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 Effect of incomplete fertilizers--one...
 Credits






Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station ; 144
Title: Fertilizers for Japanese cane
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027426/00001
 Material Information
Title: Fertilizers for Japanese cane
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: p. 89-99 : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Scott, John M ( John Marcus )
Publisher: University of Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Gainesville Fla
Publication Date: 1918
 Subjects
Subject: Sugarcane -- Fertilizers   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by John M. Scott.
General Note: Cover title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027426
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000922763
oclc - 18162260
notis - AEN3272

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title Page
    Table of Contents
        Table of Contents
    Introduction
        Page 91
    Applying the fertilizer
        Page 92
    Effect of complete fertilizers on yields
        Page 93
        Page 94
        Page 95
    Effect of incomplete fertilizers--two elements used
        Page 96
    Effect of incomplete fertilizers--one element used
        Page 97
        Page 98
    Credits
        Page 99
Full Text

February, 1918


UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

Agricultural Experiment Station




FERTILIZERS

FOR JAPANESE CANE
By JOHN M. SCOTT


FIG. 24.-Japanese cane, S. P. I. No. 30464, grown on the Station farm


Bulletins will be sent free upon application to Experiment Station,
GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA


Bulletin 144












CONTENTS
PAGE
Introduction ............................................. 91
Applying the Fertilizer...................... ...... ............ 92
Effect of Complete Fertilizers on Yields........................... 93
Sulphate of Ammonia Better than Dried Blood............... 93
Effect of Barnyard Manure ................................. 94
Need of Fertilizer Evident................................ 94
Values of Different Forms of Phosphorus.................... 94
Effect of Ground Limestone................................. 95
Value of Phosphoric Acid........................ ........ 95
The Extreme Yields ...................................... 95
Effect of Incomplete Fertilizers-Two Elements Used.............. 96
Comparative Values of Different Elements................... 96
Effect of Incomplete Fertilizers-One Element Used................ 97
Various Forms of Phosphorus Compared.................... 97
Various Forms of Ammonia Compared....................... 98
Ground Limestone of Little Value ......................... 98



SUMMARY
1. Fertilizer experiments with Japanese cane have been con-
ducted at this Station continuously since 1908.
2. The results in this bulletin supplement those reported in
Bulletin 129.
3. Japanese cane is an important forage crop in Florida.
4. Barnyard manure applied to the soil on which this cane
was grown induced the best yield.
5. The combination of fertilizers that produced the best yield
.in this experiment was, sulphate of ammcaia,.84 pounds; acid
phosphate, 150 pounds; and sulphate of potash, 60 pounds; with
2000 pounds of ground limestone per acre.
6. When only two plant food elements were applied, best
yields were obtained from sulphate of ammonia, 84 pounds, and
sulphate of potash, 60 pounds, per acre.
7. When only one plant food element was applied, nitrate of
soda, 116.6 pounds per acre, produced the best yield.











FERTILIZERS FOR JAPANESE CANE


By JOHN M. SCOTT

Japanese cane is being used as a forage crop to a greater ex-
tent every year. More farmers are beginning to realize its value,
and as a result the acreage in the State is being increased an-
nually. Its use in feeding dairy cattle is approved by the exper-
ience of some of the more progressive dairymen in Florida. As
a feed for mules in lumber and turpentine camps, Japanese cane
is well-known.
The most satisfactory results have been obtained by feeding
Japanese cane fresh each day; that is, the cane is cut, hauled in
from the field and run thru the feed cutter each day as needed.
When fed in this way there is little or no waste. Some have used
Japanese cane in the silo with good results. Others have cut and
banked it in the fall and fed it out when needed during the win-
ter. Those who have used it in the silo with unsatisfactory re-
sults perhaps failed to remember that Japanese cane produces
no grain, and, therefore, when fed in comparison with corn sil-
age and sorghum silage, equally good results are not to be ex-
pected.
Since Japanese cane is adapted to growth in Florida, and is
likely to become one of the most important forage crops, the re-
sults of fertilizing experiments made at this Station are of
interest. The experiments discussed in this bulletin, which sup-
plements bulletin 129, were started in the spring of 1914. After
the ground was plowed and a good seed bed prepared, the cane
was planted in rows six feet apart. The variety used in this
work was that known as S. P. I. No. 30464. Plantings were
made on January 7, 8, and 9, 1914. The canes averaged about
six feet in length, and 2182 whole canes were required to plant
one acre. Before planting the canes were cut into lengths of 15
to 18 inches, or into pieces averaging two or three joints to the
piece.







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


APPLYING THE FERTILIZER
The fertilizer used in this experiment was given in two appli-
cations each year. The first application was made in the spring
and the second in the summer. All the phosphoric acid and
potash and half the ammonia were given in the first application;
the remainder of the ammonia was given as the second applica-
tion.
TABLE 45.-Dates of Fertilizer Applications
Application I 1914 I 1915 ] 1916
Spring ................... ...... May 27 May 20 May 18
Summer ......................... August 21 July 23 July 27

Tables 46, 47, and 48 show the kind and amount of fertilizer
applied per acre, the yields of green material each year, and the
average for three years. A comparison of yields from the
various plots for the two succeeding years, shows a marked de-
crease from the amount of green material produced the first
year. The kind of fertilizer applied seems to have had no in-
fluence toward maintaining the yield. Those plots that received
complete fertilizers and lime also showed a gradual decrease in
yields from year to year. The check plots decreased in yield in
about the same ratio as the fertilized plots. These results agree
with those reported in bulletin 129. Even the plot that was fer-
tilized with barnyard manure at the rate of thirty two-horse
wagon loads per acre produced a large yield of green material
the first year and the second year there was a drop in yield of
-practically sixty percent; the yield for the third year was ap-
proximately the same as that of the second.
To make comparison of the results from the twenty-three ex-
perimental plots more convenient, they have been arranged in
three tables. The first, table 46, presents results from the use of
,complete fertilizers; the second, table 47, shows the results from
plots receiving two elements; and the third, table 48, shows the
results from plots receiving only one element. In each table
comparison is made with results from the check plots.






Bulletin 144, Fertilizers for Japanese Cane

EFFECT OF COMPLETE FERTILIZERS ON YIELDS
fABLE 46.-Yields from Plots Receiving Complete Fertilizers


p



3..
4..
5 ..
6 .
7 ..
8 .2
9,20


Fertilizer applied,
pounds per acre

0 o 0


84 ... .. 150 ..1 60
12 *.5I [ 150 ":160 12000
... 7 7 77 60 20004
1 .. "301 ..1 .1 60 1.. ...
123.51 1501 . 60 120001|
.. .1 *30 .. ... I I. .
123.51 ..1 .. 751 60 .
841 .. .| 1501 . 60 I .
841 . 1 751 60 I ..
S 84 ... .( ... .I .. .. 60 12000
S 841 .. . ... 133 60 I .
| Check Plots, averaged yields


*Thirty two-horse wagon loads.

SULPHATE OF AMMONIA BETTER THAN DRIED BLOOD
Comparing the yields from the various plots gives some inter-
esting information. From plots 1 and 2 may be had a compari-
son of the values of sulphate of ammonia and dried blood as
sources of ammonia for fertilizing cane. These results strongly
indicate that sulphate of ammonia is much the better. Plot I
receiving sulphate of ammonia produced a heavier yield per acre
each year than did plot 2. The average yield for plot 1 for the
three years was 13.7 tons. The average for plot 2 which re-
ceived dried blood was 11.8 tons; making a difference of 1.9 tons
in favor of the sulphate of ammonia.
These results agree with those referred to in bulletin 129,
which indicated then that sulphate of ammonia was the best
form of ammonia to use for cane. It is difficult to give any
definite reason why this should be true, unless sulphate of am-
monia in the soil is of more value in liberating some of the other
plant-food elements.
Yields from plots 4 and 6 might be compared to get the rela-
tive values of dried blood and sulphate of ammonia when used
with floats. These results are practically the same as those from
plots 1 and 2; that is, the sulphate of ammonia plot produced a
larger yield per acre. Plot 4 fertilized with dried blood, floats,
and sulphate of potash produced a yield of 10.8 tons, while plot
6, in which sulphate of ammonia was substituted for the dried


in tons of
green material


19141 1915 1916 064

17.03113.30110.85 13.7
14.42 12.951 8.23 11.8
32.67 13.65 13.21 19.8
12.31111.201 9.01110.8
15.97 11.201 8.40111.8
117.11 12.16I 7.18112.1
116.85111.901 6.91111.8
116.681 9.361 5.60110.5
I 8.15! 5.551 3.191 5.6


rOS

244.6
210.7
353.5
192.8
210.7
216.0
210.7
187.5
1100.0


__


Vlo I n oAr.






Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


blood, gave a yield of 12.1 tons; or an increase of 1.3 tons per
acre. Dried blood and sulphate of ammonia were not applied in
equal number of pounds per acre, but equal amounts of ammonia
were applied to the two plots. The dried blood analyzed 17 per-
cent and was applied at the rate of 123.5 pounds per acre, while
84 pounds of sulphate of ammonia analyzing 25 percent were
used on the other plot.
EFFECT OF BARNYARD MANURE
Plot 3 was fertilized with barnyard manure at the rate of 30
two-horse wagon loads per acre, and produced the largest yield
of all plots in the test. In fact, the first year the yield from this
plot was practically double that of any other plot. For the three
years the average yield was 19.8 tons per acre. The yield in 1916
was about 60 percent less than in 1914. However, the 1916 crop
was nearly as large as that in 1915. No satisfactory explanation
for the large decrease in yield from 1914 to 1916 can be offered.
NEED OF FERTILIZER EVIDENT
If the yields from plots 1, 2, and 3 are compared with the
average of the two check plots, shown in the last line of table 46,
it is evident that to produce the maximum crop of Japanese cane
it is necessary to use fertilizer. The fertilizer applied to plot 1,
294 pounds, and one ton of ground limestone, increased the yield
8.1 tons per acre over that of the average of the two checks.
The fertilizer applied to plot 2, 333.5 pounds, and one ton of
ground limestone, increased the yield 6.2 tons per acre over the
average of the two checks. The 30 two-horse wagon loads of
barnyard manure applied to plot 3 increased the yield 14.2 tons
per acre over the average yield of the same two check plots.
VALUES OF DIFFERENT FORMS OF PHOSPHOROUS
Comparing the results from plots 5, 6 and 8 gives an idea of
the comparative values of different forms of phosphorus in fer-
tilizing Japanese cane. Plot 5 received sulphate of ammonia,
acid phosphate and sulphate of potash. Plot 6 was fertilized ex-
actly the same except that floats was substituted for acid phos-
phate. Acid phosphate and floats were not applied in equal num-
her of pounds per acre, but equal amounts of phosphorus were
applied to each plot. This comparison shows a slight difference
in favor of the floats. Plot 5, the acid phosphate plot, produced
a yield of 11.8 tons, while plot 6, the floats plot, produced a yield
of 12.1 tons, for an average of three years. This difference of
only 0.3 of a ton is well within the limits of error.






Bulletin 144, Fertilizers for Japanese Cane


In plot 8 the source of phosphorus was Thomas slag. This
shows a decided decrease in yield when compared with either
plot 5 or 6; the yield being 1.6 tons less than plot 6 and 1.3 tons
less than plot 5.
The results from these three plots indicate that there is little or
no difference in the values of acid phosphate and floats, and that
either one is considerably better than Thomas slag for fertiliz-
ing Japanese cane.
EFFECT OF GROUND LIMESTONE
The yields from plots 1 and 5 can be compared to get the rela-
tive value of ground limestone when applied to Japanese cane.
These two plots were fertilized exactly alike except that plot 1
received ground limestone at the rate of 2000 pounds per acre.
The fertilizer was applied each year as shown in table 45 but the
ground limestone was applied in the spring of 1914 and again
in 1916, or, only every other year.
This comparison shows an increased yield of 1.9 tons in favor
of ground limestone, an increase perhaps not sufficient to offset
the cost of the ground limestone and its application. This is
quite different from the showing made in the earlier experiment
as reported in bulletin 129. In that experiment'the ground lime-
stone acted as a stimulant, giving a very decided increase in
yield the first year. In this experiment limestone seems to have
had no stimulating effect whatever.

VALUE OF PHOSPHORIC ACID
The relative value of phosphoric acid as a fertilizer for Japa-
nese cane is obtained by comparing the yields of plots 1 and 7.
This comparison would indicate that phosphoric acid is of some
slight value, but the addition of 150 pounds of phosphoric acid
increased the yield only 1.9 tons per acre.

THE EXTREME YIELDS
For comparison, the yields from the two check plots, plots 9
and 20, were averaged 'and this result taken as the normal yield
from unfertilized soil. It is seen that the addition of a complete
fertilizer increased the yield materially over that of the checks;
in fact, most of the plots receiving a complete fertilizer produced
double the yield of the check plots.
Plot 8, which shows the smallest yield, was fertilized with sul-
phate of ammonia, Thomas slag, and sulphate of potash. The
plot that gave the largest yield, excepting plot 3 which was fer-







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


tilized with barnyard manure, was plot 1 fertilized with sulphate
of ammonia, acid phosphate, and potash, with the addition of
ground limestone.

EFFECT OF INCOMPLETE FERTILIZERS-TWO
ELEMENTS USED
TABLE 47.-Yields from Plots Receiving Two Fertilizing Elements

Fertilizer applied,
pounds per acre Yields per acre,
in tons of
o green material

ag a ga ;g
E 0 *0 1914 1915.1916G Aver- o'
Sim Ca Z m 4 M O i a.ge a
10 ... 84 .. .. I2000! 12.771 7.171 3.061 7.6 135.7
11 .... 1 84 .. .... 5 14.81 8.31 3.85 8.8 157.1
12.... 123.5 I 75 .. I... 13.411 7.001 2.01 7.4 132.1
13... .. I... 116.6 | .. 60 .. 14.111 7.351 3.50 8.3 1 148.2
14 .... 123.5 | .. 60 9.021 8.221 3.331 6.8 121.4
15 ... 84 ... I .... 60 .... 12.101 8.75! 6.651 9.1 162.5
9,20.. Check plots, averaged yields 8.151 5.551 3.191 5.6 1 100.0

COMPARATIVE VALUES OF DIFFERENT ELEMENTS
The first comparison of average yields of plots receiving in-
complete fertilizers,.or only two elements, is made between plots
11 and 12. This shows the comparative value of sulphate of am-
monia and dried blood when used with floats in the absence of
potash. As in the plots previously compared, the sulphate of
ammonia plot produced a better yield than the dried blood plot.
The yield when sulphate of ammonia was used (plot 11) was 8.8
tons, and when dried blood was used (plot 12) was 7.4 tons; a
difference of 1.4 tons in favor of sulphate of ammonia.
Plots 13 and 14 furnish a comparison of nitrate of soda and
dried blood with potash. Plot 13, fertilized with nitrate of soda
at the rate of 116.6 pounds and sulphate of potash 60 pounds per
acre, produced a yield of 8.3 tons. Plot 14, fertilized with dried
blood 123.5 pounds and sulphate of potash 60 pounds per acre,
produced a yield of 6.8 tons; a difference of 1.5 tons in favor of
nitrate of soda.
A comparison of plot 15 with plots 13 and 14 might well be
made. Plot 15, fertilized with sulphate of ammonia 84 pounds
and sulphate of potash, produced a yield of 9.1 tons. This yield
was 0.8 of a ton more than the nitrate of soda plot (plot 13), and







Bulletin 144, Fertilizers for Japanese Cane


2.3 tons more than the dried blood plot (plot 14). Comparing
these with the check plots, the nitrate of soda plot produced 2.7
tons more than the checks, the dried blood plot 1.2 tons more, and
the sulphate of ammonia plot 3.5 tons more than the average of
the two check plots.
Another comparison of interest is that of the results from
plots 7 and 10. These two plots received ground limestone in
equal amounts; plot 7 received potash in addition to the lime,
while plot 10 received no potash. This shows that plot 7 re-
ceiving 60 pounds of potash increased the yield 4.2 tons over
plot 10 which received no potash, indicating the need of potash
in fertilizer for Japanese cane.

EFFECT OF INCOMPLETE FERTILIZERS-ONE
ELEMENT USED

TABLE 48.-Yields from Plots Receiving One Fertilizing Element

Fertilizer applied,
pounds per acre
Yields per acre,
in tons of o
green material

s -a *uo -i1 SAver
o2 '0- 4 14 1915 6 Aver-
S, 3 p E7 w I age oU
16.. ... ... ... .. 133 .. 9.14 7.70 3.761 6.8 121.4
17. ... ... I... ( .. 60 9.091 7.08 3.85 6.6 117.8
18. .. .. | 75 .. I .. 6.791 5.421 2.631 4.9 87.5
19..I .... 150 .. ... I .. 8.401 5.681 2.981 5.6 100.0
21.. .. 123.5 .. I . 7.05] 6.561| 2.801 5.4 96.4
22 ... 1116.6 ... I I 1 14.031| 7.781 5.251 9.0 160.7
23.. I 84 I | ... ... .. .. 9.451 7.701 4.731 7.2 128.5
.9. 20! Check plots, averaged yields 1 8.151 5.551 3.191 5.6 100.0

VARIOUS FORMS OF PHOSPHOROUS COMPARED
In comparing the yields of plots receiving only one fertilizing
element, attention is directed to the results from plots 16, 18 and
19, which furnish a comparison of various forms of phosphorus.
Plot 16 received Thomas slag and produced a yield of 6.8 tons.
Plot 18 received floats and produced a yield of 4.9 tons. Plot 19
received acid phosphate and produced a yield of 5.6 tons. These
results indicate that when phosphorus alone is used, Thomas slag
is the best and floats is the least effective. These results seem to
contradict those obtained by using different forms of phospho-







Florida Agricultural Experiment Station


rus in complete fertilizers. Plot 8 received a complete fertilizer
with Thomas slag as the source of phosphorus, yet this plot pro-
duced a smaller amount per acre than did plots 5 and 6. Plot 5
was fertilized with sulphate of ammonia, acid phosphate and sul-
phate of potash, and plot 6 received sulphate of ammonia, floats
and sulphate of potash. When a complete fertilizer is used there
is little difference in the values of acid phosphate and floats, but
when only one element is applied these experiments would in-
dicate that Thomas slag is the most effective.

VARIOUS FORMS OF AMMONIA COMPARED
A comparison of yields from plots 21, 22 and 23 will indicate
the relative values of different forms of ammonia. Plot 21, fer-
tilized with dried blood at the rate of 123.5 pounds per acre, pro-
duced a yield of 5.4 tons. Plot 22, fertilized with nitrate of soda
at the rate of 116.6 pounds per acre, produced a yield of 9 tons
per acre. Plot 23, fertilized with sulphate of ammonia at the
rate of 84 pounds per acre, produced a yield of 7.2 tons. These
results indicate that when ammonia is used alone, nitrate of soda
is the best form in which to apply it.
In comparing these three plots with the average of the two
check plots, it is seen that the dried blood plot (plot 21) pro-
duced a slightly larger yield than the checks, a difference of only
0.2 of a ton per acre; but the nitrate of soda plot (plot 22) pro-
duced 3.4 tons more than the check plots; and the sulphate of
ammonia plot (plot 23) produced a yield of 1.6 tons more than
the check plots.
GROUND LIMESTONE OF LITTLE VALUE
A comparison of plots 10 and 23 might also be made. These
two plots were fertilized alike except that plot 10 received
ground limestone in addition to the sulphate of ammonia. The
yields from these two plots are almost equal, there being a dif-
ference of only 0.4 of a ton for an average of three years. This
would strongly indicate that ground limestone is of little or no
value in increasing the yield of cane.






Bulletin 144, Fertilizers for Japanese Cane


BOARD OF CONTROL
JOE L. EARMAN, Chairman, Jacksonville, Fla.
E. L. WARTMANN, Citra, Fla.
T. B. KING, Arcadia, Fla.
J. B. HODGES, Lake City, Fla.
J. T. DIAMOND, Milton, Fla.
BRYAN MACK, Secretary, Tallahassee, Fla.
J. G. KELLUM, Auditor, Tallahassee, Fla.


STATION STAFF
P. H. ROLFS, M. S., Director
J. M. SCOTT, B. S., Vice-Director and Animal Industrialist
B. F. FLOYD, A. M., Plant Physiologist
S. E. COLLISION, M. S., Chemist
J. R. WATSON, A. M., Entomologist
H. E. STEVENS, M. S., Plant Pathologist
E. G. SHAW, Secretary
J. MATZ, B. S., Laboratory Assistant in Plant Pathology
T. VAIT HYNING, Librarian
C. D. SHERBAKOFF, Ph. D., Associate Plant Pathologist
R. NEWHALL, Mailing Clerk
F. G. BENDING, Stenographer
O. W. WEAVER, B. S., Agricultural Editor
A. M. SMITH, B. S., Assistant Chemist
M. NOTHNAGEL, Ph. D., Assistant Plant Physiologist
J. B. THOMPSON, B. S., Forage Crop Specialist
G. C. OBERHOLTZER, Farm Foreman
C. L. SENSABAUGH, Gardener
H. L. DOZIER, M. S., Assistant to Entomologist
K. H. GRAHAM, Auditor and Bookkeeper




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