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Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station ; 2
Title: <Field experiments>
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Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027432/00001
 Material Information
Title: <Field experiments>
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 46 p. : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Kost, John, 1819-1904
Publisher: Experiment Station of Florida at the State Agricultural College
Place of Publication: Lake City Fla
Publication Date: 1888
 Subjects
Subject: Field experiments -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
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Statement of Responsibility: J. Kost.
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Bibliographic ID: UF00027432
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 002537699
oclc - 20809806
notis - AMQ3659

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Agriculture
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Garden section
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
    Entomological section
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
    Botanical section
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
    Department of chemistry
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
Full Text




NO. 2.


BULLETIN

OF THE



EXPERIMENT STATION

OF


FLORIDA,

AT THE


STATE AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE,


LAKE CITY, FLA.



MAY AND JUNE, 1888.


J. KOST, M. D., LL, D. Director.



JACKSONVILLE, FLA.:
TIMES-UNION BOOK AND JOB OFFICE.
1888.













AGRICULTURE.

GRASSES.

In Bulletin No. 1 it was stated that the more important grasses
of Northern meadows and fields were put on trial and experimentation
for the object. of ascertaining their possible adaptation to our soil
and climate. These were mainly timothy, red-top, Kentucky blue-
grass, orchard grass and the clovers. In that number it was reported
that a moderately good success had then (in April) been attained.
One month's additional experience has proven additional success.
The drouth through which these grasses here put in had passed af-
forded a good test, one going far in affording a good judgment
concerning the practicability of the growing of these grasses in our
State. The drouth was followed by seasonable rains, and all these
grasses now look well and occasion much admiration. Especially
is this the case with the patches that had been watered with the
sprinkler, but even those others that had been intentionally left with-
out are of encouraging appearance, though the stand, is not really
good.
The Kentucky blue-grass and red-top had been mostly left to
run to seed, and are now developing seed. The clover had been
cropped mostly for the purpose of testing such treatment. It also
looks well.
Later (that is March) sowing of seeds of these grasses has not
done well. The drouth struck them while the plants were yet deli-
cate, and with short roots that did not extend below the dried surface,
and the consequence was that all dried up.
The timothy is now shooting stems for seed, and looks exceed-
ingly interesting here in Florida. The red clover, as stated, has
been mostly cropped, but where not so treated it is headed out.
We. cannot, of course, form any estimate of the weight of
hay that these grasses will produce in Florida, but all who see them
are full of admiration. Another Bulletin may afford still more
satisfaction. On the whole, if a single season could determine
the matter, we might now pronounce it a success.
The orchard grass was sown broadcast, in a patch bordering a
strip of woods. The margin next to the woods, though a little off.










looks well. The shade strikes this part of the plat in the afternoon.
That portion continually exposed to the sun looks indifferent.

CRIMSON CLOVER. (Trifolium incarnatum.)

This plant was made the subject of noted remarks in Bulletin
No. 1, and we are happy to report final success. The clover is now
ripe with seed, and the common red clover (Trifolium pratense), as
raised in the Northern States, never looked better than this new
variety does here in our Station. Not only does our experimentation
prove the adaptation of this clover to Florida, but reports
from others we correspond with corroborate our estimate of its im-
portance. We surely have now in Florida standard winter pasture
grasses in this and the Texas blue-grass, while the Bermuda grass and
divers others afford standard summer grasses. For hay crops both
are equally reliable.
Our test of the crimson, or long-headed clover-Italian or Ger-
man clover, as it is also called-has been very simple. We put it in
well by sowing broadcast in November, and let it alone with simple
protection by fence from intrusion. It came up well, had a close and
even set, and has now matured in a prodigious crop of seed. This is
not yet gathered and no estimate of the product, by measuring, has
yet been had. It stands in height about 20 inches.
The Station can furnish free small quantities of seed to farmers
who send postage for mailing it. Two tofour cents will answer for
all we can promise to send to each one sending this season. We will
seid as long as the seeds hold out. It should be sown just before the
winter rains. We can also send, in the same way, small quantities of
Texas blue-grass. But this is best put out by root sets, which, for
short distances, can also be safely sent by mail. For root sets 5 to 10
cents postage will afford a good start thereof.










GARDEN SECTION.

The following report is from Dr. J. F. Appell, who has charge,
of this section of our Station :
To Dr. J. Kost, Director:
SIR-I have the honor to present this report of the work in the
department under my charge.

STRAWBERRIES.

Ten varieties of strawberries were tested during the season just
closed, viz: Hoffman's Seedling, Noisette, Parry, Crimson Cluster,
Crescent Seedling, Monarch of the West, May King, Triomph de
Gand, Sharpless and Lenning's White.
Of these the Hoffman and Noisette have done the best, proving
themselves to be particularly adapted to our climate and soil. They
have produced more fruit than any of the others. The Hoffman
gave the earliest fruit of all. The Noisette, coming into bearing later,
produces very fine fruit abundantly and continues in bearing a long
season. The plant is very vigorous, sometimes twenty inches across,
and the foliage healthy. Fewer plants of this variety died during
the recent drouth than of any other tried.
The Parry, Crimson Cluster and Sharpless produced the largest
berries, but less abundantly.
Lenning's White is the only kind that has resulted in a com-
plete failure.
The strawberry bed covers a space of 50x150 feet, containing
3,500 plants, two-thirds of which are Hoffman's, and has produced,
up to May 19th, a few quarts less than 400, and they are still bearing
freely. Most of the plants were set out as late as November, and
many had to be re-planted, owing to the extreme drouth.
Thoroughly rotted stable manure was put under the plants when
set, and before bearing, in February, the soil around each plant was
removed with the hand and fertilized with "Blood and Bone and
Sulphate of Potash, in the proportion of one quart of the latter to a
peck of the former.
With greater care in weeding and keeping the runners from the
new plant (for it is best to make new beds each year), a considerably
larger yield can be obtained.
The land on which these strawberries grew is -reclaimed land
from the border of a swamp, raised by placing 21 feet of sand into
an excavation and replacing the muck on the surface.










ONION. (Allium cepa).
This esculent, universally and successfully cultivated in all
civilized countries, should be produced more successfully in Florida.
I find that an erroneous impression prevails to a considerable ex-
tent throughout this part of the country, that perfect onions cannot
be raised from the seed. To prove the contrary, to ascertain the
proper soils, seasons, varieties and fertilizers best adapted to their
perfect development and success, is the object of the experiments
undertaken in this department.
Knowing that the finest and largest onions have been produced
in warm countries, and that seed of these varieties is imported from
countries bordering on the Mediterranean, the experiments have been
directed to these kinds rather than those originating in cooler lat-
itudes.
A deep, sandy loam, perfectly level, was chosen, free from roots
and extraneous matter, and containing a large amount of vegetable
matter, supplemented with fertilizers containing a large percentage
of the leading plant food-ammonia, phosphoric acid and potash.
The present experiments were conducted on land raised by putting
sand under muck thrown up from the lake border, and sweetened by
turning under two crops of cow peas, the plot employed being 22 feet
above the ordinary level of the water in the lake.
The onion being a shallow-rooted bulb, requires considerable
moisture, but the land must be well drained. A fine crop cannot be
had from soggy land.
The onion seed loses its germinating power sooner, perhaps, than
any other vegetable seed. This I judge to be one of the main reasons
why they have not been relied upon, anid why enormous quantities of
"sets," or small onions, are annually purchased from Northern
seedsmen.
The seed sown in hot weather must be shaded from the rays of
the burning sun, for, however fresh the seed may be, the young germ
will otherwise be destroyed, especially if moisture is deficient. We
have sufficient evidence that seed grown in the South, properly ma-
tured and kept free'from moisture, is reliable. To corroborate this
statement, seed grown in this department will be reported on in future
bulletins. Of the twenty varieties under experiment the following is
the result up to date, May 19th:
"El Paso," Giant Brown Rocca," sown September 20th and
transplanted in November, have developed into large onions with big
necks, not fully grown. Some of the El Paso weighed 1i pounds.











White Queen," sown November 24th, mostly matured; solid,
flat, white bulb, from two to four inches in diameter. This is a per-
fect onion, without neck.
"Creole," White Rocca," Yellow Rocca," "Globe Madeira,"
"Bloomsdale Pearl," "Mammoth Silver Skin," Mammoth Pompeii,"
sown November 25th. Most of these varieties have grown to large
size, with long necks, and are still immature.
"White Bermuda," "Red Bermuda," "Teneriffe," sown Jan-
uary 3d. These have made small, firm, perfectly formed, and ripe
bulbs.
White Garganus," "White Nocera," "Maggiajola," "Bar-
letta," sown January 19th. They are flat, white, and are developing
rapidly into perfectly formed bulbs.
"Golden Globe," "Spanish King," planted January 19th, have
not made much growth.
In future experiments seeds of each variety should be sown at
the same time, so that the conditions will be similar. This was im-
possible the past season, owing to the difficulty of procuring seed of so
a many kinds. A few of the varieties may be similar under different
names.
A consideration of the results thus far obtained seems to show
that for rapid growth from seed, and the production of a perfect onion,
the following varieties will prove a success in this latitude:
White Queen," White Bermuda," Red Bermuda," White
Nocera," "Barletta," White Garganus," "Maggiajola" and
"Teneriffe."
A remarkable garlic, found in this country, and described in
none of the seed and plant catalogues that I am aware of, has been
cultivated during the past season and is now ripe. It is smaller than
any garlic with which I am acquainted. It produces, at maturity, a
dozen or more small bulblets on stems ten to fifteen inches high.
The bottoms make one or two bulbs or cloves," very solid and pearly
white, keeping perfectly until the next season, in or out of the
ground.
Although a garlic, it is free from the rank' and pungent odor
usually found in this species. Once planted, it comes each year from
a bulb that may have been left in the ground, or from some of the
bulblets which scatter when ripe. It produces at the rate of over 200
bushels to the acre.










MELONS.

There is the supposition, which is doubtless correct, that nature
affords accommodations to seasons and latitudes. Thus, in latitudes
approaching the pole, where the seasons are shorter, all annuals ma-
ture more speedily. This would argue that in Florida it requires
more time to mature annual productions. In this Station a test was
made with melons, but owing to the drouth that was experienced
here this spring the test was not complete, because the. growth of our
plants was arrested for several weeks. Nevertheless, we produced
from seed planted on new ground, in ninety days, ripened melons of
good average size. This probably is not any noteworthy fact, how-
ever. Seeds of Hackensack cantaloupes were planted on the 24th of
February that produced ripe melons on the 24th of May. These are
of good size. Montreal Green Nutmeg Melon seeds, planted at the
same date, required three days longer for maturity. Seed of Gray's
Monarch-long-white-planted February 24, produced ripe melons
of large size on the 24th of May. The following: Cuban Queen,
Ice-Cream, Pride of Georgia, Seminole and Kolb Gem, planted at the
same time, are a little later, but set very full of fruit.

EARLY CORN.

Seeds of Cory's Sweet Corn, planted on the 8th of February, pro-
duced roasting ears on the 15th of May. Those of the Hickock came
in two days later. Those of the Stapler variety, planted at. the same
time, came in on the 20th of May.
We have plantings of date later than the time of the drouth that
are doing finely, and will make quicker time.
It would seem desirable that Stations in Tennessee, Ohio, Mich-
igan, Massachusetts and Maine would put in seed, say the 10th of
June, as will be done in this Station, of sweet corn, and let the varie-
ties be those above named. If reports are made of time that the
roasting ears are fairly in season it may afford some satisfaction, if
the character of the season be noted also

TERRACING AND DRAINAGE.

In the floral section of our Station we have two and three-fourths
acres of ground that has been recovered by Dr. Appell from the do-
main of Lake DeSoto. In doing this the object, in experimentation,
was not simply the recovery of land suitable for gardening purposes,
that had for ages, perhaps, been under water, but the object also was










to determine the extent of interstinal attraction of moisture that
can be obtained by artificial means. What the method of sub-irri-
gation secures was here purposed to be realized by the contiguity of
the lake.
It is not expected that the costliness of the proceeding will admit,
here in Florida, where good lands are comparatively cheap, of this
mode of improvement for general uses of land; but for smaller tracts,
important for gardening and experimental purposes, it is justifiable,
and the results of our work attest this in the most notable way.
The proceeding was by first raising the muck, at time of very
low water, with spade, in parallel trench excavation, successively, of
a few feet in width, the muck being deposited alongside on the op-
posite position from that where the work was approached. A sand
bank of several feet sloping elevation was utilized in depositing from
cars on tramway into the trenches, a layer of clean sand to height of
21 feet above the common water level. This is the transmitting me-
dium of water elevation by capillary action or interstinal absorption,
which the clean sand afforded. The sand thus deposited was then
overlaid by a return of the muck to a depth of 8 inches, which was
to do the functions of the soil when properly handled and prepared
afterwards.
It is easy to apprehend how successive parallel trenches were
continued and filled by sand below and muck above until a wide
terrace was thus made. The terrace was made flat of surface, the
object being to regulate the moisture, the depth of the sand determin-
ing the extent and constancy thereof. The terrace is surrounded on
the outer margin by a ditch to prevent overflow from landward.
Lake DeSoto has no outlet at moderate stages of water. The
outlet at flood stages is wide, hence the elevation of three feet keeps
the terrace in good condition.
Now the facts concerning DeSoto Lake are that no considerable
displacement of the important fertilizing salts has occurred at any
modern time, owing to the insular state of the water, and hence the
muck is rich, flood time alone affecting it. In all similar lakes in
Florida-and there are many-this principle of'terrace construction
will prove of eminent avail. This terrace keeps the proper moisture
for plant production in gardening, and the most extreme drouths do
not affect it, as the moisture is transmitted by the clean sand below,
its functions (those of the sand) being very different from the silt sub-
deposits common to lakes.
The after treatment Dr. Appell gave to the super-deposit of the









muck was, after cleaning it of lumps, etc., by subjecting it in winter
months to the growth of a stand of rye. At the first of April the
rye, which was very rank, was turned under, and a planting of cow
peas was made. When the latter was properly matured for perfection
in nitrogenous matter-when the young bean of first or earliest
growth had attained full size-the cow peas were also turned under,
and the terrace was thus left to rest one month. This, in the first
constructed terrace, was two years ago, and last year there had been
a test of results which proved a most wonderful success. The present
year is, if possible, still more promising of results. A succession of
crops of divers kinds has been put in, and all have proven most satis-
factory. In another section of this Bulletin will appear something of
these crops.
Time alone can tell the significance of this principle of terracing
on the borders of the numerous lakes of our State. The trenching
or draining from landward is never to be neglected, as these terraces
do not need the surface watering from overflows, and these cannot
but do damage: The rainfall thereupon, however, is not commonly
injurious, owing to the porous character of the deposits. In a few
minutes after rains the surface of the terrace, although so flat, is in
good condition again.

VETERINARY AND PHYSIOLOGICAL SECTION.

The following is such part of the report of Professor Maxwell as
can have space in this number of the Bulletin:
"After appointment by Dr. Kost, Director of the Experiment
Station, to investigate the causes and nature of the diseases of domes-
ticated animals, I immediately entered upon the discharge of my
duties.
"On the 24th of April I was notified of the death of a cow be-
longing to Captain J. F. Bays, of Lake City. Going at once I found
a large red cow, of the Shorthorn and Devon cross, that had been
dead about 12 hours. From her fullness of flesh it was manifested
that her disease had been acute in character and of short duration,
unattended with much waste of tissue. The history of the case showed
that she had been sick about a week, but the description of her symp-
toms was not sufficient to warrant a diagnosis. The post mortem ex-
amination revealed inflammation of both lungs, which had passed
through all the stages to gangrene, and as all the other viscera were
in a normal condition, I felt no gestation in determining that acute
Sporadic Pneumonia was the cause of death.










"May 7th I was called to a sick calf belonging to Mr. Potsdamer,
of Lake City. It was 13 months old, and had been sick since No-
vember last-6 months-with what is locally called Salt-sick."
The calf was extremely emaciated, and was unable to stand. His'
ears hung down, his eyes were closed and weeping, and tremors oc-
casionally affected his body, especially the head. The temperature
was 980.
"It was evident that he was dying, and I hastened preparations:
to examine him immediately. Before arrangements could be com-
pleted he died, but before post mortem changes had taken place, and
while it was yet warm, I performed an autopsy.
"As I have said, there was extreme emaciation. There was very
little adipose tissue, but what there was was of a bright yellow color,
and the wasted muscles were pale and bloodless.
"Of the internal organs the thoracic viscera appeared normal,
but a decidedly changed aspect was presented upon examination of
the abdominal organs. The stomachs and bowels, except the large
intestines, were almost empty. The latter were impacted with hard-
ened fceces. Their mucous lining was extensively inflamed, with
erosions within the true stomach. The liver was much larger than
natural, of a pinkish yellow color throughout, resembling the human
liver in yellow fever. So altered was the liver that an experienced
butcher, to whom I exhibited a portion, was incredulous about its
being liver. The gall bladder was distended with dark viscid bile.
The spleen was atrophied, externally of a light gray color, and shriv-
elled like a hand that had been held in hot water. Internally it was
very dark and disorganized, with vertical bands of organized tissue
connecting the external membranes. The kidneys were enlarged, and
engorged with dark blood. The urine bladder was distended with
dark red urine, resembling in appearance to the eye, and under the
microscope, that which is found in cases of miasmatic hematuria. The
blood was very thin, and destitute of clots, except a small, firm one in
the left ventricle of the heart.
"In all respects, except in the size of the spleen, this case pre-
sented the characteristics which are described by Drs. Salmon, Ditmers
and others as belonging to that infectious disease which prevails from
the larger part of Virginia along the Atlantic coast to Florida, and
thence along the Gulf to Texas, called Southern Cattle Fever. I re-
gret that I was not prepared to make such microscopic inspections,
cultures, etc., as the importance of the subject demands.
"On the 20th of May I was called to see another cow belonging










to Captain Baya, to which, as its suffering seemed to be from intes-
tinal irritation, a brisk saline purgative was administered, with relief.
The next day (21st) Captain Baya sent for me again, this time to see
a cow and a young steer which were suddenly taken ill.
"The cow was thought to be well at noon, but soon after was
taken violently sick, and at the time of my visit, at 4 p. m., was dying.
In a few moments she died, and I opened her immediately. Her
paunch was enormously distended with unmasticated food and gas,
and her manifold was impacted with about equal quantities of finely
chewed grass, etc., and sand, which offered an obstacle to the passage
through the organ. Manifestly the cause of death was acute indiges-
tion from the aforesaid impaction and obstruction. The steer was not
so sick, and free catharsis, by a saline aperient, soon relieved it.
"GEORGE TROUP MAXWELL, M. D."

It is hoped that Dr. Maxwell, who has now undertaken the in-
vestigation of that singular cattle disease called "Salt-sick," and
sometimes Texas Fever and cattle-plague, which seems to have pre-
vailed slightly in special localities in our State, will not give it over
until something more satisfactory shall be determined. It is fortunate
that one so eminently qualified as the one having this position in our
Station has been secured.


ENTOMOLOGICAL SECTION.

RED RUST ON WHEAT.

[BY WILLIAM H. ASHMEAD, ENTOMOLOGIST.]

The "rusts" that so generally attack the Graminme, cereals, grasses,
etc., are fungoid growths or parasitic forms of plant life, belonging to
an extensive family, termed by botanists Cceomacece, and their germi-
nation and spread depend very materially upon atmospheric condi-
tions. Sometimes they will lie dormant for years until such favorable
atmospheric conditions exist-air at the proper temperature, moisture
and sunshine-that cause them to spring forth into vigorous, luxuriant
life, to the wonder of the observer and to the disaster of their
hosts.
The "rust" mentioned by Dr. Kost, in "Bulletin No. 1 of the
Experiment Station of Florida," page 17, attacking the Mediterra-
nean and Martin Amber varieties of wheat grown on the experi-
mental grounds at the StateAgricultural College, Lake City, is of









this nature, and proves (after a thorough microscopical examination
of the samples of affected wheat sent me) to be nothing but a common
species, quite prevalent, at times, on wheat, rye, oats and other grain
crops in various sections of the North.
It is the common red rust of wheat (Piccinia graminis) now
extensively distributed to all known portions of the world.where this
cereal grows.
It originates from spores," or microscopical dust-like seeds that
are carried from plant to plant, principally by the agency of the
wind, and that ultimately find a nidus for their development and
propagation in the cellular tissue of vegetable life, gaining access to
this part of the plant through the stomata or breathing pores of the
epidermis.
Wheat that has been attacked by red rust is easily recognized:
The blades and stalks are usually the first to exhibit the parasite,
presenting the appearance of being covered with little projecting
points, sprinkled over with blotches of yellowish and reddish colored
dust. These blotches spread rapidly to all portions of the plant, es-
pecially after wet weather, followed by a hot, dry spell, until finally
they reach the wheat ears or heads, when the. damage or loss to the
grower is considerable.
A cross section made of a wheat blade affected by this rust, and
placed under a powerful lens so the different cells composing the
cellular tissue can be distinctly seen, shows the method of growth of
this fungus and its injurious effects on the plant.
The mycelii, or the roots of the fungus, are plainly exhibited, ex-
tending in various directions through the cells, and drawing upon
them for their growth and sustenance, thereby absorbing the vitality
from the wheat. Upon each mycelium grows a globular head, swell-
ing and increasing in size until segmentation takes place, and it is
divided into thousands of little dust-like particles or grains, each
grain being the seed of some future fungus.
It is the swelling or ripening process of the heads of the mycelii
that rupture and burst through the epidermis, and produce the little
projecting points on the blade and stalk, already mentioned, while
the yellowish and reddish colored dust surrounding them is nothing
but the spores or germs ejected from these heads on reaching matur-
ity, and distributed about as is the pollen of flowers.
No satisfactory remedy is known for this fungus, and the only
solution for the evil seems to be in introducing and growing varieties
of cereals that will resist the attacks of these cryptogams.








14

THE PEACH CURCULIO. (Conotrachelus nenuphar, Herbst.)

(A little snout-beetle, stinging and laying its eggs in the green
fruit, causing them to exude a gummy substance and fall to the
ground.)
All during the month of April, the immature fruit on most of the
peach trees' at the State Agricultural College grounds, was stung by
some insect, and dropped to the ground long before reaching.matu-
rity. Director, Dr. Kost, noticing this-and that it was of frequent
occurrence all over our State-handed me specimens with instructions
to investigate the trouble, and prepare a report on the subject for the
next Bulletin.
This has been done, and below I give a description of the insect
in its various stages, its method of injury, and practical hints and
remedies for its destruction and prevention.
The little snout-beetle causing the injury, is identical with the
Plum Curculio or The Little Turk attacking the plum at the
.North and West, and also attacking this and other fruits in Florida.
With us, it is unquestionably the most destructive enemy of the
peach, the most difficult to contend with, and when unchecked in its
depredations, occasions annually a loss amounting to hundreds of
dollars.
The Beetle.--The insect that occasions this heavy loss is a small
hard-shelled, black beetle, 20-100 of an inch long, having its head
vertically elongated into a stout, strongly striate and punctate snout,
at the tip of which is found a pincer-like mouth with which it punc-
tures or cuts into the peach. Its back is roughened or corrugated,
and marked with grayish colors, while on each wing-case or the hard,
chitinous front wings-the hind wings being membraneous and folded
beneath them-is a black, shining prominence, followed by a dull
yellow band composed of yellow and white hairs. The legs are
stout, blackish, while the thighs are much swollen and toothed be-
neath.
As soon as the young fruit is fully formed-which in Florida oc-
curs early in April-the female curculio proceeds to lay her eggs.
Alighting on the young fruit, she stings or punctures with her pincer-
like jaws the tender immature fruit, forces her snout under the skin,
puncturing and moving it about until, with its aid, a sufficiently deep
and smooth cavity has been formed for the reception of her egg.
The Egg. -The egg, which she now proceeds to deposit in the
hole just made, is 2-100 of an inch in length, of an oblong-oval
shape, and pearly white color; after oviposition, turning about, with










the aid of her snout, the egg is pushed to the bottom of the hole made
for its reception. This important task performed, she makes, with
her mandibles, a slight incision on one side of the cavity where the
egg now lies, and the piece thus formed, is shoved forward, completely
covering the egg, affording it protection from the hot sun, and hiding
it from the preying eye of Proctotupid and other parasites.
The Larva.-In less than a week-the duration of the incubating
period depending very materially upon the state of the weather, heat
accelerating, cold retarding its development-the egg, so carefully
deposited and protected, hatches, and there issues a soft, white, tiny
grub or larva, which immediately begins to feed on the pulp of the
green fruit, all the while boring and making its way to the stone or
kernel.
It is during this period-while the grub is progressing towards
the kernel, where it reaches its full growth-that the gummy exuda-
tion, so noticeable on green fruit, is formed.
The young grub arrives at maturity in the fallen peach, within
four or five weeks; it is a maggot-shaped, footless, creamy white grub,
and measures 35-100 of an inch in length. The head is light brown.
Extending along each side of the body is a pale, glossy line, below
this line a row of minute black hairs, while above or dorsally, there
are two rows of hairs.
The Pupa.-The grub, having now reached its full growth, eats
its way out of the decaying peach, and burys itself several inches in
the earth, where it transforms into a pupa. During this stage it un-
dergoes a marked change, and takes on the characteristic features of
the future beetle. The legs, wings, snout, etc., of the imago being
plainly revealed long before its final transformation.
Its existence in this pupa or chrysalis stage in its life's history
seldom extends over a period of four or five weeks, when it transforms
into a perfect beetle, makes its way to the surface of the earth, as-
sumes its natural hue, and lives on different substances-leaves, bark,
fruit, etc.-until cold weather, when it is compelled to hibernate for
the winter under fallen debris, under logs, in crevices of bark, etc.,
coming forth again in spring to renew its depredations on young fruit
as did its ancestors.
PREVENTIVE MEASURES AND REIEIEES.-From a study of the
life history of this beetle, as recorded above, it will be seen that much
may be accomplished in preventing the increase of this destructive
pest; and I believe firmly if the following preventive measures be
carried out uniformly, judiciously and persistently from year to year,










the results would be in diminishing annually their numbers, and
ultimately almost entirely freeing our orchards from this most injuri-
ous species.
Removing Stung and Fallen Fruit.-All green fruit stung by the
curculio, and exhibiting the gummy exudation, should be picked-
they will never amount to anything if left on the tree-and, with the
fallen fruit, should be gathered together and destroyed ; not a single
one containing the grub should be allowed to escape destruction, to
produce a progeny for the following year.
Catching the Curculio.-Another preventive measure, and a well
known one, is to jar and catch the curculios in nets or on sheets or
cloth spread for the purpose beneath the tree, before they have had
time to deposit eggs in the young fruit. The modus operandi is as
follows: Take a large, white sheet, or, better, sail cloth, cut a circular
hole out of the centre large enough to enclose the trunk of any sized
tree, leaving a slit or opening to the outer edge of the cloth, so it
can be laid out flat on the ground, surrounding the trunk of the
tree.
The cloth now being properly spread, a sudden jar is given to the
tree, or a succession of jars, and the curculios, as is their habit when
suddenly alarmed, simulate death and fall to the ground, and are
caught on the cloth. They can then be gathered and destroyed.
This plan may be carried out by the boys and girls on the place,
or negro boys, who will find, in catching and destroying the beetles, a
pleasurable pastime.
In Florida, this method should be carried out all during the
month of April.
Remedies.-Spraying with a wash made of London Purple or
Paris Green has been highly recommended by fruit growers, and
many of those who have tried it attest to its efficacy and the bene-
ficial results following the application.
The wash should be sprayed over the trees as soon as the blos-
soms have fallen.
This remedy has been strongly denounced by one of our highest
authorities; but practical fruit growers highly commend it, and with
reason. The beetles, whose food at this period is nearly entirely fo-
liaceous, eat of the poisoned peach leaves and are killed before they
have had time to deposit their eggs.








17

THE PEACH BORER. (Sannina exitiosa, Say.)
(A soft, cylindrical, 16-footed, yellowish white grub, with a red-
dish head, boring under the bark and into the crown and roots of the
peach tree, causing a copious exudation of gum.)
One of the most familiar insects, destructive to peach trees in
Florida, is The Peach-tree Borer," the larva of a beautiful little
moth Sannina exitiosa, Say, now widely distributed throughout North
America.
It was formerly classed by entomologists and writers on injuri-
ous insects, in the old genus Aegeria, but in a recent generic revision
of the family Aegeriidce, by Mr. Henry Edwards, of New York City,
one of our highest authorities in the Order Lepidoptera, it has been
shown to belong properly to Walker's genus Sannina, where it is now
placed.
By an inexperienced person, the male of this moth, so remark-
able is the resemblance, might easily be mistaken for a wasp; and
this protective mimicry, with its quick, rapid flight, undoubtedly as-
sists it in escaping from numerous foes.
The Moth.-The moth may be found, in Florida, flying about
the orchard in the day time, early in April. The female moth is
much larger than the male, the wings, when expanded, measuring
1.3 of an inch; the front wings are opaque, glossy, steel-blue; the
hind wings being glassy or transparent, with a blue margin. The
thorax and abdomen are dark steel blue with a purplish tinge, the
fourth abdominal segment having a dorsal orange colored band, while
the legs are blue, banded with yellow.
The male has a wing expanse of only about an inch, and other-
wise differs from the female in having all four wings transparent, bor-
dered and veined, however, with steel blue. The color of the body is
the same as the female; but, the palpi beneath, a band at base of the
head, two narrow bands on its abdomen, and the fringe at its tip, are
yellow.
The Egg.-The female, soon after pairing-in Florida during
the month of April-deposits an egg upon the trunk of the peach
tree close to the crown; it is perfectly smooth, oblong oval,'of a dull
yellow color, and measures about 3-100 of an inch in length.
The Larva.-From this egg, in from five to six days, hatches a
tiny young borer that penetrates into the inner bark and sap-wood, as
cold weather advances, gradually working its way downward into the
crown and roots; and it may always be detected at work from the
gummy exudations and castings issuing from its burrow.







18

When several of these larva work together, or when they have
nearly reached maturity, they become exeedingly injurious, and, un-
less promptly removed, will almost entirely girdle the tree; if allowed,
without hindrance, to complete their transformation, the final result
being the tree killed outright, or its vitality so much destroyed that
it will be forever fruitless.
The full grown borer measures 60-100 of an inch in length ; it is
of a yellowish white color, with a reddish brown head, the segment
immediately following the head being paler or yellowish brown; on
each of the following segments are warty-like spots from which issue
short, brownish bristles. The spiracles or breathing pores along the
sides are oval, and of a dull reddish color. It has sixteen legs-six
true legs and ten abdominal or prolegs; the true legs are tipped with
black, the prolegs, yellowish with black dots.
The Cocoon.-The larva or borer, on attaining full growth,
spins a brown, oblong oval cocoon, interwoven with its castings, ex-
crementitious particles, pieces of bark, etc., within which it trans-
forms, almost immediately, into a pupa.
The Pupa.-The pupa, removed from the cocoon, measures 80-100
of an inch, and is of a brownish yellow color; the abdominal seg-
ments, excepting the three terminal ones which have but a single
row, each have a double row of transverse spiny tubercles, and the
sutures are dusky.
The moth issues from the pupa in from eighteen to twenty-four
days, when the cycles in the life history of the peach borer are com-
pleted.
PREVENTIVE MEASURES AND REMEDIEs.-Many remedies have
been tried and recommended for this pest; but, up to the present day,
none are entirely satisfactory, and at times the knife must be resorted
to for its removal.
Now, however, that its life history in Florida is known, I believe
that by carrying out the following simple plan, based on the habits of
the insect, at a minimum cost we can render our trees almost borer-
proof:
Poisoned Wash on the Trunk.-In the life history of this moth, as
given above, it has been shown :
First. That it is single-brooded, i. e.. produces but a single brood
of young during the year.
Secondly. That the moth issues from the pupa during April,
and,
Thirdly. That it is during this month that they pair, and de-










posit eggs on the trunk of the tree close to the crown from which come
the borers.
What inference naturally follows ?
Why, prevent the moth from laying the eggs, or destroy the young
borers before they have had time to penetrate under the bark, and the evil
ceases.
This is, I believe, entirely practicable, not only against the at-
tacks of this borer, but others of a similar character, when their life
histories are thoroughly understood. These are the practical and
economic results that are to follow scientific investigations, and where
the horticulturist and agriculturist are to be benefited from studies
into the habits and development of injurious insect pests made by the
trained entomologist.
It is believed the following recipe will prove an effectual preven-
tive against the attacks of the peach borer, and is being experimented
with in the Station work
Poisoned Soap VWash.-Formula No. 1.

Soap............... .................... 1 pound.
Paris Green or London Purple...1 ounce.
W ater.................. ................2 galls.

See that the soap is thoroughly dissolved in the water before add-
ing the Paris Green or other poisonous ingredient; then mix all thor-
oughly together. The wash now being properly prepared, the base of
the trunk, from the crown upwards for a distance of a foot, is thor-
oughly painted with the mixture.
It is best applied with a common whitewash brush, and when ap-
plying, the soil surrounding the crown should be temporarily removed
so as to insure the wash reaching the crown, and to avoid any possi-
bility of the moth depositing an egg on.any portion of the bark be-
tween the root and the trunk not reached by the mixture.

THE PEACH ROOT KNOT. (Anguillula s species.)

(A minute, thread-like worm forming gall-like knots or excres-
cences upon the roots of the peach and other trees and plants.)
A new disease, popularly known as the Root Knot," has re-
cently attracted the attention of peach growers in various sections of
our State, which seriously jeopardizes the future successful cultivation
of this standard and profitable fruit in Florida; and its cause,
origin, and prevention are earnestly sought for by our horticul-
turists.









Within the past few months, the evil seems to be op the increase,
and an investigation of its nature, and a solution of the many prob-
lems involved, are being attempted at our Experiment Station.
Our investigations and experiments are still in their incipiency,
and the time during which they have been conducted is yet too brief
to obtain definite results, and no particular value can be attached to
their publication now.
Still, we have a prospect of ultimate success, and some facts dis-
covered respecting the nature of this new trouble, its effects upon the
tree, etc., justify a brief notice of it here.
Pathological Condition of a Tree Affected with Root Knot.-To a
practiced eye, a peach tree badly affected with the root knot, presents
a generally debilitated appearance; the usual amount of chlorophyl
in the leaves is wanting, while some of them are dry, yellow, and
parched; the fruiting power is greatly lessened, the majority of the
fruit dropping long before the ripening process begins; some of the
twigs and branches die, and there is a drooping, sickly appearance
about it not perceptible in strong, healthy trees.
An examination of the roots of these sickly looking trees, re-
veals multitudinous tuberous swellings, knotty galls or excrescences
strung out-usually a slight distance apart, but frequently, contiguous
and pressing upon each other-along all the fibrous and smaller
rootlets, and to a much less degree on some of the larger roots.
ITS CAUSE.-On making a microscopical dissection of some of
the galls, I find-in some of them-coiled up in the interior, a
minute, thread-like worm, which I believe, with Prof. F. L. Scribner,
of the United States Department of Agriculture, who was the first to
detect these worms, to be the cause of the trouble.
This little worm belongs to the Order Nematodes, and is closely
allied to several well known forms parasitic on man. The human
round worm Ascaris lumbricoides, Linn, living in the intestines; the
pin-worm, Oxyuris vermicularis, Linn, living in the rectum of
children; the hair-worm Gordius aquaticus, Linn, living in grasshop-
pers, caterpillars, etc., and the hog-worm, Trichina spiralis, Owen,
producing the well known disease, Trichinosis, in man, are good exam-
ples, although many others might be cited, whose habits and life his-
tories are familiar to the physician and scientist.
In this country, comparatively little study has been given to the
Anguillulke, and almost nothing is known of our species, and whether
any of them are identical with the forms found in Europe. My
thanks are due to Dr. George Dimmock, of Cambridge, Mass., for










kindly sending me a list of the continental works treating upon these
animals; it comprises the names of some twenty-two authors who
have made special studies on their structure, classification and habits,
and some of these works will have to be studied and consulted before
I can properly place the species depredating our peach trees.
The habits of some of the Anguillulm are known: Anguillula
tritici, Needham, produces a gall in the heads of wheat; the vinegar
worm, Anguillula aceti, Ehrenberg, but two millimetres long, is a com-
mon species found in vinegar; while many other species are found in
damp, moist soils, on the roots of plants, in flowers, and in various de-
composing substances. Greef records Anguillula radicicola from the
roots of Dodarxia, Poa, Triticumn, Sedum, etc., and a species probably
closely related, if not identical with it, is found here in Florida on
the roots of grass, tomato, bean and other plants. -
EXPERIMENTATION FOR REMEDIES.-The following remedies
for the destruction of this pest are being tried, but no definite results
can yet be given.
EXPERIMENT NO. 1.-BISULPHIDE OF CARBON.-With the aid
of a pointed stick, small holes were made all around a tree, so as to
reach the affected roots, and a small amount of the fluid was poured
into each hole and then closed up with earth. It is believed this
mixture will either kill the worms or at least act as a counteroderant
and prevent their attacks.
EXPERIMENT No. 2.-CIILORIDE OF LIME.-This preparation
was applied in the same way as in Experiment No. 1, but what effect it
will have on the anguillulae is not yet known.
EXPERIMENT NO. 3.-COMMON SALT.-Salt, as is very well
known, is distasteful to many worms, either killing or driving them
away, and has frequently been applied for this purpose with decided
success. It is being tried with the peach anguillula.

THE CORN APHIS. (Aphis Maidis, Fitch.)

(Green plant lice-the winged individual, with a black head and
thorax, living in communities, on the leaves of sorghum and corn, and
puncturing and feeding on the oozing juice.)
About the middle of May countless myriads of a small, green
aphis were observed to have attacked the Sorghum, Broom and Kaffir
corn, growing on the College experimental grounds. In such num-
bers were they, crowding and jostling each other on the leaves, par-
ticularly in the leaf axils and at the base of the seed tassels, that
grave fears were entertained that the entire crop would be destroyed








before a remedy could be applied. Fortunately these fears proved
groundless, as several predaceous and parasitic insects had already
begun preying upon them, and with their friendly services and an
application of a wash, the number of the aphides soon rapidly dimin-
ished, and no serious apprehension is now felt for the crop.
This green plant louse, from which so much damage was appre-
hended, is the corn aphis (Aphis maidis), originally described by Dr.
Asa Fitch, the celebrated State Entomologist of New York, in his
second report, published in 1857.
It has been discovered subsequently, however, in several of the
Western States on corn and sorghum. Dr. Cyrus Thomas, formerly
State Entomologist of Illinois, treats of it in the Eighth Report of the
Noxious and Beneficial Insects of Illinois, and his successor, the able
present incumbent of that office, Prof. S. A. Forbes, has given us a
much fuller history and description of this aphis and its enemies in
the twelfth report.
The species on the corn has been shown to be a strictly vivipa-
rous form, and there exists, unquestionably, an oviparous form, having
some other food plant, which migrates from it to the corn, as has
been shown to be the case with the hop aphis (Phorodon humuli,
Schrank). It is always important to discover this form in order to
thoroughly understand the migrations and life histories of many
species in the family Aphididce, and a special effort will be made the
present summer to discover this form, and find out from whence came
the corn aphis. The field of corn affected by them is contiguous to a
rich hammock, and many trees and plants growing in it were found
to be affected with many species of aphides, and it is not improbable
that some one of these will prove to be the migrating form of the
corn aphis.
The description of this aphis is as follows:
Wingless viviparous female.-Length, eight to ten inches; long
ovate, and of a pea green color. The antenna are short, not reaching
to the base of the abdomen, the basal joints pale, the terminal joints
dusky, eyes brown. The beak is very short, not reaching beyond the
middle coxme, the tip swollen and dusky. All the legs dusky, ex-
cepting the bases of the femora, which are pale. Honey tubes short,
slightly swollen in the middle, and black. The cauda, too, is very
short and black, and there is a dusky blotch beneath it,
Winged viviparous female.-Length, eight inches; head and
thorax black; collar and prosternum green. The abdomen is pale
green, with each of the abdominal spiracles surrounded by a reddish









brown or blackish blotch; canda and honey tubes black. The wings
are hyaline, with very slender, delicate veins; stigma long, lanceolate;
the stigmal vein strongly curved, otherwise similar to the apterous
form.
ITS NATURAL ENETIES.-Prof. Forbes, in his report referred to
above, records among the predaceous insects destroying this aphis in
Illinois, the smaller two-spotted lady bug (Hyperaspis signata, Oliver),
the plain lady bug (Oycloneda sanguinea, the spotted lady bug
(Megilla maculata, DeGeer), the nine-spotted lady bug (Coccinella
g-notata), the icy lady bug (Hippodamia glacialis), and a lace-winged
fly (Chrysopa sp.), and one internal parasite Aphidius (adialytus)
maidaphidis, Forbes.
All of these insects have been noticed preying on it here but the
last mentioned. Besides, two species of Syrphid flies and two other
internal parasites have been reared from it by me, one of which is
very closely related to Forbes' Aphidius maidaphidis.
It is very gratifying to me to be able to still further add to our
knowledge of the internal parasites of this insect, and below I submit
descriptions of these two species, both of which are new to science:
Aphidius flavicoxa, n. sp., female.-Length, .07 to .09 of an inch;
head and thorax shining black; abdomen flavo-testaceous, slender,
pointed ovate, and longer than the head and thorax together; eyes
and antenna dark brown; antennae thirteen jointed, reaching to the
base of the abdomen, the two basal joints yellow; clypeus, mandibles,
labial and maxillary palpi and legs, including all coxe, yellow; a
dusky streak along the superior edges of the femora, while the tips of
posterior femora and tarsi are obfuscated; tegule and base of shoul-
ders yellow; wings hyaline, pubescent; veins and stigma, brown; the
radius somewhat abruptly, angularly bent near the tip. The male
differs from the female in having longer fifteen-jointed antenna, that
reach to the tip, or slightly beyond the tip, of the abdomen.
The abdomen is fusiform, much more slender and darker colored
than in the female, being more of a rufo-testaceous, the pedicel or
first joint long, while the legs are also darker and of a decided brown
color.
This species approaches nearest to Aphidius maidaphidis, Forbes,
but in that species the hind coxe are described as being black, whereas
in this species all of the coxse in both sexes are yellow.
Described from many specimens reared from parasitized aphides
between May 18th and 26th.
Pachyneuron maidaphidis, n. sp., female.-Length, .06 inch;









black, with metallic brown tingings, the metathorax and abdomen
more decidedly metallic. The head and thorax, under a strong lens,
show a fine, scaly punctuation. Palpi dusky. Antenna, the scape
and pedicel smooth, shining black; flagellum, brownish black, and
covered with a whitish pile. All coxe and femora black; trochan-
ters, apical tips of femora, tibiae and tarsi, excepting the terminal
joint, yellowish white; wings hyaline, pubescent; the veins dark
brown, the marginal vein, the characteristic feature of the genus,
being very much thickened.
This species is very closely related to Pachyneuron aphidivora,
Ashm., described by the writer in Bulletin No. 14, U. S. Department
of Agriculture, page 14, reared from Aphis brassice, Linn, but differs
from it principally in the general color, and decidedly in the color of
the antenna, abdomen and legs.
Described from several specimens bred May 26th.
REMEDIES.-EXPERIMENT NO. 1.-On May 18th the following
wash was prepared and sprayed, with a very poor instrument, on
several rows of sorghum affected with the aphis :
White Hellebore ................. 1 pound.
Flour................................. 3 pounds.
W ater................. .............. barrel.
The flour was used to give body and an adhesive quality to the
mixture, and all the ingredients were thoroughly stirred together and
dissolved, as far as possible, before application. May 19th, twelve
hours after the application, an examination revealed a very large
percentage of the aphides killed and others very weak and dying, but
the experiment was not entirely satisfactory, and I cannot recommend
it at present. Further experiments must be made before I can defi-
nitely and finally decide as to its merits.

RED SPIDER ON CASTOR BEAN. (letranychus telarius, Linn.)

(A minute, garnet-colored mite, living on the under surface of the
leaves of the castor-bean and other plants, weaving a fine web, and
puncturing and feeding on the sap and epidermis.)
On May 15th a castor bean tree on the premises of Mr. Edwin
P. Holmes' place, at St. Nicholas, Fla., was observed to.be attacked
by millions of red mites; their webs covered every leaf, and the leaves
presented a glossy, dry, yellow blotched appearance, as though they
had passed through a terrible scalding. Many of them, too, were
sucked dry and entirely killed from the innumerable punctures of









these minute depredators. The under surface of all the leaves were
literally swarming with millions of these mites, in all stages of
growth, giving a splendid opportunity for making a thorough biologi-
cal study of the species, of which I have not failed to avail myself.
The species proved to be the Tetranychus telarius, Linn, an omni-
vorous depredator, familiar to most gardeners, on many varieties of
plants, shrubs and trees, both in the hot-house and in the garden.
It belongs to the family of spinning mites, Tetranychidce. and
Mr. Andrew Murray, F. L. S., in speaking of the species in his clas-
sical little work, "Economic Entomology," says: This and most, if
not all, the species of the genus spins a web on the back of the leaves
of the finest and most delicate texture. The threads of its web are
secreted from a conical nipple, situated underneath, and very near
the extremity of the abdomen. They are drawn out and guided by
the motion of the insect, and by the action of the minute claws and
hairs of the legs, which seem to be only used for this purpose. The
threads are so slender that we fail to see them, even with the assist-
ance of a magnifier, until after they are woven into a web or net-
work. In the construction of this web all the feet are moved with
great agility, but the movements of the mite itself are not quick, and
it moves with difficulty over smooth and polished surfaces, as over
glass. Upon leaves, especially on the underside of them, it finds a
fitter hold, for, supported on the-bristles that jut out beyond the
claw, it spins its web, affixing the threads to the prominences and
hairs of the leaf, and under this shelter a colony, consisting of many
of both sexes in maturity, and the young, in all their ages, feed and
multiply with rapidity. The plant soon shows the influence of their
presence in its sickly yellow hue; the sap is sucked by myriad insect
moths from the vessels of the leaf, its pores are choked by excremental
fluids, and the gardener mourns the inefficacy of his remedies and the
loss of his cherished flowers. The mode in which they feed is by
eating their way into the leaf with their nipping mandibles, and then
plunging in its barbed sucker and sucking the juice."
The various stages of the growth of this mite, as observed by me,
are as follows:
The Egg.-When first laid it is of a greenish-white color; in
shape spherical, and measures about 1-100 of an inch in diameter. It
then becomes blood red ; afterwards the coloring matter begins accu-
mulating towards one side, the other portion becoming whitish, and
an indistinctly defined mite soon becomes plainly discernible through
the body wall, having six legs drawn up under the thorax.









The Young Larva.-The young mite just hatched is but 1-100 of
an inch in length, of an ovoid shape, the smaller end being the tail,
and of a pale, greenish white color, with sometimes a few reddish
granules, visible through the skin, on the back. It has but six legs,
all hairy, and there are long hairs issuing from various parts of the
body. In shape and general appearance it reminds one of a Tylogly-
phus mite; indeed, so remarkable is the resemblance, it is with diffi-
culty distinguished from one. At the next moult, or casting off of its
first larval skin, eight legs appear, its size is greatly increased, and it
assumes the characteristic features of the mature mite, but it is still of
a paler color than the mature mite, and the sexual organs are not yet
fully matured. Although the color is darker than in the first larval
stage, it still exhibits a broad, pale, longitudinal dorsal stripe.
The Mature Mite.-It is at the next moult that the sexes are well
defined, when it has obtained its full growth. Now the female is
broadly oval, sparsely hairy, and of a deep garnet red color. The
head, palpi and legs, excepting the coxm, are pale, yellowish green;
the legs long, six-jointed, and sparsely covered with long, white hairs.
Au contraire, the male is obovate in shape, and is readily dis-
tinguished from the female by its smaller size, paler color, and by
always having two distinct black ocelli on the cephalothorax, a char-
acter, too, sometimes distinguishable in the preceding stage. The
female measures less than 3-100; the male, about 2-100 of an inch.

ITS ENEMIES.

Several predaceous insects were observed preying upon this mite,
but in such few numbers as to make no appreciable diminution in the
myriad ranks of the mites, although the fact is worthy of being re-
corded.
The insects were as follows: The plain lady bug (Cycloneda
sanguine, Linn); a small black beetle (Scymnus cericalis); a chrysopa
fly (Hemerobius, sp.); a thrips (Palesthrips, sp.), and the larva of a
minute cecidomyious fly.

REMEDY.

The following wash, as formulated by the English entomologist,
Miss Eleanor A. Ormerod, has been proven to be entirely efficacious
in destroying these mites, and it would be well to use it for removing
the orange leaf mite (Tetranychus sp.), so prevalent in some of the
orange growing sections of our State:









FORMULA.

Sulphuret of lime ............... 4 oz.
Soft soap............................ 2 oz.

To each gallon of water, which is to be gradually poured on, the
mixture being stirred during the time, when a uniform fluid will be
obtained without sediment, which may be used when cold enough to
bear the hand.

BOTANICAL SECTION.

REPORT ON "FOOT-ROT" AND "SCAB" OF CITRUS TREES,
AND ON THE PREVENTION OF ORANGE "RUST."

By A. H.'CURTISS, Botanist.

The following report embodies, in condensed form, a large
amount of information gathered with a view to a course of experi-
ments on those little understood diseases of the orange and lemon
known in Florida as "foot-rot" and scab," to which are added some
observations on the prevention of the "rust" of oranges. As such
experiments require considerable time for development of results, it is
deemed best, without delay, to communicate to the public all known
facts bearing on the nature of -these diseases and on the means
of prevention and cure. By this means orange growers will be
enabled to study these diseases more intelligently, and to engage in in-
vestigations and experiments in conjunction with those which may be
undertaken by the Experiment Station.
FUNGOID DISEASES are those caused by the parasitism on living
vegetable or animal tissues of certain species of that order of crypto-
gamic plants called fungi. These low forms of vegetation, including
the mushrooms, moulds, etc., are extremely various in form and ob-
scure in development. None of them are green, and none have or-
gans corresponding to leaves or flowers. Yet they have organs of re-
production, by which are developed seed-like "spores" of minute
size and numerous beyond conception. These float in the air, unseen
save as motes in a sunbeam." The spores of every fungus, within
its habitat, seem to be everywhere ready to germinate when they
come in contact with the natural matrix of that species, be it a
fallen branch or leaf, a decaying orange, a blade of wheat or head of
rye.
The attacks of parasitic fungi are so insidious that they can be










guarded against only by understanding the natural history of the
species, and for this knowledge we have to rely on a few experts who
make the study of this order a specialty. Having ascertained that a
disease is caused by a fungus, the remedy may be excision or the ap-
plication of some substance that is known to be destructive of fungii.
Such substances, called fungicides, are chemical compounds of
sulphur, copper, iron, lime, soda, ammonia, etc., and they are applied
either in dry or liquid form, rarely as gases. The United States De-
partment of Agriculture recently issued a circular on fungicides, con-
taining 23 formulas, which will be sent to any applicant. Very in-
teresting experiments may be made by spraying or dusting with
such substances any vegetation affected with mildew, smut, rust, etc.
For applying liquid fungicides (or insecticides) two nozzles are
recommended in this circular, namely, the Vermorel nozzle (made by
Thomas Summerville & Son, Washington, D. C.), and Nixon's Climax
nozzle (for which Mr. E. Bean, of Jacksonville, is agent for Florida.)
Following are the formulas of some of the liquids believed to be most
effectual:
1. Sulphate of copper (blue vitriol), 1 pound dissolved in 25
gallons of water for spraying, or 5 to 8 pounds in 10 gallons for soak-
ing seed wheat, etc., to destroy spores of smut.
2. Dissolve 16 pounds of sulphate of copper in 22 gallons of
water, in another vessel slake 30 pounds of lime in 6 gallons of water.
When the latter mixture has cooled, it is slowly poured into the
copper solution, care being taken to mix the fluids thoroughly by con-
stant stirring. It is well to have this compound prepared some days
before it is required for use. It should be well stirred before apply-
ing.
This is known as the Bordeaux mixture, and used as a preventive
of the mildew and black rot of the grape, and for blight and rot of
the tomato and potato. It is recommended to modify the above for-
mula by dissolving 4 pounds of the sulphate of copper in 16 gallons
of water, and adding 4 pounds of lime after being slaked in 6 gallons
of water and cooled.
3. Dissolve 1 pound of sulphate of copper in 2 gallons of hot
water; when completely dissolved and the water has cooled, add 1U
pints of commercial ammonia (strength 220 Baume); when ready to
use dilute to 22 gallons. The concentrated liquid should be kept in a
keg or some wooden, earthen or glass vessel.
This is known as Eau Celeste, and is a favorite remedy for mil-
dew, blight, rot, scab, and similar diseases. A modified and perhaps










a superior formula is the following: Dissolve 2 pounds of sulphate of
copper in 2 gallons of hot water; in another vessel dissolve 24 pounds
of carbonate of soda in a similar manner; mix the two solutions, and
when all chemical reaction has ceased add li pints of ammonia (22'
Baume); then dilute to 22 gallons.
Latest reports from French experimenters show that the Bor-
deaux mixture and Eau Celeste have proven most effectual, and it
will be well to give them a trial in this country wherever diseases of
this character are to be met with. The grape, probably, is most dam-
aged by diseases of this nature, but no plant is exempt from fungoid
parasites. On the citrus trees of Europe 190 species of fungi have
been detected. On those of Florida there are, undoubtedly, a great
variety of these more or less parasitic growths, but the subject has not
yet been investigated. Till very recently their injurious effects have
attracted no notice; and it seems, indeed, that diseases of fungoid
origin, have but lately made their appearance on the citrus trees of
this State.

FOOT-ROT, SORE-SHIN OR GUM DISEASE.

(Called Mal di Gomma in Italy.)

ORIGIN AND DISTRIBUTION.-The disease of orange trees, com-
monly known as "foot-rot," seems to have made its first appearance
in Florida about twelve years ago. Few persons, however, remember
to have observed it earlier than the year 1880. Equally bad cases
are found at points on the eastern and western coasts and in the in-
terior, the worst being in old settlements and in certain locations,
which will be described later. To specify localities in which the foot-
rot is worst developed would not further the object of this paper,
which is to point out means of cure, prevention and ultimate eradica-
tion of the disease. It is proper to say at the outstart that unless this
disease assumes a different form, it offers no obstacle to the develop-
ment of Florida's favorite industry.
The foot-rot is considered to be identical with the gum disease,
or gomma, of Europe. Therefore, it is fair to assume that it was intro-
duced from Europe, and that it will be affected in like manner by
any methods of treatment which European orange growers may have
tried. Hence, it is important to study the history of the disease in
Europe for instruction and guidance in dealing with it here. A fund
of information has been placed in the writer's hands by Mr. D. Hous-
ton, superintendent of the Belair grove, in the form of an elaborate










treatise on the gomma of Italy, prepared by General H. S. Sanford,
the proprietor of Belair. From this it appears that the gomma ap-
peared first in the Azores in 1832, and in ten years destroyed one-
quarter of the citrus trees on those islands. Then it began to decrease,
and in 1873 had nearly disappeared. The disease showed itself in
Portugal in 1845, and thence spread eastward, reaching Messina in
1863. Since then it has spread throughout Sicily, and has done
damage estimated at $2,000,000. Having crossed the Atlantic, it is
not probable that the disease will be confined to Florida alone. Fatal
cases of it have occurred in green-houses at Washington, and it may
already have been introduced in other orange growing States.
How THE DISEASE DEVELOPs.-The prominent symptoms of foot-
rot are exudation of a gummy or sappy fluid from near the base of
the trunk, and decay of the bark in that region and of the roots be-
low. The flow of gum and attendant decay extend upward and in a
lateral direction, until it is girdled, also penetrating successive layers
of wood. In some cases gum exudes from cracks in various parts of
the trunk, or even on the branches, and in others the decay progresses
without emission of gum. Attendant or premonitory symptoms are
excessive and rather late blooming, the flowers being small and mostly
unfruitful, and arrested or unnatural development of the foliage,
which becomes yellow and drops. The disease manifests itself in the
top, on the same side as at the base, and makes like progress above
and below.
Messrs. Gillet Brothers, of South Lake Weir, have had expe-
rience with a bad type of this disease at points in Marion county.
They describe its progress as follows: "It almost invariably origin-
ates at the base of the trunk, and soon destroys the main crown or
lateral roots. About the first indication of the disease is a foamy or
frothy substance exuding from a crack in the bark. The sap seems
to be sour, and works exactly as wine or cider will from the bung of
a barrel: In cutting out this diseased part very often a small pocket
of gummy substance will be found. The wood in the vicinity of the
trouble looks yellow and diseased, and smells sour. If not arrested at
once it soon follows the large roots back into the ground, and the tree
presents a yellow, sickly appearance. Unless trees are treated promptly
they will die in from one to two years. The leaves turn yellow and
begin to shed, the trees put on little, if any, growth, and present a
generally bad appearance. The last year they put on a tremendous
amount of bloom, and, if the trees are not too far gone, they will yield









as fine fruit as was ever eaten; but this is the last, and soofi the trees
are fit only for firewood."
The foot-rot, sometimes called sore-shin" or cracks," is varia-
ble in development, and is often confounded with disorders arising
from freezing of the sap, severe pruning, etc. The former cause leads
to a cleaving off of bark, and the sudden removal of tops for the sake
of budding occasions more or less decay of roots, but in both cases
there is a natural arrest of decay instead of an extension of it.
Professor Briozi describes the development of the disease in
Sicily thus: "A fluid substance, dark, muddy and of bad odor, which
looks like gum, but a gum sui generis, which appears decayed, is seen
in great quantity, more or less suddenly, on the trunk of the tree or
directly on the root. The bark, where attacked, splits, rises, dries or
rots, and the foliage at first becomes yellow, and little by little it loses
its strength and dies." In Florida the disease sometimes takes on the
same malignant form as in Europe, but, as a rule, it is of milder type
and less inclined to spread.
IHow DIFFERENT KINDS OF CITRUS TREES ARE AFFECTED.-It
is agreed by all who have had experience with this disease in Florida
that it is almost exclusively confined to sweet seedling trees and to
budded sweet stocks, the latter being less affected than the former.
There are a few reports of its appearance on the lemon and on sour
orange stocks, but there is reason to doubt their correctness in most
cases. In one instance the trees were sweet tops on sour stumps, and
as the gum is described as appearing four or five feet from the ground
it is probable that it issued from the sweet wood, and that the decay
of the sour trunks and roots was caused by contact of the gum in flow-
ing downward. It is probable that most reported cases of foot-rot
in other than sweet seedling trees or stocks that did not originate in
this manner are merely the effects of injuries by frost, pruning, deep
planting, etc.
The resistance of all but sweet orange seedlings to the attacks of
the foot-rot or gomma, gives further support to the idea just advanced,
that the disease develops in milder form in this country than in
Europe. According to General Sanford's report, in Spain and Portu-
gal "lemon and sweet and sour orange trees were equally attacked,
but the last least, and damage caused to them was slight." He states
that in Sicily "the evil once commenced goes on with increasing force
from year to year, attacking in preference the lemon. The Bergamot
and Mandarin and wild orange are the most free from the disease."
APPARENT CAUSEs.-European investigators have regarded the








gomma as a diseased condition resulting from the parasitism of some
microscopic fungus. Professor Eng. Giovanni Briozi claims to have
discovered this fungus, and has named it Fusiporium Limoni. He
admits, however, that it may be "a simple incident of the disease, as a
superficial fungus attracted there from the state of decomposition in
which the disease tissues are formed." It is difficult to determine,
o ftentimes, whether the presence of fungoid life should be regarded as
cause or effect, since wherever decay exists one or more species of
fungi are to be looked for. Decayed orange roots sometimes become
enveloped with a common species of Stereum, yet its presence, surely,
is consequent on the decay, and so it may be with the Fusiporium de-
tected by Briozi.
Specimens of the diseased tissues and gum were sent by W. W.
Dewhurst, Esq., of St. Augustine, to Professor F. L. Scribner, chief
of the section of vegetable pathology of the Department of Agriculture
at Washington, but he failed to find any such organisms as Briozi
describes, and in replying to Mr. Dewhurst he expressed himself as
follows: "I doubt much if it is due to either insects or fungi, but think
it arises from some physiological derangement not yet clearly under-
stood." While it is not proven that this disease has its origin in cryp-
togamic parasites, yet there is circumstantial evidence to support
Briozi's theory, to which reference will be made in the next section.
Leaving the fungus theory out of the question, it has been ob-
served that certain external conditions promote the development of
the disease, and are to be regarded, perhaps, as among the direct
causes. Foremost among these is lack of proper drainage. Trees
especially subject to foot-rot are sweet seedlings with "wet feet," i. e.,
growing over hard-pan or in soil too retentive of moisture and not
artificially drained.
Mr. S. H. Norton, of Eustis, Lake county, says he has seen trees
affected with foot-rot in several localities, and in every case clay came
near the surface and prevented the surface water from draining off.
Consequently, after a heavy rain the trees had wet feet."
Mr. P. W. Reasoner, of Manatee, thinks that standing water is a
principal cause, and states that the greatest destruction of orange
trees by foot-rot in that locality is traceable to a season of excessive
rain-fall which occurred eight or nine years ago.
Mr. A. L. Duncan, of Dunedin, Hillsborough county, says the
disease is not confined to low lands, though trees set low and in ex-
cessively wet seasons have been most affected.
Mr. J. B. Anderson, of San Mateo, Putnam county, states that he









has seen it on all kinds of land, high and low pine, high and low
hammock, but mostly on low clay hammock.
Messrs. W. W. Hawkins & Sons, of Lake George, write: It
has, we think, been most apparent in the lowest portions of groves,
and with trees that have never been removed, but cut off and grafted
where grown."
Deep planting and improper fertilizing are recognized as causes
leading to foot-rot. Mr. P. W. Reasoner, of Manatee, writes: "Deep
planting is probably one cause, but I do not think removing earth of
any value, unless the tree is raised bodily (with lever, chains, etc.) I
think, also, that elements of acidity in the soil, and unsuitable
and fermenting manures, are among the causes." Rev. W. F.
Nigels, of Dunedin, attributes the disease to cow-penning, as he
observes that only cow-penned groves in his neighborhood have been
thus affected.
These observations accord with the report of General Sanford,
which states that in Sicily experience has demonstrated the following
facts: "(1.) Irrigated trees are more disposed to this disease than
those cultivated by the dry process, without 'pockets (depressions
scooped out around the tree for water). (2) Rich, clayey soils favor
the development of the disease; land inclined and sandy, the con-
trary. (3) Excessive fertilizing,, humidity and frequent workings ag-
gravate it."
MEANS OF PREVENTION AND CURE.-Taking up General San-
ford's report again, it will be interesting to note afterwards *how well
a few years experience in Florida accords with the much longer ex-
perience of the European orange growers, as to means of averting
this disease. In Europe it is found advisable to bud high on resistant
stocks from healthy trees; to plant groves with a southern exposure
and porous subsoil; to provide surface ditches where needed; to cul-
tivate clayey soils deeply; to be cautious in fertilizing, irrigating,
cultivating and pruning; to throw powdered gypsum over the tree
tops in spring (to stimulate the circulation of sap); to keep the col-
lar of the tree clean; when gum appears, to remove with a knife all
diseased bark and wood till the healthy wood is reached, extending
the cut well upwards, and burn the portions cut off; then to wash
with an antiseptic solution (of blue vitriol, for example) and cover
with a mixture of clay and cow dung.
The above conclusions in regard to the gomma coincide, in the
main, with those, of persons who have observed the foot-rot most
closely in Florida. Many have treated the disease successfully by re-








moving the affected parts and coating the cleaned surfaces with vari-
ous substances, the latter process being evidently of least importance.
The following experiences are cited as examples:
Mr. Aaron Warr, of Georgetown, Putnam county,.had a lemon
tree, budded on a sweet orange stock, standing near his dwelling.
After it had been in bearing for some years, he observed an exudation
of dark brown gum from a split in the bark a few inches above the
crown of the root, the diseased place being about as large as his hand.
He cut away the diseased bark and wood, and made an application of
hot grafting wax. The wound healed over, but presently the disease
appeared in an adjacent place. This was similarly treated and
healed. This experience was continued through three or four years,
until the disease had passed once and a half around the tree. Mean-
while the tree grew and bore heavy crops until January, 1886, when,
with other perfectly sound trees, it succumbed to the big freeze."
Mr. P. W. Reasoner states that at Manatee, when the disease
has been noticed soon enough, and every particle of diseased root,
bark and wood cut away, leaving the healthy wood clean, the earth
removed from around the collar of the tree and clean soil substituted,
the tree has been saved.
The treatment adopted by Rev. W. F. Nigels, of Dunedin, has
been to cut out the affected spot clean, and then apply sulphur and
land plaster mixed with water. The large scars remaining, when cut
with a knife, show sound wood and the bark is healing around them.
He changes the soil around the base of the trees, and in some bad
cases has banked earth around the trunks, which has caused the trees
to send downward new roots from above the wound.
The method adopted by W. W. Hawkins & Sons, of Lake
George, has been simply to cut away the diseased portions till per-
fectly healthy wood and bark is reached. This effects a cure if the
disease has not progressed too far.
Maxwell, Anderson & Co., of San Mateo, Putnam county, find
that the disease can be cured, if it has not extended more than one-
third or one-half around the trunk of the tree, by removing the soil
from around the tree, cutting away the diseased parts and coating the
wounds with coal tar.
Messrs. Gilbert Brothers, of South Lake Weir, in the letter pre-
viously quoted from, say: "We have used the knife, cutting away
diseased parts, and then applied a wash of copperas, lime, sulphur
and carbolic acid. In this way we think we have saved two large
trees, but nothing seems to permanently stop the progress of the dis-









ease. We can apparently check it, but the trees eventually die, and
we are replacing with sour budded trees, which are doing finely."
As bad a case of foot-rot and as remarkable a cure as has been
witnessed in Florida, occurred in the grove of Mr. C. M. Bevan, of
St. Augustine. A year ago his grove seemed to be hopelessly dis-
eased, the trunks almost girdled at the base, a fetid gum flowing from
them, and almost all the lateral roots rotted and black. Having
observed a like disease while traveling in Italy, and remembering a
remedy that was recommended for it, he obtained a carboy of sul-
phurous (not sulphuric) acid, diluted it with water, and after remov-
ing the earth from the diseased roots he had them and the trunk
washed repeatedly with the acid, and had flowers of sulphur sprinkled
among the roots. This treatment put a stop to the disease, and the
trees are now quite healthy, although many of them are nearly
girdled, and are deprived, apparently, of all surface roots.
The last example would seem to indicate that this disease is
attributable to some organism which is destroyed by the element
most fatal to fungi. That a physiological derangement would yield
to such treatment, is highly improbable. Furthermore, the disease
is regarded, especially in Europe, as being contagious, which is a
characteristic of fungus diseases. Assuming that it is of this charac-
ter, a rational line of experimentation consists in washing the diseased
parts of different trees with different fungicidal liquids, such as have
previously been described, and comparing results. A prompt and
thorough use of the knife should be resorted to in all cases. As a
most effectual prevention of the disease the use of sour orange stocks
is to be recommended, and they should be budded at least a yard
from the ground.

ORANGE SCAB OR WARTY GROWTH.

This disease of citrus trees manifests itself in scabby or warty
excrescences on the leaves and other tender parts, particularly of the
sour orange. It is caused by the parasitic growth of a fungus thought
by Professor Scribner to be a cladosporium. The parts it attacks
become distorted and seriously disfigured, and the health of trees thus
affected is materially impaired.
This disease and the fungus causing it were unknown previous
to 1885. In that year it appeared in the heart of the orange belt of
Florida, and within a year it became generally diffused. The spores
being borne from grove to grove by the wind, the dispersion of the
fungus and the disease was naturally -.ery rapid. Although the scab









seems not to have reached some of the border counties, it is pretty
well dispersed through the region of profitable orange growing.
VARIETIES OF TREES AFFECTED.-The scab first appeared on
the sour orange, and it has been confined mainly to that variety. In
1886 it was detected on the lemon, and it is now found on that tree in
most localities where it is grown. The native Florida lemon is about
as badly affected as the sour orange, and European varieties are sub-
ject to it, though not to a serious degree. It appears both on seedling
and budded lemons. It is found occasionally on the lime and pomelo
(grape fruit), and it may probably be found on the citron, shaddock,
and in fact all species of citrus.
It has been hoped that the sweet orange would resist this new
disease, and thus far it has been almost completely exempt. In a few
localities, however, the scab has been detected on the sweet orange.
One nurseryman in Volusia county, whose sour seedlings are badly
affected, finds the disease spreading among his sweet stock, being thus
far confined to the Satsuma variety. Another, in Marion county,
finds that the Satsuma is affected when grown close to some trees.
Thus far the fruit of citrus trees has been but little affected by
the scab, yet enough to cause alarm. In some places sour oranges
and lemons have been badly disfigured, and this year it has been
observed near Orlando on sweet fruit. When such instances occur it
will probably be found that the sweet trees stand close to badly
affected sour trees.
Sweet trees certainly are very resistant when most exposed. Mr.
Alfred Baily; of San Mateo, Putnam county, in giving his experi-
ence, says: "I have two or three trees that are part sour and part
sweet. On these the sour limbs and leaves are all diseased, while the
sweet are not affected." Mr. C. B. Pelton, of Lake Helen, Volusia
county, has observed young sweet trees interlocking their branches
with those of very scabby, sour orange trees, yet not in the least
affected.
CAUSE AND EFFECTS OF THE SCAB.-The direct cause of the.
orange scab is, as has been stated, a low species of fungus. As to its
origin, it may have been introduced from some other country, or it
may be a new form of some species that has long inhabited some other
tree, herb or grass, and that has recently adapted itself to the citrus
trees. It is known that some of the lower fungi do adapt themselves
to unlike forms of vegetation, and, in so doing, assume very different
forms.
If there are any external conditions more favorable than others










to the growth of this fungus, they have escaped detection thus far.
Some conjecture that it is induced by dry seasons, or poor soil, or that
it results from insect stings, but those who make the widest observa-
tions can trace no aggravating cause.
Both old and young trees are attacked by the scab, but on the
latter it is most conspicuous and most damaging-except as regards
fruit. However, young sour stock is almost exclusively grown for
budding, and as soon as the tops are changed the difficulty disappears.
This is fortunate for the nurserymen, some of whom treat it with a
degree of indifference. Still, it impairs the vigor of the young trees,
attacking them, as it sometimes does, when only a span high-espe-
cially when they are not in the most thrifty condition. After the sour
top has been removed and the sweet bud begins to grow, the stock
regains its vigor, but there is need of working the trees earlier than
would otherwise be necessary.
MEANS OF PREVENTION.-As this disease is so deep seated in
the tissues of the leaves and young stems, it is obvious that external
applications can have but little effect on it, and that anything like
cure would involve the removal of the diseased parts. Before any
preventive treatment is attempted, every vestige of the disease should
be removed from the trees and burned, and unless a neighborhood join
in doing so, it would be of little avail, for every scab is, in effect, a
seed-bed, giving forth spores which may be carried to a hundred
trees.
After the disease has been eradicated, its reappearance may be
prevented, undoubtedly, by the use of fungicides, such as have pre-
viously been mentioned. By keeping up this treatment, of cutting
and spraying, it is probable that a grove may be protected, especially
if it be remote from diseased groves. A line of investigation promis-
ing best results consists in the use of different fungicides, and in study-
ing the fungus to ascertain when it is most active in production of
spores. In this manner some preventive treatment may be discovered
which orange growers can employ without too much expenditure of
time and money. It is probable that the fruit of the sweet orange,
should it come to be affected by the scab, can be protected from the
latter and from the rust by the same process, as some and perhaps all
fungicidal substances are likewise destructive of insect life.
As regards nursery stocks, some nurserymen contemplate the use
of sweet seedlings hereafter. This may become necessary, but it
should be adopted as a last resort, especially on account of the liabil-
ity of sweet seedlings to foot-rot. However, the latter disease is not









much to be dreaded except in groves that lack drainage. In sweet
orange groves, trees of the sour orange and Florida lemon should be
cut down, or their tops should be altered by budding from sweet trees.
By such means communication of the disease may be guarded against
to a large extent. Thus far sweet trees are practically exempt from
the scab, but there is reason to fear that the disease may adapt itself
to all citrus trees. Therefore, too much care cannot be exercised to
guard against sources of contagion.

THE RUST OF THE ORANGE,-WHAT CAN BE AND HAS BEEN DONE
FOR ITS PREVENTION.
That the rust of the orange is caused by the punctures of a mite,
is a fact that does not admit of question; yet many persons still hold
to the theory that the presence of the mite is consequent on the rust
rather than antecedent to it. Simple observation, with a magnifying
glass, of the fruit as its growth progresses, is sufficient to disprove this
theory, which cannot be set aside too soon, as it stands in the way of
the general adoption of the only possible means of prevention,
namely, the use of insecticides.
Many who recognize the true cause of the rust, are of the
opinion that it will not pay to attempt preventive treatment. As yet
there is no ground for such belief, and it is wiser to adhere to the con-
trary opinion until the" question has been decided by a thorough
course of experimentation. Desultory experiments have been made
with various insecticides, and although they have not been thorough
enough to be conclusive, yet the results, on the whole, have been very
encouraging.
Three years ago a course.of treatment was advised by Mr. H. G.
Hubbard, in a report to the United States Department of Agricul-
ture. His suggestions have been put in practice, with modifications,
by several persons, most thoroughly, perhaps, by Mr. Alfred Bailey,
of San Mateo, Putnam county. His conclusions, based on last
year's experiments, are embodied in a letter dated May 15th, 1888,
which is as follows:
As to results of last year's experience, I am well pleased. Not
even 5 per cent. of my oranges were rusty, and those but slightly.
But, owing to carelessness, about 5 per cent. additional were slightly
spotted or burned by the solution being too strong. This was caused
by not having the whale oil soap and potash in every application
thoroughly dissolved before beginning to use it, and on getting near
the bottom of the barrel it became thick and too strong.










My formula last season was 5 pounds whale oil soap, i pound
concentrated potash, 11 pounds sulphur, to 40 gallons water. But I
am satisfied that was unnecessarily strong, and I think I shall leave
out the potash this season. Lime and sulphur are equally efficient in
destroying the rust mite. Place 5 or 6 pounds of good stone lime and
1 pound sulphur in a barrel. Add water enough to slack. Then fill
up, let settle and use.
"This is somewhat cheaper, and somewhat more difficult to
handle, owing to danger of whitening trees and fruit. Early in the
season it would not matter much if leaves and fruit were whitened
somewhat, but later the solution would have to be used clear. As to
method of application, I apply with one of the Field force pumps. It
has 8 feet of delivery hose, with fine spray nozzle and 24 feet suction
pipe, mounted on frame work on top of barrel. The solution can be
applied rapidly.
The season for active operations, if we intend to keep our or-
anges bright, is at hand. Already the rust mite is coming. I find
on some trees the leaves are swarming with them, and they will soon
reach the fruit and then the work of discoloration begins."
Mr. Bailey's faith in lime is not supported by Mr.'Hubbard's ex-
perience, for, after various applications of it, dry and in solution, he re-
ports that "not the slightest effect was obtained." Neither does he
approve of ashes, lye, creosote or pyrethrum. (He recommends a
wash made of carbolic or creosote soap as a remedy for die-back,
foot-rot, and for destroying insect and fungus parasites in general.)
A person in Putnam county claims to have freed one tree of rust,
simply by throwing a little lime over it when the fruit was one-fourth
grown.
Mr. Hubbard found that "emulsions containing 66 per cent. of
kerosene oil, and diluted with water ten times, as in applications for
scab insects, do not kill the eggs of the rust mite," and that a solution
half as strong does not kill all the mites. Mr. R. H. Burr, who re-
sides near Bartow, Polk county, having a young Majorca tree affected
with rust, tried dipping branches of it in an emulsion of coal oil, there
being fruit upon them the size of a walnut. At maturity the fruit on
the branches so treated was all bright, while the rest of the fruit on
the tree was more or less rusted. Mr. Burr intends trying the remedy
again this year and will report results.
Mr. Aaron Warr, of Georgetown, Putnam county, tried Mr.
Bailey's formula last year and found it very effectual. W. W.
Hawkins & Son, of Lake teorge, tried a similar formula with great sat-









isfaction. They report as follows: We believe it is well settled now
that sulphur, if properly applied, is a sure cure for the rust. We
begin early in May, before the fruit gets much size, and thoroughly
spray every tree and all fruit.
We put in an oak oil cask of 50 gallons one peck of best stone
lime and 10 pounds of sulphur; on this pour quickly 8 to 10 gallons
of boiling water, to make the whole slack as quickly and with as much
heat as possible. After becoming thoroughly slacked, fill up with
cold water. Stir thoroughly, and while in motion dip out into buck-
ets and spray the trees, leaves and fruit, inside and out. This can be
filled up and used out of about four times, or as long as any trace of
the sulphur shows on the foliage and fruit.. We find it preferable to
dip out into buckets, rather than draw directly from the barrel, as in
the latter case much of the sediment passes through the pump at the
first using.
We think early in May none too early to make the first appli-
cation, and again in June. Some who have used it say May 1st, June
1st and July 1st. We have the impression that this preparation is
going to be effective for the destruction of other insect pests, such as
the brown scale, white scale, mealy bug, and others."
In reply to a letter of inquiry, Mr. R. D. Fuller, of Altamonte,
Orange county, writes as follows: "I will state that I have tried sul-
phur for rust on my oranges. I tried it first in the summer of 1885,
before the winter of the freeze, when at least seven-eighths of my crop
was bright. Have tried it each season since, but not as largely as that
year. I am satisfied that if sulphur is carefully applied it will keep
off the rust mite to a great extent, if not entirely. I apply it with a
bellows. As I have this season singled out rows of trees, and am try-
ing it on them several times through the season, I shall, after a time,
be able to speak with more certainty with regard to this treatment.
Mr. I. J. Brokaw, of Anthony, states that Bishop, Hoyt & Co.,
of Citra, last year used on their Orange Lake grove sulphur and lime
in an emulsion to destroy the rust insect. They thought it a success.
They used it early m summer with a force of men. Think they used
it on nearly 100 acres of grove."
Messrs. Gillett Bros., of South Lake Weir, Marion county, state
that a solution of sulphur and lime has been used there with good
effect. Mr. F. N. Horton, of Braidentown, Manatee county, finds that
the rust can easily be prevented by spraying with a solution, the for-
mula of which is not given. Mr. E. Bean, of Jacksonville, is adver-










tising the Eureka Insecticide," which is described as "sure death to
the rust mite if it touches him."
It will be seen from the foregoing that the prevention of rust has
been made the subject of numerous experiments, the results of which,
on the whole, have been quite satisfactory, and such as to encourage
the general use of sulphur, with or without whale-oil soap and other
materials. All experience seems to confirm the conclusions arrived
at by Professor Hubbard, which he summarized in his report as fol-
lows:
Flowers of sulphur must, therefore, be regarded as one of the
cheapest and most effective remedies for rust-mite, and it may be used
to great advantage in connection with whale-oil soap or other insecti-
cides. It may be suspended in water, and applied in spray. With
proper appliances the dry powder may be sifted or blown upon the
foliage when wet with dew or rain. A little wheat flour added to the
powder would increase its adhesiveness."
It is probable that the last mentioned method of applying sul-
phur will be found most convenient, economical and effectual. Appli-
ances may be devised by which the powder can be dusted among the
foliage from a coarse sack attached to the end of a pole, or blown
from bellows with a long nozzle. The same application may serve
also as a preventive of scab.
The best season for attacking the mite will be learned by expe-
rience. It must be borne in mind that the eggs are not materially
affected by any substance that will not injure the leaves. They re-
quire several days for hatching, and to destroy the mites hatched
from them there must be a second, and perhaps a third, application of
the insecticide within a week. To avoid waste of labor it is well,
before attacking the enemy, to ascertain that he is present in sufficient
force to do material damage. This, again, needs experience. By
examining leaves here and there in a grove, with a good hand lens,
one can judge to what extent the grove is infested. The mite is a
honey-yellow, four-legged creature, measuring when full grown only
1-200th inch in length. Mr. Hubbard estimated that 75,000 of the
mites, besides a vast number of eggs, may be found on a single leaf.
When present in large numbers they appear like golden dust on the
leaves, which lose their gloss and become somewhat warped. By such
signs one may learn to judge of the presence and numbers of the mites
without resorting to a lens.
Considering the immense damage done by this minute insect to
the fruit for which Florida is so famous, in robbing it of its golden










hue, in reducing its size and depriving it of its just value in the
market, it behooves the orange growers to adopt vigorous measures for
abating the evil. If there is a remedy at hand, simple, practicable
and sufficiently cheap, it should have a general and thorough trial.
The rust-mite may run its course and be driven from the field by
natural agencies, and so may the foot-rot, and possibly the scab, but
such chances cannot be taken in account in conducting a great indus-
try like orange growing. Difficulties of many kinds will arise, and it
will not do to succumb to them on the ground that it is "too much
trouble," and "will not pay." It would pay the orange growers well
to employ skillful experimentalists, like Mr. Hubbard, to study and
devise remedies for all the ills to which their groves are subject.
When remedies are discovered and made free to them, they should at
least be willing to give them a thorough trial.


DEPARTMENT OF CHEMISTRY.

SOIL ANALYSIS.
The examination of the soil of the experimental farm, undertaken
some weeks ago, has so far advanced as to enable me to report some
points of interest. The analyses, given below, are to be regarded as
merely preliminary. The examination will be taken up again at an
early day and completed.

SOIL NO. 1.
This sample was taken near the northern boundary of the farm,
at the highest point midway between the two branches that run
through the farm. The depth down to which it was taken was about
five inches. The soil is pretty thoroughly exhausted, and had not been
fertilized in recent years (the sample came from just outside the field
as now cultivated). It would be classed a high, rolling hammock,
and, judging by the huge oaks, magnolias and pines now growing on
the adjoining woodland, was originally of fine productiveness. Before
subjecting it to analysis the sample was allowed to lie several days in
the air for the purpose of drying.












ANALYSIS OF THE AIR-DRIED SOIL.


Water..............................
Organic and volatile matter......
Sand...............................
Clay.................................
Oxides of iron and aluminum...
Lime.......... ...........................
Magnesia............................
Phosphoric acid..... ..........
Potash and soda....... ..........


0.51 per cent
1.27
96.02
2.77
0.33
0.06
0.03
0.07
0.09

101.15


No. 2.-This is a subsoil, taken from the oldest cleared and cul-
tivated spot on the farm, at a point about 100 yards east of the west
brooklet. The plot from which it was taken had not been recently
cultivated or fertilized. The soil above was removed to the depth of
about six inches, and then a sample of the subsoil taken down to
about fourteen inches.

ANALYSIS OF THE AIR-DRIED SAMPLE.


Water................................
Organic and volatile matter.....
Sand..................... ............
Clay...................................
Oxides of iron and aluminum...
Lime ......... ......................
Magnesia.............................
Phosphoric acid....................
Potash and soda.. ................


0.28
0.80
97.31
2.38
0.28
0.03
0.05
0.02
0.09

101.22


per cent

rr
"(
"c
"(
"(
"(
"


By way of contrast, I give below some analyses of soils made at
the Connecticut Experiment Station:

PRAIRIE SOIL (from Illinois).


Carbonate of lime...................
Sand........................ .............
C lay.....................................
Humus..............................
Loss at 1500 C......................


0.88 per cent
82.86
7.86 "
1.57
4.42

97.59










BRICK CLAY (from Connecticut).
.Carbonate of lime................... 4.20 per cent
Sand..................................... 64.91
Clay..................................... 22.65
H um us.................................. ....
Loss on ignition...................... 6.60

98.36
The following is taken from the Report (1887) of the Ontario
Agricultural College and Experimental Farm:

ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTAL PLOTS.

Mixture.............. ................... 2.947 per cent
Organic and volatile matter........... 10.494
Sand, silica and insoluble silica....... 78.590
Phosphoric acid......................... 0.039
Sulphuric acid.......................... 0.150
Oxide of iron and alumina............ 0.297
Zinc........................................ 0.925
M agnesia.................................. 0.420
Potash ......... ...... ................... 0.086
Soda................... ... ..... ....... 0.056

100.000
The soil of our farm is deficient in organic matter. The per
cent. of clay, as given by the analyses, though not large, is perhaps
somewhat too high, owing to causes which it would be out of place to
discuss here. In a future bulletin we hope to give an analysis of the
"clay soils," which lie but a short distance from the College farm.
Some of these clays make pretty fair brick.
A soil which contains three to four or five per cent. of lime is
regarded as rich in that ingredient. The per cent. of lime in our soil
is small. A short distance from the College farm is soil in which
lime rock abounds. A sample of this soil should, by way of compari-
son with ours, be analyzed. A specimen of limestone, taken from a
large deposit in Columbia county, contains 93.67 per cent. of carbon-
ate of lime, and would doubtless burn a most excellent quality of
lime.
Below are given the partial analyses of some additional soils and
muck, all from our farm. No. 1 and No. 2 are the same soils, so des-
ignated above. No. 3 is a sample of low, uncleared hammock, taken
about 100 yards from the border of the lake south of the farm. Depth










of sample about five inches. No. 4 was taken from near the same
spot as No. 3. Depth of sample about three inches. No. 4 consists
of very dark earth, rich in humus, and may be regarded as the richest
soil on the farm. No. 3 is not so dark in color, and differs from No.
4 in that it was sampled sufficiently deep to include a large per cent.
of the underlying sand. No. 5 is a sample of cypress muck.
No. 2. No. 1. No. 3.
W ater .............. .................. 0.23' 0.44 0.96
Organic and volatile matter...... 0.80 1.27 2.08
Sand and clay......................... 99.77 97.46 96.96
Soluble matter....................... 0.23 0.83
100.00 100.00 100.00

These soils were all exposed for several days, under similar con-
ditions, to the free access of the air. It will be noticed that the
amount of water that each soil holds on to, after this treatment, varies
with the amount of organic matter in each-the greater the amount
of organic matter, the greater the amount of water. The uses of humus
to soil are manifold, but none of these uses are, perhaps, of greater
importance than the one emphasized by the above experiment-
namely, it heightens the capacity of a soil to withstand drought. It
does this in two ways. First, it increases the soil's capacity to ab-
sorb moisture. Secondly, it increases its power to draw up moisture
from the subsoil. This is a matter which cannot be too strongly em-
phasized. It will not, therefore, be out of place to give some addi-
tional facts in illustration of these two propositions. Dr. Adolf
Mayer, director of the Experiment Station at Wageningen, Germany,
gives the following figures, showing the relative absorptive capacity of
different soils:

Clay soil.............................50.0 per cent of its volume
Humus" ............................70.0 "
Garden earth.......................69.0 W
Lime soil............................. 54.9 .
Sandy (82.7 per cent. sand)..45.4
S (64 )..65.2

These figures show that humus soil absorbs most, sandy soil least
water. My own figures given above indicate that the higher the per
cent. of humus in a soil the more tenaciously it resists the evaporation
of its moisture into the air.
The result of experiments to ascertain the capacity of different








46
soils to draw up moisture by capillary attraction is given by the same
author. The following are the heights to which moisture was drawn
in 21i hours by various soils:

Clay soil..........................80.0 inches
Humus soil......................70.8
Garden earth...................64.4 "
Sandy soil.........................36,0 "
Chalky .........................28.0 "

In this respect, also, humus soil stands very high and sandy soil
very low.
Florida soils are, with few if any, exceptions, of a strongly sandy
type. All the greater is the necessity of our seeing to it that our soil
abounds in humus, if we would counteract the effects of drought.
J. M. PICKEL,
Professor of Chemistry.




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