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 Glossary
 Index






Group Title: / University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station bulletin no. 640
Title: Mites associated with citrus in Florida
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027451/00001
 Material Information
Title: Mites associated with citrus in Florida
Physical Description: 39 p., 8 p. of plates : ill. (some col.) ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Muma, Martin H ( Martin Hammond ), 1916-
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville, Fla.
Publication Date: 1961
 Subjects
Subject: Mites -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Citrus -- Diseases and pests -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "A contribution from the Citrus Experiment Station"--T.p.
General Note: Includes index.
Funding: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station ; 640
Statement of Responsibility: Martin H. Muma.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027451
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: Marston Science Library, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Holding Location: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, and the Engineering and Industrial Experiment Station; Institute for Food and Agricultural Services (IFAS), University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved, Board of Trustees of the University of Florida
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000927407
oclc - 18342753
notis - AEN8125

Table of Contents
    Copyright
        Copyright
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Table of Contents
        Page 2
    Introduction
        Page 3
    General structure and biology of mites
        Page 3
    Equipment and methods
        Page 4
    Practical keys for identification of mites
        Page 5
    Family, genus and species descriptions and illustrations
        Page 6
        Table 1: Determination of the food habits of mites
            Page 7
        Table 2: Plant feeding mites
            Page 8
        Table 3: Fungus-feeding and scavenger mites
            Page 9
        Table 4: Predatory mites
            Page 10
            Page 11
        Table 5: Character standards
            Page 12
            Page 13
            Page 14
            Page 15
            Page 16
            Page 17
            Page 18
            Page 19
            Page 20
            Plate
            Plate
            Plate
            Plate
            Plate
            Plate
            Plate
            Plate
            Page 21
            Page 22
            Page 23
            Page 24
            Page 25
            Page 26
            Page 27
            Page 28
            Page 29
            Page 30
            Page 31
            Page 32
            Page 33
            Page 34
            Page 35
    Glossary
        Page 36
        Page 37
    Index
        Page 38
        Page 39
Full Text





HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






Copyright 2005, Board of Trustees, University
of Florida




I~~3


MITES

ASSOCIATED WITH


CITRUS

IN FLORIDA

(A contribution from the Citrus Experiment Station)

MARTIN H. MUMA, Entomologist
Citrus Experiment Station









-Illustrations In Color-


University of Florida 0
BULLETIN 640


Agricultural Experiment Stations
J. B. BECKENBACH, DIRECTOR


ER
*sville,
DECEMBER '96
l.2
. ^ /,








ERRATA

The figure citations in Tables 2, 3 and 4 are incorrect. Please
refer to index and descriptive paragraphs for correct figure num-
bers.

J. B. Beckenbach on cover should read J. R. Beckenbach.





CONTENTS


Page

GENERAL STRUCTURE AND BIOLOGY OF MITES ....................... ................. 3

EQUIPMENT AND METHODS ....-.......... .-......-.......... ..------- 4

PRACTICAL KEYS FOR IDENTIFICATION OF MITES .................... ...........--. 5

FAMILY, GENUS AND SPECIES DESCRIPTIONS AND ILLUSTRATIONS .. ............ 6

Table 1.-Determination of the food habits of mites .......-.............- 7

Table 2.- Plant feeding mites ..................--....--.....-------- .. 8

Table 3.-Fungus-feeding and scavenger mites .............-.............-... 9

Table 4.- Predatory mites .............-.. .--..- ...- ......- --.---- ----- 10

Table 5.- Character standards ............ .............. -....- ..... 12

G LOSSARY ................................................................................................................. 36
GLOSSARY ---------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------- 36
IN DEX ................................... .... ..... ........... .... 38









Single copies free to Florida residents upon request to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA










MITES ASSOCIATED WITH CITRUS IN FLORIDA

MARTIN H. MUMA, Entomologist
Citrus Experiment Station

INTRODUCTION
Mites play an important part in the production of citrus.
Many species 1 feed on the plant and cause direct injury and loss
by increasing leaf and fruit drop, decreasing fruit size, reducing
tree vigor and causing blemishes that reduce external fruit
quality. Other species are predatory and may affect yield by
contributing to the natural control of injurious species of insects
and mites. Still others are scavengers and fungus feeders and
are relatively unimportant to citrus production.
It is important that grove owners, grove managers, produc-
tion managers, insecticide and fertilizer salesmen and the many
other workers associated with the Florida citrus industry be
able to identify and separate the plant feeders and predators
from the scavengers. Illustrations and descriptions of mites
found on citrus are in most cases unobtainable or of a highly
technical nature. Further, many mites are nearly microscopic
in size, and the distinguishing characters given in scientific de-
scriptions are visible only through a high-powered microscope.
As a result there has long been a need for a non-technical publi-
cation that would permit the identification of mites under grove
conditions by persons not specifically trained in acarology, the
study of mites. This bulletin represents an attempt to fulfill
this need.

GENERAL STRUCTURE AND BIOLOGY OF MITES
In general the structure of mites is quite simple. The body
is a sac from which the legs and feeding mechanism project.
In many cases the latter structure is enveloped by the sac-like
body and is thrust out only when being used. Most mites possess
four pairs of legs, but one or two rare families have three pairs
or only one pair while the eriophyids, or rust mites, have two.
Certain groups of mites do not use the first or last pair of legs
while walking. Although mites can take only liquids into their

'Refer to glossary for definitions of technical or unusual terms.










MITES ASSOCIATED WITH CITRUS IN FLORIDA

MARTIN H. MUMA, Entomologist
Citrus Experiment Station

INTRODUCTION
Mites play an important part in the production of citrus.
Many species 1 feed on the plant and cause direct injury and loss
by increasing leaf and fruit drop, decreasing fruit size, reducing
tree vigor and causing blemishes that reduce external fruit
quality. Other species are predatory and may affect yield by
contributing to the natural control of injurious species of insects
and mites. Still others are scavengers and fungus feeders and
are relatively unimportant to citrus production.
It is important that grove owners, grove managers, produc-
tion managers, insecticide and fertilizer salesmen and the many
other workers associated with the Florida citrus industry be
able to identify and separate the plant feeders and predators
from the scavengers. Illustrations and descriptions of mites
found on citrus are in most cases unobtainable or of a highly
technical nature. Further, many mites are nearly microscopic
in size, and the distinguishing characters given in scientific de-
scriptions are visible only through a high-powered microscope.
As a result there has long been a need for a non-technical publi-
cation that would permit the identification of mites under grove
conditions by persons not specifically trained in acarology, the
study of mites. This bulletin represents an attempt to fulfill
this need.

GENERAL STRUCTURE AND BIOLOGY OF MITES
In general the structure of mites is quite simple. The body
is a sac from which the legs and feeding mechanism project.
In many cases the latter structure is enveloped by the sac-like
body and is thrust out only when being used. Most mites possess
four pairs of legs, but one or two rare families have three pairs
or only one pair while the eriophyids, or rust mites, have two.
Certain groups of mites do not use the first or last pair of legs
while walking. Although mites can take only liquids into their

'Refer to glossary for definitions of technical or unusual terms.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


digestive systems, some mites have scissors-like or grinding
structures for cutting up or crushing food materials to extract
the liquids. Sometimes these mouthparts are visible with a 10x
hand lens, but the usual blade or needle-like mouthparts are in-
visible. The sac-like body, when seen through a hand lens, nor-
mally does not appear to be divided. In one or two cases, how-
ever, the body may be divided by an indistinct crease into a front
and back portion. Several species of mites also seem to have a
distinct head, but this appearance is caused by greatly swollen
mouthparts or by mouthparts that are not withdrawn into the
body. The mouthparts of many mites include a pair of palpi or
feelers that may project at the front end and give the appear-
ance of a fifth pair of short legs.
In general, the life cycle of mites includes four stages;
eggs, six-legged larvae, eight-legged nymphs, and adults. This
cycle varies, however, from family to family with some mites
giving birth to living young, others giving birth to sexually ma-
ture adults, and still others having as many as three nymphal
stages. Usually eggs are laid in clusters in protected places,
singly in protected places or singly on the open-leaf surface where
they are protected by isolation. Larvae hatch from the eggs.
They usually possess only six legs, lacking the fourth or hind
pair. After a short resting or feeding period, the larvae change
to eight-legged nymphs by splitting and crawling out of the
outer skin, or molt; this process is known as molting. Molts
are usually white and are sometimes mistaken for dead mites.
Nymphs feed for awhile, then change to adults by the same proc-
ess. Males and females mate, females lay eggs and the cycle
is complete. As stated above, however, many modifications of
this cycle are known to exist, and the life cycle of many species
of mites on citrus is unknown at present.

EQUIPMENT AND METHODS
Although some mites are easily visible with the naked eye,
a hand lens, magnifying glass or linen counter that enlarges 10
times (10x) is an absolute necessity to anyone wishing to identify
mites as they are described here. A slender straight pin is also
helpful, in forcing mites to move and for use as a size reference.
The head of a pin measures about 1/13 of an inch in diameter
and the shaft about 1/34 of an inch.
Mites should be studied with green fruit or leaves as a back-
ground, as most mites show up distinctly lighter or darker than







Mites Associated with Citrus in Florida


green. A few species are translucent but not enough so as to
be too indistinct. Mites to be identified should be studied in
bright sunlight. The identification of a single specimen is quite
difficult and should not be attempted unless one is practiced. If
only one specimen can be found, the chances are the species is
not abundant enough to cause damage if it is a plant feeder, or
to effect natural control if it is a predator.
Mites to be identified should be studied under several condi-
tions. First, view the mites from above to determine the out-
line of the body, comparative length of the legs and special char-
acters. Next, bend or roll the leaf or fruit to one side to permit
study of the mites from a side view to determine profile and visi-
bility of body hairs. If the mites are at rest they should be dis-
turbed to determine running gait and habits. Finally, search for
eggs, young and mites resting or feeding. When general appear-
ance, general characteristics, special characters and habits all
have been studied and determined, the following practical keys
should make family determination possible.
After the family has been identified, further identification
may be made by comparing the mites with the family, genus and
species descriptions and illustrations. It should be remembered,
however, that the mites listed, described and illustrated in this
bulletin do not represent a final compilation. Additional species
will most certainly be added to the list as our knowledge of citrus
mites increases.

PRACTICAL KEYS FOR IDENTIFICATION OF MITES
In order to identify correctly the many species of mites found
on citrus trees in Florida, first determine the feeding habits of
the mites in question. Are they plant feeders, scavengers or
predators? Table 1 lists general rules for making this deter-
mination. Read selections A, B and C carefully and decide which
series applies more closely to the mites under study. An indi-
vidual selection must be made from each observation.
When the feeding habit has been determined, refer to the
table dealing with that group of mites. Tables 2, 3, and 4 con-
tain practical references to the characteristics of the families
of mites known to occur on citrus trees in the state. In using
these determine the size, outline, profile, leg size, body cover-
ing, color and special characteristics of the mites in the order
named. The list of Character Standards, Table 5 and Plate I,
should be used in making these determinations. An identifica-







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


tion is made by selecting from the left-hand or first column of
the table the size most nearly fitting the mites in question, then
moving to the second column and selecting for outline within
the chosen size range, then to the third column for profile, and
so on across the table to the last column, which names the family
of mites involved.
Identification is simple if the number of choices is small. For
example, the citrus rust mite, Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ash-
mead), in the Table of Plant Feeding Mites is the only tiny,
wedge-shaped, cylindrical tapered mite with four very short legs
that is found on citrus. On the other hand, identification of
the predatory bull or long-nosed mite, Cunaxa taurus Kramer,
presents a more difficult problem. It is a large mite and would
fit four different lines of the first column of the Table of Preda-
tory Mites. Its spindle-shaped outline would reduce the choice
to two in the second column, but its plump body, moderate to
long legs, soft body covering and red, green, yellow or brown
color would prevent further reduction in choice until the seventh
column wherein the final identification could be made.
In using Tables 1, 2, 3, and 4 the worker should realize that
errors in the construction and use of such artificial, tabular
methods of identification are common. Failure to complete an
identification on the first attempt does not necessarily mean that
the mite under study is a species new to citrus. It is much more
likely that an error in choice was made or the species is not
typical of the general characters included in the table. A second,
third or fourth trial after reconsideration should, in most cases,
permit completion of identification.
Once identification of family has been made, reference to the
descriptions and illustrations under that family name will make
final identification a matter of decision among written descrip-
tions and illustrations.

FAMILY, GENUS AND SPECIES DESCRIPTIONS
AND ILLUSTRATIONS
In the following descriptions technical terms have been
avoided as much as possible. A few terms could not be avoided
without the use of complete sentences or phrases which would
confuse the reader. These terms are defined in a short glossary
at the back of this bulletin which should be referred to when-
ever necessary.










TABLE 1.-DETERMINATION OF THE FOOD HABITS OF MITES.


Classification by Food Habits
Items To Observe B. Scavengers or Fungus
A. Plant Feeders Feeders C. Predators

Scattered in open, not in clumps Clustered or clumped in open Scattered or in small groups of
Eggs or clusters or in protected areas. or in protected areas, two or three in open or in pro-
tected areas.


Feeding mites scattered or if in Feeding mites in groups or in Feeding mites scattered or in
Mites: groups protected by silk web- protected areas. Feeding and small groups of two or three.
bing. Feeding difficult to ob- feeding injury easily observed. Feeding easily observed, but
feeding serve as mouth parts are hid- many species feed at night.
den. Mouth parts not usually hidden,
but are hard to see on small spe-
cies.


Mites scattered over leaf or Mites grouped or clustered Mites scattered, usually in pro-
resting fruit surface or protected by around eggs or in protected tected places.
silk webbing. areas.


disturbed


Mites run aimlessly before set- Mites run clumsily and/or aim- Mites run rapidly until protec-
tling to feed again. lessly until protection is found tion or food is found. A few
or group relocated, species are clumsy.













TABLE 2.-PLANT FEEDING MITES.


Size Outline Profile Leg Size Body Color Special Characters Family
Covering

Tiny Wedge- Cylindrical- Very short Soft Yellow- Two pair legs, males not Eriophyidae
shaped tapered to tan distinguishable. Body hairs (Figure 11)
point at back not visible with hand lens.
end


Small


Small


Moderate Ova


Red, or red Four pair legs. Males and Tenuipalpidae
with green, females same size. Body (Figure 16)
yellow or hairs not visible with hand
black mark- lens. All legs used in walk-
ings ing.


Variable Four pair legs. Males % Tarsonemidae
size of females. Body hairs (Plate IV)
scarcely visible with hand
lens. Hind legs not used in
walking.


Variable Four pair legs. Males more Tetranychidae
slender and longer-legged (Plate V)
than females. Body hairs
on most species easily seen
with hand lens.










TABLE 3.-FUNGUS-FEEDING AND SCAVENGER MITES.


Size Outline Profile Leg Size Body Color Special Characters Family
f Leg Size Covering

Small Oval Slightly Short Soft Variable Males 1/2 size of females. Tarsonemidae
swollen to Body hairs scarcely or not (Plate IV)
plump visible with hand lens. Hind
legs not used in walking.


Small Spindle Slightly Short to Soft Variable Males and females same Tydeidae
shaped swollen to moderate size. Body hairs scarcely (Figure 20)
plump or not visible with hand
lens. Hind legs used for
walking.


Moderate Teardrop Somewhat Short to Leathery Tan or Body hairs not or scarcely Oribatellidae
to large to round swollen to moderate or hard brown visible with hand lens. and related
swollen shell families
(Figure 14)


Moderate Teardrop Greatly Short to Soft White to Body hairs moderate to long Acaridae and
to large to round swollen to moderate yellow with and usually visible with related
plump or without hand lens. families
red, brown (Figure 1)
or black
spots









TABLE 4.-PREDATORY MITES.


Size Outline Profile Leg size Covering Color Special Characters Family


Small Long egg- Flattened Short Soft Bright Found under Fla. red scale Hemisarcop-
shaped shiny armors. Move slowly and tidae
yellow clumsily when disturbed. (Figure 12)
Body hairs not visible with
hand lens.

Small Egg- Flattened Moderate Soft but Light tan Move rapidly when dis- Digamaselli-
shaped in leathery to light turbed or searching for dae
front, brown prey. Body hairs scarcely (Figure 10)
squared visible with hand lens.
behind

Small Pear- Swollen Moderate Leathery Dark red Move deliberately when dis- Stigmaeidae
shaped to black turbed. Body hairs long (Figure 18)
and easily seen with hand
lens.

Small Spindle Slightly Short to Soft Milky- Found singly or in clusters Pyemotidae
shaped or swollen to moderate white under clumps of scale. Move (Figure 17)
round balloon- deliberately unless swollen,
like when they cannot move.
Hind legs for walking.

Small Spindle Slightly Short to Soft Variable Males and females same Tydeidae
shaped swollen to moderate size. Body hairs scarcely (Figure 21)
plump visible with hand lens. Hind
legs used for walking.


Small Oval


Swollen but Moderate
with pits to long
and wrinkles


Soft Bright red,
amber or
black
(Continued)


Move rapidly when dis- Stigmaeidae
turned with legs held like (Figure 19)
spokes of a wheel.





TABLE 4 (Continued)

Size Outline Profile Leg Size Body Color Special Characters Family
Leg Size Covering I

Small Oval Plump Moderate Soft Yellowish Feeding mechanism swollen Cheyletidae
to reddish and appearing like a dis- (Figure 7)
with a tinct head. These mites am-
broad pale bush their food.
stripe

Small to Spindle Swollen to Moderate Soft Red, yellow With a long snout or nose. Cunaxidae
large shaped plump to long green or Palpus with spines for (Figure 8)
brown grasping.

Moderate Round, egg- Swollen or Moderate Soft to Variable Found resting in protected Phytoseiidae
shaped or somewhat to long hard places or feeding on mites (Plate II)
long-oval flattened shelled or mite eggs.

Moderate Spindle Swollen to Moderate Soft Red, green With a short snout or nose. Bdellidae
to large shaped plump or brown Palpi end in long slender (Figure 5)
hairs.

Moderate Broad- Somewhat Long Soft Red or Legs very long and slender Caligonellidae
oval swollen brown or stilt-like. Body hairs not (Figure 6)
distinct.

Moderate Egg- Somewhat Moderate Soft Pale white Indistinguishable from phy- Aceosejidae
shaped or swollen to yellow toseiids. Body hairs short (Figure 3)
Long-oval and numerous but not dis-
tinct.

Large Nearly Somewhat Long Soft Red Body hairs distinct under Anystidae
circular swollen hand lens. Move rapidly in (Figure 4)
circles, figure-eights or
cork-screw pattern when
disturbed.


Large Egg- Somewhat Moderate Leathery
shaped or flattened to long
oval


Light to Front legs longer and more Macrochelidae
dark brown slender than others and (Figure 13)
used as feelers.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


TABLE 5-CHARACTER STANDARDS



Size-First column in Tables 2, 3 and 4-size of entire mite.
Tiny-Invisible to naked eye, scarcely visible with hand lens (1/200
inch or less).
Small-Scarcely visible to naked eye, visible without details with hand
lens (1/80 to 1/150 inch).
Moderate-Visible without details to naked eye, visible with details
with hand lens (1/50 to 1/75 inch).
Large-Details scarcely visible to naked eye, details obvious with hand
lens (1/30 to 1/45 inch).

Outline-Second column-shape of body from top view.
Wedge-shaped. Tapered to a point. Fig. 1.
Spindle-shaped. Tapered at both ends. Fig. 2.
Teardrop-shaped. Rounded at one end, pointed at other. Fig. 3.
Pear-shaped. Shaped like a pear. Fig. 4.
Egg-shaped. Shaped like an egg. Fig. 5.
Long-oval. Oval but twice as long as wide. Fig. 6.
Oval. Obviously longer than wide. Fig. 7.
Broad-oval. Nearly as wide as long. Fig. 8.
Round. Circular. Fig. 9.

Profile-Third column-shape of body from side view.
Cylindrical-tapered. Fig. 10.
Flat. Fig. 11.
Flattened. Fig. 12.
Somewhat-flattened. Fig. 13.
Slightly-swollen. Fig. 14.
Somewhat-swollen. Fig. 15.
Swollen. Fig. 16.
Greatly-swollen. Fig. 17.
Plump. Fig. 18.
Swollen with pits and wrinkles. Fig. 19.
Balloon-like. Fig. 20.

Leg Size-Fourth column-length of legs compared to body.
Very short. Legs scarcely extending beyond edge of body. Fig. 21.
Short. Legs extending distinctly beyond edge of body. Fig. 22.
Moderate. Legs as long as width of body. Fig. 23.
Long. Legs as long or longer than length of body. Fig. 24.

Special Characters-Seventh column.
Hind legs not used in walking. Figs. 25 and 26.
Long snout and palpi (feelers) spined for grasping. Fig. 27.
Short snout and palpi end in long hairs. Fig. 28.
Feeding mechanism swollen like a head. Fig. 29.
Front legs slender, used as feelers. Fig. 30.





Mites Associated with Citrus in Florida


5


3


7


60


1116
16


12

-0-


(


M
26
PLATE I


14 15


19

10




21


27


4Q


2


09


08


28


A^ 25







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


FAMILY ACARIDAE AND OTHERS (HAM, CHEESE AND
FUNGUS MITES)
(Figures 31 and 32)
The mites included in this group do not belong in any tech-
nically defined family. At least two families, Acaridae and
Glycyphagidae, occur on citrus, and it is probable that others will
be found. All of the species in this group are scavenger or fun-
gus feeders. They have a teardrop-shaped to nearly round out-
line, a greatly swollen to plump profile, a soft body covering and
moderate to long hairs on the body and legs. Most species have
chewing mouthparts which are darkened and large enough to be
seen with a 10x hand lens.
Several species of this group of families have been found on
citrus. Only three examples will be discussed because of the
relative unimportance of the group to citrus culture.
Two-spotted Fungus Mite (Acaridae).-The two-spotted fun-
gus mite is relatively large and is visible with the naked eye.
It is pale yellow to pale orange with a red-brown to black spot on
each side near the back end (Figure 31). Frequently one or two
additional dark areas occur in the middle near the back end. Ma-
ture females are about 1/45 2 inch long, are plump in profile and
have a few long slender hairs on the body and legs that are easily
seen with a 10x hand lens.
This mite is usually found in clusters, including eggs, young
and adults, along the midrib of the leaf or beside clumps of trash.
When disturbed the mites move clumsily about until a hiding
place is found or the cluster is relocated.
This mite is common during the spring and summer, and is
found throughout the citrus growing areas.
White Fungus Mite (Glycyphagidae, Glycyphagus domestics
(Deg.)).-The white fungus mite is large and easily visible with
the naked eye because of the many long slender spines on the
body and legs (Figure 32). Adult females are about 1'45 inch
long, white, and plump in profile.
This mite is often seen singly, staggering clumsily over the
surface of a leaf, but may also be found in clusters in protected
places.
Although not as common as the two-spotted fungus mite, this
mite is frequently seen in the spring and summer in all of the
citrus-growing areas.
SAs a size reference the head of a common straight pin measures about
1/13 of an inch in diameter and the shaft about 1/34 of an inch.







Mites Associated with Citrus in Florida


Slender Fungus Mite (Acaridae, Thyreophagus sp.).-This
mite is moderate in size, but is easily seen with a 10x hand lens.
Females have a long teardrop-shaped outline, are greatly swollen
in profile, and are dirty white to grey with one, two or three
darker spots in the middle near the back end. The body hairs
of this species are few in number, moderate in length and visible
only at the back end of the body. This mite is normally found
in small groups under the armors of dead scale or under trash.
The species is frequently seen in the late summer and early
fall, but is not common. Specimens have been collected from
most citrus-growing areas.

FAMILY ACEOSEJIDAE (ACEOSEJID MITES)
(Figures 34 and 70)
Mites of this family are moderate sized, egg-shaped in out-
line, and are slightly swollen to somewhat swollen in profile.
Legs are moderately long and the body covering is soft. Males
are slightly to distinctly smaller than females. The mouthparts
are of the chewing type and can be drawn into the body.
The species of this family are indistinguishable from some
Phytoseiidae (see page 23) under grove conditions. Several
genera are found on citrus. The feeding habits of the family
are variable; some species are predatory, others are fungus-
feeders.

GENUS Blattisocius KEEGAN (LARGE ACEOSEJIDS)
Mites of this genus are long-oval in outline and slightly swol-
len in profile. Body hairs, although numerous, are not distin-
guishable with a 10x hand lens. Leg hairs are also not visible.
The body covering is soft and the color is off-white with dark
areas visible inside of the body near the back end.
Keegan's Mite (Blattisocius keegani Fox).-This mite is in-
distinguishable from the next cited species, the fungus aceosejid,
except for its larger size. Mature females measure 1/52 inch
in length.
Nothing is known of the eggs, young or feeding habits of
the species. This mite is rarely found on citrus.

GENUS Garmania NESBITT (GARMAN'S ACEOSEJIDS)
Mites of this genus have oval to long-oval bodies that are
slightly swollen and somewhat flattened in profile. The body







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


hairs, although numerous, are not distinguishable with a 10x
hand lens. Body coloration is off-white to pale yellow, and the
covering is soft.
Fungus Aceosejid (Proctolaelaps hypudaei (Oudemans)).-
This mite is easily confused with the yellow and hibiscus mites
(page 24). It may be distinguished by the fact that hairs at the
back end of the body are not visible with a 10x hand lens, and leg
hairs are not distinguishable (Figure 34). Mature mites are
about 1/59 inch long with males slightly smaller than females.
Although this species has been reported to feed on various
mites and insects, it has not been observed feeding on them on
citrus. However, the species has been maintained through sev-
eral generations on fungus cultures in the laboratory.
This mite is not common on citrus. To date it has been col-
lected only in the central citrus area.

GENUS Lasioseius BERLESE (FROSTED ACEOSEJIDS)
Mites of this genus may be identified by a broad-oval to
squared body outline, a slightly swollen profile and the presence
of many short, broad hairs that are visible by light reflections
with a 10x hand lens. The legs are moderate in length.
Only one species has been found on citrus.
Frosted Mite (Lasioseius sp.).-The frosted mite is readily
identified by its light brown to lavender coloration and a frosty
appearance caused by light reflections from the many short,
broad hairs that cover the upper surface of the body. Other
characteristics are the same as those given above for the genus.
Mature females measure 1/56 inch in length (Figure 70).
To date this mite has been collected only from leaves heavily
infested with purple or Florida red scale. However, the mite
is apparently nocturnal, as it hides under empty scale armors
even under laboratory conditions; and it is probable that there
is no relationship between the hiding place and preferred food.
Nothing is known concerning the eggs and young.
The frosted mite is a predator and is common in certain
groves. It is found in all citrus areas, but seems to be more com-
mon on the east coast during the winter.

FAMILY ANYSTIDAE (WHIRLIGIG MITES)
(Figure 57)
Whirligig mites are large mites with nearly round bodies
that are slightly pointed at the front end and somewhat swollen







Mites Associated with Citrus in Florida


in profile. The body is red with short hairs that are distinctly
S visible with a 10x hand lens. The legs are long and extend
radially from the body. The most striking characteristic of
the family is the extremely rapid manner of running in a circu-
lar, figure eight or corkscrew pattern when disturbed. Red eyes,
located on each side just behind the first pair of legs, are visible
with a 10x hand lens. Only one species is known from citrus in
Florida.
Whirligig Mite (Anystis sp. (probably agilis Banks)).-The
characteristics of this mite (Figure 57) are the same as those
given above for the family. It is the largest mite found on citrus.
The mite is predatory, and usually only one or two specimens
are seen at one time. Adults measure about 1/32 inch in length.
This mite spins a loose cocoon of white silk to protect it during
the molting period. Although its predatory habit is well known,
its primary host or hosts on citrus have not been determined.
Specimens have been observed feeding on purple scale crawlers
and citrus red mites.
The species is uncommon on citrus, but is widely distributed
in unsprayed groves.

FAMILY BDELLIDAE (SNOUT MITES)
(Figure 58)
Snout mites are moderate to large in size, spindle-shaped in
outline and swollen to plump in profile, with a soft body covering.
The legs are moderate in length. These mites are normally red,
but may be greenish or brownish after feeding. Mites of this
family are easily confused with Cunaxidae, but differ in having
the palpi end in long, slender hairs.
Snout mites are well known for their predatory habits. The
number of species that occur on citrus has not been determined,
but all are similar in appearance through a hand lens. The fol-
lowing discussion of a species of Bdella presents an example of
the family.
Citrus Snout Mite (Bdella distinct Baker and Blalock).-
This mite is about 1/58 inch long, spindle-shaped in outline and
bright red (Figure 58). Males and females are similar. The
characters given above for the family are the same for this
species.
Resting mites usually are protected by the midrib of the leaf,
a clump of scale or some kind of trash. This mite walks slowly







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


and deliberately when searching for food, but when disturbed
darts backwards for a short distance.
Nothing is known about the eggs, young or food habits of
this mite.
The species is widely distributed in unsprayed groves, but is
not commonly found.

FAMILY CALIGONELLIDAE (CALIGONELLID MITES)
(Figure 65)
These moderate-sized mites have oval to broad-oval bodies in
outline that are somewhat swollen in profile. The legs are long
and slender. Body coloration is variable, but is predominantly
red or brown or marked with red or brown. The body hairs are
short and are not easily seen with a hand lens.
Only one species of this family has been found on citrus in
the state.
Stilt-legged Mite (Neophyllobius texanus McG.).-This mite
is about 1/75 inch long and has long, slender legs, each provided
with a long hair that is visible with a 10x hand lens. Body col-
oration may be amber marked with brown or brown marked
with red or black (Figure 65).
Although several young and adult mites have been collected,
nothing is known of the food habits of the species.
All specimens have been collected in the central citrus area.

FAMILY CHEYLETIDAE (CHEYLETID MITES)
(Figure 60)
Cheyletid mites found on citrus are small, broadly spindle-
shaped to oval in outline and plump in profile. The body cover-
ing is soft, and the legs are moderate in length. These mites
vary from light yellow to light red marked with a broad pale to
white stripe covering about two-thirds of the length of the body.
The most distinctive characteristic of these mites is the swollen
feeding mechanism which causes the mite to appear to have a
head.
Two genera and three species of this family have been col-
lected from citrus. Only one is common; it is a predator.
Big-headed Mite (Cheyletia wellsi Baker).-The character-
istics of this mite are the same as those given for the family
above. Males and females are similar and about 1/88 inch long
(Figure 60).







Mites Associated with Citrus in Florida


The species ambushes its prey, resting beside or under clumps
of scale or trash. When prey approaches, the mite turns to face
it and spreads its feeding mechanism into a grasping position.
The eggs of this mite are round and yellow, and are laid in pro-
tected areas such as under empty scale armors.
Although feeding has been observed many times, this mite
has never been seen feeding on anything except mites of the
family Phytoseiidae. As phytoseiids are predatory on plant feed-
ing mites, this mite is considered injurious to natural control.
The species is relatively common in phytoseiid populations
and is found in sprayed and unsprayed groves throughout the
state during winter and spring.

FAMILY CUNAXIDAE (CUNAXID OR LONG-NOSED MITES)
(Figures 61 and 62)
Long-nosed mites are small to large in size, spindle-shaped in
outline and swollen to plump in profile. The body covering is
soft, and the legs are moderate to long. Body color is normally
red, but recently fed mites may be yellowish, greenish or brown-
ish. Mites of this family may be confused with Bdellidae, but
differ in having the palpi provided with spines and spurs for
grasping.
These mites are predatory. Several species representing the
genera Cunaxa Heyden and Cunaxoides Baker and Hoffman are
known to occur on citrus in Florida. The following discussions
are of two species that exemplify the extremes in size for the
mites of this family.
Bull Mite (Cunaxa taurus Kramer).-The bull mite is one
of the larger mites found on citrus. It is an active predator and,
as a result, food colored, yellow, brown or green specimens are
found much more frequently than unfed, red specimens. Adult
females measure about 1/42 inch in length (Figure 62), with
the males slightly smaller.
Mites searching for food walk deliberately but fairly rapidly.
When disturbed, this mite darts backwards some distance before
walking forward again. The eggs of this species are red, quite
spiny, and are usually laid singly on the leaf surface next to
clumps of scale.
Although the bull mite is the most common species of the
family on citrus, nothing is known about its feeding habits.
Occasionally populations of this mite will increase sharply
in unsprayed citrus groves. The species is distributed through-







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


out the citrus-growing areas of the state. It appears to be most
common during the cooler months.
Andre's Long-nosed Mite (Cunaxoides andrei Baker and Hoff-
man).-This mite is much smaller than the bull mite, with fe-
males measuring about 1/80 inch long (Figure 61). Specimens
can be seen with the naked eye and determined with a hand lens
because of the bright red color. In addition to size, this species
may be separated from the bull mite by the fact that the palpi
are short and the spines on the palpi cannot be seen with a hand
lens.
Nothing is known about the eggs, young or food habits of this
mite. It is uncommon.
Miscellaneous Species of Cunaxidae.-In addition to the two
species discussed above, Cunaxa simplex (Ewing), C. capreolus
(Ber.), C. womersleyi Baker and Hoffman and C. boneti Baker
and Hoffman are also known to be associated with citrus. All
are uncommon to rare species.

FAMILY DIGAMASELLIDAE (DIGAMASELLID MITES)
(Figure 59)
Digamasellids are small, flattened mites that are egg-shaped
in front and squared behind. The legs are moderately long and
the soft but leathery body is light tan to light brown. The body
hairs are scarcely or not visible with a 10x hand lens.
Only one species has been found on citrus to date.
Two-spined Mite (Asca duosetosa Fox).-Although quite
common in the litter under trees, this species is infrequently
found on the trees. Mature females are about 1/80 inch long
(Figure 59). The characteristics given above for the family are
the same for this mite.
The few specimens preserved have been collected from the
leaves, trunks and limbs. Nothing is known concerning its food
habits. Specimens are usually found under empty scale armors.
Most of the specimens collected have been from the northern
districts. The species probably has a statewide distribution.
It is most often collected in winter.

FAMILY ERIOPHYIDAE (RUST AND GALL MITES)
(Figure 53)
Gall and rust mites are tiny, soft, worm-like mites that are
plant feeding in habit. In addition to the worm-like body outline






















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34 35

FUNGUS-FEEDING AND SCAVENGER MITES
Figure 31. Two-spotted fungus mite. 32. White fungus mite. 33. Chalk striped mite.
34. Fungus aceosejid. 35. Bat-winged beetle mite.


















37 39





















36 ,













40 42



41


FUNGUS-FEEDING AND SCAVENGER MITES
Figure 36. Common beetle mite. 37. White-tailed mite. 38. Trash mite. 39. Black tar-
sonemid. 40. Saddle-back mite, female, 41. eggs, 42. male.








































PLANT-FEEDING MITES
Figure 43. Citrus red mite, female, 44. eggs, 45. male. 46. Texas citrus mite, female, 47.
eggs, 48. male. 49. Tropical two-spotted mite, female.


CC~















51


54 55 56


PLANT-FEEDING MITES
Figure 50. Six-spotted mite, female, 51. eggs, 52. male. 53. Citrus rust mites under ION
hand lens. 54. Broad mite, female, 55. eggs. 56. Red flat mite.








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PREDATORY MITES
Figure 57. Whirligig mite. 58. Citrus snout mite. 59. Two-spined mite. 60. Big-headed
mite. 61. Andre's long-nosed mite.


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PREDATORY MITES
Figure 69. Citrus macrochelid. 70. Frosted mite. 71. Long-legged
mite. 73. Clear mite.


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\ 76 79
PREDATORY MITES
Figure 74. Shiny button mite. 75. Velvet button mite. 76. Long-haired mite. 77. Y II..
mite. 78. Conspicuous mite. 79. Tan mite.







Mites Associated with Citrus in Florida


and profile, eriophyids have two pairs of very short legs located
at the head end of the body and tiny, hidden, needle-like mouth-
parts for piercing the plant tissue.
Only one species of this family is known to feed on citrus in
Florida.3
Citrus Rust Mite (Phyllocoptruta oleivora Ashmead).-This
mite appears tiny even through a 10x hand lens (Figure 53).
Normally it is pale to bright yellow and looks like a wedge or
tapered cylinder in either outline or profile view. Mature female
mites are about 1/200 inch long, and the round eggs are compar-
atively large, one-fourth the size of the female. Male mites are
not distinguishable. Mites move slowly and deliberately, drag-
ging the body like a worm.
Rust mites infest leaves, green twigs and fruit on all parts of
the tree, but are generally more abundant toward the outside of
the tree. Heaviest infestations are normally found during late
summer and early winter. Several types of injury are attributed
to rust mites: under-developed fruits; a coarse, rough, brown
fruit russeting; a smooth, shiny, brown fruit russeting; a shark-
skin-like, silvery fruit russeting; under-developed leaves and a
brown to black leaf scorching.
The rust mite is statewide in distribution and is considered
the most injurious mite found on citrus. A more detailed account
of this mite and the injury it causes may be found in University
of Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Bulletin 591.
The citrus rust mite is controlled by spraying or dusting with
recommended miticides.4

FAMILY HEMISARCOPTIDAE (HEMISARCOPTID MITES)
(Figure 63)
These small mites are long and somewhat egg-shaped, but
with nearly parallel sides in outline and are flattened in profile.
The front pair of legs is short but the hind pair is very short,
extending just beyond the sides of the body. They are bright
yellow and are nearly always found under Florida red scale feed-
ing on the scale and its eggs. The body covering is soft. Body

3 The citrus bud mite, Aceria sheldoni Keiffer, has been recorded once
from the Miami area by Hassan Attiah, an Egyptian acarologist.
For specific miticide recommendations to control any of the plant feed-
ing mites discussed in this bulletin, please refer to the current Better Fruit
Program, published by the Florida Citrus Commission, Lakeland, Florida,
and available through the Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations, Rolfs
Hall, Gainesville, Florida.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


hairs are not visible with a 10x hand lens. When disturbed,
these mites move very clumsily.
Scale Mite (Hemisarcoptes malus Shimer).-This is the only
known species in the family. It is identified by the above char-
acters. Males and females are similar and are about 1/98 inch
long (Figure 63).
Eggs and young are found with the adults under red scale
armors. Both are yellow, the same color as red scale crawlers.
Although this mite is reported to attack several species of
scale, it has not been found attacking any except Florida red scale
and citrus snow scale on citrus in this state. The mites feed
upon the eggs of the scale and are most common during fall and
winter in heavy red scale infestations.

FAMILY MACROCHELIDAE (MACROCHELID MITES)
(Figure 69)
Macrochelids are large, oval or egg-shaped mites that are
light to dark brown in color. The body covering is leathery.
They are somewhat flattened in profile, with moderate to long
legs. These mites are characterized by front legs longer and
more slender than the others. The front legs lack claws and
are used as feelers.
Only one rare species has been found on citrus.
Citrus Macrochelid (Macrocheles merdarius (Berl.)).-This
species measures about 1/45 inch long (Figure 69). Otherwise,
the characters given above for the family will serve to identify
this species.
This mite has been found once, on an orange leaf. Other
specimens have been collected in litter under citrus trees, but
apparently it rarely climbs above ground level.

FAMILY ORIBATELLIDAE AND OTHERS (ORIBATID AND
BEETLE MITES)
(Figures 35 and 36)
Beetle mites are represented by a large number of families.
Several families are known to be associated with citrus trees.
These mites are more commonly found on the limbs and trunks
and in the litter under the trees, but several species are found on
the leaves and fruits of unsprayed citrus.
Adult mites have a leathery or hard, shell-like body covering.
They are moderate to large in size, teardrop to round in outline







Mites Associated with Citrus in Florida


and somewhat swollen to swollen in profile. They have short to
moderate-sized legs. Most species are light to dark brown, but
some are yellow and at least one has a purplish tint. Body hairs
are not or scarcely visible with a 10x hand lens. Immature mites,
larvae or nymphs, lack the hard body covering and frequently
have visible body hairs.
The two species of beetle mites discussed below are examples
of the species frequently found on leaves and fruit. These mites
are scavengers or fungus feeders and are not of any known im-
portance in the culture of citrus.
Bat-winged Beetle Mite (Galumnidae Galumna sp.).-This
mite is relatively large and is easily visible with the naked eye,
owing to its dark, shiny, chocolate-brown color. The large bat
wing-like flaps located at the front end of the body make identi-
fication relatively easy (Figure 35). Mature mites measure
about 1/40 inch in length and are teardrop-shaped in outline and
swollen in profile.
This mite is usually found climbing over clumps of scale,
trash or fungus. Usually only one or two mites are seen at the
time. When disturbed, they move slowly and deliberately.
Although frequently seen in unsprayed groves, this mite is
rare in sprayed groves. It seems to be statewide in distribution.
Common Beetle Mite (Eremaeidae, Eremaeus sp.).-This
moderate-sized mite is light to dark brown. Although it is visible
with the naked eye, details cannot be distinguished. The tear-
drop shape and bead-like segments of the legs serve as distin-
guishing characteristics (Figure 36). Mature mites measure
about 1/50 inch long.
Common beetle mites are usually seen around clumps of scale,
fungus or trash. They move deliberately when disturbed.
This species is more common in unsprayed groves, but also
occurs in sprayed groves throughout the state.

FAMILY PHYTOSEIIDAE (PHYTOSEIID MITES)
(Figures 71, 72, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78 and 79)
These moderate-sized mites are quite variable in outline, pro-
file, leg length and body covering. The soft to hard-shelled bodies
may be round, egg-shaped, or long-oval in outline and vary from
somewhat flattened to swollen in profile. Most species have the
legs moderate in length, but at least one has long legs. All
species run rapidly and agilely when disturbed. Although quite







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


variable, the mites in this family have such similarity of general
appearance and habit that they are easily identified. Males are
slightly to distinctly smaller than females. The mouthparts are
of the chewing type and can be drawn into the body.
At least a dozen species of this family occur on citrus in
Florida. Several genera are represented. The mites of this
family are predatory in habit and thus are beneficial.
Shiny Button Mite (Amblyseius quadripilis (Banks)).-This
mite is readily identified by its shiny, dark, mahogany-red color
and by having four long, slender, body hairs, two of which project
at the back end of the body and are easily seen with a 10x hand
lens (Figure 74). Adult females measure 1/50 inch in length.
The body of this mite is almost round and swollen to a nearly
hemispheric profile. Young mites of this species have soft pink
bodies with two long hairs at the back end of the body that serve
for identification.
The feeding habits of this mite are not definitely known.
Although the family feeds mainly on spider mites, the shiny but-
ton mite has been demonstrated to feed on scale eggs and crawl-
ers as well as on citrus red mite eggs. The species is active at
night; specimens seen during the day are usually resting in pro-
tected places on the under sides of leaves. Eggs are nearly round
and translucent white, often with an internal spot of red.
Young mites are similarly colored. Eggs and young are often
found in protected places.
The species is relatively common, particularly on grapefruit
trees, and is distributed throughout the citrus-growing areas. It
seems to be most abundant in the spring.
Long-haired Mite (Amblyseius aerialis (Muma)).-This spe-
cies may be distinguished by its white to pale yellow, soft body
and long, slender body hairs (Figure 76). The body is somewhat
swollen in profile and teardrop-shaped in outline. Adult females
are about 1/58 inch long. The legs are moderately long.
These mites have been observed feeding on six-spotted mites
and are common in groves with heavy infestations of flat mites.
The eggs of the species are not known, and the young have not
been studied. Long-haired mites are common in some groves and
rare in others. This species is more frequently collected in
winter.
Yellow Mite (Amblyseius peregrinus (Muma)).-This mite
is the most widespread and common representative of the genus
on citrus. It may be identified by a teardrop-shaped outline, a







Mites Associated with Citrus in Florida


slightly-swollen to somewhat swollen profile and moderately long
legs (Figure 77). Females measure about 1/64 inch in length.
The last two pairs of legs have one or two long, slender hairs that
are visible with a 10x hand lens. Body hairs are usually not
visible, but one pair at the back end may be barely distinguish-
able with a lens. The body color varies from white to cream with
black, red, brown or green food materials sometimes visible
through the body wall. The young mites are translucent. Eggs
are oval and transparent. Eggs and young are found scattered
over the leaf surface.
Feeding preference of the yellow mite has not been definitely
determined. The species is active at night, hiding under or be-
side clumps of scale, fungus or trash on the under side of shaded
leaves during the day. At night the yellow mites migrate to all
parts of the trees. It has been demonstrated to feed on scale
eggs and crawlers, citrus red mites, six-spotted mites and chalk-
striped mites. The yellow mite is easily confused with the hi-
biscus mite discussed below.
Yellow mites are more common in the southern and central
citrus areas and reach peaks of population in winter and spring.
Hibiscus Mite (Amblyseius hibisci Chant).-The hibiscus
mite may be identified by the characters given above for the yel-
low mite. The two species are practically indistinguishable under
grove conditions except that this species is slightly smaller, meas-
uring only 1/67 inch in length.
Other Species of Amblyseius.-Several other species of this
genus are known to be associated with citrus. One, Amblyseius
floridanus (Muma), has been taken from litter under the trees;
another, A. largoensis (Muma), is an uncommon species found
on Key lime trees on Key Largo and in several east coast groves.
Crowned Mite (Amblyseiella setosa Muma).-The crowned
mite is easily identified by the crown of moderately long hairs
that arise from the margin of the body (Figure 72). These hairs
may be distinguished with a 10x hand lens, but are not as distinct
as those on Amblyseiopsis. Adult females are about 1/71 inch
long.
Nothing is known of the eggs, young or food habits of the
species.
To date it has been collected only in one grove on the west
coast and one in the central citrus area.
Velvet Button Mite (Phytoscutus sexpilis Muma).-The vel-
vet button mite is identified by its velvety, rose-red color and by







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


four long hairs that project at the back end of the body (Figure
75). The body of this mite is hemispherical and measures 1/65
inch in length. Young mites have only two hairs projecting at
the back end of the body.
This mite usually is seen in clusters of fungus-feeding mites
of the family Acaridae on which they apparently feed. Eggs,
young mites and adults often are found at the same time. Eggs
are broad-oval to round and usually have an internal pink or red
spot. Young mites have soft bodies that are tinted with pink
or red. The species seems to feed during the day.
This mite has been found throughout the southern half of
the citrus area in the spring.
Conspicuous Mite (Typhlodromina conspicuua (Garman)).-
The conspicuous mite is easily identified by its light to medium-
brown coloration, broad-oval, somewhat squared outline and
shiny, shell-like body covering (Figure 78). Adults measure
about 1/67 inch long. The spines in the middle of the body do
not overlap each other and are not distinguishable with a 10x
hand lens. Males of this species are not known. Leg hairs are
not visible.
This mite has been observed feeding on six-spotted mites and
citrus red mites.
It is seldom common, but seems to be statewide in distribu-
tion.
Tan Mite (Galendromus floridanus (Muma)).-The tan mite
is identified by an off-white to light-tan coloration, long-oval out-
line and soft but shiny body covering. The hairs in the middle
of the body overlap each other and are distinguishable with a 10x
hand lens (Figure 79). Leg hairs are not visible. Males are
slightly smaller than females, which measure about 1/64 inch
long.
The eggs are oval and transparent, turning to pinkish tan
before hatching. The young are translucent. Young mites and
eggs are sometimes found in clusters under six-spotted mite web-
bing.
Although this species has been demonstrated to feed on six-
spotted mites, citrus red mites and Texas citrus mites, it appar-
ently has a preference for six-spotted mites. Large numbers of
tan mites may be found in infestations of six-spotted mites dur-
ing March, April and May. Cold weather apparently has an ad-
verse effect on this mite, as heavy infestations of six-spotted
mites that develop in January and February during outbreaks do







Mites Associated with Citrus in Florida


not contain tan mites. The tan mite seems to be a limiting bio-
logical control factor on six-spotted mites during warm winters.
It is statewide in distribution.
Nothing is known of the eggs, young or food habits of this
mite on citrus.
It appears to be more common in the northern citrus areas
during winter and spring.
Long-legged Mite (Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks)).-This
mite is uncommon on citrus but is easily identified by its long
legs, long, slender body hairs and light-brown to reddish-brown
body color which is marked with a milky spot at the back end
(Figure 71). Adults measure about 1/60 inch in length.
The species is a well-known spider-mite predator. The egg
is oval in shape and milky white to amber in color. Young mites
are not as distinctly colored as adults.
Except for one specimen collected at Winter Haven, all speci-
mens of this species have been found feeding on tropical two-
spotted mites in the Indian River citrus area.

FAMILY PYEMOTIDAE (PYEMOTID MITES)
(Figure 64)
Pyemotids are small, slightly swollen, and spindle-shaped in
the unfed condition, but females become large and balloon-like
after they have been fertilized and have fed for a short time.
The legs are short to moderate in length and are all used for
walking. The body covering is soft and milky white in color
with dark inner reflections in swollen specimens.
Balloon Mite (Siteroptes sp.).-The identifying characters
for this mite are the same as those given above for the family.
Balloon-like females measure about 1/80 inch in length (Fig-
ure 64).
This mite has been taken several times during the summer
months in one grove in the Fort Pierce citrus area. All speci-
mens have been found under empty scale armors. Newly
emerged unfed mites walk clumsily but rapidly and appear much
like tarsonemids. They do not, however, drag or trail the hind
legs in the same manner as tarsonemids.

FAMILY STIGMAEIDAE (STIGMAEID MITES)
(Figures 66 to 68)
These small mites have oval to pear-shaped bodies in outline
and are swollen in profile. The legs are moderate in length. Body







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


coloration is variable, but most specimens are bright red, amber
or black with or without a pattern of light or dark spots. The
body hairs are long and can be seen with a hand lens.
Five species of this family, representing two genera, are
found on citrus in Florida. Only the two described below are
common.
Spiny Red Mite (Exothorhis caudatus Summers).-This mite
can be identified by the family characteristics given above. Ma-
ture mites are about 1/127 inch long (Figure 68). The body
hairs are long and can easily be seen with a hand lens. They are
easily confused with young citrus red mites, but may be identi-
fied by the lack of tubercles at the bases of the body hairs and a
deliberate movement when disturbed.
Several specimens of this species have been taken, mainly
from a grove west of Fort Pierce, Florida, but usually only one
specimen at a time is seen. Nothing is known of its eggs, young,
or habits.
Strawberry Mite (Agistemus fleschneri Summers).-This
species measures about 1/82 inch, and its legs are moderate in
length. It is best identified by its amber to bright red coloration
and strawberry-like appearance (Figure 66). Old mature mites
are sometimes nearly black. The body hairs are barely visible
with a hand lens. When disturbed, these mites move rapidly and
smoothly with the legs radiating much like the spokes of a wheel.
Strawberry mites are found under a variety of conditions,
but are most common on leaves infested with purple scale, white-
flies or six-spotted mites. In all cases, when not actively feed-
ing, the mites rest beside clumps of scale or cast skins of white-
fly larvae or under the webbing of six-spotted mites. The eggs
are round, pale amber in color, and are usually laid off the leaf
surface on strands of silk (Figure 67). Young mites are lemon
yellow to amber in color. This predatory species has been ob-
served feeding on six-spotted mites, saddle-back mites and chalk-
stripe mites. In the laboratory the mites fed freely on red scale
crawlers.
Strawberry mites are most numerous in the spring and early
summer throughout the state.

FAMILY TARSONEMIDAE (TARSONEMID MITES)
(Figures 37 to 42 and 54 to 55)
Tarsonemid mites are small, oval-shaped mites that are less
than 1/100 inch long. Although the body covering is usually pale







Mites Associated with Citrus in Florida


in color, it is relatively hard and shiny. Males are usually dis-
tinctly smaller than females, with the body somewhat pointed
toward the front and/or back end. These mites have four pairs
of legs, two located at the front and two near the back end of
the body. The family is characterized by the fact that the hind
legs are not used in walking by either sex (Plate I, Figures 25
and 26). The mouthparts are enclosed in a tiny but distinct
head region.
Several species of tarsonemids are known to occur on citrus
in Florida. Most of the species are fungus feeders in the genera
Tarsonemus Canestrini and Fanzago, Fungitarsonemus Crom-
roy, Hemitarsonemus Ewing and Rhyncotarsonemus Beer. One
species, the broad mite, Hemitarsonemus latus Banks, is a well-
known plant feeder.
Broad Mite (Hemitarsonemus latus (Banks)).-The broad
mite and its eggs are readily visible with a 10x hand lens. Fe-
male mites are about 1/141 inch in length, oval in outline, swollen
in profile and light yellow, amber or green with an indistinct light
median stripe that forks near the back end of the body (Figure
54). Males are similar in color to females, but lack the stripe.
The ovate, flattened eggs are translucent, with scattered white
tufts on the upper surface (Figure 55). Mites move jerkily but
rapidly for their size when disturbed, but they normally move
deliberately.
Broad mites infest leaves and fruit on all parts of the tree,
but heavy infestations are confined to young, tender leaves on
growing tips and fruits one inch or less in diameter. Injured
leaves are curled and twisted, sometimes to the extent that
growth of the tip is aborted. Injured fruit or areas of fruit de-
velop a white to light tan sharkskin-like scurf.
Infestations apparently are confined to spring and summer,
except under greenhouse conditions. The species has been found
only in the southern half of the citrus belt and is most common
during the spring.
This mite can be easily controlled by spraying.6
Saddle-back Mite (Fungitarsonemus peregrinus (Beer)).-
Saddle-back mites are readily visible with a 10x hand lens. Fe-
males are about 1/115 inch in length, broad-oval in outline, plump
in profile and translucent, with a distinct spot or saddle of yellow,
brown, red, green or black in the middle of the body (Figure 40).
Males are similar in color to females except that the spot is small
6 See footnote 4.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


or faint (Figure 41). The eggs are nearly round and pearly-
white (Figure 42). They are usually scattered over the leaf sur-
face. Mites move jerkily and quite rapidly, for their size, when
disturbed. Males carry nearly mature females on their backs in
a piggy-back manner.
No damage to citrus has been associated with infestations
of this mite, and its feeding habits are in question.
It is most common in spring and fall and is found throughout
the state.
Trash Mite (Hemitarsonemus lodici DeLeon).-Females of
this mite carry packets of trash on their backs (Figure 38).
They are about the same size and coloration as the saddle-back
mite but appear larger because of the packet. Males are similar
in coloration to females but carry little or no trash unless they are
carrying nearly mature trash-carrying females. The eggs of
the species are not known. Movement is the same as that re-
ported for the broad and saddle-back mites.
The feeding habits of the trash mite have not been recorded.
The species is more common in the northern half of the citrus
belt.
White-tailed Mite (Tarsonemus setifer Ewing).-The white-
tailed mite is about 1/141 inch in length, but is readily visible
with a 10x hand lens. Females are oval in outline, slightly swol-
len in profile and light amber to nearly black with a pale-yellow
to white spot at the back end of the body (Figure 37). Males
are colored similarly except that the spot is larger, sometimes
covering nearly half of the body. The eggs are broad-oval to
round in shape and pearly white. They are usually clustered
among strands of fungus or under trash or scale armors. Mites
move jerkily but rapidly when disturbed.
White-tailed mites are fungus feeders and are usually clus-
tered around, over and under fungus, trash or clumps of dead
scale. Infestations increase with increases of dead scale or fun-
gus growth.
The species is most common in the winter and is found
throughout the state.
Black Tarsonemid (Rhyncotarsonemus niger Beer).-Only
females of this mite have been found on citrus to date, but both
sexes are known to be black. Females are about 1/100 inch in
length, oval in outline, slightly swollen in profile and covered with
a raised network that gives the mites a rough appearance (Fig-
ure 39). Males do not have the network. The eggs have not







Mites Associated with Citrus in Florida


been found. Mites move jerkily and clumsily when disturbed.
The black tarsonemid is a fungus feeder and is seldom seen
in numbers. Usually only one, two or three mites are found at
one time.
Miscellaneous Species of Tarsonemids.-Although the above
species represent the tarsonemids most frequently found, four
other species are known to occur on citrus. Three of these are
representatives of the genus Tarsonemus: T. sulcatus Beer, T.
randsi Ewing and T. cryptocephalus Ewing. The fourth is
Daiadalotarsonemus tessellatus DeLeon. All are uncommon to
rare. Further, it is probable that species not yet reported may
be found. The small size, oval outline and habit of not utilizing
the hind legs in walking should, however, serve to identify any
tarsonemid.

FAMILY TENUIPALPIDAE (FALSE SPIDER AND FLAT MITES)
(Figure 56)
False spider mites are small, flat and pear-shaped, with mod-
erately long legs and a reddish color that may be marked with
yellow, green or black. Males are usually more distinctly pear-
shaped than females. These mites have four pairs of legs, two
pairs located at the head end of the body and two pairs slightly
behind the middle. The short needle-like mouthparts are hid-
den within the body except during feeding.
Two species of false spider mites are known to feed on citrus
in Florida. They are Brevipalpus californicus (Banks) and
Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes).
Red Flat Mite (Brevipalpus californicus (Banks)).-This
small false spider mite, which is readily visible through a 10x
hand lens, is flat, pear-shaped and bright red in color (Figure
56). Males and females are similar in appearance, with males
being slightly smaller and more distinctly pear-shaped. Mature
specimens measure about 1/95 inch in length. Mites move
slowly and deliberately, but not clumsily.
Red flat mites infest leaves, fruit, twigs and limbs. Heaviest
infestations occur during summer. Leprosis, or Florida scaly
bark, has been attributed to the feeding activities of this mite.
Additional information on this disease may be found in Uni-
versity of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletins 587
and 591.
To date, this species has not been collected outside of the
Turnbull Hammock area on the east coast.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


The species is easily controlled by dormant or post-bloom
sulfur sprays.6
Red and Black Flat Mite (Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes)).
-This false spider mite is slightly smaller than the red flat
mite and is distinctively marked with red, yellow, black and
occasionally green. Otherwise, the characters that identify the
red flat mite apply to this species. Eggs of this mite are oval
and red in color; they are easily seen with a hand lens. Larval
mites are bright red but lack the dark markings of mature mites.
This species infests the leaves, fruit, twigs and limbs. Larg-
est populations occur during the summer. Several types of in-
jury have, in the past, been attributed to this mite, but none
has definitely been demonstrated.
This species has a statewide distribution.
The red and black flat mite is readily controlled by spraying.7

FAMILY TETRANYCHIDAE (RED SPIDER AND SPIDER MITES)
(Figures 43 to 52)
Spider mites are moderate to large-sized mites with plump,
oval bodies, moderately long legs and soft body covering. Body
hairs are easily seen with a 10x hand lens on all but one of the
species that are known to occur on citrus. Body and leg colora-
tion are different for each species.
These mites are plant feeding and may cause serious injury
to citrus. Two species are well known; they are the citrus red
mite and the six-spotted mite. A third species, apparently re-
cently introduced into Florida citrus, is known as the Texas
citrus mite. The tropical two-spotted mite, a fourth species, is
occasionally found on citrus along the east coast in the early
spring. Detailed information on these mites can be found in
University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin
591.
Citrus Red Mite (Panonychus citri (McGregor)).-The citrus
red mite is variously referred to as purple mite, red spider,
spider and spider mite. It is readily identified by its dusty-red
to maroon coloration and long pink hairs that project out of wart-
like elevations on the body of the mite. Males are smaller and
more slender and have slightly longer legs than the females
SL. C. Knorr and W. L. Thompson. Spraying trials for the control of
Florida scaly bark on citrus. Plant Disease Reporter 38(3): 143-146.
1954.
SSee footnote 4.







Mites Associated with Citrus in Florida


(Figure 45). Females measure about 1/56 inch in length (Fig-
ure 43). The round eggs vary from light to dark red in color
and have a mast or stalk on the upper surface, from which guy
lines of silk extend down to the leaf, forming a tent-like struc-
ture (Figure 44). This silk is frequently not visible with a 10x
hand lens. Young mites appear much like the adults except
for size.
Citrus red mites infest the leaves, fruits and the green twigs
toward the outside of citrus trees. The eggs are more commonly
ound on the upper surface of the leaves, but active mites may
e found on either leaf surface. Three types of injury are com-
non. One is a tiny scratch-like mark on the upper surface of
che leaf. These marks are often abundant enough to give the
leaf a scratched pale or greyish appearance. A second type of
injury is a leaf drop in which the petiole is left attached to the
green twig. A third is a dying and browning of the leaves on
terminal tips giving the appearance of fire injury.
Infestations of citrus red mites are usually heaviest in fall
and spring, but individual groves may have heavy infestations at
any season. It is common throughout the state and considered
one of the major pests on citrus.
Citrus red mites may be controlled by spraying or dusting.8
Texas Citrus Mite (Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor)).-
This mite was apparently introduced into Florida from citrus
sometime in 1950 or 1951. It may be identified by a tan to green
body coloration marked on the back with several pairs of dark-
green to black spots as shown in Figures 46 and 48. The body of
the female Texas citrus mite is broad-oval in outline and some-
what flattened in profile; males have a more slender and some-
what triangular-shaped body. The legs are light brown and mod-
erately long, with those of the male longer and more slender than
those of the female. The body hairs of this species are short and
not easily seen with a 10x hand lens. Adult females measure
about 1/60 inch long. Eggs are flattened and disc-like with a
yellow, green or pink coloration (Figure 47). Young mites are
like the adults except for size. Newly-hatched mites are six-
legged and lemon-yellow in color.
Infestations of and injury to citrus by this mite are nearly
identical to those of the citrus red mite. As yet, however, twigs
have not been found to be infested.

8 See footnote 4.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Heaviest infestations of this mite have been found to occur
in spring and fall. It is presently distributed in all but the south-
ern citrus area.
The species may be controlled by spraying or dusting.9
Six-spotted Mite (Eotetranychus sexmaculatus (Riley)).-
The six-spotted mite is easily distinguished by its pale yellow
color and three pairs of dark spots on the upper surface of the
body (Figures 50 and 52), and by its habit of congregating in
pockets on the under sides of the leaves. Occasionally the spots
are indistinct or missing when the mites are observed through
a 10x hand lens. Females are oval in outline and plump in pro-
file, with very fine pale body hairs that are easily seen with a
10x hand lens (Figure 50). Males have more slender, somewhat
triangular-shaped bodies, but are otherwise much like the fe-
males in appearance (Figure 52). Females are about 1/57 inch
long. The light yellow eggs are round with a short stalk or mast
on the upper surface but have no guy lines (Figure 51). Young
mites appear much like the adults except that they are smaller
and the markings may be indistinct.
Six-spotted mites infest and injure the leaves and fruit of
citrus. Injury to the leaves takes the form of sunken pockets
or pits on the lower surface that usually turn light yellow or
chlorotic. In cases of heavy infestations the leaves are curled
and twisted and bright yellow. This mite spins extensive webs
of silk over the infested areas. Severe defoliation usually fol-
lows heavy infestations of this mite. Fruits infested around
the button, or point of attachment, usually turn yellow and drop.
Infestations of this mite occur in late winter and spring, with
severe infestations following cold Decembers. It is statewide
in distribution.
The species may be controlled by spraying.10
Tropical Two-spotted Spider Mite (Tetranychus tumidus
Banks).-The two-spotted mite may be separated from the other
species of spider mites that occur on citrus by a light green to
yellow coloration marked on the back by a pair of large U-shaped
sooty spots (Figure 49). Females are oval in outline and plump
in profile and have moderately long, pale legs. Males are smaller,
more slender, and have somewhat longer legs. The clear to
pale yellow eggs lack a mast. Young mites have the same color-

See footnote 4.
10 See footnote 4.







Mites Associated with Citrus in Florida


ation and markings as adults. Females measure about 1/58
inch in length.
Two-spotted mites are not common on citrus in Florida; the
species seems to prefer low-growing plants. Only light infesta-
tions occurring on fresh spring-flush leaves have been recorded.
The injury and webbing is similar to that of the six-spotted
mite.
Control measures are not necessary and have not been de-
termined.
FAMILY TYDEIDAE (TYDEID MITES)
(Figures 33 and 73)
These small mites are usually spindle-shaped in outline and
slightly swollen to plump in profile. They have short to moderate
legs and a soft body covering. Color is variable within a species.
Body hairs are not visible or scarcely visible with a 10x hand
lens. Males and females are of the same shape and size.
Mites of this family are variable in food habits. Those in one
genus will be predators, whereas those in another genus will be
scavengers. At least four genera and eight species have been
collected from citrus. The following two species represent the
most common genera and species.
Chalk-striped Mite (Tydeus gloveri (Ashmead)).-The chalk-
striped mite varies in color from white to pale pink, pale yellow,
pale green and black. The body is broadly spindle-shaped in out-
line and plump in profile. The legs are moderate in length. A
narrow and sometimes indistinct chalky stripe running down the
back for the length of the body is the most distinguishing char-
acteristic. All legs are utilized by the mites in walking. Female
mites measure about 1/82 inch in length (Figure 33).
Mites of this species are usually found in clusters around the
tiny, round, translucent eggs. These clusters may be found in
protected areas along the leaf ribs, in whitefly pupal cases, under
sooty mold and under clumps of dead scale or empty scale armors.
When disturbed, these mites run smoothly and rapidly until
shelter is found. Young mites have the same shape and color
as adults.
Chalk-striped mites are frequently abundant during winter
and spring. Dead organic matter and fungus apparently serve
as food for the species. The species has a statewide distribution.
Other Species of Tydeus.-Four other species of Tydeus which
are indistinguishable from the chalk-striped mite under grove







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


conditions also occur on citrus. These species differ in structural
details and are much less common than the former.
There also is a long, slender, very rapidly-moving tydeid on
citrus that is believed to be a species of Tydeus or a closely re-
lated genus. This species is uncommon, however, and adequate
material for identification has not yet been collected.
All of the species of Tydeus on Florida citrus are believed to
be scavengers with the possible exception of the species discussed
in the last paragraph.
Clear Mite (Pronematus sp.).-The clear mite, as its name
implies, is translucent to transparent with a faint tinge of yel-
low, amber or green. Irregular dark green to black markings
may be seen through the body wall on many specimens. This
mite is broadly spindle-shaped in outline, is slightly swollen to
somewhat swollen in profile, and has moderately long legs (Figure
73). The first two pairs of legs are not used in walking, but are
vibrated rapidly in front of the body as feelers. Long hairs at
the end of the first pair of legs are frequently visible with a 10x
hand lens. This species measures about 1/98 inch in length.
Clear mites are predatory in habit. The tiny transparent eggs
are oval in shape. The mites, young and adult, rest in protected
places beside or under clumps of scale or trash and along the
midrib of the leaf. When resting they are very difficult to see
even with a 10x hand lens. Mites searching for food run very
rapidly, vibrating the front legs. When touched or otherwise
disturbed, the mites back up with startling rapidity and then
resume a normal searching run.
Populations of the clear mite can increase at any time of the
year, but are most frequently seen in June and July, or January
and February. The species is found throughout the state.

GLOSSARY
acarology the study of mites, particularly mite identification.
chlorotic yellowed or lacking in green color.
cocoon a hollow, envelope-like, protective covering.
crawlers newly hatched, active stage of scale insects.
family a broad general classification group. Example-Auto-
mobile.
genus a restricted classification group to a general type. Exam-
ple-Chevrolet.







Mites Associated with Citrus in Florida


genera plural of genus.
host an insect or mite on which a predatory mite feeds.
larva the six-legged stage of a mite that hatches from the egg.
Plural-larvae.
molt to cast a skin and expand to a larger size, also the cast skin.
nymph the eight-legged stage of a mite that is sexually imma-
ture. Plural-nymphs.
ovate see oval on Plate I.
palpus a feeler attached to the mouthparts. Plural-palpi.
petiole a narrow stem-like structure. Usual reference-leaf peti-
ole.
predator a mite that feeds on other mites or insects.
pupal case the empty skin, usually of an insect from which the
adult emerges.
scavenger a mite that feeds on dead plant or animal matter.
species the basic unit of classification. Example-Station wagon.
tubercle a bump or wart-like projection.








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


INDEX
Page
Family Acaridae and Others (Ham, Cheese and Fungus Mites) ............. 14
Two-spotted Fungus Mite (Acaridae) ........................ -................ 14
White Fungus Mite (Glycyphagidae, Glycyphagus domesticus
(D eg.)) .................... ........ ........ .......... .............................. 14
Slender Fungus Mite (Acaridae, Thyreophagus sp.) ...........-............ 15
Family Aceosejidae (Aceosejid Mites) .......................... ............... 15
Genus Blattisocius Keegan (Large Aceosejids) .................................... 15
Keegan's Mite (Blattisocius keegani Fox) .................................. 15
Genus Garmania Nesbitt (Garman's Aceosejids) ................................ 15
Fungus Aceosejid (Proctolaelaps hypudaei (Oudemans)) .......... 16
Genus Lasioseius Berlese (Frosted Aceosejids) _.-..-........................... 16
Frosted M ite (Lasioseius sp.) ............................................. 16
Family Anystidae (Whirligig Mites) ............................................. 16
Whirligig Mites (Anystis sp. (probably agilis Banks)) ...........--.......... 17
Family Bdellidae (Snout Mites) .. ................... ................... 17
Citrus Snout Mite (Bdella distinct Baker and Balock) .................... 17
Family Caligonellidae (Caligonellid Mites) ............ ..--... ................ 18
Stilt-legged Mite (Neophyllobius texanus McG.) .................... ......... 18
Family Cheyletidae (Cheyletia Mites) .............-... ..................... 18
Big-headed Mite (Cheyletia wellsi Baker) ...................-- .....-.......... 18
Family Cunaxidae (Cunaxid or Long-nosed Mites) ...................-................ 19
Bull Mite (Cunaxa taurus Kramer) ........................................... 19
Andre's Long-nosed Mite (Cunaxoides andrei Baker and Hoffman).. 20
Miscellaneous Species of Cunaxidae .............. -.- .................. 20
Family Digamasellidae (Digamasellid Mites) ......................................... .. 20
Two-spined Mite (Asca duosetosa Fox) ..........................-- .......... 20
Family Eriophyidae (Rust and Gall Mites) ......... ....................... 20
Citrus Rust Mite (Phyllocoptruta oleivora Ashmead) .................... 21
Family Hemisarcoptidae (Hemisarcoptid Mites) ......................................... 21
Scale Mite (Hemisarcoptes malus Shimer) ......................................... 22
Family Macrochelidae (Macrochelid Mites) .......... .............. ........ 22
Citrus Macrochelid (Macrocheles merdarius (Berl.)) ..................... 22
Family Oribatellidae and others (Oribatid and Beetle Mites) ............... 22
Bat-winged Beetle Mite (Galumnidae, Galumna sp.) ........................ 23
Common Beetle Mite (Eremaeidae, Eremaeus sp.) ........................ 23
Family Phytoseiidae (Phytoseiid Mites) ............................................. 23
Shiny Button Mite (Amblyseius quadripilis (Banks)) .................. 24
Long-haired Mite (Amblyseius aerialis (Muma)) ............................... 24
Yellow Mite (Amblyseius peregrinus (Muma)) .............................. 24
Hibiscus Mite (Amblyseius hibisci (Chant)) ................................... 25








Mites Associated with Citrus in Florida


Page

Other Species of Amblyseius ........................................ 25
Crowned Mite (Amblyseiella setosa Muma) .............................-....--- 25
Velvet Button Mite (Phytoscutus sexpilis Muma) ......................--.-- 25
Conspicuous Mite (Typhlodromina conspicuua (Garman)) .............. 26
Tan Mite (Galendromus floridanus (Muma)) ....................---.. ---.... 26
Long-legged Mite (Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks)) .................... 27
Family Pyemotidae (Pyemotid Mites) ..................... .....--.......... 27
Balloon Mite (Siteroptes sp.) ..............-- ...................---. 27
Family Stigmaeidae (Stigmaeid Mites) .............----.....------........... 27
Spiny Red Mite (Exothorhis caudatus Summers) .............. ......... .... 28
Strawberry Mite (Agistemus fleschneri Summers) ......................... 28
Family Tarsonemidae (Tarsonemid Mites) ................---............ 28
Broad Mite (Hemitarsonemus latus (Banks)) ..............................-- 29
Saddle-back Mite (Fungitarsonemus peregrinus (Beer)) ................... 29
Trash Mite (Hemitarsonemus lodici DeLeon) .............---.............- 30
White-tailed Mite (Tarsonemus setifer Ewing) .............................. 30
Black Tarsonemid (Rhyncotarsonemus niger Beer) ...................... 30
Miscellaneous Species of Tarsonemids ..................-...- ....-......- 31
Family Tenuipalpidae (False Spider and Flat Mites) .............-..--..-.. 31
Red Flat Mite (Brevipalpus californicus (Banks)) ......................... 31
Red and Black Flat Mite (Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes)) .......... 32
Family Tetranychidae (Red Spider and Spider Mites) .............................. 32
Citrus Red Mite (Panonychus citri (McGregor)) ............................-.. 33
Texas Citrus Mite (Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor)) ................ 33
Six-spotted Mite (Eotetranychus sexmaculatus (Riley)) ............... 34
Tropical Two-spotted Spider Mite (Tetranychus tumidus (Banks)).. 34
Family Tydeidae (Tydeid Mites) .......................---............. ....... 35
Chalk-striped Mite (Tydeus gloveri (Ashmead)) ..........--.---------..........-- 35
Other species of Tydeus .........------ ... .. ..................... 35
Clear Mite (Pronematus sp.) ............ .... ................ .............. 36




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