craving for something they are not getting and will eat un-
desirable plants in an effort to find it. Thus, it is important
that animals receive adequate amounts of proper mineral supple-
ment in areas where known deficiencies occur.
Overgrazing and Drouth.-Under conditions in which pas-
tures are overgrazed, either through grazing too many animals
on a given area and thereby creating a shortage of suitable feed
or through grazing them on pastures made short by drouth or
other conditions, plant poisoning frequently occurs. Under these
circumstances animals attempt to obtain sufficient food and eat
plants they otherwise would not :eat. Cyanogenetic plants, par-
ticularly, are potentially dangerous under these circumstances.
Waste and Trash.-Livestock should not be given access to
waste or trash piles, particularly those containing discarded
poisonous plants. For instance, under normal conditions cattle
grazing in tung groves will not eat the foliage of the standing
tree or the fallen nuts. However, if tung branches and nuts are
discarded in a trash pile cattle have been known to consume them
with relish. Oleander and wild cherry are other poisonous plants
usually not eaten in the standing, living condition but readily
eaten when trimmings are discarded in a trash pile.
Newly Plowed Areas.-Such areas should be grazed with
caution. Plowing may expose roots which are poisonous. Dor-
mant seeds of poisonous plants, such as cocklebur and crotalaria,
often sprout and grow in newly plowed areas, regardless of the
season of the year.






Plants That Poison Farm Animals


Dry or Partially Dry Water Holes.-During seasons of drouth
dry water holes should be used with caution. The roots of many
water plants are poisonous. When water holes become dry such
roots often are exposed. Partially dry water holes should be
avoided for the reason that stagnant water often contains vari-
ous types of infectious materials and toxic products from dis-
integrating plant materials.
Incidental and Curiosity.-Occasionally animals consume poi-
sonous plant materials incidentally. For instance, hay may con-
tain a goodly quantity of bracken or crotalaria. Animals eating
the hay are incidentally poisoned by the bracken or crotalaria.
Hogs grazing on peanuts incidentally consume crotalaria seeds
which have fallen to the ground. Many animals have a certain
amount of curiosity. They may eat the hydrangea bush at the
corner of the house when plenty of desirable food is at hand. Or,
they may "eat through the fence" where pastures are always
greener on the other side.
Unknown.-Occasionally it is impossible to determine why
some animals eat poisonous plants. Animals have been known
to graze on poisonous species of crotalaria even though sufficient
quantities of other forage were available. Many theories have
been advanced but none have been definitely proven.
Under normal conditions plant poisoning by certain specific
plants usually is seasonal. Examples are cocklebur and atamasco
lily. However, instances of poisoning by these plants have been
observed where areas infested with them have been plowed or
otherwise disturbed. All poisonous plants are potentially dan-
gerous at all seasons of the year and should be so regarded.
Toxicity of seeds, foliage and roots of poisonous plants often
varies from year to year. This is apparently due to variations
in the seasons during which the plants grow. Concentration of
toxins in plants may vary widely from one seedling to another,
or between strains of a given species.

Description of Poisonous Plants
Tung-Oil Tree, Tung Tree, Tung-Nut
Description.-The tung-oil tree (Aleurites fordi Hemsl.1) is a
small deciduous tree with smooth bark, milky sap, thick twigs

'The foliage of Aleurites montana (Lour.) Wils., A. moluccana Willd.,
and A. trisperma Blanco grown experimentally in this country is less toxic
than A. fordi in the order named.






Plants That Poison Farm Animals


Dry or Partially Dry Water Holes.-During seasons of drouth
dry water holes should be used with caution. The roots of many
water plants are poisonous. When water holes become dry such
roots often are exposed. Partially dry water holes should be
avoided for the reason that stagnant water often contains vari-
ous types of infectious materials and toxic products from dis-
integrating plant materials.
Incidental and Curiosity.-Occasionally animals consume poi-
sonous plant materials incidentally. For instance, hay may con-
tain a goodly quantity of bracken or crotalaria. Animals eating
the hay are incidentally poisoned by the bracken or crotalaria.
Hogs grazing on peanuts incidentally consume crotalaria seeds
which have fallen to the ground. Many animals have a certain
amount of curiosity. They may eat the hydrangea bush at the
corner of the house when plenty of desirable food is at hand. Or,
they may "eat through the fence" where pastures are always
greener on the other side.
Unknown.-Occasionally it is impossible to determine why
some animals eat poisonous plants. Animals have been known
to graze on poisonous species of crotalaria even though sufficient
quantities of other forage were available. Many theories have
been advanced but none have been definitely proven.
Under normal conditions plant poisoning by certain specific
plants usually is seasonal. Examples are cocklebur and atamasco
lily. However, instances of poisoning by these plants have been
observed where areas infested with them have been plowed or
otherwise disturbed. All poisonous plants are potentially dan-
gerous at all seasons of the year and should be so regarded.
Toxicity of seeds, foliage and roots of poisonous plants often
varies from year to year. This is apparently due to variations
in the seasons during which the plants grow. Concentration of
toxins in plants may vary widely from one seedling to another,
or between strains of a given species.

Description of Poisonous Plants
Tung-Oil Tree, Tung Tree, Tung-Nut
Description.-The tung-oil tree (Aleurites fordi Hemsl.1) is a
small deciduous tree with smooth bark, milky sap, thick twigs

'The foliage of Aleurites montana (Lour.) Wils., A. moluccana Willd.,
and A. trisperma Blanco grown experimentally in this country is less toxic
than A. fordi in the order named.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


and horizontal branches often produced in whorls. The leaves
alternate, long-stalked and simple. The leaf-blades, 5 to 10 inc
long, are broadly ovate, sharp-pointed, and often exhibit an a<
tional point on each side of the tip; margins are entire and bs
broad, sometimes rounded. The leaf-stalk bears two reddist
brownish glands or small knobs close to the leaf-blade. '
flowers are produced in large clusters at the tips of the twig;
spring before the leaves appear. They are about 1 inch in di
eter, consist of 5 to 7 petals colored pale pink or white, v
deep brownish red lines running lengthwise, and have red(
brown bases. The flowers are of two kinds, several pistil
(female) flowers and many staminate (male) flowers occur
in the same cluster. The fruits, produced on drooping st;


Fig. 2.-Tung oil leaf, flowers and fruit.






Plants That Poison Farm Animals


several inches long are nearly globular, 2 to 3 inches in diameter
and dark green, later brown, in color. Each fruit contains three
to seven large, hard, rough-coated seeds with white flesh.
(Fig. 2).
Habitat and Distribution.-The tung-oil tree, native of China,
has been planted extensively in northern and western Florida as
a source of oil. Stray seeds have produced trees along fencerows,
on roadsides, and in other locations near tung orchards.
Toxicity.-The foliage, sap and fruit, as well as commercial
tung meal, contain a toxic principle, a saponin, which characteris-
tically induces gastro-enteritis in animals to which they are fed.
Commercial tung meal does not contain as much saponin as the
unprocessed fruit; however, it also contains a second toxic sub-
stance as yet unidentified.
Cases of tung poisoning have been reported in cattle, horses
and chickens. One and three-quarters pounds of foliage will kill
a 500-pound steer. Under the common practice of grazing cattle
in tung orchards, cases of poisoning have never been reported.
All known instances of poisonings from foliage have resulted
from animals having access to discarded broken branches or
prunings.
Symptoms.-Symptoms of tung poisoning in cattle are not
observed until 3 to 7 days after the foliage has been consumed.
Acute poisoning results in death in 3 to 4 days, while chronic
cases may linger for 18 to 21 days before death ensues. Hem-
orrhagic diarrhea which becomes watery and profuse is a prom-
inent symptom. Lack of appetite, cessation of rumination, list-
lessness, depression and unthriftiness are common symptoms.
Chronic cases may develop labored breathing, mucous discharge
from the nose, salivation, cracking of the skin of the muzzle
and progressive emaciation.
Cases of tung poisoning may occur in the human, particularly
from eating the nuts. A severe gastro-enteritis develops with
resultant mild to violent purging. Such cases should be treated
symptomatically under the direction of a physician.
Prevention.-Animals should not be allowed access to dis-
carded branches of the tung tree. Commercial tung meal, un-
less detoxified, cannot be used as a livestock food.
Treatment.-Attempts to treat acute forms of tung poisoning
in cattle are useless. Chronic cases can be treated by the ad-
ministration of emollients and drugs to relieve the inflammation






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


in the gastro-intestinal tract. Tempting soft feeds can be used
to stimulate the appetite.

Prickly Poppy

Description.-Prickly poppies, (Argemone mexicana L. and
A. alba Lestib.), (Fig. 3) are upright plants 1 to 3 feet tall bear-
ing several branches near the top. The leaves are 3 to 6 inches
long, armed along the margins with large, very sharp spines.


Fig. 3.-Flowering branch and fruits of prickly poppy.






Plants That Poison Farm Animals


The sap is thick and white or yellow in color. The flowers,
appearing in late spring and summer, are large, 2 to 4 inches
across, white or clear yellow in color with a cluster of yellow
stamens in the center. The pods are oval, about 1 inch high,
and bear numerous upright spines.
Habitat and Distribution.-Prickly poppies occur as single
plants or in large or small groups anywhere in Florida so long
as the soil is dry. They are frequently found around abandoned
homesites or adjacent fields.
Toxicity.-The plant has been reported to contain several toxic


Fig. 4.-Boxwood-leafy branch.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


substances. While cases of livestock poisoning have occurred,
such instances are rare. Mechanical injury sometimes occurs
from the prickly fruit.
Boxwood
Description.-Boxwood (Buxus sempervirens L. and B. micro-
phylla Sieb. & Zucc.) (Fig. 4) are large or small bushes seldom
over 5 feet in height. The shrubs have many upright branches
and twigs thickly clothed with pairs of round or oval, thick,
leathery leaves about 1/2 inch long. The small dark green leaves
are very persistent and remain on the plant for several years,
but the inconspicuous flowers seldom appear in Florida.
Habitat and Distribution.-Boxwood plants are seldom found
anywhere but in the garden or around the house. They may be
placed singly as specimen plants but more often they are used as
a hedge. They are not found much farther south than Marion
County. Clippings or hedge-trimmings are often dumped into
the pasture lot.
Toxicity.-The bark and leaves contain a number of toxic
alkaloids. Cases of poisoning have been reported in horses and
pigs. All parts of the plant are considered poisonous. Their
bitter taste probably prevents animals from eating large quanti-
ties.
Symptoms.-Small amounts of the plant have an emetic and
purgative action; large amounts induce intense abdominal pain,
diarrhea, tenesmus, convulsions and death. Extreme thirst, un-
steady gait, convulsions and death have been observed in pigs
which died within 24 hours after eating the plant.

Showy Crotalaria, Yellow Crotalaria
Description.-Showy crotalaria (Crotalaria spectabilis Roth.)
is a robust annual plant 3 to 6 feet or more tall, with an erect,
somewhat ribbed stem bearing several stout, ascending branches.
The alternate leaves are short-stalked and simple; the leaf blades,
4 to 7 inches long, are dark green above, somewhat paler be-
neath, elliptic to cuneate, blunt but often tipped with a bristle.
The stipules are leaf-like and nearly 1 inch long. The yellow
flowers, about 1 inch across, are pea-shaped and borne in up-
right spikes 8 to 15 inches long at the top of the plant and at
the ends of the branches. The smooth pods, nearly 2 inches
long, are inflated, light green when young, becoming nearly black












Fig. 5.-
SShowy crotalaria
-flowering shoot
and pod.


A I


**4 (

^iw Ai'.HA







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


when ripe. The seeds, nearly 1/4 inch long, are black and glossy.
The whole plant is smooth to the touch and waxy so that water
stands in drops on the leaves. (Fig. 5.)
Habitat and Distribution.-Showy crotalaria is planted as a
cover crop to enrich the soil and to reduce the population of
root-knot nematode. It occurs commonly also as a roadside plant,
in fencerows, in abandoned fields, around farm buildings, and
about refuse disposal areas. It is seldom found on very wet
soils. It occurs in nearly all parts of the state but is especially
common in farming communities.
Toxicity.-The alkaloid, monocrotaline has been isolated from
the leaves, stems, roots and seed; the concentration is highest
in the seed. Monocrotaline lowers blood pressure and decreases
the rate and amplitude of the heart beat in experimental animals.
Natural cases of poisoning have been observed in cattle,
sheep, goats, horses, hogs, mules, chickens and turkeys. Nine
pounds of the dried plant will kill a 300-pound steer in approxi-
mately four days. Two grams of ground seed fed daily will pro-
duce acute poisoning in 50-pound hogs in about seven days.
Chickens have been killed in 30 to 60 days by consuming 80
mature seeds.
The frosted green or dry plant is toxic to all classes of live-
stock if eaten in sufficient quantity.
Wild birds such as quail and turkeys apparently refrain from
eating crotalaria.
Symptoms.-Acute poisoning in cattle is marked by depres-
sion, loss of appetite, bloody feces, drooling saliva, nasal dis-
charge and a yellowish discoloration of the visible mucous mem-
branes. Death occurs within 5 to 10 days.
The most common type of poisoning observed in cattle under
field conditions is the chronic form in which animals often die
two to six months after eating the plant. In such cases very
little evidence of illness is observed until 7 to 14 days before
death. The hair coat may appear rough and there may be a
slight unthriftiness. Usually the first marked symptom noted
is bloody feces. The eyes have an anxious or staring appear-
ance. The animal appears slightly bloated and full in the middle.
Loss of appetite, diarrhea, yellowish discoloration of the visible
mucous membranes, partial version of the rectum and general
weakness are other symptoms. Before death the animal "goes
down," due to general weakness, and is unable to stand on its feet.






Plants That Poison Farm Animals


The symptoms of crotalaria poisoning in sheep and goats are
similar to those observed in cattle. The period of illness, how-
ever, is somewhat shorter.
Hogs often die suddenly of gastric hemorrhage in acute cases
of poisoning. Chronic cases may develop 2 to 4 months after
the animals have had access to the plant. Loss of appetite, gen-
eral unthriftiness, weakness and occasionally anemia occur. Hogs
on feed fail to gain weight.
Horses and mules have been known to become affected with
crotalaria poisoning as long as nine months after contact with
the plant. The first period of illness usually is marked by a
gastro-intestinal disturbance (colic). Usually there is a diarrhea
and congestion and yellowish discoloration of the visible mucous
membranes. Intestinal movements can be heard at a distance of
15 to 20 feet from the animal. Symptoms of extreme stupor and
depression for a period of 2 or 3 days are interspersed with peri-
ods of 2 to 6 weeks during which the animal appears improved.
During periods of severe illness affected animals walk listlessly,
in circles, and stumble into various objects; they also push or
lean against stationary objects and often meet sudden death
by falling into awkward positions or becoming entangled in
fences so that they cannot extricate themselves. The usual
period of illness is 3 to 4 months, although some animals live
much longer. During this period the general condition of the
animal deteriorates and emaciation occurs. Death occurs as
the result of cardiac failure.
Chickens and turkeys, particularly poults, often are poisoned
by eating the seed or green plant. Affected birds become listless
and droopy; often there is diarrhea, darkness or paleness of the
comb. Anemia and emaciation usually occur if the period of
illness is longer than two weeks.
Prevention.-Although poisoning by crotalaria may occur at
any time during the year, it is most frequent when this plant
is green and succulent while other forage is dry and unattractive.
It should be considered extremely hazardous to permit livestock
of any kind to come in contact with this plant. There is some
controversy among laymen as to the toxicity of C. spectabilis,
as animals have been known to eat it without inducing illness.
Animals having continual contact with the plant sometimes eat
small quantities throughout the season and in this way develop
a tolerance to the toxic principle. Some animals will not eat







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


the plant, others will eat it only when insufficient desirable for-
age is available, while others may eat it even though they are
well fed. The development of poisoning is dependent entirely
upon the amount the animal eats.
Once the plant has been allowed to scatter its seed on the
ground, many years are required to exterminate it, as some
seed lie in the soil for years before sprouting. Planting in-
fested areas in cultivated crops greatly assists in elimination
of the plant.
Treatment.-Animals which have developed symptoms of
crotalaria poisoning rarely recover, regardless of treatment.

Jimsonweed, Jimsonweed datura, Jamestown weed, Thorn apple
Description.-Jimsonweed (Datura stramonium L.) is a large
annual weed, 3 to 5 feet tall, with several widespreading branches
near the top of the stem. The main stem and branches are
smooth and green or purplish. The alternate leaves are smooth,
light green and stalked; the leaf-blades, 3 to 8 inches long, are
thin, ovate to elliptic, pointed at both ends, and bear large, ir-
regular, sharp-pointed teeth along the margins. The erect flow-
ers, borne singly in the leaf axils, are short-stalked, funnel-
shaped but flaring out into a 5-pointed star and white or pale
bluish-purple in color. The 4-celled fruit is a dry, hard capsule,
ovate, green, becoming pale, brown, and covered with hard, sharp
prickles. The pod, about 1 inch long, splits into four sections,
each containing numerous seeds. (Fig. 6.)
Habitat and Distribution.-Jimsonweed is found nearly all
over the state, but more commonly in the northern areas. It
occurs in cultivated fields, gardens, around farm buildings, par-
ticularly old barn lots, roadsides and refuse heaps, nearly always
on fertile soil.
Toxicity.-Jimsonweed contains the toxic alkaloids, hyoscya-
mine, atropine, and scopolamine, about 0.3 percent of the dry
weight of the plant. All parts of the plant, particularly the seeds,
are poisonous. Cattle are poisoned most frequently, but occa-
sionally sheep, horses and hogs are affected. Children have been
poisoned by eating the fruit or sucking the flowers. Ten to 14
ounces of the green plant will produce fatalities in cattle. The
toxicity of the plant is not destroyed by drying and poisoning
occasionally has resulted from eating the weed mixed with hay.






Plants That Poison Farm Animals


Fig. 6.-Jimsonweed-flowering shoot with young fruit.


Cases of poisoning due to ensilage containing the weed have
been reported.
Symptoms.-Dryness of mouth, rapid pulse and respiration,
partial blindness and frequent urination or retention of urine are
common symptoms in cattle. Diarrhea, dilation of the pupils of
the eyes and stiffness also have been observed. In the terminal
stages of illness respiration becomes slow, weak and irregular,
while the pulse becomes rapid and feeble, with death resulting
from asphyxia.
Convulsive twitching of the entire body is described as an
outstanding symptom in hogs.
Prevention.-The weed has a rank, unpleasant odor and a
strong taste, and animals are not likely to eat it unless confined
to areas where there is little else to eat.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


The plants should be cut and burned before the seeds mature.
Grubbing is considered practical when small areas are involved.
Care should be used that the weed is not included in hay.

Purple Rattlebox, Daubentonia, False Poinciana
Description.-Rattlebox (Daubentonia punicea (Cav.) DC.)
is a shrub or small tree seldom more than 10 feet in height.
The trunk is slender, stiff and usually crooked, bare below and
dividing into several stiff, widely spreading branches at the top.
The bark on the twigs and trunks is dark gray to black and only
slightly roughened with raised lenticels. The alternate leaves,
4 to 8 inches long, are stalked and pinnate, with 6 to 20 pairs
of leaflets. Each leaflet is 1 inch or less long, elliptic with a
minute, pointed tip, dark green above, smooth and rather firm.
The flowers, borne in pendant clusters near the tips of the
branches, are sweet-pea shaped, orange to red in color, and nearly
1 inch across, on short, slender stalks. The pods, 2 to 3 inches
long and 1/2 inch wide, are green, turning dark brown on ripen-
ing, slightly flattened, pointed at both ends, and furnished with
4 flanges or wings running lengthwise the pod. The seeds are
oblong to subglobose and brown. (Fig. 7.)
Habitat and Distribution.-Rattlebox, a native of Mexico,
was originally planted in Florida as an ornamental, but has be-
come naturalized in many areas of the northern part of the state.
It is most often found around houses, along fencerows and ditch
banks, and in the flood plains of streams.
Toxicity.-The toxic principle is a saponin, the greatest con-
centration being in the seed.
Cases of poisoning have been reported in sheep, chickens and
pigeons. Approximately 50 grams of the plant per hundred-
weight are sufficient to induce fatal poisoning in sheep. Chickens
may be killed by consuming as few as 6 to 18 seeds, while 3 or
4 seeds have been osberved to cause death in pigeons.
Symptoms.-The pulse is rapid and respirations are weak,
irregular and usually labored in poisoned sheep. Death occurs
with little or no struggling. Sheep which recover show diarrhea
and depression for several days.
Drooping wings, ruffled feathers, profound depression, gen-
eral debility, unthriftiness, congested comb and profuse diarrhea
are symptoms usually observed in affected chickens.
The period of illness in pigeons is short. The droppings are






Plants That Poison Farm Animals


Fig. 7.-Rattlebox-flowering shoot and pod.


scant, watery and greenish. General weakness occurs. Recovery
seldom is observed.
Prevention.-Animals should not be allowed to contact areas
in which the plant grows wild, particularly when there is a
shortage of feed. When the plant is grown as an ornamental
the pods should be picked before the seeds have an opportunity
to shatter on the ground.
Treatment.-A saline purgative, followed by stimulants and
soft food, is beneficial.

Carolina-jessamine, Yellow-jessamine, Evening Trumpet-flower
Description.-Carolina-jessamine (Gelsemium sempervirens
(L.) Ait. f.) is a high-climbing, woody vine that often covers the
tops of small trees and bushes but, in the absence of support,






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


may trail on the ground and produce many slender, more or less
upright stems. The main stems of large vines are gray and 1
inch or more in diameter, but the majority of the branches are
thin, wiry, much branched and tangled, glossy and dark reddish-
brown in color. The short-stalked leaves are simple and always
produced in pairs; the leaf-blades, 1/2 to 21/2 inches long, are ovate
to lanceolate, not very sharp-pointed, rounded at the base, smooth
on the margin and dark green, though often marked with ir-
regular reddish-brown discolorations, especially in winter. The
clear yellow, sweet-scented flowers, produced in late winter and


Fig. 8.-Carolina jessamine-flowering stems with fruits.






Plants That Poison Farm Animals


early spring, are borne in small clusters in the leaf axils of the
slender twigs in such profusion as to form conspicuous masses of
color. The individual flowers, tubular with 5 flaring lobes, are
1 to 11/2 inches long. The seed pods are brown, flat, less than 1
inch long and contain several small, winged seeds. (Fig. 8.)
Habitat and Distribution.-Carolina-jessamine grows abun-
dantly in open hammocks, but is also found in thickets, swamps
and open fields, along fencerows, around stumps, and on rocky
bluffs. The vine is most widely distributed in northern Florida,
but occurs as far south as Osceola County.
Toxicity.-Yellow-jessamine contains the crystalline alkaloid
gelsemine and the amorphous alkaloids gelseminine and gelse-
moidine. Other alkaloids have been reported isolated from the
plant. These alkaloids constitute the poisonous principles in the
plant. They chiefly depress and paralyze motor nerve endings.
Depression of the motor neurons of the brain and spinal cord
result in respiratory arrest.
The flowers, leaves and roots contain the toxic alkaloids, the
greatest concentration being in the roots from which extractions
have been made for medicinal purposes.
Cattle, sheep, goats, swine and horses have been reported
poisoned by yellow jessamine. Poisoning of cattle by this plant
is of considerable importance in the Southeastern states, partic-
ularly during the winter months when there is a shortage of
desirable green feed.
Single dosages of 5 pounds of green leaves to a 400-pound
steer did not produce typical poisoning attributed to yellow-jessa-
mine as observed in the field. The feeding of 180 grams of fresh
green leaves to hens over a period of 15 days resulted in death in
20 to 26 days, with no indications of symptoms until four or five
days before death. This would indicate that the poisonous prin-
ciple is cumulative and that animals must eat the plant over a
period of time before poisonous effects are observed.
Symptoms.-Under range conditions animals poisoned by this
plant usually are not found until they are "down." Early symp-
toms consist of muscular weakness, staggering gait and dila-
tion of the pupils of the eyes. As weakness progresses rapidly
the animal "goes down" and death usually occurs in 24 to 48
hours. During this terminal period convulsive movements of the
head and legs occur frequently. The pulse is feeble, respirations
are reduced and the temperature usually is subnormal. Animals






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


in this condition should not be drenched, as paralysis of the
throat often occurs, resulting in an inability to swallow. Death
occurs from respiratory failure.
Prevention.-Animals should not be allowed to graze in areas
where pasture is scant and yellow-jessamine is plentiful. Grub-
bing is a means of eliminating isolated plants. When larger
areas are involved, fencing off or bulldozing can be an effective
procedure.

Bagpod, Bladderpod, Coffeeweed, Coffeebean
Description.-Bagpod (Glottidium vesicarium (Jacq.) Har-
per) is a robust annual weed, often 6 feet and sometimes 12 feet
high in rich soil. The stems are straight, erect, slender for their
height and branched above the middle with several stiff, wide-
spreading branches, the number depending upon the amount of
competition with other plants. The alternate leaves are widely
spaced on the stem, 4 to 10 inches long, pinnate with 10 to 26
pairs of leaflets. Each leaflet is elliptic with a small pointed top,
1/2 to 1 inch long, about 1/4 inch wide, dark green above and paler
beneath, very smooth and waxy. The flowers, borne in clusters
of 2 to 5 or more on slender stalks 3 to 5 inches long, are sweet-
pea shaped, about /2 inch across and yellow striped with pink or
entirely red all over. The pods, which persist long after the
leaves have fallen, are 2 to 3 inches long, elliptic, pointed at both
ends and bulged over each of the two seeds. At maturity the
outer layer of the pod opens and exposes the thin, silky, white
sack-like inner layer enclosing the seeds. The seeds, nearly 1/
inch long, are oblong and greenish brown. (Fig. 9.)
Habitat and Distribution.-Bagpod occurs nearly all over
Florida. It is found most commonly in old fields, especially on
rich, damp soil, along ditches and streams, around lakes and
savannahs and sometimes on higher land in abandoned culti-
vated fields. (See Circular S-58.)
Toxicity.-The toxic principle of bagpod is a saponin, which
causes intense inflammation of the gastro-intestinal tract.
Cases of poisoning have been reported in chickens, hogs,
goats, sheep and cattle. Approximately 150 mature seeds con-
stitute a fatal dose for an adult chicken. The green seeds are
considerably more toxic than mature seeds. About 5 pounds
of the green plant and seeds are required to induce fatal poison-
ing in a 250-pound steer.






Plants That Poison Farm Animals


Symptoms.-In affected chickens the comb becomes dark and
congested. A yellowish diarrhea develops. Emaciation and un-
thriftiness occur when the period of illness is prolonged. Bagpod
seeds are found in the crop and gizzard of poisoned birds.
Symptoms of poisoning in cattle and sheep are similar.
Marked depression and sluggishness are among the early symp-
toms when diarrhea occurs. The animal urinates frequently.
Respirations are shallow and accelerated. Depression increases
and finally the animal passes into a comatose condition and death
soon ensues.


r0


Fig. 9.-Bagpod-pods, leaf and flower.


Prevention.-Chickens most commonly are poisoned by the
seeds which fall from the plant during the winter. The weeds
should be mowed in the late summer or before the seeds mature.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Fig. 10.-Bitterweed plant in flower.






Plants That Poison Farm Animals


Bitterweed
Description.-Bitterweed (Helenium tenuifolium Nutt.) (Fig.
10) is an annual or biennial plant 6 inches to 3 feet tall when in
bloom. The green stems are widely branched above the middle
but usually simple below. The leaves are about 1 inch long, nar-
row, strap-like and very numerous on both stems and branches.
The flower heads are about 1 inch across, daisy-like in shape
and both rays and the disk-like centers are bright yellow. The
flower heads are borne on the tips of the branches, forming a
flat-topped mass of flowers.
Habitat and Distribution.-Bitterweed is a plant of waste
places. Large patches may be found along roadsides in central
Florida and westward across northern Florida to the Alabama
line. Old pastures are frequently densely populated with it.
It does not tolerate shade nor does it occur on swampy soil. It
is distributed on both sand and clay soils, well drained or even
dry, usually associated with grasses of some sort.
Toxicity.-Cases of poisoning have been reported in horses
and mules. All parts of the plant contain a bitter principle.
The milk of cows which have grazed on bitterweed commonly
possesses an intense bitter flavor.

Hydrangea
Description.-Wild hydrangea (Hydrangea quercifolia Bartr.)
(Fig. 11) is a shrub or small tree sometimes 15 feet in height.
The stems and twigs are usually reddish brown or tan in color.
The large leaves, 6 inches or more long, dark green above, gray-
ish and fuzzy underneath, are deeply scalloped or lobed on the
margin so that they resemble oak leaves in outline. The tiny
white flowers are borne in large pyramidal panicles often a
foot long. Their color becomes brownish or purplish with age.
Habitat and Distribution.-Wild hydrangea grows naturally
on steep banks of sinkholes, river bluffs and rocky outcrops
from Leon County westward. It usually grows in considerable
shade, only rarely in full sunlight. However, nurserymen often
use it as an ornamental and as such it may be found far out of
its natural range.
Related species.-Another wild hydrangea (Hydrangea ar-
borescens L.) is less common in Florida. It is distinguished
from the above by oval or elliptic leaves lacking the deep lobes.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Fig. 11.-Wild hydrangea flower cluster with leaves.


The garden hydrangea (Hydrangea macrophylla Ser.) (Fig. 12)
is found only in garden or other landscape plantings.
Toxicity.-Wild hydrangea, as well as many of the orna-
mental species of hydrangea, contain a glucoside which yields
hydrocyanic acid. Naturally occurring cases of poisoning by
these species have been described in the horse and cow.
Symptoms.-The character of symptoms produced would indi-
cate the presence of a toxic substance in addition to hydrocyanic
acid potentialities. Extreme restlessness, abdominal pain and
profuse diarrhea, which becomes hemorrhagic and contains mu-
mus, occur. Guinea pigs fed experimentally developed a severe
gastro-enteritis.
Common Lantana
Description.-Lantana (Lantana camera L.) is a shrub or, in
the northern areas, an herbaceous perennial reaching a height







Plants That Poison Farm Animals


of 3 to 5 feet. The stems are widely branched, brittle at the
joints, usually bluntly square, green or brown and armed with
weak, sharp spines. The leaves, borne in pairs or whorls of
three, are stalked and aromatic when crushed; the leafblades


Fig. 12.-Garden hydrangea flower cluster with leaves.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


are ovate or elliptic, somewhat pointed at both ends, dark green
above and paler below, 1 to 3 inches long and toothed along the
margin. The flowers, creamy white, yellow or pink, changing to
orange or scarlet, are borne in long-stalked clusters about 1
inch across in axils of the leaves. The individual flowers have
4 lobes or divisions and are tubular in the lower part. The
fruits, green to blue or black, are nearly 1/4 inch in diameter
and contain 1 bony seed. (Fig. 13.)
Habitat and Distribution.-Lantana has been planted widely
as an ornamental and is most common around gardens and old
home sites. It is also found along fencerows, in fields and the
margins of woods. It is found nearly all over the state but is
most common from Orlando southward.
Related Species.-Three other species are common in Florida.
L. aculeata L. grows as high as 8 feet, has strongly spiny stems
and yellow flowers, changing to orange or purple. L. ovatifolia
Britton has unarmed stems about 5 feet or less high and yellow,
unchanging flowers. L. montevidensis Briq. has weak, unarmed
stems up to 5 feet in length and purple flowers. These species
probably are equally toxic.
Toxicity.-This plant contains a substance which sensitizes
the skin of cattle and sheep which have eaten it to sunlight,
causing the skin to become hard, swollen, cracked and painful.
This process is called photosensitization. Plants having this
action may be eaten and the animal sensitized but lesions will
not develop unless exposure to sunlight follows. Experiments
indicate that the feeding of 3/4 to 1 pound of mature dried leaves
will induce poisoning in a 400-pound steer.
Symptoms.-The acute type of poisoning is induced when
animals eat a considerable quantity of the plant. The affected
animal shows symptoms of sluggishness or extreme weakness;
the stools usually are soft and bloody; food is refused; occasion-
ally partial paralysis of the legs occur; death usually occurs
within 3 to 4 days.
Chronic cases of lantana poisoning are induced when smaller
amounts of the plant are eaten. Affected animals usually be-
come constipated, particularly in the early stages of poisoning,
although later the stools may become soft. Areas of skin and
mucous membrane show a yellowish discoloration. Although
white or non-pigmented skin shows the first evidence of disease,
pigmented skin often subsequently becomes involved. The skin








Plants That Poison Farm Animals


Fig. 13.-Lantana-flowering shoot with fruit.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


of the muzzles, ears, neck, shoulders, legs, udder or other part of
the body becomes yellow, swollen, hard, cracked and painful.
The skin often peels, leaving large exposed raw areas. The skin
of the muzzle usually is extensively involved. Areas of inflam-
mation extend to the adjacent mucous membranes of the mouth
and nasal passages. Skin of the muzzle becomes yellowish to
orange in color; it then becomes dry, hard, painful and finally
cracks. The skin may become detached, leaving large bleeding
areas exposed. Bacterial infection may occur in such areas and
extend into surrounding tissue. Ulcers often develop on tongue,
gums and lining of the cheeks. Affected animals refuse food;
saliva drools from the mouth; loss of flesh occurs. Skin and
membranes surrounding the eyes may become affected, as well
as the eyeball itself.
Prevention.-Lantana poisoning most frequently occurs as a
result of a lack of desirable forage. The crushed leaves have a
pungent odor and taste and animals will not eat them if suffi-
cient suitable forage is available. Animals unfamiliar with the
plant occasionally become poisoned when moved to pastures in
which it is growing. In most instances it is probably practical'
to remove the plants by grubbing.
Treatment.-Affected animals should be kept in darkness or
shade, out of contact with sunlight. Soft laxative feeds should
be supplied. Affected skin areas should be treated with mild
antiseptics and healing ointments. The percentage of recoveries
usually is not large, even though many times the symptoms
appear mild. Lesions should be closely observed for screwworm
infestation and treated accordingly.

Chinaberry, China-tree, Pride of India
Description.-Chinaberry (Melia azedarach L.) is a small
tree 20 to 40 feet high. The trunk is 1 to 2 feet in diameter,
large in proportion to the rest of the tree, often divided near the
base into several large branches. The bark is gray to dark gray-
brown, roughened by narrow inter-lacing shallow furrows and
broad flat-topped ridges. The alternate leaves, 1 to 3 feet long,
roughly triangular in shape, are twice divided into numerous
leaflets. The leaflets, 1 to 2 inches long, are broadly lanceolate
or ovate in shape, dark green above and paler beneath, and
sharply toothed or lobed along the margins. The fragrant
flowers are produced on long-stalked, much-branched axillary







Plants That Poison Farm Animals


clusters soon after the leaves attain full size. Each flower is
about 1 inch across and composed of five or six narrow purplish
petals surrounding a pale column of stamens. The fruit is
smooth, globular, yellow, about 1/2 inch in diameter. The 1
large stone, covered by thin pulpy flesh, is strongly ribbed
lengthwise and contains 5 or 6 seeds in small cavities.
Habitat and Distribution.-Chinaberry is native to Syria,
Iran and northern India but it has been naturalized almost
throughout Florida. It is also common in hammocks and around
abandoned home-sites. (Fig. 14.)
Melia azedarach L. var. umbraculifera Sarg., the umbrella
chinaberry, is a small tree with dense, much-branched, umbrella-
shaped crown. It is frequently planted as an ornamental in
door-yards.


Fig. 14.-Chinaberry-flowering shoot and cluster of old fruits.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Toxicity.-The toxic principle of chinaberry has not been de-
termined. Poisoning occurs most frequently among hogs from
eating the green and ripe berries. The lethal dose for a 50-pound
pig is approximately 150 grams of berries. The fruit is less toxic
for goats, chickens and ducks. While fruits or berries are most
toxic, flowers, leaves and bark also contain the toxic principle.
Symptoms.-In hogs symptoms occur 3 to 4 hours after the
berries have been consumed. Loss of appetite, constipation,
blood-stained stools, stiffness, lack of coordination and general
weakness are the chief symptoms. Death often occurs within
24 hours.
Prevention.-Animals, and particularly hogs, should not have
access to the fruit of the chinaberry tree.
Treatment.-Berries of the chinaberry are almost always
found in the stomach or intestines of animals poisoned by this
plant. There is no specific treatment. Affected animals usually
die within a short time after symptoms are noted; those which
survive this period usually do so without treatment.

Common Oleander
Description.-Oleander (Nerium oleander L.) is a woody
shrub or small tree ranging in height from 5 to 25 feet. When
allowed to grow naturally it produces a large number of stems
and forms a dense clump, but occasionally plants are trimmed
to a single large trunk with a much-branched crown. The bark
on young stems is smooth and green, but older branches and
trunks are gray and roughened by many raised lenticels. The
numerous short-stalked leaves are borne in pairs or more often
in whorls of 3 around the twigs; the leaf-blades, simple, narrow,
evergreen, leathery, pointed at the tip, dull dark green above
with a prominent lighter colored midrib, are 3 to 10 inches long
and smooth on the margin. The leaves usually turn yellow before
falling and the leaf-scars are prominent on twigs and branches.
The flowers, produced in early summer or all year in the warmer
parts of the state, are borne in upright clusters at the ends of
branches on the upper part of the shrub. They vary in color
from white through pink, creamy yellow and rose to deep red.
Normally there are five petals about 1 inch long with a fringed
appendage at the base of each, but many cultivated forms with
double (many petalled) flowers are found in gardens. The pods,
not commonly produced, are long, narrow, cylindrical and paired.






Plants That Poison Farm Animals


The numerous seeds are furnished with a tuft of brown hairs.
All parts of the plants, but especially the new growth, exude a
gummy, sticky sap when injured. (Fig. 15.)


Fig. 15.-Oleander-flowering shoots.


Habitat and Distribution.-Oleander, an exotic plant, is found
only where it has been planted, but it has been widely used for
hedges, screen plantings and as an ornamental. Since it grows
vigorously it must be pruned often and the clippings frequently
find their way to rubbish piles and dumping grounds.
Toxicity.-Two toxic glucosides with properties similar to
those of the digitalis glucosides have been isolated from oleander.
Cases of poisoning have been reported in all classes of live-
stock, as well as in humans. Approximately 15 to 20 grams of the
green leaves are sufficient to induce death in mature cattle and
horses. The dry leaves are almost as toxic as the green ones.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Symptoms.-The symptoms of poisoning in horses, cattle and
sheep are rather similar. Affected animals become weak. The
pulse is rapid. Profuse sweating occurs. Purging usually is
present during the entire period of illness. Abdominal pains
often are severe. The extremities are cold. Blood often appears
in the stool in the terminal stages.
Prevention.-The leaves of oleander are fibrous and tough.
Animals will not eat them unless there is a shortage of desirable
feed.
Treatment.-Affected animals can be treated by a veterina-
rian according to the symptoms shown, but if a lethal dose has
been consumed treatment is of little avail.

Pokeweed
Description.-Pokeweed (Phytolacca americana L.) and
Southern pokeweed (P. rigida Small) (Fig. 16) is a robust her-
baceous plant growing 6 feet or more in height from thick fleshy
roots. The stems, simple below, are much branched above. The
stem and branches are smooth, colored green or purple. The
lower leaves are a foot or more long, gradually diminishing until
the upper are about 3 inches. All are spear-shaped. The flowers
produced all summer are white, less than 1/, inch across, borne
in narrow clusters several inches long. The flattened, purple-
black, juicy berries are 1/3 to 1/2 inch in diameter and contain
several seeds.
Habitat and Distribution.-Pokeweed occurs all over Florida.
It is most often found in open hammocks and along their mar-
gins but it is also frequent on neglected cultivated land, along
fencerows and around dumps or trash piles.
Toxicity.-Pokeweed contains a toxic alkaloid and also a toxic
substance called phytolaccotoxin. All parts of the plant, prin-
cipally the berries and roots, are considered toxic to cattle, sheep,
horses and hogs. Cases have been reported in which children
were poisoned by eating the berries and roots of the plant. The
young leaves have been used as greens after thorough boiling
and discarding the first water.
Symptoms.-Symptoms occur about 2 hours after the plant
has been consumed. Severe gastric intestinal irritation occurs.
Nausea, vomiting, purging, retching, spasms and severe con-
vulsions occur, with death resulting from paralysis of the res-
piratory organs.





Plants That Poison Farm Animals


Prevention.-The plants are not difficult to eradicate.
Treatment.-The administration of bland oils and gelatinous
foods has been suggested.


Fig. 16.-Branch of Southern pokeweed bearing flower and fruit clusters.

Eastern Bracken, Brake, Brake Fern, Hog Brake, Upland Fern
Description.-Bracken (Pteridium latiusculum (Desv.)
Hieron.) is a coarse, herbaceous fern with long, stout, under-






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


ground rootstocks or stems. The rootstocks, often 10 feet long,
are black or dark brown, 1/2 inch or more in diameter and some-
times branched. The leaves, with stalks 1 to 3 feet long, are
produced singly from the joints of the rootstock so that they
occur in lines or rows; the leaf-blades, 1 to 3 feet across and
roughly triangular in shape, are divided into three main seg-


Fig. 17.-Leaf of bracken.






Plants That Poison Farm Animals


ments, each of which is twice divided into smaller parts and
finally the leaflets; the leaflets are very numerous, oblong or nar-
rowly triangular, light to dark green in color and turned down
at the edges. Young leaves are coiled at the top of the develop-
ing leaf-stalk. There are no flowers. Spores or reproductive
bodies, borne in a line of tiny sacs (sporangia) along the edge
of the lower side of the leaves, are dust-like and light brown in
color. (Fig. 17.)
Habitat and Distribution.-Bracken occurs in open, sandy
areas, pastures, open woods, rocky fields, and sometimes in open
spaces in hammocks. It is common over most of Florida as far
south as Lake Okeechobee.
Toxicity.-The toxic principle of bracken is unknown. Cases
of poisoning have been observed in cattle, horses and chickens.
Drying does not destroy the toxicity of the plant. Therefore,
hay and bedding contaminated with the fronds are dangerous.
The toxic principle has an accumulative action. One heavy feed-
ing on the fronds will not cause poisoning. Typical bracken
poisoning is caused by animals eating 3 or 4 pounds of the fronds
daily; illness develops 3 or 4 weeks later.
Symptoms.-Cattle affected with bracken poisoning usually
have a high temperature, stand with head down and drool.
Bloody fluid trickles from the nostrils. Blood appears in the
feces, either as black masses or bright red clots. The pulse
becomes fast and weak, while respiration often is labored. Death
often occurs within 48 hours after the onset of symptoms.
An unsteady gait usually is the first symptom observed in
horses affected with bracken poisoning. They become drowsy,
push the head against solid objects, and often have difficulty in
swallowing. From 7 to 20 days after the onset of symptoms,
the animal "goes down." General weakness increases and death
occurs in several days, even though the animal may regain its
feet.
Prevention.-As a general rule animals eat bracken only
when starving, on inferior forage, or on overgrazed pastures.
Hay containing bracken should not be fed. Bracken areas in
pastures should be plowed and reseeded.
Treatment.-Some animals recover if treatment is adminis-
tered early. Saline purgatives or linseed oil should be given.
Affected animals should be kept in a quiet place. Soft laxative
feeds are beneficial. Recent reports in literature indicate that






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


repeated doses of thiamine hydrochloride injected intravenously
or intramuscularly are of considerable benefit in alleviating
symptoms of bracken poisoning.

Oaks
Description.-Florida oaks (Quercus spp.) vary in size from
low shrubs to tall trees and the leaves may be small or large,
evergreen or deciduous, entire or deeply lobed. In spite of their
variety of size, leaf form and character, they have 1 character
in common, the fruits of all kinds are acorns.


Fig. 18.-Turkey oak twig with leaves and acorn.






Plants That Poison Farm Animals


Habitat and Distribution.-Oaks are among the most com-
mon of Florida trees, for a total of 28 species or varieties are na-
tive in the various parts of the state. Turkey oak, also known as
Sand Black Jack and Scrub Oak (Quercus laevis Walt.) (Fig.
18) is a well known and widely distributed species especially
common on the rolling sandy ridges known as high pine turkey
oak land or black jack ridges. It is common in the drier parts
of many cattle ranges. Many other kinds such as white, basket,
chestnut, red, scrub, runner, laurel, water, live and swamp oak
are common and readily recognized in various parts of the state.
Toxicity.-The toxic principle of oak leaves is unknown.
Their toxicity is not due to the tannic acid content.
Oak poisoning occurs chiefly in cattle and sheep. Poisoning
occurs as a result of eating buds, green shoots and young leaves
as an almost exclusive diet when other forage is scarce, and
consequently has been observed most frequently during the win-
ter or spring.
Cases of acorn poisoning have been described in horses.
Symptoms.-Obstinate constipation is an early symptom.
The stool is hard and lumpy and often covered with mucus and
blood after a few days of illness. Constipation occasionally is
followed by diarrhea. The animal is gaunt, the hair coat is
rough and the muzzle is dry and cracked. Inappetence occurs
early usually with increased thirst. Respirations and tempera-
ture usually remain normal but the pulse is weak. There is
marked depression and evidence of abdominal pain. Affected
animals become progressively weaker and die within 2 to 14
days. In extended illness emaciation occurs.
Prevention.-Animals should not be allowed to feed exclu-
sively on oak leaves. Other feed should be provided, so that
large quantities of oak leaves will not be consumed.
Treatment.-Treatment of affected animals is not particu-
larly satisfactory. Saline purgatives followed by emollients are
of some value in treatment.

Castor-bean, Palma Crista, Castor-oil Plant
Description.-Castor-bean (Ricinus communis L.) is a robust
annual herb (or small tree southward). The strong stems, 4
to 10 feet high, are erect, often crooked, green or red to purple
and sometimes covered with a white, waxy coating. The alter-
nate leaves, 4 to 30 inches across, are simple and borne on long,






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


stiff stalks; the leaf-blades are thin with prominent ribs, green
or reddish, star-shaped with 5 to 9 or more lobes, thin and
finely toothed along the margin. The stalk is attached to the
leaf-blade some distance in from the edge. The flower clust-
ers are produced at the ends of branches, but because lateral
branches grow past them they appear lateral. The flowers,
produced in narrow, upright clusters 6 to 12 inches long, are
greenish white or reddish brown, about 1/2 inch across and lack
petals. The fruits are erect, oval, green or red and covered with
stiff, fleshy spines. The seeds, 3 in each pod, are about 1/2 inch
long, elliptic, black, white or mottled with gray, black, brown
and white. (Fig. 19.)
Habitat and Distribution.-Castor-bean, a native of the


Fig. 19.-Castor-bean-flowering shoot, leaf, fruits and seed.






Plants That Poison Farm Animals


tropics, has been widely planted as an ornamental and to a less
extent as a crop plant. From these plantings, seeds have been
scattered widely all over Florida. It is common on rich soil in
gardens, around dumping grounds and in the Everglades around
Lake Okeechobee.
Toxicity.-Castor-bean contains a poisonous principle, ricin,
which is a true protein.
All parts of the plant, particularly the beans, are toxic for all
classes of livestock. Castor pomace contains the toxic principle
and should not be used as feed for livestock.
Symptoms.-The symptoms of poisoning in horses, cattle
and sheep are similar. Nausea, violent purgation which is some-
times bloody, and general toxic symptoms are observed. In case
of prolonged illness, muscular tremors, general weakness and
emaciation occur.
Prevention.-Livestock seldom eat the plant or beans when
sufficient desirable feed is provided.
Treatment.-No specific treatment for castor-bean poisoning
can be recommended.

Elderberry
Description.-Elderberry (Sambucus canadensis L. and S.
simpsoni Rehder), (Fig. 20) is a weak shrub or small tree 20
feet or less tall, often forming thickets of considerable extent.
The leaves are in pairs, each leaf consisting of 5 to 11 leaflets,
with the basal leaflets divided into smaller leaflets in the Florida
species. The flowers are tiny but borne in large flat-topped
clusters on the ends of the branches. The flowers and the purple
fruits that come later are about 1/8 inch in diameter. Flowers
and fruits are often found on the bushes at the same time.
Habitat and Distribution.-Elderberries usually grow in full
sunlight on moist soil. They may be found almost anywhere in
the state but are most common in swamps, along streams and
in the Everglades.
Toxicity.-It has been reported that the fresh leaves, flowers,
uncooked berries, and particularly the roots of elderberry con-
tain a glucoside which is capable of producing small amounts of
hydrocyanic acid. Cooking the berries is said to destroy the
cyanogenetic glucoside. The plant has a bitter taste imparted
to it by the presence of an alkaloid.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Fig. 20.-Elderberry-flower cluster with leaves and part of a
fruiting cluster.

Graceful Nightshade, Black Nightshade, Deadly Nightshade
Description.-Nightshade (Solanum gracile Link.) is a ten-
der, low-growing plant with spreading or upright green stems
and numerous branches. It may persist through the winter in
protected places or grow all year in southern Florida. The al-






Plants That Poison Farm Animals


ternate leaves, 1 to 4 inches long, are borne on rather short
leaf-stalks that emerge into the leaf-blade. The leaves are ob-
long, oval or narrow, pointed at both ends, with wavy or some-
times slightly toothed margins. The flowers, borne at the leaf-
axils in stalked clusters, are white, star-shaped with 5 petals
and a yellow protruding center. The small berries, about 1/4
inch in diameter, become purple or black when ripe. Each berry
contains several small, flat, yellowish seeds embedded in greenish
pulp. (Fig. 21.)
















A














Fig. 21.-Nightshade-flowering shoot with fruit, flowers and berry.

Habitat and Distribution.-Nightshade grows nearly every-
where except close to salt water. It prefers shady locations but
is found also in open sunny places, often among high weeds, along







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


fencerows, in old fields and gardens, and especially along the
edges of hammocks.
Toxicity.-The leaves and unripe berries contain a saponin-
like alkaloidal glucoside, solanin. It has a paralytic action on the
motor and respiratory centers of the brain. The greatest con-
centration of alkaloid is contained in the unripe berries; the ripe
berries often are consumed by birds and humans without harm.
The green plant and unripe berries have been reported poi-
sonous to all classes of livestock, including chickens.
The amount of alkaloid in the plant is said to vary with soil,
climatic and growth conditions.
Symptoms.-Weakness, stupor, staggering gait, extreme
nervousness, staring eyes, dilated pupils and paralysis are symp-
toms of nightshade poisoning in cattle, sheep and hogs. The
progress of the symptoms usually is rapid and poisoned animals
often are found dead.
Prevention.-The plant normally is an annual growing from
the seed only, except in the southern counties; it should be re-
moved and destroyed before the berries form. Eradication by
this means is not difficult.
Treatment.-No treatment is known for nightshade poisoning.

Sorghum, Sorgho, Kafir, Dura, Milo, Feterita, Shallu, Kaoliang,
Broomcorn, Sudan Grass
Description.-Sorghum (Sorghum vulgare L.) and its varie-
ties compose a large group of coarse annual grasses, with up-
right stems 2 to 15 feet in height having 7 to 18 joints. There
may be several lateral shoots at the base. The leaves, 1 at
each joint, are long, narrow, sharply toothed along the margin,
and have a prominent midrib, white, gray or yellow in color.
The flower cluster or seed head varies from 5 to 18 inches in
length (longer in broomcorn) and may be dense or open and have
the branches erect, spreading or drooping, but always in whorls.
The seeds and kernels of the various kinds of sorghum vary in
size, shape, and especially in color, being white, pink, yellow,
buff, brown or reddish brown. (Fig. 22.)
Habitat and Distribution.-Sorghum and its varieties are
seldom found except where they have been planted, although
spilled seeds may occasionally produce plants along lanes and
around farm buildings. They are widely planted in the northern
part of the state for syrup, grain for feeds, hay and ensilage.
















































Fig. 22.-
Sorghum fruit
cluster with leaf.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Toxicity.-Although sorghum and its varieties are widely
grown as feed crops, they become toxic under the conditions de-
scribed below. They belong to a group known as cyanogenetic
plants. Such plants contain a glucoside from which prussic acid
or hydrocyanic acid is liberated. Hydrocyanic acid is one of the
most potent poisons known. The acid must be liberated from the
glucosidal combination before poisoning can result. Enzymes
which are present in the plant tissues free the hydrocyanic acid
from the remainder of the glucoside. The acid is absorbed and
carried by the blood stream to the body tissues where the action
of the oxidative enzymes is inhibited. The tissues fail to receive
oxygen. The process is one of internal asphyxiation.
A number of factors affect the amount of cyanogenetic glu-
coside found in the plant. The application of nitrogenous fertil-
izers has been known to increase it 20 times, particularly on
poorer soils. The amount of glucoside in the plant decreases as
it matures. Differences in cultural practices and climatic condi-
tions cause variation in glucosidal content. Second growth and
plants stunted by drouth or other unfavorable conditions are par-
ticularly dangerous.
Much of the hydrocyanic acid is set free when the cut plant
is dried slowly. Sorghum raised under drouth conditions is
particularly dry when cut, dries quickly, and therefore is poten-
tially dangerous and should be fed with caution.
Cyanogenetic plants killed by frost often are dangerous for
a number of days. While this may appear to be true in some
instances, probably more important are the conditions under
which the plant is fed, as well as physical condition in the
stomach of the animal to which it is fed.
Symptoms.-Lethal amounts of hydrocyanic acid cause death
almost instantaneously, with spasms and respiratory paralysis.
Smaller doses cause a short period of initial stimulation, as-
sociated with excitement and convulsions. Depression then oc-
curs. Respirations become deeper and accelerated, later to be-
come weak and irregular before finally ceasing. The pupils are
dilated. The eyes are prominent, glassy, staring and non-sensi-
tive to light. The nostrils and mouth usually are filled with
foam. Involuntay urination and defecation often occur.
Prevention.-The feeding of concentrates tends to prevent in
the rumen the liberation of hydrocyanic acid from sorghum
which may be eaten within approximately 24 hours thereafter.
Large amounts of dextrose also tend to reduce harmful results.





Plants That Poison Farm Animals


Drouth-injured sorghum can be utilized with safety if placed in
a silo, adding sufficient water to insure fermentation.
Treatment.-Hydrocyanic acid poisoning progresses rapidly
if a fatal dose has been consumed. Treatment, if beneficial,
must be administered before respiratory paralysis begins to oc-
cur. Sodium nitrite, sodium thiosulphate, or both in combination,
as well as methylene blue with calcium gluconate administered
intravenously are effective antidotes. Treatment should be
given promptly and preferably by a veterinarian.


Fig. 23.-Laurel-cherry-flowering and fruiting shoots.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Carolina Laurel-cherry, Cherry-laurel, Mock Orange
Description.-Laurel-cherry (Prunus caroliniana Ait.) is a
shrub or small tree sometimes reaching a height of 25 feet. The
trunks are nearly black, dull, crooked, and often bear many
lateral branches. The alternate leaves are short-stalked and
simple; the leaf-blades, 2 to 4 inches long, are elliptic, pointed
at both ends, very glossy on the upper side, and bear few to many
sharp teeth along the margins. The pinkish white flowers ap-
pear in late winter or early spring in thick racemes 1 to 2 inches
long in the axils of the leaves. The individual flowers, about 1/
inch in diameter, bear 5 small round petals. The fruits, bluish-
black to black and nearly 1/ inch in diameter, are borne in clust-
ers of 2 to 5, often persisting until the flowers of the following
season appear. Each fruit contains 1 round stone covered with
dry, purplish flesh. The leaves, twigs and kernels smell strongly
of peach-kernel odor when crushed. (Fig. 23.)
Habitat and Distribution.-Laurel-cherry is commonly used
as a hedge plant around homes and to mark driveways. It also
occurs in thickets at the edges of woods and hammocks and along
fencerows. It is found all over the state.
Toxicity.-Cherry-laurel is a cyanogenetic plant. See dis-
cussion under sorghum.

Black Cherry, Wild Cherry, Wild Black Cherry, Rum Cherry
Description.-Black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) is a
medium to large native tree, sometimes becoming 100 feet tall
and 5 feet in diameter, but small specimens are more common.
The bark on the trunk and branches is smooth, glossy, reddish
brown to black and marked with numerous lines running around
the branches. On old trunks the bark becomes dull, black and
broken into blocks or ridges. The alternate leaves are slender-
stalked and simple; the leaf-blades, 2 to 6 inches long, are slight-
ly leathery when mature, elliptic, pointed at both ends or rounded
at the base, and have numerous small stiff teeth along the mar-
gins. The leaves fall early in autumn, often assuming bright
red or yellow colors at that season. The small white flowers are
produced early in spring on short lateral twigs bearing 1 to 2
small leaves and 20 or more stalked flowers. Each flower, about
1/2 inch broad, bears 5 small round white petals. The fruits are
glossy dark purple to black when ripe and each contains 1 hard,
nearly round stone embedded in juicy, purple flesh which is






Plants That Poison Farm Animals


edible and has a sweet acid flavor. When leaves, twigs or ker-
nels are crushed, they emit the odor of peach-kernels. (Fig.
24.)


Fig. 24.-Wild Cherry-leaf, flowering shoot and fruit cluster.

Habitat and Distribution.-Black cherry is found as scattered
individuals, seldom in pure stand, from Orange County north and
west to the boundaries of the state. Trees are common along
fencerows where birds have distributed the seeds, as well as in
hammocks, open woods and pastures. In some areas the tree is
best known for its medicinal bark and valuable cabinet wood.





Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Toxicity.-Black cherry contains the cyanogenetic glucoside,
amygdalin, which, upon being hydrolyzed by enzymes in the
plant, yields hydrocyanic acid. Poisoning frequently occurs from
eating the young shoots or broken or discarded branches. The
leaves, bark and stones of the fruit contain the glucoside. Young
leaves are considered more toxic than mature ones. (See dis-
cussion under sorghum.)

Johnson Grass
Description.-Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.)
is a coarse, weedy perennial grass, 2 to 5 feet tall, with rough
scaly rhizomes or underground stems extending in all directions.
The flowering stems are erect, 1/4 to 1/ inch in diameter, light
green and often marked with dark red or brown diseased spots.
The leaves are long and narrow, usually less than 1 inch wide
and with a prominent, pale midrib. The flower cluster or panicle
is terminal at the top of the stem, 6 to 20 inches long and bears
numerous flowers and seeds. Each flower or spikelet is narrowly
ovate, nearly erect, slightly hairy or silky and furnished with a
hair-like awn about 1/ inch long which is bent below the middle
to form a blunt angle. (Fig. 25.)
Habitat and Distribution.-Johnson grass is found in open
ground, cultivated fields, roadsides, around barns and farm yards
and in waste areas around rubbish piles. It occurs nearly all
over the state, but is most common in cultivated areas.
Toxicity.-Johnson grass is a cyanogenetic plant. It contains
a glucoside which yields hydrocyanic acid on hydrolysis. See
discussion under sorghum.

Oriental Cocklebur, Clotbur, Cocklebur
Description.-Cocklebur (Xanthium pungens Wallr.) is a ro-
bust annual weed 1 to 4 feet tall with stout stems and spreading
branches. The leaves are alternate, long-stalked and simple;
the leaf-blades, 2 to 10 inches long, are nearly heart-shaped or
triangular, with toothed and sometimes lobed margins. The
whole plant feels rough to the touch and the stems are often
spotted with small dull red patches. Although the flowers are
greenish and inconspicuous, the fruits are very prominent.
These pods, about 1 inch or less long, are oblong, green or brown,
covered with hooked prickles, and bear 2 longer, hard spines
at the end. Each bur contains 2 seeds, 1 of which germinates




















































Fig. 25.-Johnson grass
-rfl..ier cluster with leaf;
rid.Jerground rhizome.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


the next season and the other may not grow until several years
later. Each seedling has 2 thick, fleshy, dark green seed-leaves
about 1 inch long. (Fig. 1.)
Habitat and Distribution.-Cockleburs occur most commonly
in old fields, but also in more recently cultivated soil, especially
in low areas. They also occur along ditches, streams and road-
sides. The weed is most common in the central, northern and
western areas of Florida.
Toxicity.-The germinating seeds and young seedlings con-
tain the highly poisonous glucoside, xanthostrumarin. Young
seedlings are extremely rich in this toxic principle and are dan-
gerous to all classes of livestock. At this stage of growth they
have 2 long, rather narrow, pointed leaves which appear entirely
different from the mature cocklebur leaf. Thus, they often are
not recognized. As the plant develops from this stage it gradu-
ally loses its toxicity. The mature plant has a bitter, disagree-
able taste and animals usually will not eat it.
There is some question as to whether the dormant seeds of
cocklebur are poisonous. They are covered with a spiny bur and
animals do not consume them readily. Occasionally, young pigs
have been known to eat the seeds, which sometimes cause chok-
ing and produce an inflammation in the stomach. However, ex-
tensive losses in swine never have been attributed to eating
cocklebur seeds. Considerable loss in the value of graded wool
is reported each year as a result of cockleburs becoming en-
tangled in the wool of sheep. Extensive irritation of the sheath
of steers and bulls occasionally occurs as the result of masses of
cockleburs becoming embedded in the hair in this area.
Cocklebur poisoning occurs chiefly in the early spring as a
result of animals, particularly hogs, eating young plants in the
cotyledon stage. The plants usually are found on low, wet land
which has recently dried. Under these conditions a large num-
ber of seeds sprout over a short period. These young seedlings
often constitute the only available green material for grazing
at the time. In the early spring hogs usually are hungry for
green vegetation. Cocklebur seedlings are succulent and appar-
ently palatable, as hogs eat them with relish, even though the
animals are well fed otherwise.
One-quarter to 1/2 pound of the seedlings consumed over a
short interval will kill a 30- to 60-pound pig in 6 to 24 hours.
Smaller quantities consumed over a longer period often result
in cases of poisoning, although the animals may live for 4 to






Plants That Poison Farm Animals


5 days after initial symptoms are shown. The seedlings are
reported to be equally as toxic for sheep as for swine. A dosage
of twice this amount is required to poison calves. A dosage of
20 grams, which represents about 30 seedlings, will kill 2-pound
cockerels within 24 hours.
Symptoms.-The initial symptom of cocklebur poisoning in
pigs is depression, often accompanied by nausea and occasionally
vomiting. Affected animals become gaunt, weak and unable to
stand. Respiration is labored. The pulse is rapid and weak.
Affected animals unable to rise often paddle their legs in running
movements until too weak to do so. The progress of symptoms
depends in a large measure upon the amount of seedlings con-
sumed. When injury results from eating the seedlings in
amounts not large enough to produce death, several weeks are
required for the animals to regain their normal condition.
Symptoms of cocklebur poisoning in sheep and cattle are
quite similar to those in hogs. However, vomiting does not oc-
cur, but trembling and quivering of the muscles often are noted.
Prevention.-Cockleburs are difficult to eradicate, as some of
the seeds do not germinate for several years. In some areas it
may be practical to mow the weeds before the seed mature.
Pigs as well as sheep and calves should be confined in fields
which do not harbor cockleburs until the danger from young
seedlings is past.
Treatment.-The administration of milk, oils or fats is con-
sidered to have some beneficial effects in treating cocklebur
poisoning. However, when symptoms occur the major portion
of the toxic principle has been absorbed; the poison also acts
quickly, which reduces the benefits to be derived from treat-
ment. Efforts should be made to prevent animals from consum-
ing the seedlings.

Atamasco-lily, Easter-lily, Rain-lily
Description.-Atamasco-lily (Zephyranthes atamasco Herb.)
is a low, herbaceous, perennial bulbous plant, commonly grow-
ing in clumps. The bulb, buried 1 to 2 inches deep, is ovoid, 1
inch or less in diameter, composed of layers (like an onion),
white inside but covered with a thin brown skin-like coat. The
leaves, which appear late in fall or early spring, are narrow,
grass-like, 4 to 10 inches long and about 1/4 inch wide, erect or
reclining, and bluish green in color. The flowers, appearing in






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations




i^

l l"' .


Fig. 26.-Rain lily-two entire plants, with flowers, leaves and bulbs.






Plants That Poison Farm Animals


early spring, are borne erect on upright, slender stalks 2 to 6
inches long, 1 on each stalk. The flower, 2 to 3 inches long, is
composed of 6 petal-like parts like a 6-pointed star, the points
spreading or curling back, white or pinkish in color and with 6
golden yellow stamens on short stalks near the center. The seed-
pods are 3-angled, about 1/2 inch across and contain several
smooth, flat, black seeds. (Fig. 26.)
Habitat and Distribution.-Atamasco-lily or a close relative
grows nearly all over Florida. It is most common in flatwoods,
low grassy fields and in the northern areas on tussocks in
swamps.
Related Species.-Z. treatiae S. Wats. has narrow leaves, 1/8
inch wide, and grows scattered in flatwoods. Z. simpsoni Chapm.,
growing in the southern areas, has flowers which do not open
wide, the floral parts remaining erect.
Toxicity.-Cases of poisoning have been observed in horses,
cattle and chickens. The bulb is the most poisonous part of the
plant. It has an extremely acrid taste. Approximately 2 pounds
of the fresh bulbs will prove fatal to a 300- to 400-pound steer.
Forty grams of bulbs is lethal to a mature chicken.
Symptoms.-The feces become soft in cattle and horses and
often streaked with bloody mucus. Staggering occurs within 48
hours after the plant has been consumed. The affected animal
collapses suddenly and usually dies without struggle.
Prevention.-Do not allow animals to graze infested areas
in the spring when there is not an abundance of desirable for-
age.
Treatment.-No treatment can be recommended.

Other Poisonous Plants
Plants named in the following list occur throughout Florida
and are known to be poisonous under some conditions. While it
may be said that the first 8 are perhaps more poisonous than
the remainder, results of eating them chiefly depend on amounts
eaten. Almost all will produce symptoms and death if a suf-
ficient quantity is consumed. Those marked are introduced or
foreign plants used in Florida for ornamental or other purposes.
*Abrus praecatorius L., jequirity rosary pea, crab-eye.
*Crotalaria retusa L., crotalaria.
Crotalaria sagittalis L., arrow crotalaria.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


*Delphinium spp., hardy larkspurs.
*Jatropha curcas L., barbados nut.
Kalmia latifolia L., mountain laurel kalmia.
*Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam., yellow sweet clover.
Aesculus pavia L., red buckeye.
*Allamanda cathartica L., common allamanda.
Amianthemum muscaetoxicum (Walt.) A. Gray, crow poison.
Apocynum cannabinum L., hemp dogbane.
Asclepias tuberosa L., butterfly milkweed.
Asclepias verticillata L., whorled milkweed.
Cephalanthus occidentalis L., common buttonbush.
Cicuta curtissii C. & R., curtiss water hemlock.
*Colocasia antiquorum Schott, elephant's ear.
Euphorbia heterophylla L., painted euphorbia, wild poinsettia.
Euphorbia maculata L., spotted euphorbia.
*Gloriosa superba L., glorylily.
Gossypium spp., cotton.
Lachnanthes tinctoria Ellis, blood redroot, paintroot.
Leucothoe catesbaei (Walt.) Gray, drooping leucothoe.
Leucothoe racemosa (L.) Gray, sweetbells leucothoe.
Lobelia cardinalis L., cardinal-flower.
Lupinus perennis L., sundial lupine.
Lyonia mariana (L.) D. Don., staggerbush lyonia.
Lyonia ligustrina (L.) DC., he-huckleberry.
*Nicotiana glauca R. Grah., tree tobacco.
Oxypolis filiformis (Walt.) Britton, leafless cowbane.
*Phaseolus lunatus L., lima bean.
Ranunculus spp., buttercups.
Solanum carolinense L., carolina horse-nettle.
*Solanum tuberosum L., potato.
Tephrosia virginiana (L.) pers., Virginia tephrosia.
*Thevetia peruviana Schum., luckynut thevetia, yellow oleander.
Triglochin striata R. & P., ridged podgrass, arrow grass.

Plant Causing Mechanical Injury

Hairy Indigo
Hairy indigo (Indigofera hirsuta L.) is not a poisonous plant.
In some instances when cattle graze hairy indigo the skin of the
legs from the hoof as far up as the knees becomes swollen,
scabby, cracked and often bleeding. Whether this condition is
due to a mechanical injury following continual wetting of the





Plants That Poison Farm Animals 55

skin of the legs, as occurs when well grown hairy indigo is
grazed daily, or due to other factors or combination of factors
is not known. In such instances, however, affected animals
should be confined to keep the skin of the legs dry and only
allowed on short pasture after it is dry from dew or rain. Sulfa
ointments applied to the areas facilitate healing. (Fig. 27.)






I





















Fig. 27.-Hairy indigo-flowering shoot with fruit cluster.

Acknowledgment
The authors wish to thank Miss Esther Coogle, formerly Artist and
Assistant in Research, College of Agriculture, for preparing the illustra-
tions used in this bulletin. All of them were made from living specimens.




MW


The 140,000 Specimens in Our




HERBARIUM



Help Our Botanists to

Identify Plants Quickly




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losses of your animals, see your county agent, call a

local veterinarian, or send specimens of the plants to:


AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION

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HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






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