• TABLE OF CONTENTS
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 Front Cover
 Title Page
 Table of Contents
 Introduction, masurements, and...
 Results
 Discussion
 Applications
 Appendix
 Literature cited
 Back Cover
 Historic note






Group Title: Bulletin - Agricultural Experiment Stations, University of Florida ; 813 (technical)
Title: Southern pine volume equations and associated conversion factors for southwest Georgia
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Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027452/00001
 Material Information
Title: Southern pine volume equations and associated conversion factors for southwest Georgia
Series Title: Bulletin Agricultural Experiment Stations, University of Florida
Physical Description: 49 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Rockwood, D. L
Arvanitis, L. G
Hodgkins, P. E
Publisher: Agricultural Experiment Stations, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla.
Publication Date: 1980
 Subjects
Subject: Longleaf pine -- Georgia   ( lcsh )
Lumber -- Mensuration -- Tables   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 49.
Statement of Responsibility: D.L. Rockwood, L.G. Arvanitis, and P.E. Hodgkins.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027452
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000404657
oclc - 07285710
notis - ACF0872

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Front Cover
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents 1
        Table of Contents 2
    Introduction, masurements, and analyses
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
    Results
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Discussion
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
    Applications
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
    Appendix
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    Literature cited
        Page 49
    Back Cover
        Page 50
    Historic note
        Page 51
Full Text


May 1980
May 1980


Southern Pine Volume Equations and
Associated Conversion Factors for
Southwest Georgia

D. L. Rockwood, L. G. Arvani isj-,f .Al i Y

JUN 24 1980

.F.A.S.- UL v. F F-orida












Agricultural Experiment Stations
Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences
University of Florida, Gainesville
F. A. Wood, Dean for Research


Bulletin 813 (technical)









Southern Pine Volume Equations and
Associated Conversion Factors for
Southwest Georgia

D. L. Rockwood, L. G. Arvanitis, and P. E. Hodgkins


AUTHORS
Dr. Rockwood is an Assistant Professor and Dr. Arvanitis is a Professor
in the School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida.
Mr. Hodgkins is Chief Forester, F & W Forestry Services, Inc.


This public document was promulgated at an annual cost of
$2,799 or a cost of $1.56 per copy to provide foresters with up-
to-date, comprehensive equations for quantifying southern
pine product yields.


REEAHIFA
EXESO








CONTENTS

Page
Introduction ................... ..... ..... ............ 1
M easurements ..................... .... ............ 1
A nalyses ................... ..................... 1
Results........... ............... .................. 4
Discussion ................... ....................... 9
Pulpwood ......... ................................ 10
Saw tim ber ............................... .......... 11
Veneer....................... ........................ 11
Conversion factors ........................ ............. 13
Applications ......... .... .......... .... ............. 14
Appendix ........................ ... .................. 17
Literature Cited ................... ...................... 49




















ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of F & W Forestry Services,
Inc., through personnel and financial support, in the conduct of this study.
In particular, we are indebted to M. D. Thomas for the field data collection
and initiation of data processing.
We deeply appreciate the cooperation of L. R. Grosenbaugh in modifying
the STX program for this study. We also acknowledge the assistance of F.
J. Spirek, W. E. Glasgow, and R. M. Reich in the processing and analysis of
data.









INTRODUCTION
Many existing volume tables for southern pines (1, 5, 8) do not
adequately account for timber products such as veneer logs or for
current merchantability standards. In addition, weight yields or
conversions among different product yields are not commonly
available.
To improve the estimation of timber products in southwest
Georgia, an intensive program of tree measurements was under-
taken in the summer of 1977. This bulletin presents equations and
tables applicable to southwest Georgia and, with appropriate
verification, to comparable trees and areas in the Southeast.

MEASUREMENTS
A total of 2256 planted and natural slash pine (Pinus elliottii
Engelm.), loblolly pine (P. taeda L.), longleaf pine (P. palustris Mill.),
and shortleaf pine (P. echinata Mill.) were sampled in a five-county
area of southwest Georgia (Table 1). Sample trees were spread over
as wide an area as possible within the limitation of availability of
field personnel and suitable logging operations.
All trees were measured after felling for diameter outside bark
(dob) at the stem base (stump height of 0.5 foot), breast height (dbh),
and at 8-foot intervals to the top of the merchantable stem. Most
trees were topped at an 8-inch dob; the rest were brought to the
loading deck intact to a 4-inch dob. Total heights of some trees were
also measured, either on the ground by logger's tape or by relaskop
prior to felling. Diameters were taken by diameter tapes, and bark
thickness at breast height was determined by bark gauge. The
distribution of sample trees by dbh class is given in Table 2.
Weights for 19 truck loads composed of the felled trees were ob-
tained in pounds. Each log on a load was classified by timber type,
and the volume of each load was determined by accumulation of in-
dividual log volumes. Loads were grouped according to timber type.

ANALYSES
All yield calculations were performed by the STX program (6) if
accordance with specified merchantability standards (Table 3). A
uniform bark thickness ratio,. defined by the proportion of bark at
breast height, was assumed for the entire tree length. Individual
tree volumes were obtained by accumulating section volumes based






on the following formulas (L. R. Grosenbaugh, personal communica-
tion):
cubic feet
outside bark = L(Di + DBDT + D) 0.001818
Doyle board feet = L(0.0625di 0.5dT + 1)
International 1/4" = L(dr(0.0498dr + 0.00622L 0.185)
board feet + (0.000259L2 0.0116L + 0.0422))
Scribner board feet = 8.890CV 0.6503S 0.1959L
veneer = L(0.005454d' 0.15)/0.0104
where
L = length of section (feet),
D, = diameter outside bark at the base of the section (inches),
DT, dr = diameter outside bark and diameter inside bark, respec-
tively, at the top of a section (inches),
CV = cubic foot volume inside bark (cubic feet), and
S = surface area inside bark (square feet).
The effective assumed scaling length for logs was 8 feet.
Several alternative regression models were tested for developing
tree volume equations. The model which was most suitable for most
data sets, based on coefficients of determination (R2) and standard
errors of the estimate, and which was subsequently uniformly util-
ized, was:
Y = e [bo + bl In D + b6 In MH.]
where
Y = yield in appropriate product unit,
D = diameter at breast height (inches),
H = total height (feet),
MH, = merchantable height (feet) to the appropriate "n"-inch
dob and
In = natural logarithm (or logarithm to base e).
For each timber type, equations were developed for
1) cubic foot volume outside bark to a 4-inch dob,
2) Doyle board feet inside bark to an 8-inch dob,
3) Scribner board feet inside bark to an 8-inch dob,
4) International 1/4" board feet inside bark to an 8-inch top,
5) cubic foot volume outside bark from an 8-inch dob to a 4-inch
dob,
6) square feet of 1/8" veneer inside bark to a 10-inch dob, and







Table 1. Summary of sample trees by timber type, location, site index,
and age.
Timber Site
Type Location Index' Age Number
(Years)
Planted
Slash So. Dougherty Co. 80 38 48
So. Dougherty Co. 60 38 113
Terrell Co. 65 28 175
W. Dougherty Co. 60 35 59
395
Natural
Slash Lee Co. 90 16-63 286

Natural
Loblolly Baker Co. 80 35-67 335
W. Dougherty Co. 95 30-60 36
Stewart Co. 100 37-73 139
Lee Co. 85 20-40 61
So. Dougherty Co. 95 20-40 17
588
Natural
Longleaf So. Doutherty 80 20-65 671
Lee Co. 7
Baker Co. 9
687
Natural
Shortleaf Lee Co. 60 80-100 15
Lee Co. 70 30-40 63
W. Dougherty Co. 100 30-51 32
Stewart Co. 70 40-102 126
Stewart Co. 85 40-102 63
Baker Co. 1
300
'Site index basis: 25 years for planted slash, 50 years for others.



7) cubic foot volume outside bark from a 10-inch dob to a 4-inch
dob.
In addition the following equations were derived for each timber
type:
8) cubic foot volume outside bark to an 8-inch dob, and
9) cubic foot volume outside bark to a 10-inch dob.
The models CF = bo + biV and V = bo + b, CF were employed
to derive equations for converting among sawtimber and veneer
yields and cubic foot volumes. In these models, V is board foot
volume or veneer area and CF is cubic foot volume to the same dob.







Table 2. Distribution of sample trees by timber type and dbh.
Timber Type
Planted Natural Natural Natural
DBH Slash Slash Loblolly Longleaf
(in.) (number)


5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
Total:


10
20
32
49
38
58
57
59
58
59
46
23
24
18
16
8
5
4
2
2
588


2

687


Natural
Shortleaf


1

300


Total heights were predicted from merchantable heights by the
model H = b, + b, MH,; merchantable heights were derived from
total heights by the equation MH, = bo + b, H.


RESULTS
Pulpwood, sawtimber, veneer, and topwood volume equations and
derived volume tables are presented as follows:


Timber Type
Planted Slash Pine
Natural Slash Pine
Natural Longleaf Pine
Natural Loblolly Pine
Natural Shortleaf Pine


Volume Equations Volume Tables in
in Table Appendix Tables
4 1- 7
5 8-14
6 15-21
7 22-28
8 29-35








Table 3. Merchantability standards for timber products.
Timber Tree Top
Product DBH Merchantable Height DOB Other
(in.) (ft.) (in.)
Pulpwood 4.6 2 16 4
Sawtimber 7.6 > 16 8
Veneer > 11.6 2 9 10 '" thickness
5" core diameter
9' veneer block


Table 4. Volume equations for planted slash pine.
Unit b, b, b2 R2 n
Pulpwood -
ft.3 o.b. to a 4" dob -5.5059 1.6904 1.1486 .98 326
Sawtimber -
bd. ft. i.b. to an 8" dob
Doyle -6.9648 2.8954 1.0222 .95 366
Scribner -5.1087 2.5048 .9157 .97 366
International 1/4" -4.3277 2.0125 1.0699 .95 366
ft.3 o.b., 8" dob
to 4" dob 4.6318 -.7768 -.3940 .63 320

Veneer -
ft.2 i.b. to 10" dob -2.3276 2.1475 1.1045 .95 260
ft.3 o.b., 10" dob
to 4" dob 6.1805 -1.2629 -.2439 .62 232


Table 5. Volume equations for natural slash pine.
Unit b, b, b, R2 n
Pulpwood -
ft.3 o.b. to a 4" dob -4.7692 1.7501 .9116 .96 144
Sawtimber -
bd. ft. i.b. to an 8" dob
Doyle -7.4115 3.1451 .9625 .94 278
Scribner -5.2931 2.5905 .8973 .95 278
International 1/4" -4.5577 2.2705 .9450 .95 278
ft.3 o.b., 8" dob
to 4" dob 4.8809 -1.0620 -.2344 .46 141

Veneer-
ft.2 i.b. to 10" dob -2.2335 2.1009 1.1084 .94 206
ft.3 o.b., 10" dob
to 4" dob 7.2018 -1.9059 -.0190 .53 103







Table 6. Volume equations for natural longleaf pine.
Unit b0 bi b2 R2 n
Pulpwood -
ft.3 o.b. to a 4" dob -4.8917 1.7492 .9608 .98 532
Sawtimber -
bd. ft. i.b. to an 8" dob
Doyle -6.4633 2.6811 1.0727 .96 663
Scribner -4.4477 2.1792 .9873 .92 663
International 1/4" -3.9234 1.9789 1.0083 .97 663
ft.3 o.b., 8" dob
to 4" dob 4.1431 -.8692 -.2044 .52 510

Veneer -
ft.2 i.b. to 10" dob -1.8201 1.9976 1.0992 .95 459
ft.3 o.b., 10" dob
to 4" dob 5.9773 -1.1579 -.2689 .51 363


Equations for cubic foot volume outside bark to sawtimber and
veneer merchantable tops are presented in Tables 9 and 10, respec-
tively.
Conversions among sawtimber volumes, veneer yields, and their
cubic foot equivalents may be performed by use of the equations
summarized in Tables 11 and 12. In each table, the entries to the
right of a timber type designation identify the regression coeffi-
cients for converting from a product unit to cubic feet, the validity
of both sets of coefficients as indicated by the coefficient of deter-
mination and number of observations, and the coefficients for the
reciprocal conversion. Sawtimber conversion equations relating
three board-foot volumes and cubic-foot volume outside bark are
given in Table 11; veneer conversion equations for veneer area and
cubic foot volume outside bark are listed in Table 12.
Conversions among pulpwood, sawtimber, and veneer merchan-
table heights and total height are possible through the use of the
equations in Table 13. The values to the right of each timber type
are the regression coefficients for converting total height, indicators
of the strength of the two equations, and coefficients for changing
merchantable height, respectively.
Green weight/volume ratios are shown in Table 14. In addition to
summary figures for all 19 loads, data for three categories within
the 19 loads are presented: high wood density species (longleaf,
slash, and mixed longleaf and slash), low density species (loblolly
and shortleaf), and a mixture of the two density classes.







Table 7. Volume equations for natural loblolly pine.
Unit b0 bi b R2 n
Pulpwood -
ft.3 o.b. to a 4" dob -4.8715 1.7035 .9759 .99 532
Sawtimber -
bd. ft. i.b. to an 8" dob
Doyle -6.6806 2.7173 1.0724 .96 581
Scribner -4.6232 2.2749 .9434 .93 581
International 1/4" -4.1456 2.0284 1.0103 .97 581
ft.3 o.b., 8" dob
to 4" dob 4.4224 -.9152 -.2135 .55 464

Veneer -
ft.2 i.b. to 10" dob -1.9794 1.9915 1.1209 .96 472
ft.3 o.b., 10" dob
to 4" dob 6.1768 -1.3629 -.1307 .60 379



Table 8. Volume equations for natural shortleaf pine.
Unit b, b1 b, R2 n
Pulpwood -
ft.3 o.b. to a 4" dob -4.7404 1.7430 .9215 .99 232

Sawtimber -
bd. ft. i.b. to an 8" dob
Doyle -7.0975 2.9013 1.0510 .96 262
Scribner -5.0058 2.4321 .9332 .96 262
International 1/4" -4.3067 2.1241 .9842 .96 262
ft.3 o.b., 8" dob
to 4" dob 5.6002 -1.3088 -.2777 .55 198

Veneer -
ft.2 i.b. to 10" dob -2.4283 2.1956 1.0908 .97 163
ft.3 o.b., 10" dob
to 4" dob 7.1856 -1.4441 -.3643 .54 115



Table 9. Equations for cubic foot volume outside bark to an 8-inch dob.
Timber Type b0 bi b2 R2 n
Planted Slash -4.3447 1.6311 .9471 .99 344
Natural Slash -4.0477 1.5617 .9038 .99 182
Natural Longleaf -4.2510 1.6362 .9193 .99 558
Natural Loblolly -4.2119 1.6199 .9016 .99 486
Natural Shortleaf -4.1478 1.6286 .8866 .99 233






Table 10. Equations for cubic foot volume outside bark to a 10-inch dob.
Timber Type bb bi b, R2 n
Planted Slash -4.2126 1.6074 .9526 .99 244
Natural Slash -3.5667 1.3660 .9427 .99 173
Natural Longleaf -4.0189 1.5898 .9117 .99 508
Natural Loblolly -3.9648 1.5667 .9046 .99 439
Natural Shortleaf -3.9415 1.5709 .8949 .99 165




Table 11. Equations for converting among sawtimber volume and cubic
foot volume outside bark to an 8-inch dob.
Board Feet to Cubic Feet to
Cubic Feet Board Feet
Timber Type b, bi R2 n b, bi


Doyle Log Rule:
Planted Slash
Natural Slash
Natural Longleaf
Natural Loblolly
Natural Shortleaf
Scribner Log rule:
Planted Slash
Natural Slash
Natural Longleaf
Natural Loblolly
Natural Shortleaf
International 1/4-inch Log Rule:
Planted Slash
Natural Slash
Natural Longleaf
Natural Loblolly
Natural Shortleaf


13.649
10.664
11.587
14.784
12.995

9.302
7.430
8.329
10.959
8.800

7.078
5.604
5.120
7.152
6.673


.2033 .96 334
.2329 .94 182
.1989 .97 561
.1932 .97 485
.1921 .96 223

.1671 .98 334
.1812 .96 182
.1638 .89 561
.1611 .92 485
.1646 .98 223

.1766 .98 334
.1858 .97 182
.1751 .96 561
.1719 .98 485
.1698 .98 223


-60.1 4.726
-38.9 4.056
-52.2 4.862
-69.2 5.021
-60.3 4.975

-51.1 5.859
-34.3 5.289
-27.1 5.461
-44.4 5.710
-48.7 5.928

-35.5 5.538
-25.6 5.226
-19.9 5.427
-37.2 5.724
-36.1 5.789


Table 12. Equations for converting among 1/8-inch veneer area and cubic
feet outside bark to a 10-inch dob.
Veneer Area to Cubic Feet to
Cubic Feet Veneer Area
Timber Type bo bi R2 n bo bi
Planted Slash 7.726 .01508 .98 266 -453.9 64.77
Natural Slash 6.097 .01577 .97 165 -326.5 61.45
Natural Longleaf 5.893 .01490 .98 458 -337.7 65.66
Natural Loblolly 8.098 .01468 .98 425 -493.5 66.99
Natural Shortleaf 7.841 .01434 .98 152 -503.8 68.52








Table 13. Equations for converting among total and merchantable
heights.
Total Height to Merchantable
Merchantable Height to
Height Total Height
Timber Type b0 bi R2 n b, bi

4-inch DOB Merchantable Height:
Planted Slash -10.9 .958 .79 326 24.0 .827
Natural Slash -1.7 .810 .86 144 12.2 1.058
Natural Longleaf -10.0 .933 .75 531 26.2 .807
Natural Loblolly -11.5 .967 .88 486 19.8 .912
Natural Shortleaf -11.6 .971 .84 232 21.4 .863
8-inch DOB Merchantable Height:
Planted Slash .4 .602 .35 334 45.7 .585
Natural Slash 14.0 .381 .27 182 39.5 .705
Natural Longleaf 10.0 .470 .29 557 43.8 .623
Natural Loblolly -7.2 .731 .47 485 45.7 .649
Natural Shortleaf 1.5 .584 .30 223 47.8 .515
10-inch DOB Merchantable Height:
Planted Slash 1.2 .497 .23 266 54.7 .460
Natural Slash 23.4 .159 .05 165 55.8 .325
Natural Longleaf 19.4 .295 .16 458 46.9 .592
Natural Loblolly 2.5 .532 .32 425 51.8 .605
Natural Shortleaf 16.5 .290 .11 151 54.8 .393




DISCUSSION
An examination of stem forms of the various species indicates
that the overall Girard form classes for the five timber types were
generally below the usually assumed value of 78 for southern pines
(Table 15). Of those types below form class 78, natural slash had the
lowest stem form, planted slash and natural loblolly averaged form
class 76, and natural shortleaf trees were slightly better. The
natural longleaf had good stem form, a likely consequence of
management regime (regular controlled-burning) as well as the in-
herently better form of the species.
Noticeable differences in stem form variation within timber type
were observed. Natural longleaf were relatively uniform, while
planted slash trees were highly variable.
Comparisons of our results with those previously published were
conducted assuming a "typical" 14-inch, 64-foot to 4-inch dob
pulpwood tree and a "typical" 14-inch, 48-foot to an 8-inch dob
sawtimber tree.







Table 14. Ratios for green weight to cubic foot volume outside bark for
various classifications.
No. of Standard
Classification Loads Average Deviation
(lbs./ft.3) (lbs./ft.3)
All Species 19 59.56 4.04
Dense Pines 11 59.96 4.17
Longleaf 8 59.15 4.25
Slash-Natural 2 62.77 5.11
Mixed 1 60.83
Light Pines 6 57.74 2.07
Loblolly 5 58.03 2.17
Shortleaf 1 56.25
Mixed Species 2 62.86 7.40


Table 15. Summary of Girard form classes of the sample trees.
Form Class
Standard
Timber Type Average Deviation Range
Planted Slash 75.9 5.1 60.8 90.6
Natural Slash 74.2 4.7 62.7 -83.1
Natural Longleaf 80.4 4.2 70.0 -85.6
Natural Loblolly 76.0 5.9 62.9 -85.2
Natural Shortleaf 76.6 4.7 66.2 -83.9


Pulpwood
Cubic foot yields for the five timber types were in general accor-
dance with the relationships based on stem form (Table 16).
Longleaf had the highest volume of the four natural types exceeded
only by planted slash.
Comparisons with other volume equations showed no particular
pattern. The longleaf volume was intermediate between the two
estimates derived from south Georgia and/or north Florida longleaf.
Natural slash pulpwood volume was below the other two estimates,
most likely due to the poor stem form of the natural slash in our
study. Planted slash volume was considerably above the Bennet, et
al. (3) estimate for old-field slash pine, which was derived from
generally smaller trees. All volume estimates except the one for
natural slash surpassed those currently used by F & W Forestry
Services, which were derived from sampling southern pines over a
wider geographic area.







Table 16. Comparison of estimated cubic foot volume outside bark dob for
a 14-inch, 64-foot to a 4-inch dob top tree.


Source


This Bamping & Cooper &
Timber Type Study Oliphant (1) Olson (5) Others
Planted Slash 41.77 39.76 (3)'
Natural Slash 38.12 38.36 43.71'
Natural Longleaf 41.28 40.34 42.841
Natural Loblolly 39.77 43.24
Natural Shortleaf 40.11
Southern Pines 38.252
'Volume equations implemented by converting 64 feet to total tree height by use of
equations in Table 13.
2F & W Forestry Services, unpublished volume equation.



Sawtimber
Board foot yield comparisons for the various timber types
generally follow the pattern of form class results. Longleaf pine,
with its better form, had higher yield, while yields of the other four
types were similar (Table 17).
When contrasted with those of Cooper and Olson (5), our equa-
tions gave slightly higher yields. Bamping and Oliphant's (1)
predicted yield for the "typical" sawtimber tree (154 board feet
Scribner) agrees with all timber types of our study except longleaf.
Some notable exceptions were evident in comparing our estimates
with those from form class volume tables. Doyle and Scribner rule
estimates were higher as compared to the Mesavage and Girard
tables, while International 1/4-inch yields were similar to ours.
These departures are primarily due to the 8-foot log lengths
assumed in our volume calculations.
Sawtimber topwood yields in our study were lowest for natural
longleaf and planted slash (Table 18). Natural slash and natural
loblolly were relatively high. In comparison to other available top-
wood equations, our results are intermediate.

Veneer
Veneer yields for four timber types in our study were very similar
(Table 19). The yield for longleaf was higher than the others, which
may be attributed to its better form.
Comparisons of our veneer yields with others were not made.
Some veneer equations and tables (4, 7) present veneer yields in
cubic feet, making direct conversion to square feet of 1/8-inch veneer













Table 17. Comparison of estimated board foot volumes for a 14-inch, 48-foot to an 8-inch dob top tree.
Source
This Study Cooper & Olson (5)2 Mesavage & Girard (8)3 Other3, 4
Timber Type Log Rule': D S I S I D S I D S I
Planted Slash 103 156 168 84 135 162 94 141 164
Natural Slash 101 151 163 148 155 78 127 154 89 133 155
Natural Longleaf 117 168 182 166 176 104 158 186 105 158 184
Natural Loblolly 104 153 167 84 135 162 94 141 164
Natural Shortleaf 102 152 165 89 142 169 97 145 169
'Log Rules: D = Doyle, S = Scribner, I = International 1/4-inch.
'Volume equations implemented by converting sawtimber merchantable height to total height by use of the equation in Table 13.
'Average form class for timber type used in applying these form class volume tables.
4F & W Forestry Services, unpublished volume equations.







Table 18. Comparison of sawtimber topwood volume in cubic feet for a
14-inch, 48-foot to an 8-inch dob tree.
Source
Timber Type This Study Cooper & Olson (5)' Bennett (2)
Planted Slash 2.88
Natural Slash 3.22 4.80 2.52
Natural Longleaf 2.88 4.35 1.44
Natural Loblolly 3.26
Natural Shortleaf 2.92
'Volume equations implemented by converting sawtimber merchantable height to
total height by use of the equations in Table 13.


Table 19. Comparison of 1/8-inch veneer yields for a 14-inch, 40-foot to a
10-inch dob tree.
Timber Type ft.2
Planted Slash 1659
Natural Slash 1635
Natural Longleaf 1820
Natural Loblolly 1655
Natural Shortleaf 1619


tenuous without knowing the specifications used for these equa-
tions and tables. Other veneer yields expressed on a 3/8-inch basis
(10), for veneer blocks (7), or for conversions from board foot
measure (10), are difficult to apply to whole trees. However, the
equations in Table 10 for cubic foot volume outside bark to a 10-inch
dob may be used to estimate veneer yield when the conversion rate
from gross volume to veneer is known. It is important to note that
our veneer predictions are for gross volume and make no allowances
for shrinkage, mismanufacture, or losses other than for taper and
core.


Conversion factors
Our conversion equations differ somewhat from those presented
by Williams and Hopkins (10) and also cover a broader spectrum.
Their conversions for sawtimber utilize cubic feet inside bark; ours
employ cubic feet outside bark. Our veneer and cubic feet conver-
sions as well as those of merchantable and total heights are ap-
parent extensions of existing conversion factors.
The weight-volume ratios presented in Table 14 generally agree
with ratios developed in Georgia in 1960. Our ratio for longleaf is
nearly the same as Page and Bois (9) reported for longleaf at







Valdosta. Our slash ratio is 9 percent higher, but it is based on only
two loads. The loblolly ratio in our study is within the range
reported for lobolly in central Georgia, and our ratio for shortleaf is
similar to that for north Georgia shortleaf.



APPLICATIONS
The equations presented here may be applied to southern pines 8
inches or larger dbh in other areas of the Southeast as long as tree
forms are similar. Our Girard form class averages and ranges for
each timber type (Table 15) should be compared to form class deter-
minations taken from an area prior to applying our equations. In the
event of an appreciable deviation from our averages, an approx-
imate adjustment of 3 percent for each unit change in form class
may be used (10).
Implementation of our equations in timber inventory may best be
accomplished by tallying trees according to the specifications for
pulpwood, sawtimber, or veneer (Table 3). For yield estimation, the
appropriate merchantable tree height for a particular product
should be determined. Specifically, pulpwood tree heights to a
4-inch top, sawtimber tree heights to an 8-inch top, and veneer tree
heights to a 10-inch top should be employed. Our total height to
merchantable height conversions make it possible to estimate
various product yields if only total height is determined, but the ac-
curacy of the estimate, particularly for sawtimber and veneer, will
suffer.
The reported equations may be incorporated in calculator and
computer programs. The volume equations have only two indepen-
dent variables. Both dbh and merchantable height need to be ex-
pressed in natural logarithms. Product yields are obtained by tak-
ing the antilogs of the values derived from the equations. The
various conversion equations have only one independent variable,
which is untransformed, and the dependent variable is obtained
without transformation.
Examples of the use of our equations are given in Table 20. To il-
lustrate, the steps involved in deriving the cubic foot volume out-
side bark to a 4-inch top for a planted slash pine with 10-inch dbh
and 48-foot merchantable height would be to select the appropriate
formula in Table 4,
ft.3 = (-5.5049 + 1.6904 InD + 1.1486 InMH,)
substitute in the logarithms for dbh and merchantable height,
ft.3 = e(-5.5049 + 1.6904(2.3026) + 1.1486(3.8712))










Table 20. Applications of equations reported in this study.


Tree Dimensions
Pulpwood-Planted Slash:
DBH = 10" (Inl0 = 2.3026)
MH4. = 48' (ln48 = 3.8712)
Sawtimber-Natural Longleaf:
DBH = 15" (lnl5 = 2.7081)
MH8g = 56 (In56 = 4.0254)
1 Veneer-Natural Loblolly:
DBH = 17" (lnl7 = 2.8332)
MHio,, = 36' (ln36 = 3.5835)
Pulpwood Merchantable Height-
Natural Slash:
Total Height = 80'
Board Feet-Natural Shortleaf:
ft.',, = 50


Equation Substitution
Terms Result Yield


-5.5059 + 1.6904 (2.3026)
+ 1.1486 (3.8712)

-4.4477 + 2.1792 (2.7081)
+ .9873 (4.0254)

-1.9794 + 1.9915 (2.8332)
+ 1.1209 (3.5835)


-1.7 + 8.10 (80)

-48.74 + 5.928 (50)


2.8329

5.4279


7.6797


16.99 ft.3


227.7 Scribner
bd. ft.


2164 ft.2


63.1 ft.

248 Scribner
bd. ft.







derive the exponent
ft. = e2.8329
and take the antilog to derive the cubic foot volume
ft.3 = 16.99.





















APPENDIX







Table 1. Cubic foot volume for planted slash pine.
Height to a 4-inch DOB

DBH 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80
8 3.300 5.257 7.315 9.452 11.654
9 4.027 6.415 8.927 11.535 14.222 16.977 19.791
10 4.811 7.665 10.667 13:783 16.994 20.286 23.649
11 5.653 9.006 12.532 16.193 19.965 23.833 27.783
12 6.548 10.432 14.518 18.759 23.129 27.609 32.186 36.848
13 7.497 11.944 16.621 21.477 26.480 31.609 36.849 42.187
14 8.498 13.538 18.839 24.343 30.014 35.828 41.767 47.817
15 9.549 15.213 21.170 27.354 33.727 40.260 46.933 53.732 60.645
16 10.649 16.966 23.610 30.507 37.614 44.900 52.343 59.926 67.635
17 11.799 18.797 26.158 33.799 41.673 49.746 57.992 66.393 74.934
18 12.995 20.704 28.811 37.228 45.901 54.792 63.875 73.128 82.535
19 14.239 22.685 31.568 40.791 50.294 60.036 69.987 80.126 90.434
20 15.529 24.740 34.428 44.486 54.849 65.473 76.327 87.384 98.625
21 16.864 26.867 37.387 48.310 59.564 71.102 82.889 94.896 107.104
22 18.244 29.065 40.446 52.262 64.438 76.919 89.670 102.660 115.867
23 19.667 31.333 43.602 56.341 69.466 82.922 96.667 110.671 124.909
24 21.134 33.670 46.855 60.544 74.648 89.107 103.878 118.927 134.226
Vol. = e**-5.50594 + 1.69040*ln(D) + 1.14862*ln(H)]
Specifications
Location: Dougherty and Terrell counties, Georgia
Minimum height: 16 ft. to a 4-inch dob
No. of trees: 326
R2 = 0.98







Table 2. Doyle board foot volume for planted slash pine.
Height to an 8-inch DOB
DBH 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72
9 9 14 19 24 29
10 13 19 26 32 39 45 52
11 17 25 34 42 51 60 69
12 21 32 43 55 66 77 88
13 27 41 55 69 83 97 111 126
14 33 51 68 85 103 120 138 156
15 41 62 83 104 126 147 169 190
16 49 75 100 126 151 177 203 229
17 59 89 119 150 180 211 242 273
18 69 105 141 177 213 249 286 322
19 81 123 165 207 249 292 334 377
20 94 142 191 240 289 338 388 437
21 108 164 220 276 333 390 447 504
22 124 187 252 316 381 446 511 576
23 141 213 286 359 433 507 581 655
24 159 241 324 407 490 573 657 741
Vol. = e**[-6.96481 + 2.89541*In(D) + 1.02221ln(H)]
Specifications
Location: Dougherty and Terrell counties, Georgia
Minimum height: 16 ft. to an 8-inch dob
No. of trees: 365
R2 = 0.95









Table 3. Scribner board foot volume for planted slash pine.
Height to an 8-inch DOB
DBH 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72
9 19 27 35 44 51
10 24 35 46 57 67 77 87
11 31 45 59 72 85 98 111
12 39 56 73 89 106 122 138
13 47 68 89 109 129 149 168 187
14 57 82 107 132 155 179 202 225
15 68 98 127 156 185 213 241 268
16 79 115 150 184 217 250 283 315
17 92 134 174 214 253 291 329 367
18 107 155 201 247 292 336 380 423
19 122 177 230 283 334 385 435 484
20 139 201 262 322 380 438 494 551
21 157 228 296 363 429 494 559 622
22 176 256 333 408 482 555 628 699
23 197 286 372 456 539 621 702 782
24 219 318 414 508 600 691 781 870
Vol. = e**I-5.10871 + 2.50481*ln(D) + .91572*ln()]
Specifications
Location: Dougherty and Terrell counties, Georgia
Minimum height: 16 ft. to an 8-inch dob
No. of trees: 365
R2 = 0.97







Table 4. International -inch board foot volume for planted slash pine.
Height to an 8-inch DOB
DBH 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72
9 21 33 45 57 69
10 26 41 55 70 85 101 116
11 32 49 67 85 104 122 141
12 38 59 80 101 123 145 168
13 45 69 94 119 145 171 197 224
14 52 80 109 138 168 198 229 260
15 60 92 125 159 193 228 263 298
16 68 105 143 181 220 260 299 340
17 77 118 161 205 249 293 338 384
18 86 133 181 229 279 329 379 430
19 96 148 202 256 311 367 423 480
20 106 164 223 284 345 407 469 532
21 117 181 246 313 380 449 517 587
22 129 199 271 344 418 493 568 645
23 141 218 296 376 457 539 621 705
24 154 237 322 409 498 587 677 768
Vol. = e**I-4.32766 + 2.01247*ln(D) + 1.06990*ln(H)1
Specifications
Location: Dougherty and Terrell counties, Georgia
Minimum height: 16 ft. to an 8-inch dob
No. of trees: 365
R2 = 0.96








Table 5. Sawtimber topwood for planted slash pine.
Height to an 8-inch DOB
DBH 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72
9 6.250 5.328 4.757 4.356 4.055
10 5.759 4.909 4.383 4.014 3.736 3.516 3.336
11 5.348 4.559 4.070 3.728 3.469 3.265 3.098
12 4.999 4.261 3.804 3.484 3.243 3.051 2.895
13 4.697 4.004 3.575 3.274 3.047 2.868 2.721 2.597
14 4.435 3.780 3.375 3.091 2.877 2.707 2.568 2.452
15 4.203 3.583 3.199 2.930 2.726 2.566 2.434 2.324
16 3.998 3.407 3.042 2.786 2.593 2.440 2.315 2.210
17 3.814 3.251 2.902 2.658 2.474 2.328 2.209 2.109
18 3.648 3.110 2.776 2.543 2.366 2.227 2.113 2.017
19 3.498 2.982 2.662 2.438 2.269 2.135 2.026 1.934
20 3.361 2.865 2.558 2.343 2.180 2.052 1.947 1.859
21 3.236 2.759 2.463 2.256 2.099 1.976 1.874 1.789
22 3.122 2.661 2.376 2.176 2.025 1.906 1.808 1.726
23 3.016 2.570 2.295 2.102 1.956 1.841 1.747 1.667
24 2.918 2.487 2.220 2.033 1.893 1.781 1.690 1.613
Vol. = e**[4.63183 0.77682*ln(D) 0.39397*ln(H)]
Specifications
Location: Dougherty and Terrell counties, Georgia
Minimum height: 16 ft. to an 8-inch dob
No. of trees: 320
R2 = 0.63







Table 6. Eighth-inch veneer yield for planted slash pine.
Height to a 10-inch DOB
DBH 16 24 32 40 48 56 64
12 433 678 931 1192 1458
13 514 805 1106 1415 1731 2052 2379
14 603 944 1297 1659 2030 2406 2789
15 699 1095 1504 1924 2354 2791 3234
16 803 1257 1728 2211 2704 3206 3715
17 915 1432 1968 2518 3080 3651 4232
18 1035 1619 2225 2847 3482 4128 4784
19 1162 1819 2499 3197 3911 4636 5373
20 1297 2030 2790 3570 4366 5176 5999
21 1441 2255 3098 3964 4848 5748 6662
22 1592 2492 3424 4380 5358 6352 7362
23 1752 2741 3766 4819 5894 6988 8099
Vol. = e**[-2.32760 + 2.14750*ln(D) + 1.10453*1n(H)]
Specifications
Location: Dougherty and Terrell counties, Georgia
Minimum height: 16 ft. to a 10-inch dob
No. of trees: 260
R2 = 0.94




Table 7. Veneer topwood for planted slash pine.
Height to a 10-inch DOB
DBH 16 24 32 40 48 56 64
12 10.656 9.653 8.999 8.522 8.152
13 9.632 8.725 8.134 7.703 7.368 7.096 6.869
14 8.771 7.945 7.407 7.015 6.710 6.462 6.255
15 8.039 7.282 6.789 6.429 6.150 5.923 5.733
16 7.410 6.712 6.257 5.926 5.668 5.459 5.284
17 6.864 6.218 ,5.796 5.489 5.251 5.057 4.895
18 6.386 5.785 5.393 5.107 4.885 4.705 4.554
19 5.964 5.403 5.037 4.770 4.562 4.394 4.253
20 5.590 5.064 4.721 4.471 4.276 4.118 3.987
21 5.256 4.761 4.439 4.204 4.021 3.872 3.748
22 4.956 4.490 4.185 3.964 3.791 3.651 3.534
23 4.686 4.245 3.957 3.747 3.584 3.452 3.341
Vol. = e**16.18054 1.26290*ln(D) 0.24389*ln(H)]
Specifications
Location: Dougherty and Terrell counties, Georgia
Minimum height: 16 ft. to a 10-inch dob
No. of trees: 260
R2 = 0.62











Table 8. Cubic foot volume for natural slash pine.
Height to a 4-inch DOB

DBH 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80
8 4.046 5.855 7.611 9.328 11.014
9 4.972 7.195 9.353 11.463 13.536 15.578 17.594
10 5.979 8.652 11.247 13.784 16.276 18.732 21.157
11 7.064 10.223 13.288 16.286 19.231 22.133 24.998
12 8.226 11.904 15.474 18.965 22.394 25.773 29.110 32.409
13 9.463 13.695 17.801 21.817 25.762 29.649 33.487 37.283
14 10.773 15.591 20.266 24.838 29.329 33.755 38.124 42.446
15 12.156 17.592 22.867 28.026 33.094 38.087 43.017 47.893 52.722
16 13.609 19.696 25.602 31.377 37.051 42.641 48.161 53.620 59.026
17 15.133 21.900 28.467 34.889 41.198 47.414 53.552 59.622 65.633
18 16.725 24.204 31.462 38.560 45.533 52.403 59.186 65.895 72.538
19 18.385 26.607 34.585 42.387 50.052 57.603 65.060 72.435 79.737
20 20.112 29.106 37.833 46.368 54.753 63.014 71.171 79.238 87.226
Vol. = e**[-4.76923 + 1.75014*ln(D) + 0.91163*ln(H)J
Specifications
Location: Lee County, Georgia
Minimum height: 16 ft. to a 4-inch dob
No. of trees: 144
R2 = 0.96








Table 9. Doyle board foot volume for natural slash pine.
Height to an 8-inch DOB
DBH 16 24 32 40 48 56 64
9 9 13 17 21 25
10 12 18 24 29 35 41 46
11 16 24 32 40 47 55 62
12 22 32 42 52 62 72 82
13 28 41 54 67 80 93 105
14 35 52 68 85 101 117 133
15 44 64 85 105 125 145 165
16 53 79 104 129 154 178 203
17 65 95 126 156 186 216 245
18 77 114 151 187 223 258 293
19 92 135 179 221 264 306 348
20 108 159 210 260 310 360 409
21 126 185 245 303 361 419 477
22 145 215 283 351 418 485 552
23 167 247 326 404 481 558 634
Vol. = e**-7.41148 + 3.14513tn(D) + 0.96246*ln(H)]
Specifications
Location: Lee County, Georgia No. of trees: 278
Minimum height: 16 ft. to an 8-inch dob R2 = 0.94


Table 10. Scribner board foot volume for natural slash pine.
Height to an 8-inch DOB
DBH 16 24 32 40 48 56 64
9 18 26 33 41 48
10 24 34 44 54 63 72 82
11 30 43 56 69 81 93 105
12 38 54 70 86 101 116 131
13 46 67 87 106 125 143 161
14 56 81 105 128 151 173 195
15 67 97 125 153 180 207 234
16 80 115 148 181 213 245 276
17 93 134 173 212 250 287 323
18 108 155 201 246 289 332 375
19 124 179 231 283 333 382 431
20 142 204 264 323 380 437 492
21 161 232 300 366 431 495 559
22 182 261 338 413 487 559 630
23 204 293 380 464 546 627 707
Vol. = e**[-5.29314 + 2.59047ln(D) + 0.89730*ln(H)]


Specifications
Location: Lee County, Georgia
Minimum height: 16 ft. to an 8-inch dob


No. of trees: 278
R2 = 0.95







Table 11. International -inch board foot volume for natural slash pine.
Height to an 8-inch DOB

DBH 16 24 32 40 48 56 64
9 21 31 41 50 60
10 27 39 52 64 76 88 100
11 33 49 64 79 94 109 124
12 41 60 78 97 115 133 151
13 49 71 94 116 138 159 181
14 58 85 111 137 163 188 214
15 67 99 130 160 190 220 250
16 78 114 150 186 220 255 289
17 90 131 172 213 253 293 332
18 102 150 196 242 288 333 378
19 115 169 222 274 326 377 427
20 130 190 249 308 366 423 480
21 145 212 279 344 409 473 536
22 161 236 310 382 454 525 596
23 178 261 343 423 502 581 659
Vol. = e**[-455771 + 2.27045*ln(D) + 0.94497*ln(H)l
Specifications
Location: Lee County, Georgia
Minimum height: 16 ft. to an 8-inch dob
No. of trees: 278
R2 = 0.95


Table 12. Sawtimber topwood for natural slash pine.
Height to an 8-inch DOB

DBH 16 24 32 40 48 56 64
9 6.670 6.065 5.669 5.381 5.155
10 5.964 5.423 5.069 4.811 4.610 4.446 4.309
11 5.390 4.901 4.581 4.348 4.166 4.018 3.894
12 4.914 4.468 4.177 3.964 3.798 3.663 3.551
13 4.513 4.104 3.837 3.641 3.489 3.365 3.261
14 4.172 3.794 3.546 3.365 3.225 3.110 3.014
15 3.877 3.526 3.296 3.128 2.997 2.890 2.801
16 3.620 3.292 3.077 2.921 2.798 2.699 2.616
17 3.394 3.087 2.885 2.738 2.624 2.531 2.453
18 3.195 2.905 2.715 2.577 2.469 2.382 2.308
19 3.016 2.743 2.564 2.433 2.332 2.249 2.179
20 2.856 2.597 2.428 2.304 2.208 2.130 2.064
Vol. = e**[4.88089 1.06199*ln(D) 0.23440*ln(H)]
Specifications
Location: Lee County, Georgia
Minimum height: 16 ft. to an 8-inch dob
No. of trees: 141
R2 = 0.46








Table 13. Eighth-inch veneer yield for natural slash pine.
Height to a 10-inch DOB
DBH 16 24 32 40 48 56 64
12 428 671 924 1183 1448
13 507 794 1093 1399 1713 2032 2356
14 592 928 1277 1635 2001 2374 2753
15 685 1073 1476 1890 2314 2745 3182
16 784 1229 1690 2165 2649 3143 3645
17 891 1396 1920 2459 3009 3570 4140
18 1004 1574 2165 2772 3393 4026 4668
19 1125 1763 2425 3106 3802 4510 5229
20 1253 1964 2701 3459 4234 5023 5824
21 1388 2176 2993 3833 4691 5565 6453
22 1531 2399 3300 4226 5173 6137 7115
23 1681 2634 3623 4640 5679 6737 7812
Vol. = e**-2.23349 + 2.10090*ln(D) + 1.10836*ln(H)]
Specifications
Location: Lee County, Georgia
Minimum height: 16 ft. to a 10-inch dob
No. of trees: 206
R2 = 0.94




Table 14. Veneer topwood for natural slash pine.
Height to a 10-inch DOB
DBH 16 24 32 40 48 56 64
12 11.169 11.083 11.022 10.976 10.938
13 9.589 9.515 9.463 9.423 9.390 9.363 9.339
14 8.326 8.262 8.216 8.182 8.153 8.129 8.109
15 7.300 7.244 7.204 7.174 7.149 7.128 7.110
16 6.455 6.405 6.370 6.343 6.321 6.303 6.287
17 5.751 5.706 5.675 5.651 5.632 5.615 5.601
18 5.157 5.117 5.089 5.068 5.050 5.035 5.023
19 4.652 4.616 4.591 4.572 4.556 4.542 4.531
20 4.219 4.186 4.164 4.146 4.132 4.119 4.109
Vol. = e**17.20177 1.90585*ln(D) 0.01904*(H)]
Specifications
Location: Lee County, Georgia
Minimum height: 16 ft. to a 10-inch dob
No. of trees: 103
R2 = 0.53




Table 15. Cubic foot volume for natural longleaf pine.
Height to a 4-inch DOB
DBH 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80 88
5 1.799 2.656 3.502 4.339 5.170
6 2.475 3.654 4.817 5.969 7.112 8.247 9.376
7 3.241 4.785 6.308 7.817 9.313 10.800 12.278
8 4.094 6.044 7.968 9.873 11.763 13.641 15.509
9 5.031 7.427 9.791 12.132 14.455 16.762 19.057 21.340
10 6.049 8.930 11.772 14.587 17.380 20.154 22.913 25.658
11 7.146 10.550 13.908 17.234 20.533 23.811 27.070 30.313
12 8.321 12.284 16.195 20.067 23.909 27.725 31.520 35.297 39.057
13 9.571 14.130 18.629 23.083 27.502 31.892 36.257 40.601 44.927
14 10.896 16.086 21.207 26.278 31.308 36.306 41.276 46.221 51.145
15 12.293 18.149 23.927 29.648 35.324 40.963 46.570 52.150 57.705
16 13.763 20.318 26.787 33.191 39.546 45.858 52.136 58.382 64.601
17 15.302 22.591 29.783 36.904 43.970 50.989 57.968 64.913 71.828
18 16.911 24.966 32.915 40.785 48.593 56.350 64.064 71.739 79.381
19 18.589 27.443 36.180 44.831 53.413 61.940 70.418 78.855 87.255
20 20.334 30.019 39.576 49.039 58.427 67.754 77.028 86.257 95.446 104.599
21 22.145 32.693 43.102 53.408 63.632 73.790 83.891 93.942 103.949 113.918
22 24.023 35.465 46.756 57.935 69.027 80.046 91.003 101.906 112.762 123.575
23 25.965 38.333 50.537 62.620 74.608 86.518 98.361 110.146 121.880 133.567
24 27.972 41.295 54.442 67.460 80.375 93.205 105.963 118.659 131.299 143.890
25 30.042 44.352 58.472 72.453 86.324 100.104 113.806 127.442 141.018 154.540
26 32.176 47.502 62.624 77.598 92.454 107.212 121.888 136.492 151.032 165.515
27 34.371 50.743 66.898 82.894 98.763 114.529 130.206 145.807 161.339 176.810
Vol. = e**[-4.89168 + 1.74921*ln() + 0.96076*ln(H)]
Specifications
Location: Baker, Dougherty, and Lee counties, Georgia
Minimum height: 16 ft. to a 4-inch dob
No. of trees: 532
R2 = 0.98






Table 16. Doyle board foot volume for natural longleaf pine.
Height to an 8-inch DOB
DBH 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72
9 11 17 23 30 36
10 15 23 31 39 48 56 65
11 19 29 40 51 61 73 84
12 24 37 50 64 78 92 106
13 30 46 62 79 96 113 131 149
14 36 56 76 96 117 138 160 181
15 43 67 91 116 141 167 192 218
16 52 80 109 138 168 198 229 259
17 61 94 128 162 197 233 269 305
18 71 109 149 189 230 272 313 356
19 82 126 172 219 266 314 362 411
20 94 145 198 251 305 360 416 472
21 107 165 225 286 348 411 474 538
22 121 187 255 324 394 465 537 609
23 137 211 287 365 444 524 605 686
24 153 237 322 409 498 587 678 769
25 171 264 359 457 555 655 756 858
26 190 293 399 507 617 728 840 953
Vol. = e**[-6.46331 + 2.68106*ln(D) + 1.07274*ln()]
Specifications
Location: Baker, Dougherty, and Lee counties, Georgia
Minimum height: 16 ft. to an 8-inch dob
No. of trees: 663
R2 = 0.96







Table 17. Scribner board foot volume for natural longleaf pine.
Height to an 8-inch DOB

DBH 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72
9 22 32 43 54 64
10 27 41 54 68 81 94 107
11 34 50 67 83 99 116 132
12 41 61 81 100 120 140 160
13 48 72 96 120 143 167 190 214
14 57 85 113 141 168 196 224 251
15 66 99 131 163 196 228 260 292
16 76 114 151 188 225 262 299 336
17 87 130 172 215 257 299 341 383
18 98 147 195 243 291 339 386 434
19 111 165 219 273 327 381 435 488
20 124 185 245 306 366 426 486 546
21 138 205 273 340 407 474 541 607
22- 152 227 302 376 450 525 598 672
23 168 250 333 415 496 578 659 741
24 184 275 365 455 545 634 723 813
25 201 300 399 497 595 693 791 888
26 219 327 434 542 648 755 861 967
Vol. = e**[-4.44767 + 2.17918*ln(D) + 0.98731*ln(H)]
Specifications
Location: Baker, Dougherty, and Lee counties, Georgia
Minimum height: 16 ft. to an 8-inch dob
No. of trees: 663
R2 = 0.92






Table 18. International /4-inch board foot volume for natural longleaf pine.
Height to an 8-inch DOB
DBH 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72
9 25 38 50 63 76
10 31 46 62 78 93 109 125
11 37 56 75 94 113 132 151
12 44 67 89 111 134 156 179
13 52 78 104 131 157 183 210 236
14 60 90 121 151 182 212 243 274
15 69 104 138 173 208 243 278 314
16 78 118 157 197 237 276 316 356
17 88 133 177 222 267 312 357 402
18 99 149 199 249 299 349 399 450
19 110 165 221 277 333 388 444 501
20 122 183 245 306 368 430 492 554
21 134 202 269 337 405 474 542 610
22 147 221 295 370 444 519 594 669
23 160 241 322 404 485 567 649 730
24 174 262 351 439 528 617 706 795
25 189 285 380 476 572 669 765 862
26 204 308 411 515 619 723 827 931
Vol. = e**[-3.92338 + 1.97892*ln(D) + 1.00831*ln()]
Specifications
Location: Baker, Dougherty, and Lee counties, Georgia
Minimum height: 16 ft. to an 8-inch dob
No. of trees: 663
R2 = 0.97







Table 19. Sawtimber topwood for natural longleaf pine.
Height to an 8-inch DOB
DBH 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72
9 5.294 4.873 4.595 4.390 4.229
10 4.831 4.447 4.193 4.006 3.859 3.740 3.639
11 4.447 4.093 3.859 3.687 3.552 3.442 3.350
12 4.123 3.795 3.578 3.419 3.294 3.192 3.106
13 3.846 3.540 3.338 3.189 3.072 2.977 2.897 2.828
14 3.606 3.319 3.130 2.990 2.881 2.791 2.716 2.652
15 3.396 3.126 2.947 2.816 2.713 2.629 2.558 2.497
16 3.211 2.955 2.787 2.662 2.565 2.485 2.419 2.361
17 3.046 2.804 2.644 2.526 2.433 2.358 2.294 2.240
18 2.898 2.668 2.515 2.403 2.315 2.244 2.183 2.131
19 2.765 2.545 2.400 2.293 2.209 2.141 2.083 2.033
20 2.645 2.434 2.295 2.193 2.113 2.047 1.992 1.945
21 2.535 2.333 2.200 2.102 2.025 1.962 1.909 1.864
22 2.434 2.241 2.113 2.019 1.945 1.884 1.834 1.790
23 2.342 2.156 2.033 1.942 1.871 1.813 1.764 1.722
24 2.257 2.078 1.959 1.872 1.803 1.747 1.700 1.660
25 2.178 2.005 1.891 1.806 1.740 1.686 1.641 1.602
26 2.105 1.938 1.827 1.746 1.682 1.630 1.586 1.548
Vol. = e**[414309 0.86920*ln(D) 0.20438*ln(H)]
Specifications
Location: Baker, Dougherty, and Lee counties, Georgia
Minimum height: 16 ft. to an 8-inch dob
No. of trees: 510
R2 = 0.52








Table 20. Eighth-inch veneer area for natural longleaf pine.
Height to a 10-inch DOB
DBH 16 24 32 40 48 56 64
12 488 763 1046 1337 1634
13 573 895 1228 1569 1917 2271 2631
14 665 1038 1424 1820 2223 2634 3050
15 763 1191 1634 2088 2552 3023 3501
16 868 1355 1859 2376 2903 3439 3983
17 980 1530 2098 2682 3277 3882 4495
18 1098 1715 2352 3006 3673 4351 5039
19 1223 1910 2620 3349 4092 4848 5614
20 1355 2116 2903 3710 4534 5371 6220
21 1494 2333 3200 4090 4998 5920 6856
22 1639 2560 3512 4488 5484 6497 7524
23 1792 2798 3838 4905 5994 7100 8223
24 1951 3046 4179 5340 6525 7730 8952
25 2116 3305 4534 5794 7080 8387 9713
26 2289 3574 4903 6266 7657 9071 10505
27 2468 3854 5287 6757 8256 9781 11327
Vol. = e**-1.82010 + 1.99759*n(D) + 1.09917*ln(H)]
Specifications
Location: Baker, Dougherty, and Lee counties, Georgia
Minimum height: 16 ft. to a 10-inch dob
No. of trees: 459
R2 = 0.95







Table 21. Veneer topwood for natural longleaf pine.
Height to a 10-inch DOB
DBH 16 24 32 40 48 56 64
12 10.539 9.451 8.747 8.238 7.844
13 9.606 8.614 7.973 7.509 7.150 6.859 6.617
14 8.817 7.906 7.317 6.891 6.562 6.295 6.073
15 8.140 7.299 6.756 6.362 6.058 5.812 5.607
16 7.554 6.773 6.269 5.904 5.622 5.393 5.203
17 7.042 6.314 5.844 5.504 5.241 5.028 4.851
18 6.591 5.910 5.470 5.151 4.905 4.706 4.540
19 6.191 5.551 5.138 4.839 4.607 4.420 4.264
20 5.834 5.231 4.842 4.560 4.342 4.165 4.019
21 5.513 4.944 4.576 4.309 4.103 3.937 3.798
22 5.224 4.685 4.336 4.083 3.888 3.730 3.599
23 4.962 4.450 4.118 3.879 3.693 3.543 3.418
24 4.724 4.236 3.920 3.692 3.515 3.373 3.254
25 4.505 4.040 3.739 3.522 3.353 3.217 3.104
26 4.305 3.861 3.573 3.365 3.204 3.074 2.966
27 4.121 3.696 3.421 3.221 3.067 2.943 2.839
Vol. = e**15.97773 1.15785*In(D) 0.26887*ln(IH)
Specifications
Location: Baker, Dougherty, and Lee counties, Georgia
Minimum height: 16 ft. to a 10-inch dob
No. of trees: 363
R2 = 0.51




Table 22. Cubic foot volume for natural loblolly pine.
Height to a 4-inch DOB
DBH 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80 88
5 1.779 2.643 3.499 4.351 5.198
6 2.427 3.605 4.774 5.936 7.092 8.243 9.390
7 3.156 4.688 6.208 7.718 9.221 10.718 12.210
8 3.962 5.886 7.793 9.690 11.577 13.456 15.329
9 4.843 7.193 9.525 11.843 14.149 16.446 18.735 21.017
10 5.795 8.608 11.398 14.171 16.931 19.679 22.418 25.149
11 6.816 10.125 13.407 16.669 19.915 23.148 26.371 29.583
12 7.905 11.743 15.549 19.332 23.097 26.847 30.584 34.310 38.025
13 9.060 13.458 17.821 22.157 26.471 30.769 35.052 39.322 43.580
14 10.279 15.269 20.219 25.138 30.033 34.909 39.768 44.613 49.444
15 11.561 17.174 22.740 28.273 33.779 39.263 44.728 50.177 55.611
16 12.905 19.169 25.383 31.559 37.705 43.826 49.926 56.008 62.074
17 14.309 21.255 28.145 34.992 41.807 48.594 55.358 62.102 68.827
18 15.772 23.429 31.023 38.571 46.083 53.564 61.020 68.453 75.866
19 17.294 25.689 34.016 42.292 50.529 58.732 66.907 75.057 83.186
20 18.873 28.035 37.122 46.154 55.142 64.095 73.016 81.911 90.781 99.631
21 20.509 30.465 40.339 50.154 59.921 69.650 79.344 89.010 98.649 108.266
22 22.200 32.977 43.666 54.290 64.863 75.394 85.888 96.351 106.785 117.195
23 23.947 35.571 47.101 58.561 69.966 81.325 92.644 103.930 115.185 126.414
24 25.747 38.246 50.643 62.965 75.227 87.440 99.611 111.745 123.847 135.919
25 27.602 41.000 54.290 67.499 80.645 93.737 106.784 119.792 132.766 145.708
26 29.509 43.833 58.041 72.163 86.217 100.214 114.163 128.070 141.939 155.776
27 31.468 46.744 61.895 76.955 91.942 106.868 121.744 136.574 151.365 166.120
Vol. = e**-487146 + 1.70353*ln() + 0.97594*ln(H)]
Specifications
Location: Baker, Dougherty, Lee, and Stewart counties, Georgia
Minimum height: 16 ft. to a 4-inch dob
No. of trees: 487
R2 = 0.99






Table 23. Doyle board foot volume for natural loblolly pine.
Height to an 8-inch DOB

DBH 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80
9 10 15 20 26 31
10 13 20 27 34 42 49 57
11 17 26 35 44 54 64 73
12 21 32 44 56 68 81 93
13 26 40 55 70 85 100 116 131
14 32 49 67 85 104 122 141 160
15 39 60 81 103 125 148 170 193
16 46 71 97 123 149 176 203 230 258
17 54 84 114 145 176 207 239 272 304
18 63 98 133 169 205 242 280 317 355
19 73 113 154 196 238 281 324 368 411
20 84 130 177 225 274 323 372 422 473
21 96 148 202 257 312 368 425 482 540
22 109 169 229 291 354 418 482 547 613
23 123 190 259 329 400 472 544 618 692
24 138 213 291 369 449 530 611 693 776
25 154 238 325 412 502 592 683 775 867
26 172 265 361 459 558 658 760 862 965
27 190 294 400 508 618 729 842 955 1069
Vol. = e**I-6.68057 + 2.71732*ln(D) + 1.07242*ln(H)]
Specifications
Location: Baker, Dougherty, Lee, and Stewart counties, Georgia
Minimum height: 16 ft. to an 8-inch dob
No. of trees: 581
R2 = 0.96






Table 24. Scribner board foot volume for natural loblolly pine.
Height to an 8-inch DOB
DBH 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80
9 20 29 38 47 56
10 25 37 49 60 71 82 94
11 31 46 60 75 89 102 116
12 38 56 74 91 108 125 142
13 46 67 88 109 130 150 170 190
14 54 80 105 129 153 177 201 225
15 64 93 122 151 179 207 235 263
16 74 108 142 175 208 240 273 305 336
17 85 124 163 201 238 276 313 350 386
18 96 141 185 229 272 314 356 398 440
19 109 160 209 259 307 355 403 450 497
20 122 179 235 291 345 399 453 506 559
21 137 201 263 325 386 446 506 565 624
22 152 223 292 361 429 496 562 628 694
23 168 247 324 399 474 549 622 695 768
24 185 272 356 440 523 604 685 766 846
25 203 298 391 483 573 663 752 841 928
26 222 326 428 528 627 725 822 919 1015
27 242 355 466 575 683 790 896 1001 1106
Vol. = e**[-4.62316 + 2.27492*ln(D) + 0.94338*ln(H)]
Specifications
Location: Baker, Dougherty, Lee, and Stewart counties, Georgia
Minimum height: 16 ft. to an 8-inch dob
No. of trees: 581
R2 = 0.93






Table 25. International /4-inch board foot volume for natural loblolly pine.
Height to an 8-inch DOB

DBH 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80
9 22 34 45 57 68
10 28 42 56 70 84 99 113
11 34 51 68 85 102 120 137
12 40 61 81 102 122 143 163
13 47 71 95 120 144 168 192 217
14 55 83 111 139 167 195 223 252
15 63 95 128 160 192 225 257 290
16 72 109 145 182 219 256 293 330 367
17 82 123 165 206 248 290 331 373 415
18 92 138 185 231 278 325 372 419 466
19 102 154 206 258 310 363 415 468 520
20 114 171 229 287 345 403 461 519 577
21 125 189 253 316 380 444 509 573 637
22 138 208 278 348 418 488 559 630 700
23 151 227 304 381 457 535 612 689 766
24 164 248 331 415 499 583 667 751 836
25 179 269 360 451 542 633 725 816 908
26 193 291 389 488 587 686 785 884 983
27 209 314 420 527 633 740 847 954 1061
Vol. = e**[-4.14560 + 2.02843*ln(D) + 1.01033*In(H)
Specifications
Location: Baker, Dougherty, Lee, and Stewart counties, Georgia
Minimum height: 16 ft. to an 8-inch dob
No. of trees: 581
R2 = 0.97





Table 26. Sawtimber topwood for natural loblolly pine.

Height to an 8-inch DOB
DBH 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80
8 6.872 6.302 5.927 5.651 5.435
9 6.170 5.658 5.321 5.073 4.880 4.722 4.589
10 5.603 5.138 4.832 4.607 4.431 4.288 4.167
11 5.135 4.709 4.428 4.222 4.061 3.930 3.819
12 4.742 4.348 4.089 3.899 3.750 3.629 3.527 3.439
13 4.407 4.041 3.800 3.624 3.485 3.373 3.278 3.196
14 4.118 3.776 3.551 3.386 3.257 3.151 3.063 2.987
15 3.866 3.545 3.334 3.179 3.058 2.959 2.875 2.804 2.742
16 3.644 3.342 3.143 2.997 2.882 2.789 2.710 2.643 2.584
17 3.447 3.161 2.973 2.835 2.727 2.638 2.564 2.501 2.445
18 3.272 3.000 2.822 2.690 2.588 2.504 2.434 2.373 2.320
19 3.114 2.855 2.685 2.560 2.463 2.383 2.316 2.259 2.208
20 2.971 2.725 2.562 2.443 2.350 2.274 2.210 2.155 2.107
21 2.841 2.606 2.450 2.336 2.247 2.174 2.113 2.061 2.015
22 2.723 2.497 2.348 2.239 2.154 2.084 2.025 1.975 1.931
23 2.614 2.397 2.255 2.150 2.068 2.001 1.944 1.896 1.854
24 2.514 2.306 2.168 2.068 1.989 1.924 1.870 1.824 1.783
25 2.422 2.221 2.089 1.992 1.916 1.854 1.802 1.757 1.718
26 2.337 2.143 2.015 1.922 1.848 1.788 1.738 1.695 1.657
27 2.257 2.070 1.947 1.856 1.785 1.728 1.679 1.637 1.601
28 2.183 2.002 1.883 1.796 1.727 1.671 1.624 1.584 1.549
29 2.114 1.939 1.824 1.739 1.672 1.618 1.573 1.534 1.500
Vol. = e**[4.42241 0.91519*ln(D) 0.21348*ln(H)]
Specifications
Location: Baker, Dougherty, Lee, and Stewart counties, Georgia
Minimum height: 16 ft. to an 8-inch dob
No. of trees: 464
R2 = 0.55








Table 27. Eighth-inch veneer area for natural loblolly pine
Height to a 10-inch DOB

DBH 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80
12 436 687 948 1217 1493
13 511 805 1112 1428 1751 2082 2418
14 592 933 1288 1655 2030 2413 2802
15 680 1071 1478 1898 2329 2768 3215
16 773 1218 1681 2159 2648 3148 3656 4172
17 872 1374 1897 2436 2988 3552 4125 4707
18 977 1540 2125 2729 3348 3980 4622 5275
19 1088 1715 2367 3040 3729 4432 5148 5874 6611
20 1205 1899 2622 3367 4130 4909 5702 6506 7322
21 1328 2093 2889 3710 4551 5410 6283 7170 8069
22 1457 2296 3170 4070 4993 5935 6893 7866 8852
23 1592 2508 3463 4447 5455 6484 7531 8594 9672
24 1733 2730 3769 4840 5938 7058 8198 9355 10527
25 1880 2961 4088 5250 6441 7656 8892 10147 11419
26 2033 3202 4421 5677 6964 8278 9614 10971 12347
27 2191 3452 4766 6120 7508 8924 10365 11828 13310
Vol. = e**[-1.97939 + 1.99151*lnD) + 1.12094*ln(H)]
Specifications
Location: Baker, Dougherty, Lee, and Stewart counties, Georgia
Minimum height: 16 ft. to a 10-inch dob
No. of trees: 472
R2 = 0.96







Table 28. Veneer topwood for natural loblolly pine.
Height to a 10-inch DOB
DBH 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80
12 11.332 10.747 10.351 10.053 9.816
13 10.161 9.636 9.281 9.014 8.802 8.626 8.477
14 9.185 8.711 8.389 8.148 7.956 7.797 7.662
15 8.361 7.929 7.636 7.417 7.242 7.098 6.975
16 7.657 7.261 6.993 6.792 6.632 6.500 6.387 6.290
17 7.049 6.685 6.439 6.254 6.106 5.984 5.881 5.791
18 6.521 6.184 5.956 5.785 5.649 5.536 5.440 5.357
19 6.058 5.745 5.533 5.374 5.247 5.143 5.054 4.976 4.908
20 5.649 5.357 5.159 5.011 4.893 4.795 4.712 4.640 4.577
21 5.285 5.013 4.828 4.689 4.578 4.487 4.409 4.342 4.283
22 4.961 4.705 4.531 4.401 4.297 4.211 4.138 4.075 4.019
23 4.669 4.428 4.265 4.142 4.044 3.964 3.895 3.836 3.783
24 4.406 4.178 4.024 3.909 3.817 3.740 3.676 3.619 3.570
25 4.168 3.952 3.806 3.697 3.610 3.538 3.477 3.424 3.377
26 3.951 3.747 3.608 3.505 3.422 3.354 3.296 3.245 3.201
27 3.753 3.559 3.427 3.329 3.251 3.186 3.131 3.083 3.041
28 3.571 3.387 3.262 3.168 3.093 3.032 2.979 2.934 2.893
Vol. = e**[6.17682 1.36291*ln(D) 0.13073*ln(H)]
Specifications
Location: Baker, Dougherty, Lee, and Stewart counties, Georgia
Minimum height: 16 ft. to a 10-inch dob
No. of trees: 379
R2 = 0.59





Table 29. Cubic foot volume for natural shortleaf pine.
Height to a 4-inch DOB
16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80 88


DBH
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26


1.858 2.700
2.553 3.710
3.340 4.854
4.216 6.125
5.176 7.521
6.220 9.037
7.344 10.671
8.547 12.418
9.826 14.277
11.181 16.246
12.610 18.322
14.111 20.503
15.684 22.788
17.327 25.175
19.039 27.663
20.820 30.250
22.667 32.935
24.582 35.717
26.562 38.595
28.608 41.566
30.717 44.632
32.891 47.789


3.520 4.323 5.114
4.836 5.940 7.027
6.327 7.771 9.193
7.985 9.808 11.602
9.804 12.042 14.246
11.781 14.470 17.117
13.910 17.085 20.211
16.188 19.883 23.520
18.611 22.860 27.042
21.177 26.012 30.770
23.883 29.335 34.702
26.727 32.828 38.834
29.706 36.487 43.162
32.817 40.309 47.683
36.060 44.292 52.395
39.433 48.435 57.295
42.933 52.734 62.381
46.559 57.188 67.650
50.310 61.795 73.099
54.184 66.553 78.728
58.179 71.461 84.534
62.296 76.517 90.515


8.099
10.596
13.372
16.420
19.730
23.295
27.110
31.169
35.466
39.998
44.761
49.749
54.961
60.392
66.040
71.902
77.975
84.256
90.744
97.436
104.330


Vol. = e**I-4.74041 + 1.74297*ln(D) + 0.92146*ln(H)l
Specifications
Location: Baker, Dougherty, Lee, and Stewart counties, Georgia
Minimum height: 16 ft. to a 4-inch dob
No. of trees: 232
R2 = 0.99


9.160
11.983
15.123
18.570 20.699
22.313 24.871
26.345 29.366
30.660 34.175 37.659
35.250 39.291 43.297
40.110 44.709 49.267
45.236 50.421 55.562
50.621 56.425 62.177
56.263 62.713 69.107
62.157 69.283 76.347
68.300 76.129 83.891
74.687 83.249 91.737 100.158
81.316 90.638 99.879 109.048
88.184 98.294 108.315 118.258
95.288 106.212 117.041 127.785
102.626 114.391 126.053 137.625
110.194 122.826 135.349 147.774
117.990 131.516 144.925 158.229








Table 30. Doyle board foot volume for natural shortleaf pine.
Height to an 8-inch DOB
DBH 16 24 32 40 48 56 64
12 21 32 43 54 65
13 26 40 54 68 83 97 112
14 32 49 67 84 102 120 138
15 39 60 82 103 125 147 169
16 47 73 98 124 151 177 204
17 57 87 117 148 180 211 243
18 67 102 139 175 212 249 287
19 78 120 162 205 248 292 336
20 91 139 188 238 288 339 390
21 105 160 217 274 332 390 449
22 120 183 248 313 380 446 514
23 136 208 282 357 432 508 584
24 154 236 319 403 489 575 661
25 173 266 359 454 550 647 744
26 194 298 403 509 616 725 834
Vol. = e**[-7.09752 + 2.90130*ln(D) + 1.05103*ln(H)]
Specifications
Location: Baker, Dougherty, Lee, and Stewart counties, Georgia
Minimum height: 16 ft. to an 8-inch dob
No. of trees: 262
R2 = 0.95








Table 31. Scribner board foot volume for natural shortleaf pine.
Height to an 8-inch DOB
DBH 16 24 32 40 48 56 64
12 38 55 72 88 105
13 46 67 87 107 127 147 166
14 55 80 104 128 152 176 199
15 65 94 123 152 180 208 235
16 76 110 144 178 211 243 275
17 88 128 167 206 244 282 319
18 101 147 192 237 280 324 367
19 115 167 219 270 320 369 418
20 130 190 248 306 362 418 474
21 146 214 279 344 408 471 534
22 164 239 313 385 457 528 598
23 183 267 349 429 509 588 666
24 203 296 387 476 565 652 738
25 224 326 427 526 623 720 815
26 246 359 470 579 686 792 897
Vol. = e**[-500576 + 2.43205*ln(D) + 0.93318*ln(H)]
Specifications
Location: Baker, Dougherty, Lee, and Stewart counties, Georgia
Minimum height: 16 ft. co an 8-inch dob
No. of trees: 262
R2 = 0.96








Table 32. International /4-inch board foot volume for natural shortleaf
pine.

Height to an 8-inch DOB
DBH 16 24 32 40 48 56 64
12 40 60 80 100 119
13 48 71 95 118 141 165 188
14 56 84 111 138 165 193 220
15 65 97 129 160 192 223 254
16 75 111 147 184 220 256 292
17 85 126 168 209 250 291 332
18 96 143 189 236 282 328 375
19 107 160 212 265 317 368 420
20 120 178 237 295 353 411 469
21 133 198 263 327 392 456 520
22 147 218 290 361 432 503 574
23 161 240 319 397 475 553 631
24 176 263 349 435 520 605 690
25 192 287 380 474 567 660 753
26 209 312 414 515 616 717 818
Vol. = e**[-4.30671 + 2.12407*In(D) + 0.98421*ln(H)]
Specifications
Location: Baker, Dougherty, Lee and Stewart counties, Georgia
Minimum height: 16 ft. to an 8-inch dob
No. of trees: 262
R2 = 0.96








Table 33. Sawtimber topwood for natural shortleaf pine.
Height to an 8-inch DOB

DBH 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72 80
9 7.062 6.310 5.826 5.476 5.205
10 6.152 5.497 5.075 4.770 4.535 4.345 4.187
11 5.431 4.853 4.480 4.211 4.003 3.835 3.696
12 4.846 4.330 3.998 3.758 3.572 3.422 3.298
13 4.364 3.900 3.600 3.384 3.217 3.082 2.970 2.874
14 3.961 3.539 3.267 3.071 2.920 2.797 2.695 2.609
15 3.619 3.234 2.985 2.806 2.667 2.556 2.463 2.383
16 3.326 2.972 2.744 2.579 2.451 2.349 2.263 2.190 2.127
17 3.072 2.745 2.534 2.382 2.264 2.170 2.091 2.023 1.965
18 2.851 2.547 2.352 2.210 2.101 2.013 1.940 1.877 1.823
19 2.656 2.373 2.191 2.059 1.958 1.876 1.807 1.749 1.699
20 2.483 2.219 2.049 1.926 1.831 1.754 1.690 1.636 1.588
21 2.330 2.082 1.922 1.806 1.717 1.645 1.585 1.534 1.490
22 2.192 1.959 1.808 1.700 1.616 1.548 1.492 1.444 1.402
23 2.068 1.848 1.706 1.604 1.525 1.461 1.407 1.362 1.323
24 1.956 1.748 1.614 1.517 1.442 1.382 1.331 1.288 1.251
25 1.854 1.657 1.530 1.438 1.367 1.310 1.262 1.221 1.186
26 1.762 1.574 1.453 1.366 1.299 1.244 1.199 1.160 1.127
Vol. = e**[5.60024 1.30878*ln(D) 0.27766*ln(H)l
Specifications
Location: Baker, Dougherty, Lee, and Stewart counties, Georgia
Minimum height: 16 ft. to an 8-inch dob
No. of trees: 198
R2 = 0.55







Table 34. Eighth-inch veneer area for natural shortleaf pine.

Height to a 10-inch DOB
DBH 16 24 32 40 48 56 64
12 425 661 905 1154 1408
13 506 788 1079 1376 1679 1986 2298
14 596 927 1269 1619 1975 2337 2704
15 693 1079 1477 1884 2298 2719 3146
16 799 1243 1702 2171 2648 3133 3625
17 913 1421 1944 2480 3025 3579 4141
18 1035 1610 2204 2811 3430 4058 4694
19 1165 1813 2482 3166 3862 4570 5286
20 1304 2030 2778 3543 4323 5114 5916
21 1452 2259 3092 3944 4812 5693 6585
22 1608 2502 3424 4368 5329 6305 7293
23 1773 2759 3775 4816 5875 6951 8041
24 1946 3029 4145 5287 6451 7632 8828
25 2129 3313 4534 5783 7056 8347 9656
26 2320 3611 4942 6303 7690 9098 10525
Vol. = e**[-2.42830 + 2.19560*ln(D) + 1.09075*ln(H)]
Specifications
Location: Baker, Dougherty, Lee, and Stewart counties, Georgia
Minimum height: 16 ft. to a 10-inch dob
No. of trees: 163
R2 = 0.97








Table 35. Veneer topwood for natural shortleaf pine.
Height to a 10-inch DOB

DBH 16 24 32 40 48 56 64 72
12 4.219 3.640 3.278 3.022 2.828
13 3.622 3.125 2.814 2.594 2.428 2.295 2.186
14 3.145 2.713 2.443 2.253 2.108 1.993 1.898
15 2.758 2.379 2.142 1.975 1.848 1.747 1.664
16 2.439 2.104 1.894 1.746 1.634 1.545 1.472 1.410
17 2.172 1.874 1.688 1.556 1.456 1.376 1.311 1.256
18 1.948 1.681 1.513 1.395 1.306 1.234 1.176 1.126
19 1.757 1.516 1.365 1.259 1.178 1.113 1.061 1.016
20 1.594 1.375 1.238 1.141 1.068 1.010 0.962 0.921
21 1.452 1.253 1.128 1.040 0.973 0.920 0.876 0.840
22 1.329 1.147 1.032 0.952 0.891 0.842 0.802 0.768
23 1.221 1.053 0.949 0.875 0.818 0.774 0.737 0.706
24 1.126 0.971 0.875 0.806 0.755 0.713 0.680 0.651
25 1.042 0.899 0.809 0.746 0.698 0.660 0.629 0.602
26 0.967 0.834 0.751 0.692 0.648 0.612 0.583 0.559
Vol. = e**[7.18556 1.44411*n(D) 0.36429*ln(H)]
Specifications
Location: Baker, Dougherty, Lee, and Stewart counties, Georgia
Minimum height: 16 ft. to a 10-inch dob
No. of trees: 115
R2 = 0.54








LITERATURE CITED
1. Bamping, J. H., and L. M. Oliphant. 1961. Cubic foot and board foot
volume formulas for the Southeastern United States. USDA For.
Serv. Div. of State and Private For., Atlanta, 16pp.
2. Bennett, F. A. 1953. Topwood volume tables for slash and longleaf
pine. USDA For. Serv. Southeast. For. Exp. Sta. Res. Note No. 42,
2 pp.
3. Bennett, F. A., C. E. McGee, and J. L. Clutter. 1959. Yield of old-field
slash pine plantations. USDA For. Ser. Southeast For. Exp. Sta.
Pap. 107, 19pp.
4. Bennett, F. A., B. F. Swindel, and J. G. Schroeder. 1974. Estimating
veneer and residual pulpwood volumes for planted slash pine
trees. USDA For. Serv. Res. Pap. SE-112, 14pp.
5. Cooper, R. W., and D. F. Olson, Jr. 1958. Volume determinations for
second-growth slash pine and longleaf pine in northeast
Florida. USDA For. Serv. Southeast For. Exp. Sta. Pap. No. 92,
llpp.
6. Grosenbaugh, L. R. 1974. STX-3-3-73: Tree content and value estima-
tion using various sample designs, dendrometry methods, and V-S-L
conversion coefficients. USDA For. Serv. Res. Pap. SE-117, 112pp.
7. McAlister, R. H., and M. A. Taras. 1978. Yield of southern pine
veneer suitable for composite lumber and panels. USDA For. Serv.
Res. Pap. SE-179, 15pp.
8. Mesavage, C., and J. W. Girard. 1946. Tables for estimating board-
foot volume of timber. USDA For. Serv., 94pp.
9. Page, R. H., and P. J. Bois. 1961 Buying and selling southern yellow
pine saw logs by weight. Ga. For. Res. Counc. Rept. No. 7, 9pp.
10. Williams, D. L., and W. C. Hopkins. 1968. Converting factors for
southern pine products. La. State Univ. Ag. Exp. Sta. Bull. No. 626,
89 pp.











































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