• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Foreword and acknowledgments
 Table of Contents
 I. Introduction
 II. Florida's land resource...
 III. Acreage in various land uses...
 IV. Gross returns, farm characteristics...
 V. Comparative value of product...
 VI. Summary
 Selected list of references
 Historic note






Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station ; 555
Title: Florida's land resources and land use
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027444/00001
 Material Information
Title: Florida's land resources and land use
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 52 p. : ill., maps ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Reuss, Lawrence Adkins, 1907-
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1954
 Subjects
Subject: Agriculture -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Land use -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
bibliography   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Bibliography: Bibliography: p. 48-52.
Statement of Responsibility: L.A. Reuss.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "In cooperation with Agricultural Research Service, USDA"--T.p.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027444
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000926752
oclc - 18277428
notis - AEN7452

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
    Foreword and acknowledgments
        Page 2
    Table of Contents
        Page 3
        Page 4
    I. Introduction
        Page 5
    II. Florida's land resource base
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
    III. Acreage in various land uses and trends in use
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
    IV. Gross returns, farm characteristics and land use as related to types of farms
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
    V. Comparative value of product per acre and the land use outlook
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
    VI. Summary
        Page 46
        Page 47
    Selected list of references
        Page 48
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
    Historic note
        Page 53
Full Text



November, 1954


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATIONS
WILLARD M. FIFIELD, Director
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA
(In cooperation with Agricultural Research Service, USDA)















Florida's Land Resources and Land Use




L. A. REUSS


Single copies free to Florida residents upon request to
AGRICULTURAL EXPERIMENT STATION
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


Bulletin 555















FOREWORD


This report is intended primarily for the many people who are
interested in the agriculture of Florida. Because Florida's agri-
culture has many characteristics which are unique in the Nation
this interest is rather widespread. Agriculture, along with other
segments of the economy, progresses through the marshalling
of facts and the intelligent application of findings. This report
contains many basic facts concerning the land resource base of
Florida's agriculture, the present uses of the lands, and the
changes taking place in land use.











ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

Among the chief sources of information concerning land use are reports
and records of the following: Bureau of the Census, Department of Com-
merce; U. S. Forest Service; Florida State Forest Service; Commodity
Stabilization Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture; and the departments
and divisions of the College of Agriculture and Agricultural Experiment
Stations, University of Florida.
Special acknowledgment is made to Professor H. G. Hamilton, head,
Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Florida, and Mr.
H. H. Wooten, Production Economics Research Branch, Agricultural Re-
search Service, USDA, for direction and guidance of this project.














CONTENTS
PAGE
FOREWORD .......................................... 2
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ....................................... ..... ...... 2

I.- INTRODUCTION ............................. ....... ........ 5
Need for Study ..--.........................- .... ...-- -..--....-- 6
Objectives of Study ..................-.. ............---- ...-- ---- 6

II.-FLORIDA'S LAND RESOURCE BASE ........----....-........---- ....-..----------- 6
Soils ........................ .... ..--------------.-- ..... 7
Clim ate ..................... ............... .... .. .-- .. 7
Land Cover ------................ ...... ................ 11
Drainage ...........................-.... -.......----- --.- ...-..- -..... 12
Irrigation ..........-........ ----- --- .. ....................-...- 13

III.-ACREAGES IN VARIOUS LAND USES AND TRENDS IN USE .................... 15
Use of Land in Farms as Shown by Census of Agriculture .... 15
Use of All Land as Shown by Forest Resources Survey ...... 18
Land Use Differences within the State ....................................... 20

IV.-GRoss RETURNS, FARM CHARACTERISTICS AND LAND USE AS RELATED

TO TYPES OF FARMS ............................---.. ---. .---- 24
Non-commercial Farms ......................... -- .. ............ 24
Commercial Farm s ........... ......... .............. ........ .... ....... 26

V.-COMPARATIVE VALUE OF PRODUCT PER ACRE AND THE LAND USE
O UTLOOK ........................................ ........ ........... 31

VI.- SUMMARY ...........-......... ......-- .-.. ........................ 46
APPENDIX .............. ........ ...... --------- --..................... 48
Selected List of References ........-....----- -..... .... .............. 48


































Fig. 7.- Florida sa.I as ir .

Legend .

EIIIIZ Well drained sandy 1: I I
V/// / IImperfectly to poorl) "r.I t i .. i I-,, .:!..

Poorly to very poorly 1. i J .

r h a~Well to excessively *.. I I.. i.
sands.
Well drained limestone and poorly drained *"' kehh /
marls.
Alluvial sands, loamy sands, and sandy loams with variable
drainage.
Tidal marsh and mangrove swamp; unclassified soils.

; .'.'.l Cypress and gum swamps; unclassified soils.



Only broad groups of Florida soils can be shown on this page size. In some
instances areas have been exaggerated for visibility.






(Source: Smith, F. B, and Henderson, J. R., Jr., "Florida Soil Associations, Use and
Management." Economic Leaflets Vol. IX, No. 11, Bureau of Economic and
Business Research, University of Florida, Oct., 1950.)









Florida's Land Resources and Land Use'

By L. A. REUSS 2

I.-INTRODUCTION
A Changing Agriculture.-Farm production in the United
States and in Florida has been at an unprecedented high level
for several years. This level of production was reached after
a long period marked by expansion, high war-period prices and
incomes. The acreages and production of citrus and vegetables
have been greatly increased in Florida. A large growth has
occurred in beef production and in the acreages of high-yielding
forage crops and improved pastures. Adoption of new varie-
ties and practices has led to increased yields and improvements
in quality of product.
The large volume of savings in the hands of farm operators,
landowners and investors has played an important part in ex-
pansion of agricultural production. Capital investments in land
improvements, fertilizers, farm machinery and livestock have
been very large.
The program of expanding agricultural production has made
much progress despite uncertainties concerning the full effects
of new practices and the long-term profitableness of new in-
vestments. Research and experience in new varieties and new
methods have gone forward together in a flexible program shift-
ing with new discoveries. New processing and marketing
methods, especially for citrus fruit juices and concentrates,
have been developed and markets have been enlarged for citrus
fruits and truck crops. The changes underway have not run
their course and further large increases in production and shifts
in land use are possible. There seems little doubt that new
varieties and methods will be developed, approved practices will
be adopted more fully on the farms, the trend toward mechani-
zation of production will continue and there will be further
shifts in land uses.

SThis report is a result of land utilization studies being carried on coop-
eratively by the Department of Agricultural Economics, Florida Agricul-
tural Experiment Stations and the Production Economics Research Branch,
Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture.
SAgricultural Economist, Production Economics Research Branch, Agri-
cultural Research Service, USDA.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


NEED FOR STUDY

Facts concerning land resources, present land use and trends
in land use are of interest to many people. These include farm-
ers who need to adjust the size and type of their farming opera-
tions, and others considering farming in Florida. Also, such data,
together with information concerning the factors which will
tend to promote or retard future change, are important to agri-
cultural leaders in reaching decisions concerning agricultural
production potentials and production programs needed.

OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
The study reported here seeks to bring together and to analyze
information from many scattered sources concerning the land
resource base of Florida's agriculture, its current use, and the
trends. Many sources of information were drawn upon, con-
flicting data were reconciled insofar as possible, and a com-
posite picture of Florida's land is presented as accurately as
possible within this report and with the information now avail-
able.
II.-FLORIDA'S LAND RESOURCE BASE
Soils, climate, vegetative cover, drainage and fertility are
important factors in Florida's agriculture. The climatic ad-
vantage for production of citrus fruits and vegetables has been
an important factor in the development of Florida agriculture.
Research has done much to develop varieties of crops, breeds
of animals, treatments of soils, care of animals, and methods
of combating pests that are adapted to Florida's land and cli-
matic resource. Under good management, proper fertilization
and good livestock practices a large volume of crop and live-
stock production is achieved.
To a considerable degree, the agriculture of the state has de-
veloped successfully in the face of unfavorable physical factors.
j Soils generally are sandy and low in natural fertility. There
-is much flat land which is subject to flooding in periods of heavy
rainfall. Large areas are underlain by compact subsoils, which
intensify the effects of both wet and dry weather. Rolling ridge
lands may require terracing or other erosion control measures.
The warm climate, which is particularly advantageous to the
production of citrus fruits and winter vegetables, also increases
the hazards of plant diseases and insects. The natural vegeta-






Florida's Land Resources and Land Use


tive cover of the land is predominantly a forest-type and exten-
sive land clearing operations were necessary for agricultural
development.
SOILS
Soils tend to vary with the character of the parent material,
land relief, age, climate and native vegetation. Most of the
soils in Florida developed from non-calcareous sands, and, more
rarely, from clays. Soils are predominantly sandy in character
and deficient in lime. The top layer of sand or clay is thin in
some places and the underlying limestone or marl is exposed.
Differences in elevation are usually not large. Erosion is locally
important but it is overshadowed in most parts of the state by
the problem of drainage which is associated with the flat relief.
Heavy rainfall and warm climate have furthered the process of
leaching and oxidation on ridge soils. On flatlands, imperfect
drainage has tended to retard these processes.
About a third of the soils may be classified as uplands or ridge
soils. These are soils described as "red and yellow" in color plus
those described as "dry sands". These soils are generally well
drained, excessively so in some instances. Red and yellow soils
occupy the higher elevations and the dry sands occur on the
higher ridges and as local elevations along the coastal beaches.
The remaining two-thirds of the state is relatively flatland,
generally with poor to very poor natural drainage. Probably
20 to 25 percent of the poorly drained land is classified as
"bog soils". These are largely peats and mucks and are con-
centrated mainly in the Everglades (Table 1 and Fig. 1). An
additional 10 to 12 percent of the poorly drained land is in
swamps, bays, ponds and river bottoms. About 60 percent of
the poorly drained land is "flatwood", areas of level pineland,
and about 6 percent consists of "prairie phases" of flatwood
soil types.
CLIMATE 3
Although much of Florida has a subtropical climate and
an average of 60 to 70 percent of maximum possible sun-
shine, variations in temperature within the state are pro-
nounced and important to agriculture. The principal variables
are: Latitude which ranges from about 240 30" at Key West to
310 at the Florida-Alabama line; and distance from tempering
bodies of water, principally the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic
3 "Climate and Man", USDA Yearbook of Agriculture, 1941.








8 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

Ocean but also including inland lakes and rivers. Differences
in elevation range upward to only about 325 feet; they are not
a major factor in over-all climate.

TABLE 1.-CLASSIFICATION OF FLORIDA SOILS.*

Soil Groups Natural Topo- IMillion I
Drainage I graphy I Acres Percent

Classified area:
Dry sands ............................. excessive I level to 0.9 I 2.6
dune-like

Red and yellow soils ............ good undulating i 10.7 30.9
to rolling

Alluvial soils ..................... subject to level 0.6 1.6
overflow

Bog soils ................................ very poor level 4.6 13.2
Ground-water podsols and
half-bog soils ................. poor level 12.9 37.1
Miscellaneous ......................... ... 1.7 5.0
Not classified ** ....................... .... .... 3.3 9.6

Totals ............................. .... .... 34.7 100.0

Soil groupings and acreages for northwestern, northeastern, and central Florida are
from unpublished calculations of Ronald B. Craig, Forest Economist, Lake City Branch,
Southeastern Forest Experiment Station, Lake City, Florida, based on Fla. Agr. Exp.
Sta. Bul. 334, "The Soils of Florida" by J. R. Henderson. Acreages and soil grouping for
the Everglades Drainage District and lands to the east thereof (as reported in Fla. Agr.
Exp. Sta. Bul. 442, "Soils, Geology and Water Control in the Everglades Region" by Lewis
A Jones, Soil Conservation Service, Gainesville, Fla., March, 1948) were added without
correction of an overlap in areas mapped amounting to less than 0.25 million acres.
** Includes Charlotte and Lee counties and portions of Collier, Dade, Glades, Hendry,
Martin, Monroe and Palm Beach counties.

In terms of average length of growing season (number of
days between average date of last frost in spring and average
date of first frost in fall) the state may be divided into three
zones. The Northern zone, including northwestern and north-
eastern Florida-nearly one-half of the land area of the state-
has an average growing season ranging from 240 to 310 days.
The rest of the state, excluding only the lower Keys, has a
variable average growing season ranging from 310 to 365 days.
There are no records of killing frosts in the lower Keys. As
the coastal areas are warmer in winter because of the effects
of the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean, the length of grow-
ing season tends to decrease as one goes inland from the coast
toward the center of the peninsula (Fig. 2).






Florida's Land Resources and Land Use


Cold waves are of short duration; rarely lasting more than
three days. At such times minimum temperatures of 15 to 20
degrees may be reached in extreme northern sections, while
32 degrees or slightly higher temperatures may prevail at the
southern end of the peninsula. At such times local differences
in air drainage and distance to inland lakes and rivers may
make marked differences in temperatures in places not far apart
geographically.


68s 69o,
680
70'*
690.
771
Killing frost likely annually. 72 7
Killing frost likely half the years. 730"
Occasional killing frost.
Eili No record of killing frost. i
Normal annual temperatures.
690* The major vegetable producing areas are located
south of this line. 75
700** The major citrus producing areas are located south 74 760
of this line. 750 o
76 -/

Fig. 2.-Frost hazard zones and normal annual temperatures.
(Source: U. S. Weather Bureau.)

Temperatures are especially important because some kind of
commercial crop is grown somewhere in the state in each month
of the year. Temperature differences are reflected in the dis-
tribution of vegetable production. Winter vegetables tend to
be concentrated in southern Florida and spring and fall vege-
tables are found in central and northern Florida. The major
citrus-producing areas are located south of the line that marks
a normal annual temperature of 70 degrees. Citrus lands are
selected locally on a basis of location with respect to air drain-
age and tempering bodies of water. Since cold air tends to
accumulate in depressions between hills, the slopes in some
areas are used for citrus but the adjoining lowlands are used
for pasture or other purposes. Selection of sites for vegetable
production in local areas is influenced by the soil moisture and






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


fertility associated with lowlands, as well as by air drainage
and resultant frost hazard. General farm crops tend to be
grown in northwestern and northeastern Florida, where condi-
tions are less favorable for citrus and vegetables.


Fig. 3.-Percentage distribution
of rainfall by three-month periods
in various districts of Florida.
(Source: U. S. Weather Bureau.)


Nov.- Feb.- [May- Aug.-
Jan. Apr. July Oct.
0-


Average annual rainfall amounting to about 50 to 60 inches
is ample for agriculture but it tends to be distributed some-
what irregularly throughout the year. Low points in monthly
precipitation tend to occur in April and November, with a heavy
period of rainfall in summer. Large areas of lowlands are sub-
ject to periodic inundation and drainage and flood protection
works are necessary in many vegetable-producing areas. Field
crops and pastures are most affected by seasonal moisture de-
ficiencies. In general, the proportion of average annual rain-
fall received during the drier six months period, November
through April, decreases from north to south (Fig. 3).






Florida's Land Resources and Land Use


LAND COVER
Originally nearly 83 percent of the land area was forested.
The non-forested area, estimated at approximately six million
acres, was largely marsh land, with small acreages of dunes
and beaches. It also includes approximately 11/ million acres
of sandy prairie land.
Flatwoods were dominated by slash and longleaf pine, par-
ticularly the latter, and dotted with many small cypress ponds.
On the rolling uplands and central ridge, slash and longleaf
pines were predominant, but intermingled sandy loam areas
contained stands of hardwoods often associated with pine. Hard-
woods and stands of cypress in bays, swamps, shallow ponds
and stream bottoms intersected or were intermingled with pine
stands both in flatwood areas and in the uplands. Scrub oak
and related inferior hardwoods apparently were a part of the


_____


Fig. 4.-Major areas of land use and cover. (Source: Generalized
from unpublished map prepared by F. J. Marschner, USDA Bureau of
Agricultural Economics, 1948.)






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


understory in the original cover on sandy areas but did not
come into prominence until after clearing.
Nearly all of the original forest land has been cut-over one
or more times. Large areas have been cleared of forest cover
for farming, grazing or other purposes (Fig. 4). In 1949 the
forest area was estimated at 23 million acres, or about two-
thirds of all land area of the state. However, only about 9
million acres, or 26 percent of all land, was well stocked tim-
ber land. Approximately 1.5 million acres was classified as
non-commercial forest land, either because of its inability to
produce timber of commercial size or because it was too in-
accessible for economical harvesting. Much of this non-com-
mercial forest land was located in or adjacent to the Ever-
glades. About 12.4 million acres of the commercial forest land
was poorly stocked or unstocked, with less than 40 percent
sound trees. Clearing of lands for improved pastures has been
especially rapid in recent years and several hundred thousand
acres have been cleared since 1949.

DRAINAGE

Approximately two-thirds of the land has poor to very poor
natural drainage. Throughout much of this area, runoff pat-
terns are not well defined and excess water moves slowly
through broad sloughs into shallow lakes or sluggish streams
and finally into the gulf or ocean. Underground channels pro-
vide an outlet in some areas, especially in northern Florida.
Periods when water stands on this land are of variable duration
and frequency. Drainage or water control, or both, is neces-
sary for crop production and, in some areas, is desirable for
pasture production. In the absence of control measures large
areas of the lower lying lands are subject to flooding (Fig. 5).
According to the 1950 Census of Drainage, 5,934,000 acres, or
about 18 percent of the land area, had been provided with
some drainage, excluding drained land located in drainage en-
terprises containing less than 500 acres. However, nearly half
of this acreage was classified as having "poor" drainage, one-
third as having "fair" drainage, and only one-fifth as having
"good" drainage. A large part of the land in drainage enter-
prises in Florida is located in Palm Beach, Broward and Dade
counties in the Everglades Drainage District.
Throughout the state, drainage is closely related to water
control. This arises mainly from the uneven seasonal dis-







Florida's Land Resources and Land Use


tribution of rainfall. Furthermore, drainage improvements
which do not follow sound agricultural and engineering prin-
ciples may unduly lower the. water table of adjoining sandy
lands or expose muck soils to an unnecessarily high rate of
oxidation. Water control is primarily a problem of removing
excess water at certain times of the year and returning water
in times of need. Thus it is closely related to the work of
irrigation enterprises which in 1950 accounted for the drain-
age of an additional 150,000 acres of land in the state.


Fig. 5.-General areas subject
to flood damages. (Source: Flor-
ida State Board of Conservation.)


IRRIGATION


Irregularity of rainfall and the sandy character of the soils
have led to an increasing interest in the irrigation of agri-
cultural lands. According to the Census of Agriculture, 365,000
acres in Florida were irrigated in 1949. Acres irrigated in-
creased by nearly 96,000 from 1939 to 1944 and by nearly
144,000 from 1944 to 1949.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Irrigation enterprises are mainly single farm enterprises
which draw water from springs, wells, lakes and streams.
Grove lands are mainly irrigated by portable perforated pipe-
sprinklers, fixed or movable overhead nozzle-sprinklers, or
portable pipe flooding. Flood irrigation from ditch or trench
is more common on vegetable lands, although sprinkler and
other systems also are used. In 1949 nearly 85 percent of
the irrigated land was crop land largely devoted to citrus and
vegetables. Irrigated pasture lands amounted to about 57,000
acres, almost equally divided between tame grass and wild grass
pastures. On more than half of the farms reporting irrigated
land in 1949, all of the harvested crop land was irrigated. On
these, 52 percent of the irrigated land was grove land and 38
percent was vegetable land. Drainage facilities were provided
for 45 percent of all irrigated land.
The larger acreages of irrigated crop land harvested were
located in central and southern Florida in counties such as


o 500 acres
* 1,000 acres
* 5,000 acres






Fig. 6. Acres of irrigated
land by counties in Florida, 1949.
(Source: U. S. Dept. of Com-
merce, Bureau of Census.)







Florida's Land Resources and Land Use


Polk, Orange, Palm Beach, and Broward (Fig. 6). Irrigated
pastures tended to be concentrated in counties along the lower
East Coast, with concentrations of irrigated tame grass pas-
tures in Palm Beach County and irrigated wild grass pastures
in St. Lucie County. However, water is easily obtainable in
most of Florida and large areas can utilize free-flowing wells.
Irrigation possibilities are being explored in northern as well
as central and southern Florida.

III.-ACREAGE IN VARIOUS LAND USES AND
TRENDS IN USE
Among the principal sources of information concerning
classes and uses of land, by counties, are the Census of Agri-
culture and the periodic Forest Resources Surveys. The Cen-
sus includes details concerning use of land in farms, whereas
the Forest Survey includes all land in each county. As different
land use designations are used in these surveys, data from both
sources are presented here for comparison and for complete
coverage of the land area.

USE OF LAND IN FARMS AS SHOWN BY CENSUS
OF AGRICULTURE
A little less than half, 47.5 percent, of the land area of Flor-
ida was contained in farms in 1950, according to the Census
of Agriculture. The farm lands included the crop lands of
the state, the bulk of the non-forested pasture lands and a
portion of the woodland and forest land. The non-farm land,
or the remaining 52.5 percent of the land area, is largely forest
land and marsh land, although relatively small but important
acreages of "special-use areas" such as urban, industrial and
residential sites, parks, wildlife, and recreation areas are in-
cluded. Presumably the more open stands of woodland and
forest land are included in farms. Much of the heavily forested
lands owned by timber companies, corporations and individuals
are included in non-farm area. Some of the non-farm land is
used for grazing livestock as well as for forestry and other pur-
poses.
Although less than half of the land area was reported in
farms in 1950, the acreage of farm land increased consider-
ably in the decade 1940 to 1950. In 1940 only 24.0 percent








Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


of the land area was reported as land in farms and in 1945
only 37.7 percent (Fig. 7). However, the rapid expansion in
farm land from 1940 to 1950 does not represent a comparable
expansion in cultivation and grazing in Florida. Rather, it
represents at most a limited expansion of agriculture to addi-
tional land, coupled with the fact that large areas of unfenced
range lands were fenced between these dates and reported by
farmers as farm land for the first time in 1945 or 1950. In
comparison with other Southeastern states, the proportion of
land in farms is quite low.

40


4 land not

20

S ""land in
farms

1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950



Other land
woodland not
pastured


12
woodland
pastured

^ IC^ \ \ .LAND
H 8- IN
SINFARMS

Pasture land
(other than
cropland and
4 _- woodland grazed)
-cropland
(improved land
-_ -. -1890-1920)
S (total cropland
(, ___ ______________1925-1950)
1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950

*interpolation
Fig. 7.-Trends in land use, Florida, 1890-1950. (Source: Census
of Agriculture.)








Florida's Land Resources and Land Use


About 3.3 million acres, or 10 percent of all land, was classed
as crop land in 1950. Crops were harvested from only about half
of the crop land, the other half being "crop land used for pas-
ture" and "crop land not harvested and not pastured" (pre-
sumably idle and fallow crop land and crop failure). Of the
crop land harvested, about 40 percent was devoted to feed and
forage-type field crops; 30 percent to orchards and groves, in-
cluding citrus and nut trees; about 15 percent to vegetables,
berries and small fruits grown for sale; and the remaining 15
percent to non-feed and non-forage-type field crops such as to-

TABLE 2.-USE OF LAND IN FARMS AS SHOWN BY THE CENSUS OF
AGRICULTURE, FLORIDA, 1950.

Land Use Class Acres Percent


Major classes of land in farms:
Crop land .........-........----------... .---------.. 3,324,400 20.1
Grazing land .... -..................................----- 10,683,800 64.6
Woodland not pastured ................................ 1,761,600 10.7
Other land ............-.........--- ---... --. ...... 757,700 4.6

Total ......................- ..-- .....--- ... ---16,527,500 100.0


Major classes of crop land:
Crop land harvested ..-............................. -1,728,200 52.0
Crop land used only for pasture .................. 936,900 28.2
Crop land not harvested and not pastured 659,300 19.8

Total ................................... ... .... 3,324,400 100.0


Major classes of crop land harvested, 1949 *
Field crops for feed and forage ................. 730,000 42.2
Orchards, groves and nut trees ** ............. 498,700 28.9
Vegetables, berries and small fruit grown I
for sale --------...........--......... --------.. 247,100 14.3
Not accounted for ......-..-.............--. ......--- 1,100 0.1
Other field crops (cotton, tobacco, peanuts,
etc.) .....................- ............................... 251,300 14.5
Total ........................ .. ..- .........--- 1,728,200 100.0

Approximations based on census estimates for individual crops. The Florida Annual
Crop Summary (BAE) for 1950 shows 1,679.100 acres harvested, including 869.000 acres of
fields crops, 326,100 acres of vegetables and 484,000 acres of fruits and nuts. Substantial
increases occurred between 1949 and 1953 when the reported acreages included 1,893,300
harvested, including 977,800 acres of field crops, 375,400 acres of vegetables and 540,100
acres of fruits and nuts.
** Includes bearing and non-bearing orchards and groves.
t Includes nursery and greenhouse products. Acreage of vegetables harvested was reduced
by 31,000 acres, an amount sufficient to make the sum of crop acres equal to the crop land
harvested acreage. This assumes that the over-run was due to double-cropping and occurs
among the vegetable crops.
In northwestern Florida the acreage of listed crops was less than the reported crop
land harvested.






18 Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations

bacco, cotton, peanuts, sugar cane and lupine seed (Table 2). The
total acreage of crop land in Florida is very low in comparison
with other Southeastern states.
Nearly two-thirds of the land in farms was non-crop grazing
land. Included were nearly 7.3 million acres of woodland pas-
tured and 3.4 million acres of "other pasture" (not crop land
and not woodland). In addition, 11 percent of the land in farms
was classified by the Census as "woodland not pastured". Much
of the additional land reported in farms in 1950 was woodland
not reported by farmers in 1945 (Fig. 8).

15
14-
13
12

10 -mmm OTHER LAND
3 R--WOODLAND NOT
: PASTURED






3- Cropland not H arvested i ; -----
::: ... a ti not Pas ured T '-3-..._
S---- forPasture ------ (Not Cropland and
not Woodland)
Cropland Harvested ---
1945 1950 1945 1950

CROPLAND NON-CROPLAND

Fig. 8.--Crop land and non-crop land in farms, Florida, 1945 and 1950.
(Source: Census of Agriculture.)

USE OF ALL LAND AS SHOWN BY FOREST
RESOURCES SURVEY
Although the classialassificati nd in the Census of Agricul-

ture is limited to the land reported by farmers as within farm
boundaries, the 1949 Forest Survey of the U. S. Forest Serv-
ice, in cooperation with the Florida Forest Service, provides
information concerning cover conditions and land use for all
land in the state.
Two-thirds of the state was classed as "forest land", which

is defined for forest survey purposes as lands which are at







Florida's Land Resources and Land Use


least 5 percent stocked with trees and capable of producing
saw timber or wood products, and land from which trees have
been removed but which has not been developed for other uses
(Table 3). However, only 26 percent was classed as well-stocked
commercial forest land available for forestry uses. The rest
of the forest and woodland was largely "poorly stocked stands
and unstocked areas". There are 1.3 million acres of forest
land classed as "non-productive" due to adverse soils and site
conditions or inaccessibility. Marsh land and a small acreage
of dunes and beaches constituted 17 percent of all land. The
acreage and proportion of forest land in Florida is large in com-
parison with other Southeastern states.

TABLE 3.-USE OF ALL LAND AS SHOWN BY THE FOREST RESOURCES SURVEY,
FLORIDA, 1949.*


Land Use Class


Acres j Percent
Ace ecn


Forest land:
Commercial ...................................-............... 21,451,100 62.2
W ell stocked stands ................................. ( 9,059,300) ( 26.3)
Poorly stocked stands and areas
unstocked .................................... (12,391,800) ( 35.9)
Non-commercial-non-productive -........... 1,267,600 3.7
Reserved ........ .............................. .......-...- 328,300 0.9
Total .......... ....................... 23,047,000 66.8

Non-forest, non-agricultural:
Marsh ...-........................- ................. .. 5,899,700 17.1
Dunes and beaches ........................................ 71,300 0.2
Urban and other ..-.......-- .......................... 991,900 2.9
Total ..................................... 6,962,900 20.2

Non-forest, agricultural:
Agriculture-active ................................. 3,346,800 9.7
Agriculture-idle ........ ......... ................. 1,121,900 3.3
Total ........................................ 4,468,700 13.0

Total land areas ............................... .. 34,478,600 100.0

Southeastern Forest Exp. Sta. "Forest Statistics for Florida 1949", Forest Survey
Release No. 36, Asheville, N. C., Oct. 1950.

Land under cultivation or in pasture, including farm yards,
was listed in the Forest Survey as "agricultural land-active"
and includes 9.7 percent of the land area of the state. This is







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


practically the same number of acres as contained in the Cen-
sus estimate of "crop land". More than 1.1 million acres were
listed as "agriculture-idle", being defined as "land previously
cultivated or pastured but now idle or abandoned and having
less than 5 percent stocking of trees". About 992,000 acres, or
3 percent of the land area, were classed as "urban and other
areas" including residential and industrial areas, road rights-
of-way, etc.4
Precise reconciliation of Forest Survey and Census estimates
is not possible because "farm" areas shown by the Census may
contain some areas which are classified in the Forest Survey
as "well stocked", "poorly stocked" and "non-productive forest
land", also perhaps "marsh land" and "idle agricultural land".
Often there is interest in the extent of non-forested land avail-
able for grazing, that is, non-forested land other than crop land,
urban areas, marsh land, dunes and beaches. Two estimates
are of interest in this connection: (1) The 1.1 million acres of
"idle or abandoned agricultural land" reported by the Forest
Survey, and (2) the 3.4 million acres reported by farmers as
"other pasture-not crop land and not woodland". Under the
assumption that these items do not overlap, indicated area of
non-forested land available for pasture and range (excluding
marsh) was about 4.5 million acres. Non-farm forest land used
for grazing is estimated at 81/2 to 101/2 million acres.5

LAND USE DIFFERENCES WITHIN THE STATE
Utilization of land differs considerably from one portion of
the state to another and from county to county. For purposes
of comparison of land use estimates, the state was divided
into four districts designated as Northwest, Northeast, Central
and South Florida (Fig. 9).
Northwest Florida is characterized by a small proportion of
land area in farms (Fig 9). A relatively large proportion of the
limited farm land is used for crops, particularly field crops
which include those grown for feed and forage and others such
as cotton, tobacco and peanuts. Most of the non-farm land

SMore recent calculations using 1950 data estimated urban area at
773,000 acres and area devoted to highway, road, and railroad rights-of-way
at 415,000 acres, or a total of 1,188,000 acres for these two uses. See
USDA Technical Bulletin 1082 and supplement thereto.
See USDA Tech. Bul. 1082 and Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. "An Appraisal of
Attainable Production in Florida Agriculture, 1955", Mimeo., Nov. 1, 1951.







Florida's Land Resources and Land Use


is commercial forest land with a moderate-to-high proportion
of well stocked timber stands (Appendix Tables 1 and 5).


KEY MAP


PERCENT
0.0 24.9
25.0 49.9
50.9 74.9
75.0 99.9


Fig. 9.-Proportion of land area in farms, by counties, 1950. (Census data
adjusted for certain cross-line acreages.)

Northeastern Florida approximates average conditions in the
state in proportion of land in farms and proportion of farm
land devoted to crops and grazing. Vegetables, berries and
small fruits are more important crops than in northwestern
Florida. The acreage of field crops for feed and forage is larger
and the acreage of "other field crops" is smaller. More than
one-third of the crop land of the state and nearly half of the
well-stocked timberland is located in this district. Presumably
the non-farm land is largely well-stocked commercial forest land
(Appendix Tables 2 and 5).
Central Florida contains nearly 42 percent of the farm land
in the state, about 30 percent of the crop land, 25 percent of
the acreage of vegetables and about 80 percent of the bearing
orchards and groves. Field crops are of minor importance in
this district. The acreage of well-stocked timberland is quite







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


NORTHWEST


NORTHEAST CENTRAL


SOUTII


M Land in farms = Land not in farms

Fig. 10.-Trend in land in farms in various districts of Florida, 1900-1950.
(Source: Census of Agriculture.)




5



other
land
4 woodland
not
pastured



3

woodland
NORTHWEST NORTHEAST a pastured
LA

FA


Pasture
(other than



,, r -lj.






*Interpolation

Fig. 11.-Trends in use of land in farms, northwestern and northeastern
Florida, 1900-1950. (Source: Census of Agriculture.)







Florida's Land Resources and Land Use


small. Nearly 70 percent of the land area is in farms. Much
of the non-farm land is marsh land and poorly stocked timber-
land (Appendix Tables 3 and 5).
Crop land and crop land harvested in southern Florida, al-
though relatively small, includes about 120,000 acres of land
harvested for vegetables, berries and small fruits grown for
sale. More than three-fourths of the land in farms is grazing
land. Non-farm land includes large acreages of marsh land and
also considerable non-productive forest land (Appendix Tables
4 and 5).


LAND
IN
FARMS


SOUTH


1 Improved land 1900-1920; total crop land 1925-1950.
Fig. 12.-Trends in use of land in farms, central and southern Florida,
1900-1950. (Source: Census of Agriculture.)






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


The trend in use of land differs from one district to another,
especially as between northern Florida and central and southern
Florida. The acreage of crop land has changed little in north-
western and northeastern Florida since 1910-20, whereas cen-
tral and southern Florida have had a considerable expansion
in acreage of crop land. The acreage of woodland pastured
reported in farms has increased in all districts, with especially
large increases in central and southern Florida. Tremendous
increases in the acreage of "other pasture" (not crop land and
not woodland) have occurred in central and southern Florida,
especially between 1930 and 1950 (Figs. 10-12).

IV.-GROSS RETURNS, FARM CHARACTERISTICS AND
LAND USE AS RELATED TO TYPES OF FARMS
Soils and climate are important factors in determining what
products farmers will grow on a particular site and in a given
area. In general, farmers follow those lines of production that
are most feasible from the physical standpoint and most ad-
vantageous from the economic viewpoint. Although there are
many part-time and residential farms in Florida and a substan-
tial number of general farms, agricultural production tends to
be highly specialized. That is, there are many operating units
which receive a large proportion of revenue from single enter-
prises such as the production of citrus, vegetables, dairy
products, or beef cattle.
Within a state such as Florida, where there are millions of
acres of "raw land", expansion of proved lines of agricultural
production is a physical possibility but is held in check by
uncertainties concerning the economic relationships of costs
and returns. Existing patterns of farm organization and re-
turns throw some light upon the probable future direction of
changes in land use.

NON-COMMERCIAL FARMS
In 1950 47 percent of the farms were classified as "non-
commercial," including 16 percent classified as "part-time" and
31 percent as "residential" farms. Although large in number,
these farms contributed only 2.3 percent of the total value of
all farm products sold. A large proportion of these farms are
in northwestern Florida and in Pinellas and Hillsborough coun-
ties. The number decreases southward in the state, with but

















PART-TIME
FARMS
9,224


RESIDENTIAL
FARMS
17,475


Fig. 13.-Part-time and residential farms in Florida, 1950.
(Source: Census of Agriculture, 1950.)


FIELD CROP FARMS
6,788


GENERAL FARMS
2,923


VEGETABLE FARMS
4,164


FRUIT-AND-NUT
FARMS
7,315


Fig. 14.-Location of field-crop, general, vegetable and fruit-and-nut
farms by counties, 1950. (Source: Census of Agriculture, 1950.)







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


few self-sufficing farms in southern Florida or in the eastern
part of central Florida (Fig. 13). The pattern of land use
on such non-commercial farms is dominated by the needs and
preferences of the individual and his family. Although farmers
who follow non-commercial types of farming are an important
segment of the population of the state, the land-use problems
of this group are largely beyond the field of this study.

TABLE 4.-NUMBER OF COMMERCIAL FARMS, AVERAGE VALUE OF PRODUCTS
SOLD PER FARM AND PROPORTION OF FARMS WITH VALUE OF PRODUCTS
SOLD OF $250 TO $2,500, BY TYPES OF FARM, FLORIDA, 1950.*
u Prop. of
Ave. Value of Farm Reporting
Percent Products Sold ** Farms
Number of All with Value
Type of Farm of Commer- of Prod-
Farms cial Per Per Acre ucts Sold
Farms Farm Re- of Land of $250
porting lin Farms to $2,500
Fruit-and-nut farms 7,238 24.0 $16,777 $ 89 33%
Vegetable farms ........ 4,125 13.7 14,653 61 49
All other crop farms 6,799 22.5 5,779 30 72
Cash grain ........... ( 154) ( 0.5) 915 3 83
Cotton ...................... ( 886) ( 2.9) 1,501 17 89
Other field crops .. ( 5,759) ( 19.1) 6,567 32 69
All crop farms .......... 18,162 60.2 12,177 60 51
Dairy farms ................ 930 3.1 40,630 108 10
Poultry farms ......... 2,051 I 6.8 6,422 142 44
Other livestock farms 4,412 14.6 6,012 3 65
All livestock farms .. 7,393 24.5 10,480 8 52
General farms ......... 2,943 9.8 3,501 11 63
Primarily crop ........ ( 1,354) ( 4.5) 3,771 10 61
Primarily livestock ( 125) ( 0.4) 2,521 12 74
Crop and livestock.. ( 1,464) ( 4.9) 3,336 12 64
Other farms ................ 1,646 5.5 ........
All commercial farms 30,144 100.0 10,976 22 52

U. S. Department Commerce, Bureau of Census, Census of Agriculture, 1950.
** Data for 1949.

COMMERCIAL FARMS

About 53 percent of the farms were classified as "commercial
farms," or those "producing products primarily for sale" in
1950. On these farms the pattern of land use is dominated







Florida's Land Resources and Land Use


by the action and reaction of prices. Production is aimed at
obtaining highest returns to labor and capital. Commercial
farms vary greatly in size and in major source of income. In
1950 there were about 18,200 crop farms, 7,400 livestock farms
and 2,900 general farms.6 Crop farms included 7,200 fruit-and-
nut farms and 4,100 vegetable farms (Table 4) (Figs. 14-15).

'The Census classification of farms by type was made on the basis
of the relationship of the value of sales from a particular source or sources
to the total value of all farm products sold from the farm. For example,
"cotton farms" were those for which sales or anticipated sales of cotton
amounted to 50 percent or more of the value of all farm products sold.


POULTRY FARMS
1,962


DAIRY FARMS
956


OTHER LIVESTOCK FARMS
4,525


FOREST-PRODUCTS
FARMS, (1945)


Fig. 15.-Location of poultry, dairy and other livestock farms by coun-
ties, 1950, and forest-products farms, 1945. (Source: Census of Agriculture,
1945 and 1950.)






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Forty-eight percent of the reporting commercial farms had a
value of farm products sold of $2,500 or more. The extremes
reported for all types of farming included 10,700 farms report-
ing less than $250 value of product and 5,200 farms reporting
$10,000 or more.
Exceptionally high average gross value of product per
farm was reported for commercial dairy farms. Data from
the 1945 Census of Agriculture indicate that horticultural-
specialty farms also have a high value of product. Fruit-and-
nut farms and vegetable farms were substantially higher in
average value of product than farms classified as crop farms
other than cash grain and cotton, livestock farms other than
dairy and poultry (i.e., farms with predominant beef and/or
hog enterprises), poultry farms, general farms and forest-
product farms.
During the period 1929-49 cotton farms and general farms
in Florida declined sharply in importance both in relative num-
ber and in proportion of total value of products sold. During
the same period, livestock farms other than dairy and poultry
farms increased greatly in importance (Table 5).
In 1950 the five leading types of commercial farms in order
of importance in terms of number of farms were: Fruit-and-
nut farms, field-crop farms other than cash grain and cotton;
livestock farms other than dairy and poultry, vegetable farms
and general farms. In terms of total crop land, the largest
acreage was contained in livestock farms other than dairy
and poultry, followed by field-crop farms other than cash grain
and cotton, fruit-and-nut farms, vegetable farms and general
farms. Farms classified as livestock farms other than dairy
and poultry contain nearly 75 percent of the land pastured and
as a result they contain 60 percent of all land in commercial
farms. Fruit-and-nut farms held a substantial lead in value
of all farm products sold per farm, followed by vegetable farms,
field-crop farms other than cash grain and cotton, dairy farms,
and livestock farms other than dairy and poultry. In terms
of average area, livestock farms other than dairy and poultry
averaged above 2,000 acres, or more than five times as large
as the average area of the next ranking group, dairy farms.
Poultry and cotton farms were particularly small in terms of
average area in acres (Fig. 16).
Poultry and dairy farms led in average value of products sold
per acre of all land in farms in 1949. However, cash expendi-









TABLE 5.-RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF SELECTED TYPES OF FARMS AS MEASURED BY NUMBER OF FARMS AND VALUE OF FARM
PRODUCTS SOLD, 1929-49.*


Type of Farm


1929
percent


Proportion of Farms

**1939 1944
percent percent


1949
percent


Proportion of Total Value
of Farm Products Sold


1929 )
percent


1944 1949
percent pI percent


Vegetable farms ......................... 15.6 13.7 16.4 14.5 21.5 18.4 19.6
Fruit-and-nut farms ........................ 31.7 31.5 30.2 25.4 37.9 50.1 39.3
All other crop farms ..--...... ....... 22.0 27.8 26.2 23.8 16.8 11.3 12.7
Cash grain ..................................... ... ( 0.3) .... ... ( 0.5) ( 0.1) .... ( 0.1)
Cotton .............. ....................... .. ( 13.1) .... ... ( 3.1) ( 3.9) .... ( 0.4)
Other field crops t ................-......... ( 8.6) .... ... ( 20.2) ( 12.8) .... (12.2)
All crop farms ........ ........................ 69.3 73.0 72.8 63.7 76.2 79.9 71.6

Dairy .........-..... ..... ............... 2.2 2.5 2.2 3.3 9.2 9.1 12.0
Poultry ........................ .............. .. ...... 4.1 6.7 6.6 7.2 3.9 3.1 4.3
Other livestock farms ......................... 4.7 9.1 10.5 15.5 4.0 5.1 8.6
All livestock farms ................................. 11.0 18.3 19.3 26.3 17.1 17.3 25.1

General farms ...................................... 19.7 8.7 7.9 10.3 6.7 2.8 3.3


Totals ........ .............................. ....... 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0


Source: U. S. Dept. Commerce, Bur. Census, Census of Agric
classified farms.
** The 1940 and 1950 census classification of farms are not compa
f Consists of "crop-specialty" farms in 1929.
t Includes "animal-speciality" farms and "stock ranches" in 1929.


culture 1930, 1940, 1945 and 1950. Excludes non-commercial miscellaneous and un-
rable. Data for 1939 reported here are based on a special sample of 1910 schedules.













Poultry farms -----

Dairy farms ---

Fruit-and-nut farms ----

Vegetable farms -------
Field crop farms other
than cotton & cash-grain-
Cotton farms ------------

General farms ------

Cash-grain farms -------
Livestock farms other
than dairy & poultry ---


All land pastured


0 25 50 75
Percent


Poultry farms -----

Dairy farms ------

Fruit-and-nut farms ---

Vegetable farms ---
Field crop farms other
than cotton & cash-grain-
Cotton farms -------

General farms --------

Cash-grain farms -------
Livestock farms other
than dairy & poultry ---.


Total value of farm
products sold, 1949





0 25 50
Percent


0 25
Percent


0 I
0 1,000
Acres


Fig. 16.-Selected measures of relative importance of major types of commercial farms and average


All land in






Florida's Land Resources and Land Use


tures were high on these farms and substantial investments
were required for land, buildings and livestock. Moderate to
high value of sales per acre were reported for fruit-and-nut
farms and vegetable farms. Here again, substantial cash op-
erating expenditures were required and investments in land
and buildings were relatively large, especially for fruit-and-nut
farms. Per-acre sales, expenditures, livestock inventory and
real estate values were relatively low for livestock farms other
than dairy and poultry (mainly beef cattle and hog farms).
However, these farms averaged the largest in area and as a
result, substantial total investments and operating budgets
were required for most units engaged in this type of farming
(Table 6 and Fig. 17).

V.-COMPARATIVE VALUE OF PRODUCT PER ACRE AND
THE LAND USE OUTLOOK
In commercial agriculture, land use and production are aimed
at obtaining the highest net return per operator. Decisions
by farm operators calculated to increase production are based
on consideration of the questions "Will it pay?" and "What
are the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed change?"
Among the items to be considered are: Prospective demand
and price of products; physical capabilities of the land; cost
of production and of land development; availability and cost of
transportation; costs of shifting from one type of production to
another; competition from other producing areas, etc.
Crops which produce a high gross value of product per acre
ordinarily require large inputs of capital, labor and manage-
ment skill and normally yield a large net return. Although
there are exceptions to this rule for special crops and circum-
stances, gross value of product per acre may be used as a
preliminary criterion of relative profitableness of established
crops and groups of crops (Table 7).
Alternative uses of rural land in Florida may be grouped into
five major categories as follows: (1) Crops, (2) improved pas-
ture, (3) rangeland, (4) forests, and (5) recreation and wild-
life. The order in which these uses are listed is, in general,
the order of magnitude of probable average gross returns per
acre. However, exceptions undoubtedly exist in limited areas.
Since Florida includes a range in conditions of climate and soils,
it is necessary to sub-divide the crop land category into about








Poultry farms ---- ------

Dairy farms -------

Fruit-and-nut farms ---.

Vegetable farms -----
Field crop farms other
than cotton & cash grain
Cotton farms ------ Per acre expenditures for machine
General farms ------ hire, hired labor, feed, seeds,
h g f plants, gas, oil, and machinery
Cash grain farms --- repair, 1949
repair, 1949
Livestock farms other
than dairy & poultry...----
0 50 100 125
Dollars


Per acre value of
products sold, 19492




0 50 100 150
Dollars


Poultry farms ----

Dairy farms.

Fruit-and-nut farms
Vegetable farms -
Field crop farms other
than cotton & cash grain
Cotton farms- -----. Per acre value of land Estimated inventory
Ge l f s nd buildings, 1950 value of livestock per
General farms ---- acre, April, 19503
Cash grain farms ---.

vza --~-.--
0 50 100 150 200 300 0 50
Dollars Dollars
1 Based on total dollar value and listed expenditures reported by reporting farms, number of farms reporting any ex-
penditure and average size of farms in acres.
2 Average value of farm products sold per reporting farm related to the average size of farm in acres.
3 Based on reported total number of livestock, average value per head, total number of farms and average size of farm
in acres.

Fig. 17.-Sales, selected expenditures and inventory values per acre of all land in farms, by types of
farms. (Based on Census of Agriculture, 1950.)







TABLE 6.-SELECTED ADDITIONAL MEASURES OF SIZE OF FARM AND FARM BUSINESS BY TYPES OF FARMS.*


Type of Farm




Vegetable ............... .....

Fruit-and-nut ................ ..

Cash grain .......... .......... .......

Cotton ..................................

Other field crop ..............--....

Dairy ...............................

Poultry ...................................

Other livestock ....................

General ..........................-


Average Area per Farm


All
Land

Acres

241

188

263

89

208

375

45

2,030

323


Crop
Land

Acres

96

72

123

52

104

128

16

141

114


Land**
Pastured

Acres

126

77

15

17

62

268

19

1,823

176


Average Value per Farm


Land and
Buildings

Dollars

18,199

52,594

13,401

3,438

8,121

32,819

9,657

30,908

12,446


Livestock
Inventory

Dollars

1,153

722

456

489

.931

15,311

1,036

12,030

1,733


Selected
Expendi-
tures::

Dollars

6,267

4,953

1,257

399

2,695

24,173

5,159

2,366

1,374


_ Ave. Number
of Family
and/or
Hired Work-
ers per Farm

Persons

7.7

3.9

2.7

1.9

4.3

5.1

2.2

2.5

2.8


* Based on Census of Agriculture, 1950. See Table 4 for


average value of farm products sold per farm


reporting in 1949.


** Includes crop land pastured.
Based on total number of livestock, average value per head and total number of farms.
$ Total dollar value of expenditures for machine hire, hired labor, feed, seeds, plants, gas, oil, and machinery repairs in 1949 divided by total number
of farms reporting specified expenditures.
Averages per farm reporting.










TABLE 7.-COMPARATIVE AVERAGE VALUE OF PRODUCTION PER ACRE FROM MAJOR AGRICULTURAL USES OF LAND IN
FLORIDA, 1951-52.1


Land Use


All vegetables ...............---
Winter vegetables ................
Fall vegetables ..................
Spring vegetables .......-.....
All fruits and nuts .......
All field crops ...................

Field crops:
All tobacco ....................
Irish potatoes ...............
Sweet potatoes ................
All sugar cane ......-........
Cotton, lint, seed ...-......-
Peanuts grown alone ....
Soybeans ............................
Oats ..................................
Lupine seed ...............
All corn .......................
Cowpeas for peas ........
A ll hay ............................

Grazing land used primarily
for beef production:
Total ........ ..............
Improved pastures .....

Native rangeland .........


Approximate
Acreage


344,800
114,500
41,650
188,600
524,600
985,700


26,700
31,000
8,000
46,000
52,000
55,000
12,000
36,000
11,000
637,000
3,000
78,000


12,350,000
( 1,350,000-
1,650,000)
(10,700,000-
11.000.000)


Average
Yield









1,141 Ibs;
246 bu.
70 bu.


900 lbs.
20 bu.
30 bu.
700 lbs.
15.5 bu.
4.5 bu.
0.69 ton


S18.6

7 80.0

7 10.0


Price Per
Unit
Dollars


0.706
2.44
4.00


0.102
2.80
1.15
0.04
1.80
4.80
25.50


0.20

0.20

0.20


Average
Value of Value
Product I Per Acre


---


Dollars

461
557
417
413
244
68


$1,000

158,997
63,758
17,357
77,882
128,109
67,474


21,494
18,607
2,240
9,970
6,682
5,049
672
1,242
308
17,773
67
1,337


45,886


3.72

16.00

2.00








Commercial Forest land:
All stands ................-........ 21,451,100 53 BF; 0.16 Cord $25 MBF; $5 Cord 45,500,000 2.12
Saw-timber stands .........- 3,233,500 222 BF; 0.32 Cord $25 MBF; $5 Cord 23,000,000 7.15
Pole-timber stands ....... 3,530,200 53 BF; 0.44 Cord $25 MBF; $5 Cord 12,500,000 3.52
Other stands ............I 14,687,400 16 BF; 0.06 Cord $25 MBF; $5 Cord j 10,000,000 0.70


SHarvested crop acreages, production and value are from "1952 Florida Annual Crop Summary", Bureau of Agricul- e*
tural Economics, Orlando, Fla., Mimeo., Jan., 1953.
SCalculated from data in other columns.
'Excludes commercial potatoes.
'It is estimated that there were 19 million acres of non-crop grazing land in Florida in 1951. See "An Appraisal of
Attainable Production in Florida Agriculture, 1955", Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta., Mimeo., Nov. 1, 1951, page 9. Sixty-five percent Q
of this acreage is assigned to beef cattle, that being the proportion of all required animal unit months allotted to beef
cows, feeder cattle and other cattle and calves (excludes work stock, dairy stock, sheep and hogs.) (Ibid., page 24.)
SProduction of meat from cattle and calves in 1952 (229,430,000 pounds) times 20 cents per pound. See "Farm Pro-
duction, Disposition and Income-meat Animals, 1951-52", BAE, April, 1953. Includes limited quantities of meat from dairy
herds.
'It is estimated that there were 2.0 to 2.5 million acres of improved pasture in Florida in 1952. About two-thirds of
this is attributed to beef production above.
SEstimated yields required to aggregate 229,430,000 pounds production.

Cc
SCommercial forest acreages are for 1948 as shown in "Forest Statistics for Florida, 1949", Forest Survey Release
No. 36, U. S. Forest Service, October, 1950, page 16. Per acre yields represent unpublished data of U. S. Forest Service
for 1948. Value of product is based on estimated 1952 prices indicated above.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


four sub-groups, as follows: (1) Citrus, (2) truck crops, (3)
non-citrus fruits and nuts, and (4) field crops. The order of
profitableness per acre of these groups of crops is not well es-
tablished. However, it appears that vegetable production com-
mands the highest level of per-acre returns, followed by citrus
fruits, field crops and non-citrus fruits and nuts. Tobacco and
potatoes are notable exceptions to the usual level of returns
from field crops. Livestock production enterprises based on
improved pastures and large acreages of rangeland have been
highly profitable, especially in the last 10 years. However, per-
acre returns probably remain relatively low.
As previously indicated, there is a wide range in the present
use of land in Florida. Potentials for increasing production
are not necessarily related directly to the scale of intensity of
present use but they might well prove to be negatively corre-
lated therewith. In general, citrus and vegetable producers
now use many improved production practices. On the other
hand, it was estimated in 1950 that the carrying capacity of
pastures and rangelands could be increased by 53 percent in 5
years,7 and for forest land, the net annual growth in 1948 was
only a third of the realizable growth.
Citrus.-Citrus production has held a prominent place in
Florida's agriculture for many years. The 1951 acreage of
bearing and non-bearing citrus was variously estimated at
from about 450,000 to 500,000 acres, or less than 11/2 percent
of the land area of the state. For reasons of climate and soil,
citrus production tends to be concentrated in central Florida
(Fig. 18). Although some citrus is grown on land that is nat-
urally poorly drained, the bulk of the citrus is grown on soil
types classified as "well drained". It is estimated that there
are 1.8 million acres of well drained soils of the Blanton, Lake-
land, Eustis, Orlando, and Ft. Meade series in central Florida.
Not all of this land is adapted to citrus because of limitations
in air drainage, water drainage and relief. But it appears that
by using well drained soils the acreage of citrus could be greatly
extended if needed in central Florida without the necessity of
putting groves on poorly drained lands. Also, it seems likely
that in the near future additional acreages needed for citrus
production will be drawn from the reservoir of this type of
land-the "well drained" lands of Central Florida. However, it
'Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta., "An Appraisal of Attainable Production in Florida
Agriculture, 1955", Mimeo., Gainesville, Fla., Nov. 1, 1951.







Florida's Land Resources and Land Use


should be recognized that the better citrus sites have probably
already been developed and that further expansion will meet
increasing disadvantage. Records of costs and returns for the
20 years 1931-51, from an average of 215 groves over 10 years
of age, show average returns from fruits of $236 per acre,
average operating costs of $90 per acre, interest on grove valua-
tion of $35 per acre, and net returns to the grower for super-
vision and profit of $110 per acre. (Note that the groves
included in this study probably are above average in quality
and in mangament, and that costs and returns vary widely
between groves and from year to year.) 8


::: 0.6 2.0
mm 2.1 4.0
4.1 6.0
6.1 8.0
8.1- 10.1


Fig. 18.-Percentage of land area in bearing citrus trees, selected coun-
ties, 1951. (Number of trees from Florida Citrus Fruit-Annual Summary
1951; acreage based on 60 trees per acre.)

Vegetables.-Climate and resultant seasonal advantage are
basic factors in the production of vegetables (Fig. 19). The
vegetable season runs from fall to spring. Winter vegetables
are especially important in the south. Late-winter and early-

8 Fla. Agr. Ext. Ser., "Twenty Years of Citrus Costs and Returns in
Florida 1931-51", Mimeo., AE Series No. 53-4, Gainesville, Fla., Feb., 1953.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


spring vegetables are more important in the central and north-
ern parts of the state. Areas of specialization occur through-
out the state. The value of product per acre is higher for
winter vegetables than for spring or fall crops.


Fig. 19.-Principal truck crop
areas (excluding watermelon areas
in northern Florida). (Source: Fla.
Agr. Exp. Sta.)


'4

According to the 1950 Census of Agriculture, the area of
"vegetables, berries, and other small fruits, harvested for sale,
1949" amounted to about 259,000 acres. The harvested acreage
after eliminating double-cropping amounted to 228,000 acres,
or about 0.65 percent of the land area of the state.9 The prin-
cipal truck crop areas are in southern Florida, which had 45
percent of the acreage of vegetable land harvested. Central

SBy 1953 the acreage of vegetables harvested was estimated at some
375,000 acres. (U. S. Dept. Agr. Agricultural Marketing Service), "1953
Florida Annual Crop Summary", Mimeo., Orlando, Fla., Jan., 1954.







Florida's Land Resources and Land Use


and northeastern Florida had 23 and 27 percent, respectively,
and northwest Florida had only about 4 percent. In recent years
the larger increases in acreage of truck crops have taken place
in Marion, Hillsborough and Dade counties. By districts, the
largest recent increases have occurred in central Florida, and
in northeastern Florida. Southern Florida has increased slightly
and northwestern Florida has decreased.
Truck crops are grown largely on soils that require some
form of artificial drainage. The growing of watermelons and
tomatoes on well-drained soils are major exceptions. Most vege-
tables are grown on soils classified as "somewhat poorly drained"
rather than "poorly drained", except that "very poorly drained,
organic soils" are also used for this purpose. In some flatwood
areas new land is cleared for vegetables each crop year or after
three or four years and old land is planted to grass. On ridge,
muck and marl soils vegetables may be grown year after year.
The area of land in Florida that can be utilized for truck crops
with suitable drainage and water control is obviously quite
large. In the Central and Southern Florida Flood Control
Project area alone there are 450,000 to 550,000 acres of un-
developed land, largely organic soils, suitable for producing truck
crops when provided with water control measures.
Costs of growing vegetables are highly variable and harvest-
ing and marketing costs are usually large. Abandonment of
sizable acreages of growing or mature crops and the large in-
vestments represented thereby is not infrequent because of
weather, insects, diseases or low prices.'0
Under present market conditions competition between citrus
fruit and truck crops for use of the same types of soil is limited.
If demand for citrus expands materially in the future, extension
of citrus cultivation into the somewhat poorly drained mineral
soils is conceivable, especially in areas that contain a fair pro-
portion of well-drained soils previously developed for citrus.
Non-Citrus Fruits and Nuts.-Non-citrus fruits and nuts in
Florida largely means tung and pecans in northern Florida (Figs.
20-21). The acreages used in production of these commodities
are of the general magnitude of 15,000 to 20,000 acres of pecan
groves and 35,000 to 45,000 acres of tung groves. Peaches,
pears and plums amounting to about 20,000 acres are largely
10 See Brooke, Donald L., "Some Economic Factors in Florida Vegetable
Production", Economic Leaflet Vol. 12, No. 3, Feb., 1953, Bur. Economic
and Bus. Research, University of Florida, Gainesville, Fla.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


grown in northern Florida. Pecan and tung trees are located
on the ridge soils of northern Florida. In the decade 1940-50
the area of pecan groves declined about 20 percent and the area
of tung groves more than doubled. In 1950 the gross value of
product per acre of bearing trees was about $25 to $30 for tung
and $20 to $25 for pecans.

w. o.s--'. 0 70.0









|- 0.00 0.10 percent '0
0.21 0.40 percent .0
*0 '0.02


0.030 0.02
01

0.01





S0.41 0.62 percent

Less than 0.005 percent 0

Area "A" The area in which commercial pecan orchards 0 0
are located.

Area "B" Some orchards are located here but the area is
not generally recommended for commercial plantings.

Area "C" Area in which commercial plantings are not recommended.
Fig. 20.-Pecan production areas and approximate percent of land area
in pecan orchards, by counties, 1950. (Source: Acreage in orchards in
1950 equals number of trees reported by Census of Agriculture divided
by 17. Area delineations and descriptions are from Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta.
Bulletin 437, Pecan Growing Florida, 1951.)

Field Crops.-Production of field crops is largely restricted
to the finer-textured soils of northwestern Florida, with some
extension onto sandier soils in northeast Florida. These are
generally well-drained soils and are located north of the citrus
belt and largely outside of the truck crop area. This group
includes tobacco, which outranks nearly all other crops in value
of product per acre. It is estimated that there are about 2.7
million acres of sandy loam soils in northwestern and north-
eastern Florida of soils series which are rated as "good" to "ex-







Florida's Land Resources and Land Use


cellent" for general farm crops. Crop land amounts to about
1.9 million acres in these areas. No doubt some of the sandy
loam soils are too eroded for cultivation, inaccessible or other-
wise unsuited. But it appears that in case of need, production
of general field crops could be expanded somewhat onto addi-
tional lands in northwestern and northeastern Florida.


AREA II


AREA I Jefferson and Leon Counties.
- Loamy sands and sandy loams of Ruston and
related soil series. 536,000 trees in 1950.
Rated average yield with good management -
2 tons or more per acre.

AREA II Jackson, Calhoun, Walton and Okaloosa Counties.
Include a considerable acreage planted on Lakeland
and Eustis soils which tend to have too great a
depth of sand.
1,274,000 trees in four counties in 1950.
Rated average yield possibly 1'4 to 1%, tons per acre.


AREA III Alachua, Bradford, Marion and Levy Counties.
* Predominant soil types on which tung is grown include
Gainesville, Lakeland, Blanton, Leon, Scranton, Fellowship,
Arredondo and Fort Meade. Only Gainesville, Arredondo and
Fort Meade are generally considered satisfactory for tung
production. The Leon, Scranton and Fellowship are generally
considered too poorly drained and the Blanton and Lakeland
are generally considered to have too great depth of sand.
668,000 trees in four counties in 1950. j
Rated average yields about 1 ton per acre.




Fig. 21.-Tung production areas in Florida. (Source: USDA Circ. No.
840, Suitability of Various Soils for Tung Production, and Census of Agri-
culture, 1950.)

Forests and Rangelands.-Thus far mention has been made
of the well drained sandy soils of central Florida suitable for
possible development of citrus, the somewhat poorly drained






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


mineral soils, the organic soils of central and southern Florida
suitable for possible development for truck crops, and the finer-
textured, well-drained soils for northeastern and northwestern
Florida suitable for possible development of general farm crops.
Four major groups of soils remain: (1) The dry sands generally
considered suited only for slow-growing timber and wildlife;
(2) the alluvial soils considered suited mainly for forestry; (3)
miscellaneous soils, including swamps, tidal marsh and coastal
beaches; and (4) a vast expanse of poorly drained sandy soils,
much of which has an organic hardpan and is highly acid in
reaction. The latter group includes the native rangelands which
historically have been the basis for the cattle industry in Flor-
ida. In recent years it has been demonstrated that production
could be boosted by supplementing native range with improved
pastures. With a variety of types of land available for devel-
opment, operators presumably have put improved pasture on
the better sites first. Be that as it may, it is noted that im-
proved pastures are found in nearly every county in the state
and on a wide variety of soils (Fig. 22).










Percent of land area
[12 0.0 2.9 .
S 3.0 5.9
If1ffl 6.0 8.9
Ei 9.0 11.9 Lake...
12.0 and over

Fig. 22.-Permanent pasture established
under Agricultural Conservation Program,
1936-1952. (Source: U. S. Dept. of Agri-
culture.)






Florida's Land Resources and Land Use


Improved pastures are a relatively new development in Flor-
ida. It is estimated that the present acreage of such land
amounts to approximately 2.0 million acres and that much of
this has been developed in the last 7 to 10 years. More than
1.4 millions acres were put in under the Agricultural Conserva-
tion Program from 1936 through 1952. In the early years of
the program, the larger acreages developed were in central
Florida. Although the program has continued strong in that
area, the acreage installed in northeastern Florida in 1946-52
amounted to more than 234,000 acres. From a physical stand-
point it would be possible to add millions to the acreage of
improved pasture by providing necessary land clearing, drain-
age, lime, fertilizer, etc. For example, farmers reported 3.4
million acres of "other pasture" (not crop land and not wood-
land) in 1950. In addition, Forest Survey data previously cited
show 1.1 million acres of idle-agricultural land, 1.3 million acres
of non-productive forest land and 12.4 million acres of poorly











S~-, Tr, o i
iri IJ






^ .... --





f.tr f,:i:- y LLt--. Fl, ,ii.,. U.I :- US .DA -'- __
Circ. N... 45. NI\ ii,- rii,.:r ..f N ,ti,.i .-a I- -
Slash Pine Stands in the Flatwoud:f u- d
South Georgia and North Florida, June
1950, Fig. 28, page 53, and Generalized
Vegetation Map of Florida, Fla. Agr. Exp.
Sta. Dept. of Soils.)







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


stocked and unstocked forest lands, all of this exclusive of the
forest lands that are well stocked with timber.
Comparison of the data concerning proportion of land area
in improved pastures and the quality of land for forestry pur-
poses (Figs. 22 and 23) indicate that pasture development has
been most extensive in central and southern Florida where con-
ditions are relatively less favorable to forest production. Pre-
sumably this is an area in which returns from forestry are low
and in which land can be cleared of trees and stumps at rela-
tively low cost.

AREAREA












Area I Concentrated Naval Stores

I II i Area II Naval Stores and Farming
a. Little change in crop
acres
b. Increased interest in
crops

j/

IIii Area III Transition Area
a. Some large naval stores tracts -
some clearing
b. Some large naval stores tracts but
extensive clearing
c. Lumber companies control much land and
naval stores production is declining

Fig. 24.-Naval stores areas in Florida. (Source: Unpublished data by
Robert L. Harrison, Bureau of Agricultural Economics.)

Opportunities for integration of citrus or vegetable produc-
tion with livestock production in central and southern Florida
appear to arise mainly from the use of by-products for supple-







Florida's Land Resources and Land Use


mental feeding. General field crops for feed and forage have
not been too successful in these areas. Thus it appears that
in the near future the livestock industry will consist of beef
cattle production based on pastures and rangelands, with com-
mercial dairy enterprises near centers of population. In north-
ern Florida lands are better suited to field crops for sale and
to production of feed and forage. Integration of general farm-
ing and livestock production appears to be underway.









Seedlings planted, 1928-50
Over 7 million
4 to 7 million
Sto 4 million

' /4 to 1 million ake
I tLess than % million

Fig. 25. Distribution of seedlings :::
planted, 1928-1950. (Only seedlings pro-
duced in State nurseries. Source: Eleventh
Biennial Report, Florida Forest Service,
Tallahassee.)

The acreage of forest land in Florida is estimated at 23 million
acres, or two-thirds of all land. This includes grazed and un-
grazed lands, saw-timber stands, pole-timber stands and poorly
stocked and unstocked areas. Originally, nearly all of the min-
eral soils in Florida were covered with forests. Exceptions were
found on coastal beach areas, tidal marshes and some swamp
and prairie areas, particularly in southern Florida. The muck
and peat areas of the Everglades generally supported dense saw-
grass rather than trees of commercial value. From the stand-
point of suitability of land for timber production, the finer-tex-
tured soils of northern and northwestern Florida, which are
most prized for tobacco, cotton and field and forage crop pro-






Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


duction, tend to be ranked highest for timber production pur-
poses (Figs. 23 and 24). The other red and yellow soils of
northern Florida and some of the flatwoods of northeastern
Florida, are ranked next and are areas which contain many gen-
eral crop farms and some vegetable farms. In the citrus and
vegetable belt of central Florida, the ridge soils are most prized
for citrus and truck. They are rated as best locally for forestry
and the poorly drained soils are generally rated as poor sites for
forestry. Thus, the better soils for crop production tend to be
the better soils for timber production. The choice between use
of land for forestry or for crops depends upon the relative
profitableness of alternative uses. In central Florida, citrus
and vegetables give high returns per acre and forestry returns
are very modest. The choice is not close and land tends to be
developed for use for citrus, truck and livestock grazing in ac-
cordance with the demand for these products. In northern
Florida, average returns from field crops are modest compared
with returns from citrus and truck crops elsewhere in the state.
Soils are capable of producing more saw-timber per acre and
young stands of timber offer a much better starting point for
forest enterprises. Here the choice between uses is much closer.
During the period 1928-52 approximately 225,000 acres of land
were replanted, mainly to slash pine trees, and during the 1950-
52 biennium more than 65,000 acres were planted." Much of
this took place in northeastern and northwestern Florida (Fig.
25).
SUMMARY
During the last 10 to 15 years the pattern of land use in
Florida has undergone substantial change. Important were
the increases in acreages of citrus and vegetables and the
expansion of beef production. The latter is partially attri-
butable to conversion of old crop lands and native rangelands
to improved pastures. The changes underway have not run
their course and further large increases in production and shifts
in land use are probable.
A large volume of crop and livestock production is achieved
in Florida despite some unfavorable physical factors. Good
management, proper fertilization and good livestock practices
are especially important because of the presence of sandy soils,
deficiencies in soil nutrients, water control problems, and mul-
Eleventh and Twelfth Biennial Reports of Florida State Forest Service,
Florida Board of Forestry, Tallahassee.






Florida's Land Resources and Land Use 47

tiplying disease and insect hazards. Agricultural research has
contributed much to past agricultural progress and will be
needed in the future.
In comparison with other Southeastern States, Florida has
a low proportion of land area in farms, a small total acreage
of crop land and a large acreage and proportion of forest land.
The utilization of land differs considerably from one portion
of the state to another and from county to county. Likewise,
the trend in land use has differed from one part of the state
to another. There has been little change in acreage of crop
land in northwestern and northeastern Florida since 1910-20,
whereas central and southern Florida have had a considerable
expansion in acreage of crop land. The acreage of woodland
pastured reported in farms has increased in all districts with
especially large increases in central and southern Florida. Tre-
mendous increases in acreage of "other pasture" (not crop land
and not woodland) have occurred in central and southern Flor-
ida, especially between 1930 and 1950.
Although there are many "part-time" and "residential" farms
in Florida, these contribute little to the total value of farm
products produced for sale. Commercial farms tend to be spe-
cialized and to vary widely in size and characteristics. Types
of farming, crops and livestock enterprises which produce a
high gross value of product per acre ordinarily require large
inputs of capital, labor and management skill. Opportunities
for expanding the acreages of citrus, vegetables and general
field crops apparently exist. Water is readily available for new
irrigation developments. With a large acreage of open grazing
land and forest land, more than half of which is in poorly
stocked stands or unstocked areas, increases in forage and tim-
ber production are likewise possible. At present the average
acre of the vast expanse of native rangeland produces a small
quantity of forage for beef or hog production, a small annual
increment of forest growth, and a small contribution to wild-
life and recreation values. Under conditions of abundant rain-
fall, mild climate and limited soil erosion, the best future
use of the vast native rangeland areas of the state represents
a major challenge. As growers of crops of high gross value
per acre have adopted many of the recommended cultural prac-
tices, it appears that potentials for increasing production are
highest in increasing forage on pastures and rangelands and
production of forest products on the forest lands of the state.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


APPENDIX

SELECTED LIST OF REFERENCES

U. S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of the Census.
Census of Agriculture, 1950 and Earlier Census Years.
Census of Drainage, 1950 and Earlier Census Years.
Census of Irrigation, 1950 and Earlier Census Years.
U. S. Forest Service, Southeastern Forest Exp. Sta., Asheville, N. C.
"Forest Resources of Northeast Florida, 1949", Forest Survey Release
No. 30, June 15, 1949.
"Forest Resources of Central Florida, 1949", Forest Survey Release
No. 31, Nov. 1, 1949.
"Forest Resources of Northwest Florida, 1949", Forest Survey Release
No. 32, Jan. 15, 1950.
"Forest Resources of South Florida, 1949", Forest Survey Release No.
33, March 15, 1950.
"Forest Statistics for Florida, 1949", Forest Survey Release No. 36, Oct.,
1950.

APPENDIX TABLE 1.-USE OF LAND IN FARMS AS SHOWN BY THE CENSUS
OF AGRICULTURE, NORTHWEST FLORIDA, 1950.


Land Use Class


Approximate land area ..........
Land in farms ...............................


Acres


7,262,080
2,177,900


Major classes of land in farms:
Crop land .. ....................-. ..............
Grazing land .................... ............ .............
W oodland not pastured ---.......-........--....-.....----
Other land ...................... ............. ....... ......

Total ..................... ...................

Major classes of crop land:
Crop land harvested ............................ .........
Crop land used only for pasture .........-.....
Crop land not harvested and not pastured ..
T otal ................... ...................

Major classes of crop land harvested:*
Field crops for feed and forage ...................
Orchards, groves and nut trees ** ................
Vegetables, berries and small fruit grown
for sale .................................. ..... .....
Other field crops (cotton, tobacco, peanuts,
etc.) .................................... ............... .
Not accounted for ........................... ..
Total ..... ........................... ..........


819,700
529,300
732,100
96,800

2,177,900


501,100
155,000
163,600

819,700


332,100
37,400

11,300
119,200
1,100

501,100


Percent


100.0
30.0


37.6
24.3
33.6
4.5

100.0


61.1
18.9
20.0

100.0


66.3
7.5

2.2

23.8
0.2

100.0


Approximations based on census estimates for individual crops. See footnote 1 fto
Table 2 for comparison with BAE estimates for Florida.
** Includes bearing and nonbearing orchards and groves.


......~..~.......








Florida's Land Resources and Land Use


U. S. Forest Service, "Florida's Forest Resources, 1934-36", Wash., D. C.,
March 1, 1948.
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 334, "The Soils of Florida", by J. R. Henderson,
Gainesville, Fla., May, 1939.
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 442, "Soils, Geology and Water Control in the
Everglades Region", by Lewis A. Jones, Soil Conservation Service,
Gainesville, Fla., March, 1948.
Univ. of Fla., Bur. of Economic and Business Research, "Florida Soil Asso-
ciations, Use and Management", by F. B. Smith and J. R. Henderson,
Economic Leaflets Vol. IX, No. 11, Gainesville, Fla., Oct., 1950.
U. S. Dept. Agr., "Climate and Man", Yearbook of Agriculture, 1941, Wash.,
D. C.

APPENDIX TABLE 2.-USE OF LAND IN FARMS AS SHOWN BY THE CENSUS
OF AGRICULTURE, NORTHEAST FLORIDA, 1950.

Land Use Class Acres Percent


Approximate land area .................... 9,629,440 100.0
Land in farms ................................. ...... 4,372,900 45.4


Major classes of land in farms:
Crop land ............................................ 1,135,900 26.0
Grazing land ............................. ...- [ 2,516,300 57.5
Woodland not pastured ........................... 578,500 13.2
Other land ..... ............... ............ ... 142,200 3.3

Total .... ................ ........ ... 4,372,900 100.0


Major classes of crop land:
Crop land harvested ....-...-. ..............- 549,000 48.3
Crop land used only for pasture ...... ........ 329,200 29.0
Crop land not harvested and not pastured .... 257,700 22.7
Total ..........................--..... ...... 1,135,900 100.0


Major classes of crop land harvested:*
Field crops for feed and forage ................... 369,500 67.3
Orchards, groves and nut trees ** .............. 44,200 8.0
Vegetables, berries and small fruit grown
for sale t ...-.....--------.....---------- 64,600 11.8
Other field crops (cotton, tobacco, peanuts,
etc.) ............ --...... ....- ... ............ 70,700 12.9

Total ........ .... ...............----------. 549,000 100.0

Approximations based on census estimates for individual crops. See footnote 1 to
Table 2 for comparison with BAE estimates for Florida.
** Includes bearing and nonbearing orchards and groves.
SIncludes nursery and greenhouse products. The acreage of vegetables harvested was
reduced by 1,300 acres, an amount sufficient to make the sum of crop acres equal to the crop
land harvested acreage. This assumes that the over-run was due 'to double cropping and
occurs among the vegetable crops.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Fla. State Board of Conservation, Div. of Water Survey and Research,
"Report to the Legislature on the Development of the Water Resources
of Florida, 1949 and 1950", Tallahassee, March 20, 1951.
U. S. Dept. Agr., Bureau of Agricultural Economics, "1952 Florida Annual
Crop Summary", Mimeo., Orlando, Florida, Jan., 1953.
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta., "An Appraisal of Attainable Production in Florida
Agriculture, 1955", Mimeo., Gainesville, Fla., Nov. 1, 1951.
Fla. Crop and Livestock Reporting Service in Cooperation with Fla. Agr.
Exp. Sta.
"Florida Citrus Fruit, Annual Summary, 1951", Vol. 4, No. 1, Orlando,
Fla.
"Florida Vegetable Crops, Annual Statistical Summary, 1951", Vol. 7,
Orlando, Fla.

APPENDIX TABLE 3.-USE OF LAND IN FARMS AS SHOWN BY THE CENSUS
OF AGRICULTURE, CENTRAL FLORIDA, 1950.


Land Use Class


Acres


Percent


Approximate land area .................................... 9,990,400 100.0
Land in farms ....... ...................................... 6,917,700 69.2


Major classes of land in farms:
Crop land ...................................................... 976,200 14.1
Grazing land .................................................. 5,266,800 76.1
Woodland not pastured .................... ....... 365,800 5.3
Other land ................................. ..... ..... 308,900 4.5

Total .......... ........ -..... ............... 6,917,700 100.0


Major classes of crop land:
Crop land harvested .................................. 497,000 50.9
Crop land used only for pasture .... ....... 324,400 33.2
Crop land not harvested and not pastured .... 154,800 15.9

Total ............................................. 976,200 100.0


Major classes of crop land harvested:*
Field crops for feed and forage .................. 22,600 4.5
Orchards, groves and nut trees ** .............. 393,700 79.2
Vegetables, berries and small fruit grown
for sale t ........---................................. .. 63,000 12.7
Other field crops (cotton, tobacco, peanuts,
etc.) .................-- .......... ....-- .. .................. 17,700 3.6

Total ................... ......................... 497,000 100.0

Approximations based on census estimates for individual crops. See footnote 1 to
Table 2 for comparison with BAE estimates for Florida.
** Includes bearing and nonbearing orchards and groves.
t Includes nursery and greenhouse products. The acreage of vegetables harvested was
reduced by 12,500 acres, an amount sufficient to make the sum of crop acres equal to the crop
land harvested acreage. This assumes that the over-run was due to double cropping and
occurs among the vegetable crops.








Florida's Land Resources and Land Use 51

Univ. of Fla., Bur. of Economic and Business Research, "Some Economic
Factors in Florida Vegetable Production" by Donald L. Brooke, Eco-
nomic Leaflets Vol. XII, No. 3, Gainesville, Fla., Feb., 1953.
Fla. Agr. Ext. Ser., "Twenty Years of Citrus Costs and Returns in Florida,
1931-51", Mimeo., AE Series No. 53-4, Gainesville, Fla., Feb., 1953.
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta., Bul. No. 437, "Pecan Growing in Florida", Gainesville,
Fla., June, 1951.
U. S. Dept. Agr., Cir. No. 840, "Suitability of Various Soils for Tung Pro-
duction" by Matthew Drosdoff, Wash., D. C., July, 1950.
U. S. Dept. Agr., Cir. No. 845, "Management of Natural Slash Pine Stands
in the Flatwoods of South Georgia and North Florida", Wash., D. C.,
June, 1950.
Fla. Agr. Exp. Sta. Bul. 484, "Grass Pastures in Central Florida" by E. M.
Hodges, D. W. Jones and W. G. Kirk, Gainesville, Fla., Nov., 1951.

APPENDIX TABLE 4.-USE OF LAND IN FARMS AS SHOWN BY THE CENSUS
OF AGRICULTURE, SOUTH FLORIDA, 1950.

Land Use Class Acres Percent


Approximate land area ............................... ...... 7,845,760 100.0
Land in farms ........ ...... ...... ............ ......... ........ 3,059,000 39.0


Major classes of land in farms:
Crop land ..................-..................................... 392,600 12.8
Grazing land ........................................... ... 2,371,400 77.5
Woodland not pastured ............................... 85,300 2.8
Other land ...................................................... 209,700 6.9

Total .................................. ...... 3,059,000 100.0


Major classes of crop land:
Crop land harvested ........................................ 181,200 46.1
Crop land used only for pasture .................... 128,300 32.7
Crop land not harvested and not pastured .... 83,100 21.2

Total ....... .........- ...... ............ 392,600 100.0


Major classes of crop land harvested:*
Field crops for feed and forage .................... 5,900 3.3
Orchards, groves and nut trees ** ......-....... 23,400 12.9
Vegetables, berries and small fruit grown
for sale t ..................................... .......... 108,200 59.7
Other field crops (cotton, tobacco, peanuts,
etc.) ......................................- ...................... 43,700 24.1

Total ............................................ 181,200 100.0
Approximations based on census estimates for individual crops. See footnote 1 to
Table 2 for comparison with BAE estimates for Florida.
** Includes bearing and nonbearing orchards and groves.
t Includes nursery and greenhouse products. The acreage of vegetables harvested was
reduced by 17,200 acres, an amount sufficient to make the sum of crop acres equal to the crop
land harvested acreage. This assumes that the over-run was due to double cropping and
occurs among the vegetable crops.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations


Univ. of Fla., Bur. of Economic and Business Research, "Florida's Pasture
and Forage Crops" by G. B. Killinger and Fred H. Hull. Economic
Leaflet Vol. XII, No. 8, Gainesville, Fla., July, 1953.
Univ. of Fla., Bur. of Economic and Business Research, "The Beef Cattle
Industry of Florida" by T. J. Cunha, J. F. Hentges, M. Koger and A. M.
Pearson. Economic Leaflet Vol. XII, No. 4, Gainesville, Fla., March,
1953.
U. S. Dept. Agr., Tech. Bul. 1082, "Major Uses of Land in the United States"
and "Supplement" thereto. Wash., D. C., 1953.

APPENDIX TABLE 5.-DISTRIBUTION OF ACREAGE IN MAJOR LAND USE
CLASSES AMONG VARIOUS DISTRICTS IN FLORIDA, 1949 AND 1950.

Land Use Class Florida North- North- | Central South
_west east I
I Percent| Percent I Percenti Percentl Percent
Data from Census of Agriculture 1950

Approximate land area .--......... 100.0 20.9 27.7 28.8 22.6
Land not in farms ............. 100.0 27.9 28.9 16.9 26.3
Land in farms ................-...... 100.0 13.2 I 26.5 41.8 18.5
Cropland, total ...--.......-... 100.0 24.6 34.2 29.4 11.8
Crop land harvested .. 100.0 29.0 31.8 28.7 10.5
Field crops for feed
and forage .............- 100.0 45.5 50.6 3.1 0.8
Other field crops ...... 100.0 47.4 28.1 7.1 17.4
Orchards and groves 100.0 7.5 8.9 78.9 4.7
Vegetables, berries,
small fruits ..-........ 100.0 4.6 26.1 25.5 43.8
Crop land used only for
pasture ........................ 100.0 16.6 35.1 34.6 13.7
Crop land not harvested
and not pastured ...... 100.0 24.8 39.1 23.5 12.6
Pasture land (non-crop) 100.0 5.0 23.5 49.3 22.2
Woodland pastured .. 100.0 6.0 30.7 50.6 12.7
Other pasture ............ 100.0 2.7 8.3 1 46.5 42.5
Other land in farms ..... 100.0 12.8 18.8 40.8 27.6

Data from Forest Resources Survey, 1949

Forest land .................. ......... 100.0 26.3 33.4 25.9 14.4
Commercial ........................... 100.0 27.6 35.5 26.8 10.1
Well stocked ............. 100.0 32.9 45.0 16.7 5.4
Poorly stocked and un-
stocked ......................... 100.0 23.8 28.4 34.2 13.6
Non-commercial .....-............. 100.0 10.1 6.6 17.3 66.0
Reserved .........--......-........-- ... 100.0 1.4 2.4 3.7 I 92.5
Non-forest, agricultural ...... 100.0 20.9 28.8 30.7 19.6
Agriculture, active ............... 100.0 20.9 26.0 34.0 19.1
Agriculture, idle .................... 100.0 20.9 37.0 20.9 21.2
Non-forest and non-agricul-
tural ............ --.... ...... ... 100.0 4.7 7.8 34.9 52.6
Dunes and beaches ...... 100.0 36.1 41.5 15.0 7.4
M arsh --..................................- 100.0 2.2 4.9 34.9 58.0
Urban and other ............. 100.0 17.3 22.8 36.0 23.9
____ gote........ 0. I7 I 2. 49I-- I3.









HISTORIC NOTE


The publications in this collection do
not reflect current scientific knowledge
or recommendations. These texts
represent the historic publishing
record of the Institute for Food and
Agricultural Sciences and should be
used only to trace the historic work of
the Institute and its staff. Current IFAS
research may be found on the
Electronic Data Information Source
(EDIS)

site maintained by the Florida
Cooperative Extension Service.






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