• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Board of control and station...
 Introduction
 Raw materials for mixing
 Vegetables
 Modifications of the general formula...
 General formula for field...
 General formula for fruits
 Average composition of the materials...
 Advertising
 Press bulletins






Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station ; 81
Title: Fertilizer suggestions
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027423/00001
 Material Information
Title: Fertilizer suggestions
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: p. 363-390 : ; 23 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Flint, E. R ( Edward R )
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Lake City Fla
Publication Date: 1905
 Subjects
Subject: Fertilizers -- Florida   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: E.R. Flint.
General Note: Cover title.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027423
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000921784
oclc - 18159369
notis - AEN2252

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 363
    Board of control and station staff
        Page 364
    Introduction
        Page 365
        Page 366
        Page 367
        Page 368
        Page 369
        Page 370
        Page 371
    Raw materials for mixing
        Page 372
        Page 373
        Page 374
    Vegetables
        Page 375
        Page 376
        Page 377
    Modifications of the general formula for specials crops
        Page 378
        Page 379
        Page 380
        Page 381
    General formula for field crops
        Page 382
        Page 383
        Page 384
    General formula for fruits
        Page 385
        Page 386
        Page 387
        Page 388
        Page 389
    Average composition of the materials recommended in per cents
        Page 390
    Advertising
        Page 391
    Press bulletins
        Page 392
Full Text



BULLETIN NO. 81


Florida

Agricultural Experiment Station
Chemical Department








Fertilizer Suggestions






E. R. FLINT






The Bulletins of this Station will be sent free to any address in Florida
upon application to the Director of the Experiment Station, Lake City, Florida


St. Augustine, Fla.
THE RECORD COMPANY
1905


AUGUST, 1905
















BOARD OF CONTROL.


N. P. BRYAN, Chairman................... Jacksonville, Fla.
P. K. YONGE ...................... ........ Pensacola, Fla.
N. ADAMS .............. ................ White Springs, Fla.
A. L. BROWN ... .......... ................. .. Eustis, Fla.
T. B. KING ............... ................... Arcadia, Fla.



STATION STAFF.

ANDREW SLEDD, A. M., Ph. D.. ..... ............ .Director
*C. M. CONNER, B. S.......... Vice-Director and Agriculturist
EDWARD R. FLINT, B. S., Ph. D., M. D ....... ..... Chemist
E. H. SELLARDS, M. A., Ph. D ..... ........... Entomologist
F. M. ROLFS, M. S............. Botanist and Horticulturist
CHAS. F. DAWSON, M. D., D. V. S..... Consulting Veterinarian
A. W. BLAIR, A. M............ ......... .Assistant Chemist
tR. A. LICHTENTHAELER, M. S ..... ... Assistant Chemist
B. H. BRIDGES, B. S .................. ...Assistant Chemist
tF. C. REIMER, B. S .................. Assistant Horticulturist
W. P. JERNIGAN .................... Auditor and Bookkeeper
H. T. PERKINS ...................Stenographer and Librarian
JOHN F. MITCHELL....... ............Foreman Station Farm
F. M. STEARNS. ...........Gardener, Horticultural Department
tS. A. ROBERT, B. S........... Assistant in Field Experiments
*Superintendent Farmers' Institutes.
tResigned.










FERTILIZER SUGGESTIONS.

BY E. R. FLINT.

The formulas and suggestions in this Bulletin have been com-
piled from experiments made at this and other Stations at various
times, especially those of neighboring States on the subject of
fertilization, in response to frequent inquiries for general and
special formulas. Modified, when necessary, for individual cases
and conditions, they should give good results.



INTRODUCTION.
When the German and French scientists, in the early part of
the last century, first began to study plant feeding, they found
that the only way they could control their observations was by
growing plants in a soil that contained no plant food, as pure
quartz sand or finely cut platinum wire, and then adding what
was necessary. It was thus discovered that a certain small amount
of mineral constituents were as necessary to plant growth as is
sufficient oxygen, carbon dioxide and moisture which the plant
derives from the air, and that plants as well as animals would
soon sicken and die if all mineral constituents were removed from
the food.
Following this discovery, the belief rapidly gained ground
that it was only necessary to supply large amounts of mineral
plant food to the soil in order to get large crops. In late years,
however, we are beginning to realize that this problem is not so
simple as it at'first appeared, and that many conditions affect the
taking up of food by the plant from the soil. To be sure, the
food must be there, but many other things must be taken into con-
sideration, some within our control and some not, as to whether
the plant can get the benefit of this food and give the return in
the crop for the money expended in feeding it. These conditions
and their control are receiving more and more attention every year.
Among these problems may be mentioned the chemical changes
that take place in the soil in regard to the plant food. We
recognize the harmful effects to health of small amounts of pre-
servatives in our canned goods, etc., and it is just as true that







Bulletin No. 81


small amounts of certain chemical compounds can develop in
soils which injure the plant or prevent its getting the full value
of the food present. Thus, the degree of acidity of a soil may
exert a very potent influence on the crop, and on a strongly acid
soil, any amount of certain forms of fertilizer might be applied
without getting the benefit from it in the crop. Thus it is just
as important that the farmer should know the general character
of his soil as it is for him to know the best fertilizer formula for
the crop he desires to raise.
Another point of the greatest importance is the amount and
the movement of water in the soil. The ability of the plant to
take up its food depends very largely upon this condition. The
food must not only be present and in such chemical combination
that it can be taken up by the plant without injury, but it must
be distributed through the soil where the plant roots can find it.
Otherwise you have the same condition as an animal tied up in a
stall in a barn overflowing, perhaps, with food. The result is,
that unless the food is brought to it, it dies of starvation. Exactly
the same thing may happen to the plant if there is not sufficient
water in the soil to bring the food to it. On the other hand, the
soil may be in such a condition that the water drains off so rap-
idly and completely that much of the plant food is carried away
in solution before it can be taken up by the plant. It will thus
be seen that this problem is one of the greatest importance to the
farmer, and as necessary for him to have some knowledge of as
is the question of what fertilizer to apply and how much. To a
considerable extent, the amount and movement of water in the
soil is under control by proper cultivation, drainage or covering
the surface with a growing crop. The more the farmer will study
this phase of the problem on his own particular soil, the more
successful will he be and the more economically will he be able
to fertililize his crops. This feature differs with every varying
condition of elevation, subsoil, etc., and it is only by constant
study and experiment that a farmer can come to understand his
soils.
Other factors that enter into the problem are climate, the
amount of rainfall and sunshine, length of the seasons, and, to
some extent, electrical conditions. These are not so much under
control, further than the selection of such crops as are suited to
the prevailing climatic conditions and proper cultivation.








Fertilizer Suggestions


It will thus be seen from the foregoing considerations that it
is impossible to construct a fertilizer formula for any particular
crop, even by taking the chemical composition of the plant and
other factors at our command as a basis, as the availability of the
different fertilizing-ingredients on the market, etc., which will
answer in all cases. One man may use a formula derived in this
way with success, and on an adjoining field, with the same crop
and formula, there may not be more than half the yield, because
other conditions were unfavorable. Nevertheless, a scientifically
constructed formula has a certain value, and it is at least better
than an improperly balanced fertilizer. But one cannot-always
predict that it is the best formula to use on any given soil. For this
reason, every progressive farmer should make tests of his own
to determine just what his individual soil requires and should aim
to make the physical condition of his land such as to get the
most benefit from the fertilizer applied.
The agriculturalist of Florida is in much the same position
as the early investigators, the larger portions of the soils of the
State being sandy with very little plant food. In a general way,
we speak of a fertile soil as one that is in a proper physical con-
dition to produce a good crop, with perhaps moderate fertiliza-
tion, and where the climatic and other conditions are favorable.
If a non-fertile soil has the proper physical and climatic con-
ditions it can be brought to a state of fertility by the application
of sufficient and proper plant food. A chemical study of some
of the typical soils of the State which was made by this Station
in 1897 and published in Bulletin 43, shows the following average
analysis of samples of sandy soils gathered from the central and
southern portions of Florida:
Nitrogen.......................................... .0413 per cent.
Potash ................................................. .0091 per cent.
Phosphoric acid..................................... 1635 per cent.
Lime................................................ .2805 per cent.
Prof. Hilgard estimates that soils should contain the follow-
ing amounts of the above ingredients in order to be classed as a
fertile soil:
The lime percentage should not fall below o. I per cent. in
the lightest sandy soils; in clay loams not below 0.25 per cent.,
and in heavy clay soils not below 0.5 per cent.; and it may ad-
vantageously rise to I and even 2 per cent. as a maximum. Be-








Bulletin No. 81


yond the latter figure it seems in no case to act more favorably
than a less amount, unless it be mechanically.
"The percentage of phosphoric acid is that which, in connec-
tion with the lime, seems to govern most commonly the product-
iveness of our virgin soils. In any of these, less than .05 must
be regarded as a serious deficiency, unless accompanied by a large
amount of lime. In sandy loams, o. per cent., when accompa-
nied by a fair supply of lime, secures fair productiveness for from
eight to fifteen years; with a deficiency of lime, twice that per-
centage would only serve for a similar time.
The potash percentages of soils seem, in a large number of
cases, to vary with that of 'clay;' that is, in clay soils they are
usually high, in sandy soils low; and since subsoils are in all ordi-
nary cases more clayey than surface soils, their potash percent-
ages are almost invariably higher.
"The potash percentage of heavy clay upland soil, and clay
loams, ranges from about 0.8 to 0.5 per cent.; lighter loams from
0.45 to 0.30 per cent.; sandy loams below 0.3 per cent. and sandy
soils of great depth may fall below o. i per cent. consistently with
good productiveness and durability. Virgin soils falling below
0.6 per cent. in potash seem in most cases to be deficient in avail-
able potash, its application to such soils being followed by an
immediate great increase of production. Sometimes, however, a
soil very rich in lime and phosphoric acid, shows good product-
iveness, despite a very low potash percentage, and conversely, a
high potash percentage seems capable of offsetting a low one of
lime."
By comparing these figures with the average analysis of the
sandy soils of Florida given above, it will be seen that they are
very deficient in nitrogen and potash, and experience has shown
that these elements in particular, with a fair amount of phos-
phoric acid, must be supplied in order to grow good crops. The
per cent. of lime varies largely in soils and where it is low, an
occasional application would undoubtedly show good results.
The importance of lime has, up to within the last few years,
been neglected as a fertilizing constituent. In this connection
I quote from Oscar Loew, in The Physiological Role of Mineral
Nutrients," bulletin 18 of the Division of Vegetable Physiology
and Pathology, U. S. Department of Agriculture:








Fertilizer Suggestions


"The more leaf surface is developed in a given time, the
more lime is necessary. A normal crop of wheat requires, per
hectare (nearly 2.5 acres) about 25.57 pounds, sugar beets 66.58
pounds, grass o18.91 pounds, clover 246.47 pounds, tobacco 338.85
pounds, while a normal growth of wood needs annually about
44.1 pounds of lime besides 15 to 35 pounds of magnesia, 4 to
22 pounds of potash and 1.75 to 8.81 pounds of phosphoric acid.
When the large demand for lime salts is taken into consideration
it is easily understood that an absence or deficiency of lime be-
comes apparent very early. Corn shoots kept alive for some
time in a culture solution free from lime, but all development
gradually ceased with the consumption of the stored-up lime.
However, when at the end of several weeks some lime was added a
very striking effect was noticed, hardly five hours elapsing be-
fore new buds pushed out from the sickly looking tips."
Chemical examination will show the presence or absence of
lime in a soil, but it is always a valuable test for the farmer to
make, to lime a small experimental plot at least, and compare
the results with the rest of the field, unless it is known that
abundant lime is present. Other mineral ingredients, as iron,
sulphur, magnesia, silica, etc., while just as essential to the
plant, are required in small amounts and are generally present in
all natural soils in sufficient quantity, so that they are left out of
consideration in making up a fertilizer formula.
The question is often asked of the Station what shall I
use for a fertilizer to improve my land ?" This question, in this
form, without further knowledge of the conditions cannot be
answered intelligently. One should know the altitude of the
land, whether low and moist or high and dry, whether sandy,
clayey or muck, the crop to be raised, etc., before deciding as to
what fertilizing material would be best.
Soil fertility is further closely related to the amount and con-
dition of the humus in the soil. This is one of the products of the
partial decomposition of organic matter and plays an important
part in the chemical changes going on in the soil and under
certain conditions it may react injuriously. It not only improves
the physical condition of the soil, especially in regard to its
permeability and absorptive power but by its decomposition it
supplies nitrogen to the plant and also forms certain acids which








Bulletin No. 81


are probably of considerable value in making the fertilizing ele-
ments in the soil available to the plant.
Still another important feature in the management of soils
to improve their fertility, is the rotation of crops. The con-
tinuous growing of the same crop on a soil not only rapidly ex-
hausts it of the special requirements of that crop, but there is
very apt to be an accumulation of bacterial and other enemies to
the plant in the soil which produce disease.
With a given formula at hand, the grower must next de-
cide whether he will select a mixed fertilizer which comes ap-
proximately near it in composition and in which the guaranteed
sources of the different ingredients are satisfactory, or whether
he will buy his raw materials and mix them himself. If bought
of reputable dealers, there is no doubt that mixed fertilizers,
if properly selected, will give good satisfaction as a rule, but it
is also true that home mixing is more economical, especially
where several farmers club together to buy their raw material in
sufficient quantities to get the lowest wholesale price. The labor
involved is not very great and one is sure of the materials that
enter into his fertilizers. The selling of raw materials to be
mixed at home is becoming an important part of the fertilizer
dealer's business. In mixing any given formula at the farm,
with the concentrated materials generally used to supply the
plant food, a saving of 100oo to 200 pounds or more per ton can
generally be made, which the manufacturer would make up with
some inert material. The farmer by home mixing, saves this
extra freight and handling.
Numerous formulas have been published for the various
crops to be grown that differ considerably, with different authors.
In the following formulas the potash will be found higher than
is often given, as on most Florida soils this is the ingredient that
is most deficient, and a liberal application will generally give a
good return.
In the selection of. material, one should bear in mind certain
facts that have been well established. Thus, the muriate of
potash is not a suitable form, in general, for edible root crops or
for fruit and tobacco, but for cotton, grass, etc., it may be the
cheapest and best. Citrus fruits do not do well with organic
nitrogen, but this form, for a larger portion of the nitrogen at
east, is beneficial to most garden crops. Another point to be









Fertilizer Suggestions


borne in mind is the availability of the materials, and whether it
is desired that the plant shall take them up and make use of
them at once, or whether they shall slowly become available
through the growing season. Those materials that are soluble
in water are, as rule, more immediately available than insoluble
substances. Many substances as raw ground bone, gradually
undergo changes in the soil by which their plant food is changed
from an insoluble to a soluble and available form. The effect of
such material is therefore noticeable for some time, it may be for
years.
In recommending the use of the more concentrated fertliz-
ing materials it must be borne in mind that they may easily be
applied in such a way that the effect is lost or even that they
may do a positive injury. Thus, nitrate of soda is one of the
most available sources of nitrogen and at the same time one of
the most liable to leach away before the plant can use it if ap-
plied too liberally at one time. During a protracted dry season
the fertilizing elements cannot go into solution and are thus un-
available, unless.the nature of the soil is such that there is
naturally sufficient amount and movement of the soil water.
For home-mixing, as a rule, the concentrated materials and
agricultural chemicals are the most economical and easiest to
mix. To get the best results they should be finely ground and
the mixture well incorporated. This is not difficult to accom-
plish if the materials are first passed through a seive, all lumps
crushed, spread out in layers on a tight floor and then thoroughly
shoveled together. The cost of such mixing should not be over
$1.oo a ton, at most. Another advantage is that they may be
mixed at about the time they are to be used, thus preventing the
gradual loss of plant food that often takes place when a mixed
fertilizer is stored for any length of time.
-Owing to the climatic conditions in this State, on which ac-
count live stock is shut up in barns and stables to a very limited
extent, either in winter or summer, the farmer is largely de-
prived of the supply of barnyard manure that forms such a
valuable source of fertilizing material with his more northern
neighbor, particularly as a source of nitrogen and as coarse ma-
terial to improve the physical character of the soil. The Florida
farmer can, however, supply this to a certain extent by plowing








Bulletin No. 81


under green crops, especially leguminous plants as cowpeas and
velvet beans.

RAW MATERIALS FOR MIXING.
A knowledge of the properties, action and characteristics of
the various sources of plant food is essential, and a brief discus-
sion of these follows:
Nitrate of Soda.-This is one of the most available and
cheapest sources of nitrogen and is suitable for almost any crop.
All forms of nitrogenous fertilizers except the nitrates must
undergo chemical changes in the soil, called 'nitrification," which
is brought about by bacteria, before the plant can take it up. In
nitrate of soda, however, we have what might be likened to a
"predigested food" and the plant can take it up directly. Con-
sequently it can and should be applied when needed and not in
larger quantities than the plant can make use of. It comes on
the market as a crystallinic product of quite constant composi-
tion, averaging from 15 to 16 per cent. nitrogen. In calculating
a formula that is to contain it 15.5 per cent. can be used. Like
most all soda salts it is hydroscopic, or has the property of ab-
sorbing moisture from the air in damp weather, consequently it
should be stored in as dry a place as possible if not used at once.
It should not be used alone except in small amounts as a top
dressing through the growing season. If used as a source of
nitrogen in a fertilizer mixture, to be applied at the time of seed-
ing, it is well to leave the larger part of it out, on account of its
ready solubility, applying it as a top dressing subsequently in
successive small applications through the growing season, by
which means liberal returns will be received, especially on light
sandy soils. It does not act so favorably on heavy marsh lands.
Sulphate of Ammonia.-This is a by-product in the manu-
facture of illuminating gas by the dry distillation of coal. It
comes on the market as a crystalline salt, averaging from 20 to
21 per cent. of nitrogen. It is a most excellent source of nitrogen
for all purposes, as it readily undergoes nitrification under favor-
able conditions. It may be used as the source of all or a part of
Sthe nitrogen and may often be mixed to advantage with nitrate
of soda. The nitrogen in this material has a trade value of 17
cents.









Fertilizer Suggestions


Nitrate of Potash.-This combines, in a very available form,
both nitrogen and potash. It averages 10 to 13 per cent. nitro-
gen and 41 to 43 per cent. potash. It can be bought for about
$80.00 per ton and if it comes on the market in sufficient
amount it should prove one of the most valuable fertilizing
materials at our command. Samples sent to the Station lately
are strongly impregnated with tobacco liquor, indicating its
probable source. This should do no particular harm to the crop
and adds an insecticidal property to the material.
Dried Blood, from slaughter houses, is another valuable
source of nitrogen. Although not quite so quickly available as
the forms already mentioned, it soon becomes so. Being an
organic form, it should not be used on citrus trees except to a
limited extent. A very excellent plan is to combine the three
forms of nitrogen in one formula. Thus, one-fourth may be
supplied as nitrate of soda, one-fourth as sulphate of ammonia
and one-half as dried blood, thus insuring immediate and con-
tinued available nitrogen. This may be supplemented by one or
two light top-dressings of nitrate of soda through the growing
season. This plan probably offers the best possible way in
which to supply the nitrogen needed for a crop.
Cotton Seed Meal is a valuable source of nitrogen for
many crops, averaging about 7 per cent. but it is slower and more
prolonged in its action than the materials already mentioned. It
contains, in addition, a small amount of phosphoric acid and
potash. For market garden crops, where a quick and strong
growth is required, it is not so profitable as the more available
forms mentioned, but for field crops that require the season to
mature, it is often of more value and cheaper. The same applies
to other similar forms, as castor pomace, tankage, fish and meat
scrap, etc.
As a source of. Phosphoric Acid in home-mixed fertilizers,
probably either acid phosphate, dissolved bone black, ground
raw or steamed bone or slag would be chosen. The point to be
regarded in the selection of material is the availability of the
phosphoric acid. Both acid phosphate and dissolved bone black
are excellent materials, but the objection is often raised that
they contain too much free acid. This is sometimes the case,
especially when freshly made, and care should be taken that the
material is not too fresh. As they are both made practically by









Bulletin No. 81


the same process, they are both open to this same objection, but
if properly prepared the free acid should not be present in suf-
ficient amounts to do damage. On an average, the acid phos-
phate can be figured at about 14 per cent. and the dissolved bone
black at 18 per cent. available phosphoric acid.
The phosphoric acid in ground raw bone (20 to 25 per cent.)
and in steamed bone (25 per cent.) is less available, but quite
readily becomes so in the soil, if finely ground, as it usually is.
As with nitrogen, one would choose these slower acting sources
for field crops and orchards that require a season's growth, and
the more available forms, in part at least, for garden and truck
crops.
Basic Slag, also called Thomas slag, odorless phosphate,
etc., is a valuable source of phosphoric acid, especially on soils
inclined to be acid, on which it often gives better results than
many of the other forms. It is a by-product from certain pro-
cesses in iron smelting, by which phosphorus is removed. It
comes on the market as a very finely ground powder which is
also rich in lime. This excess of lime tends to correct the
acidity of the soil and also favors nitrification. Although the
phosphoric acid is in a more or less insoluble form, on account of
its fine state of sub-division it quite rapidly becomes available to
the plant. It would not be chosen for very quick action, but for
orchards and the slower growing crops it is to be recommended
as one of the cheapest sources of phosphoric acid. Recent ex-
periments on pineapples by the Station have demonstrated its
value for this crop.
Guano is another excellent material to use for phosphoric
acid and also carries with it some nitrogen and potash, but it is
well to supplement it with these two latter ingredients to make
it more evenly balanced. A sample recently analyzed at the
Station gave:
Nitrogen................... ............................ 2.80 per cent.
Potash.................................................. 3.36 per cent.
Phosphoric Acid.................................... 27.81 per cent.
Different lots vary considerably in composition and value
and it should therefore be bought on analysis only. It has been
on the market for many years and has given most excellent
results.








Fertilizer Suggestions


As sources of Potash we have the German Stassfurt salts,
the high and low grade sulphate, muriate, carbonate of potash-
magnesia, kainit, also nitrate of potash mentioned above under
nitrogen, and as less concentrated forms, wood ashes, tobacco
stems, etc.
Wood Ashes, while they are a most excellent source of
potash, vary so largely in composition and are so bulky that it is
better to rely on the more concentrated potash salts. Incident-
ally, however, more or less potash can often be supplied by home
sources, such as palmetto ashes, which are exceptionally rich,
samples analyzed at the Station running as high as 35 per cent.
or more of potash.
The potash salts containing chlorides, as kainit and muriate
of potash should not be applied to fruit and vegetables as a rule
but are excellent for field crops and are less expensive than the
other forms.
High Grade Sulphate of Potash averages about 50 per
cent. of actual potash (KO) and can be safely used for any crop,
although it is a little more expensive than some of the other
forms. For tobacco, edible root crops and citrus trees especially
it is the best potash salt to use.
The Low Grade Sulphate contains about 27 per cent.
potash and is to be recommended on soils that are inclined to be
acid, from the fact that it also contains magnesia, which tends to
neutralize the acidity.
The Muriate is the cheapest source of potash. It contains
about 50 per cent. actual potash and nearly as much chlorine
which makes it objectionable for certain crops, especially tobacco,
oranges and potatoes. When used for other crops it is generally
advisable to apply lime in connection with it.
Kainit is a crude product from the Stassfurt deposits with
only about one-fourth the actual potash of the muriate and also
contains chlorine. It has been used to a considerable extent and
with good results on cotton, especially on light soils.


VEGETABLES
Fertilizer for General Use in the Garden.
The kitchen garden is the best place to apply the house
wastes and home sources of fertilizer which are available to a









Bulletin No. 81


greater or less amount on every farm. Barnyard manure is one
of the most efficient means at the disposal of the farmer to per-
manently improve his soil. Probably no other fertilizer possesses
this power to so great a degree. The surface of the farm yard
with all the droppings in the sheds should be carefully preserved
and applied to the garden. When this is done, the amount of
nitrogen in the fertilizer formulas can often be cut down one-half
or more.
In recommending a formula for general use in the garden,
we have omitted muriate of potash and would advise either the
high or the low grade sulphate, generally the former. For
Florida soils, a very good general formula for the garden, for all
vegetables, is one containing
Nitrogen..................................................... 4 per cent.
Potash ........................................................ 8 per cer t.
Phosphoric acid.............................................. 7 per cent.
Applied at the rate of 1ooo to 1500 pounds per acre.
Now let us see just how we would go to work to mix the
equivalent of iooo pounds of the above formula, at home. We
will select, as the best combination for this, the following sources
of plant food:
Nitrate of soda for one-fourth of the nitrogen,
Sulphate of ammonia for one-fourth of the nitrogen,
Dried blood for one-half of the nitrogen,
High grade sulphate of potash as the source of potash, and
Acid phosphate for the phosphoric acid.
We will give in full here the method of calculation to find
out just how much of each of the above must be used, and the
same method may then be applied to other cases. The formula
calls for 4 per cent. of nitrogen or 4 pounds in ioo. We are figur-
ing for 1ooo pounds, therefore we shall require 40 pounds of nitro-
gen and of this, io pounds is to be supplied each by nitrate of
soda and sulphate of ammonia and 20 pounds by dried blood.
Nitrate of soda averages about 15 per cent. nitrogen, therefore,
15 : 100 :: 10 : 661
thus 66Y3 pounds nitrate of soda will give us the o1 pounds of
nitrogen.
We require likewise o1 pounds nitrogen from sulphate of
ammonia which averages about 20 per cent. nitrogen, therefore,
20 : 100 :: 10 : 50









Fertilizer Suggestions


thus 50 pounds sulphate of ammonia will give us io pounds of
nitrogen.
From dried blood, which averages 12 per cent. nitrogen, we
want 20 pounds, thus:
12 : 100 :: 20 : 166j
giving 166Y3 pounds as the amount of dried blood necessary.
For potash, we want 8 per cent. or 8o pounds in 1000. The
high grade sulphate averages 50 per cent. actual potash, there-
fore,
50 :100 :: 80 : 160
thus we require 160 pounds of the high grade sulphate of potash.
For the phosphoric acid, we require 7 per cent. or 70 pounds
in Iooo. Acid phosphate averages 14 per cent., therefore,
14 : 100 :: 70 : 500
giving 500 pounds of acid phosphate necessary.
Thus, to get our mixture for one acre, equivalent to a fer-
tilizer of the formula given above, we weigh out and mix:
60 pounds nitrate of soda,
50 pounds sulphate of ammonia,
166 pounds dried blood,
160 pounds high grade sulphate of potash,
500 pounds acid phosphate.
942
The difference between the 942 pounds and 1ooo pounds is
what the fertilizer manufacturer would put in as filler and what
the farmer saves on freight. As to the cost of the above mixture,
we will take the average market prices of the ingredients to be:
Nitrate of soda............at $55 per ton, 66 pounds would cost $1.82
Sulphate of ammonia...at 71 per ton, 50 pounds would cost 1.78
Dried blood ...............at 55 per ton, 166 pounds would cost 4.57
H. G. Sulphate potash at 52 per ton, 160 pounds would cost 4.16
Acid phosphate ..........at 15 per ton, 500 pounds would cost 3.75
$16.08
exclusive of the freight and the slight cost of mixing.
The price could be lowered by substituting cheaper and less
available material but the real question the farmer should ask
himself is not how cheaply can I fertilize my land but how
much fertilizer can I put on with profit." The above mixture
will answer for all garden crops and if the other conditions, as
rainfall, etc., are favorable and proper cultivation is given, will








Bulletin No. 81


give good returns for the money invested. Unless the soil is very
rich, the amounts given above may profitably be increased one-
half at least, and as stated above, may be supplemented with any
of the home sources of fertilizer that can be obtained. By carry-
ing out the same method as above, one material may be substi-
tuted for another as desired, as dissolved bone black for the acid
phosphate, or the low grade for high grade sulphate of potash.


MODIFICATIONS OF THE GENERAL FORMULA FOR
SPECIAL CROPS.
Asparagus.-This appears to be grown to a limited extent
only, in Florida, but there is no reason that it should not do well
and prove a very profitable crop. In order to be remunerative
it requires good culture and heavy feeding and it is probably
from lack of these that failures have occurred in this State. As
the plant remains in the ground year after year, the fertilization-
is somewhat different than for an annual. Salt has a beneficial
effect on this plant and for this reason kainit, which contains from
30 to 33 per cent. of salt, is one of the best forms in which to
apply the potash. Heavy dressings of stable or barnyard manure
are recommended but the crop can be grown with profit with
chemical fertilizers. For a bearing crop, the following materials
and amounts may be applied per acre in the spring:
400 pounds dried blood,
600 pounds kainit,
1000 pounds acid phosphate.
When the cutting is about half through it is well to apply 50
to 1oo pounds per acre of nitrate of soda along the rows (taking
care to apply it when the plants are dry, and not in contact with
them, otherwise the shoots will be injured), and repeat when the
cutting is finished, in order to give a vigorous growth while ma-
turing, for the next season's crop.
Beans.-The general formula, applied at the rate of 1ooo to
1500 pounds per acre should give good results, the easily avail-
able nitrates insuring a good start, the blood becoming available
later as the plant matures.
Beets.-These, to be of the best quality, should be grown rap-
idly. Most soils of the State are rather sandy and light for beets,








Fertilizer Suggestions


yet they can be raised in many localities. If attempted to any
extent, on a light soil, it would be of decided benefit to plow under
some green crop.the year before.- The general formula may be
used to advantage, but as the crop should mature quickly, the
nitrogen may be applied wholly as nitrate of soda and sulphate
of ammonia, and one or two additional applications of nitrate of
soda, ioo pounds to the acre, at each application, during the
growth of the plant may be made.
Cabbage.-This plant does best on a rich heavy loam and
requires heavy feeding, especially of nitrogen and phosphoric
acid, to get the best results. If grown for the market, it will be
well to increase the nitrogen in the general formula. For this
purpose, cotton seed meal or some of the similar cheaper sources
of nitrogen may be substituted in part, to advantage. An appli-
cation of the following formula and amounts to the acre should
insure a good crop, other conditions being favorable:
800 pounds cotton seed meal,
50 pounds nitrate of soda,
500 pounds acid phosphate,
250 pounds high grade sulphate of potash.
Cantaloupes.-The nitrogen for this crop may be supplied
largely as cotton seed meal. A very good formula, per acre, is:
Nitrate of soda...............................................200 pounds
Cotton seed meal................................... 800 pounds
Acid phosphate.............................................. 400 pounds
High grade sulphate of potash..........................200 pounds
After the plants are well up a small handful of nitrate of
soda around each hill will aid in a quick, vigorous growth.
Cauliflower.-This plant is a gross feeder and good fer-
tilization is essential for a successful crop. The following mix-
ture and amounts per acre may be used to advantage:
Nitrate of soda...............................................250 pounds
Cotton seed meal.............................................400 pounds
Acid phosphate..............................................600 pounds
High grade sulphate of potash..........................400 pounds
Celery.-The success of this crop depends largely on the
presence of abundant plant food, especially nitrogen, in an avail-
able form. The growth must be rapid and uninterrupted in order to
get a good crisp stand. Heavy dressings of stable manure are gen-
erally recommended, but when this cannot be obtained, reliance
must be placed on commercial fertilizers. The general formula








Bulletin No. 81


may be used at the rate of 1500 pounds or more per acre. Nu-
merous experiments have shown that nitrate of soda is especially
valuable to this plant, and in addition to the above two applica-
tions may be made of this, 200 pounds to the acre each, with
profit.
Corn.-Sweet corn as a garden crop may receive about 1ooo
pounds to the acre of the general formula.
Cucumbers.-For a long growing and shipping season, as
well as for a rapid growth when starting,.which is advisable in
order to give the plants a good start ahead of their insect enemies,
more nitrogen should be applied than the general formula calls for.
Many experiments show that nitrate of soda is one of the best
forms for this. An excellent plan is to apply iooo pounds of the
general formula per acre, followed by two applications through
the season, of 200 pounds each per acre of nitrate of soda.
Lettuce does well in this State and is a valuable shipping
crop in many localities. While barnyard manure is generally
recommended, it can be grown profitably with chemical fertilizers
only, but these must be applied liberally. Muriate of potash can
be substituted for the high grade sulphate in the general formula
without injury to this crop, but the nitrogen is best supplied as
nitrate of soda to insure a quick growth, applied in two or three
applications. If the land is suitable, a deep, black, sandy loam
being best, the fertilizer may be applied at the rate of 1500 to
2000 pounds per acre.
Onions.-For this crop cotton seed meal may be substituted
for a large part of the nitrogen, and the potash, of which con-
siderable is needed, may be supplied as kainit, thus lowering the
expense. The following mixture may be used per acre :
Cotton seed meal......................................... 800 pounds
K ainit.......................................................1000 pounds
Acid phosphate............ ............................... .. 600pounds
Peas.-These require very much the same fertilization as
beans. Cotton seed meal may be used, in connection with some
nitrate for the nitrogen.
Peppers.-These are planted to a comparatively small ex-
tent as a market crop. The general formula will give good re-
sults.
Potatoes.-Irish potatoes, as a market crop, are becoming
of considerable importance in certain parts of the State. They








Fertilizer Suggestions


can be grown wholly on commercial fertilizers and when so
grown are less liable to scab as when grown with stable manure.
A liberal fertilization is profitable. The general formula may be
applied at the rate of 1500 pounds per acre, supplemented with
Ioo pounds nitrate of soda as a top dressing after the plants are
well up, especially for early potatoes. Potash salts containing
chlorides should not be used.
Sweet potatoes require less nitrogen than many crops. If
too much is supplied it makes a vigorous growth of vines but
the roots are not as good quality. 500 to .800 pounds cotton
seed meal may be used for the nitrogen, applied before the crop
is planted, or one may use 250 pounds of cotton seed meal with
75 pounds nitrate of soda or 1oo pounds of dried blood. Sul-
phate of potash should be used as a source of potash as the
quality is injured by the chlorine in the muriate or kainit as it is
in Irish potatoes. ioo pounds to the acre maybe used, with 300
pounds of acid phosphate. When grown for stock more fertili-
zer may be used to secure a larger crop but the quality is apt to
be somewhat poorer.
Squash.-looo to 1500 pounds per acre of the general for-
mula may be used, applying one-half of the nitrate as a second
application after the plants are up.
Tomatoes.-The general formula may be used on this crop
at the rate of 800 to 1ooo pounds per acre. Muriate of potash
may be used in place of the sulphate. A very good application is:
Nitrate of soda.............................................250 pounds
Dissolved bone black..................................... 350 pounds
Muriateof potash ........................................... 175 pounds
applying the nitrate in two or three applications.
Watermelons.-The best preparation for this crop is to
plow under a crop of cowpeas or velvet beans. The nitrogen is
needed mostly in the earlier stages of growth, the shipping
quality of the melons being injured by over-dosing with this
element when the fruit is setting. The supply of potash should
be liberal and it is best in the form of sulphate. The general
formula, therefore, may be altered somewhat as follows, if the
green crop is plowed under:
Nitrate of soda...........................................200 pounds
Acid phosphate............................................. 400 pounds
High grade sulphate of potash........................160 pounds








Bulletin No. 81


GENERAL FORMULA FOR FIELD CROPS.
Field crops are grown either for manufacturing purposes, as
cotton; for cattle feeds, as corn and hay; as fertilizing crops to be
plowed under, as cowpeas and velvet beans, and for human use
and consumption, as tobacco, rice and sugar cane. With the ex-
ception of tobacco and cane, they do not require the more
expensive forms of plant food. As a general formula, the fol-
lowing will answer most purposes:
Nitrogen...................................................2 to 3 per cent.
Phosphoric acid... .....................................8 to 9 per cent.
Potash ....................................................3 to 4 per cent.
The nitrogen may be supplied as cotton seed meal or dried
blood with perhaps a small amount of nitrate of soda. For the
phosphoric acid we may use acid phosphate and for the potash,
either the muriate or kainit (except for tobacco and cane). 800
to iooo pounds per acre of the above formula may be applied to
advantage, made up as follows:
Cotton seed meal............................................300 pounds
Acid phosphate...............................................450 pounds
M uriate of potash........................................... 50 pounds
The muriate may be replaced by kainit by substituting for
each pound of the former, four pounds of the latter.
Cassava.--May receive the following per acre:
Acid phosphate...............................................250 pounds
Cotton seed meal.............................................150 pounds
Muriate of potash................................. 150 pounds
Corn.-Experiments made at this Station (see Report for
1901) showed that an application, per acre, consisting of
Acid phosphate..............................................200 pounds
Nitrate of soda............................................. 75 pounds
Cotton seed meal ......................... ...........125 pounds
Muriate of potash...................................100 pounds
was made with profit. The cost of this is only about $6.50 per
acre. The trial plots in this experiment followed cotton as is
the common practice. Half of the above application gave good
results, giving as large a crop as the full application, but as a
rule the full amount can probably be used to advantage.
For Broom Corn the general formula may be used at the
rate of 500 to 600 pounds per acre.
Cotton.-The general formula at the rate given above
serves excellently for cotton. A portion of the nitrogen as.


382









Fertilizer Suggestions


nitrate of soda will insure a good start of the plants. After
three years' trial, the Georgia Experiment Station (bulletin 39)
found that the following mixture, per acre, gave the best and
most economic results:
Acid phosphate................. ...........................468 pounds
Muriate of potash.......................................... 36 pounds
Cotton seed meal........................................... 286 pounds
with the remark that possibly a little more cotton seed meal and
a little less acid phosphate would have given still better results.
Hay.-Grass is not grown very extensively to cut and cure
as hay in many parts of the State, but in a few counties it forms
quite an item. The general formula may be used at the rate of
500 pounds or more per acre.
Millet.-The same remarks apply to this crop as to hay
and grass.
Oats.-Experiments on the fertilization of this crop have
shown, in many cases, a corresponding increase in yield, but
often not sufficient to pay for the extra cost of the fertilizer. If
the land is poor, however, an application should be made in order
to get a good stand. 300 to 500 pounds of the general formula
may be used.
Peanuts.-The peanut does not seem to do as well with a
too liberal supply of nitrogen as it is apt to make the nuts coarse
with a thick rough shell. Phosphoric acid and potash, however,
should be supplied in fairly liberal amounts and an application!
of lime seems to be very beneficial. The general formula may be:
used at the rate of 600 to 1ooo pounds per acre. The acid phos-
phate in this formula probably supplies sufficient lime, but if the
soil is very deficient in this element, ioo or 200 pounds per acre
may be added.
Rice.-This crop is grown either under water or on dry land
with irrigation. If the former method is used, the fertilizer, if
insoluble, must be applied in the spring before the land is flooded,
in order that nitrification may go on, which is not the case under
water. If irrigation is practiced and the drainage through the
soil is not too rapid, fertilization may be successfully accom-
plished by dissolving soluble sources of plant food in the irriga-
tion water, for which purpose the German potash salts, high
grade acid phosphate and nitrate of soda or sulphate of ammonia
may be used. A certain amount of plant food is supplied by the









Bulletin No. 81


irrigation water itself. If the land is fertilized dry, 600 to 700
pounds of cotton seed meal may be applied in January, well
worked into the soil, followed, after irrigation has commenced,
with 200 to 300 pounds acid phosphate and Ioo to 50o pounds
muriate of potash.
Sugar Cane.-For the successful growth of this crop, with
a high per cent. of sugar, abundant nitrogen must be supplied
with a fair amount of phosphoric acid and potash. The nitrogen
may be supplied as acid phosphate, dissolved bone black, cotton
seed meal or slag, the two latter being slower in their action but
more lasting. A portion of the nitrogen is profitably supplied
as nitrate of soda as a second application after the plants are
started. The fertilizer may be either applied broadcast and
worked into the soil before planting or it may be placed under
the plant cane and covered with soil at the time of planting. A
good deal of the success of the crop depends on thorough cultiva-
tion. The following proportions may be used per acre:
Cotton seed meal................................... 400 to 500 pounds
Nitrate of soda...................................... 50 to 100 pounds
Acid Phosphate.................................... 300 to 400 pounds
Kainit..............................................100 to 150 pounds
Tobacco.-The quality and profit from this crop is affected
more than any other by conditions of soil, climate, cultivation,
curing and fertilizing. The crop requires and repays for very
liberal fertilization, if care is used in the selection of material.
Home-mixing is especially to be recommended for this crop, as
oftentimes a small per cent. of an injurious ingredient, as chlor-
ine, may injure the crop many dollars' worth. The special
tobacco fertilizers put up and sold by dealers vary to a con-
-siderable extent in their composition. Stable manure, to a
limited extent, may be used on tobacco and it also does well fol-
lowing a crop of peanuts. In this case the amount of nitrogen
may be cut down.
The following mixture may be used, per acre:
Cotton seed meal.............................................300 pounds
Nitrate of soda.............................................. 150 pounds
Acid phosphate...............................................300 pounds
High grade sulphate of potash..........................200 pounds
The nitrate of soda may be applied as a second application
after the crop is started. If at any time during the growth the









Fertilizer Suggestions


leaves begin to take on a yellowish cast, another dressing of oo00
to 200 pounds of nitrate of soda should be made.
Velvet Beans.-This has proved a valuable crop to be used
either as forage or to plow under preparatory to other crops. In
fertilizing, but very little nitrogen need be applied. The follow-
ing mixture is recommended per acre:
Nitrate of soda ........................................... 50 pounds
or Cotton seed meal..........................................100 pounds
Acid phosphate............................................ 200 pounds
Sulphate of potash...................................... 100 pounds




GENERAL FORMULA FOR FRUITS.
The fertilization of orchards, groves and small fruits that
remain in the ground for many years, can be carried out on a
little different line than for an annual plant which is to complete
its growth and be removed in one season. The tree bears its
crop of fruit, which is removed, and also adds to its growth in
leaves, wood and roots. Many trees drop their leaves in the fall
thus returning a small amount of the plant food to the soil. The
requirements of an orchard tree are therefore not only what is
lost to it in thd crop, but sufficient to insure a good growth. It
may oftentimes be advantageous to supply a portion of the food
in a less soluble and less expensive form than is called for in a
quickly maturing crop and supplementing this at the time the
fruit is forming by some quick acting, available plant food.
Whatever the crop may be, it pays here, as well as in the garden,
to fertilize liberally. Trees, after they get well established, will
generally bear fruit even if neglected, but the quality rapidly de-
teriorates and it is never at its best unless sufficient plant food is
supplied. Many fruits, especially those of the citrus family, re-
spond very quickly to fertilization and are very much influenced
by the kind of fertilizer applied. In general, an abundant sup-
ply of potash seems to improve the delicacy and the sugar con-
tent. Chlorine appears to act injuriously to the quality of some
fruits and it is best not to use compounds containing it in the
orchard or grove. For a general application, applicable to most


385









Bulletin No. 81


fruits, berries and nuts, the following formula will be found
useful, per acre:
Nitrate of soda.............................................. 300 pounds
Acid phosphate............................................... 500 pounds
Sulphate of potash......................................... 200 pounds
The nitrate can be divided into two or three applications.
This mixture contains no nitrogen from organic sources and may
be safely used on citrus fruits as well as others. On some fruits,
especially those not belonging to the citrus family, a portion of
the nitrogen may be supplied as dried blood, also on pecans and
other nuts. It is not advisable to remove crops from bearing
orchards and groves, but a portion of the nitrogen may be sup-
plied by plowing under a leguminous crop as the velvet bean or
cowpea.
Avocado Pear.-This has not been experimented upon in
regard to its fertilization to any extent. The general formula
given above would be a safe application.
Banana.-This plant requires a rich soil to reach perfection.
The potash in the general formula may be profitably increased
to 300 pounds or more and, as the plant requires some chlorine, it
may be supplied in the form of muriate, otherwise an occasional
small application of salt would be beneficial. The fertilizer may
be divided and made in two applications during the year. The
following formula answers the fertilizer requirements:
Nitrate of soda.............................. .................200 pounds
Dried blood........................ ........................200 pounds
Acid phosphate ...............................................500 pounds
M uriate of potash...........................................400 pounds
Cocoanuts.-Very little data is available for determining the
best formula for this crop. When grown on the seacoast, as it
usually is, heavy dressings of seaweed would undoubtedly be
very beneficial. The more slowly available and lasting ma-
terials may be used, as raw ground bone, cotton seed meal, etc.
Fig.-The fig requires abundant lime and if the soil is
deficient in this ingredient, it should receive an occasional dress-
ing. This, with the general formula, should insure a good crop.
Grapes.-The profitable fertilization of the vine is an im-
portant question in grape-growing sections. It has been found
that it is not advantageous to supply much nitrogen during the
latter part of the season, as it tends to lessen the number of fruit








Fertilizer Suggestions


buds the next season. The following mixture may be applied in
the spring:
Nitrate of soda........................................... 100 pounds
Acid phosphate...............................................200 pounds
High grade sulphate of potash.........................100 pounds
On very poor soils,'these quantities may be doubled. In July,
it should be followed by another application of 1oo pounds nitrate
of soda.
Grapefruit requires practically the same treatment as the
orange and other citrus fruits. It is a large bearer and a gross
feeder. For a bearing tree one may apply:
Nitrate of soda....................................10 pounds
Acid phosphate............................................. 4 pounds
Sulphate of potash ......................................... 10 pounds
This can be divided into two or three applications for the
year, in February, June and October.
Guava.-Few experiments have been made on fertilizing this
fruit. The general formula may be used at the rate of 600 to
iooo pounds per acre.
Jap nese Persimmons.-These should receive about 5
pounds to a tree of the following proportions:
Nitrogen .................................................... 3 per cent.
Phosphoric acid........................................... 6 per cent.
Potash........................................................ 10 per cent.
It does not appear to make much difference as to the choice
of materials for this plant. The nitrogen may be supplied largely
by a crop of beggar weed or cowpea.
Lemons, Limes, Kumquats and Loquats should receive
practically the same as the orange.
Orange.-This fruit, on account of its importance in the
State has received considerable attention and from many years'
experience certain facts have become well established. There is
yet, however, considerable difference of opinion as to the best ma-
terials to use. The orange responds more quickly, perhaps, than
any other fruit to fertilization and likewise more quickly indi-
cates improper fertilization by the quality of the fruit. The potash
salts containing chlorides are no longer used and the nitrogen,
supply, except to a limited extent and where the effects can be.
closely watched, is not supplied from organic sources. Opinion.
is divided, also, as to whether two or three applications are best,








Bulletin No. 81


most growers adopting the former. Taking the average, so to
speak, of the experience of some of the larger and experienced
growers, the following proportion seems to be the one giving the
best results:
Nitrogen 4 per cent. as nitrate of soda and sulphate of ammonia,
Phosphoric acid 6 per cent. as acid phosphate or dissolved bone black,
Potash 12 per cent. as high grade sulphate of pbtash.
Taking the above formula as a basis, the following mixture
per acre may be used, or it may be applied at the rate of 20 pounds
or more to each bearing tree, according to size:
Sulphate of ammonia..................................200 pounds
Nitrate of soda...:..... ......................................150 pounds
Dissolved bone black..................................... 500 pounds
(or acid phosphate........................................... 40 pounds)
High grade sulphate of potash...........................360 pounds
This may be divided into three applications, thus: one-fourth
in June, one-fourth in October and one-half in February. There
seems to be no injury in plowing under a cover crop for a portion
of the nitrogen supply and some successful growers introduce a
small amount of dried blood.
Peaches.-Peach trees should be liberally fertilized early in
the growing season. Young trees require abundant nitrogen and
potash, while for older, bearing trees, nitrogen and phosphoric
acid seem to be especially called for. A good application is as
follows, to each tree according to size:
Nitrate of soda........................................ to 5 pounds
Acid phosphate..... ...................................4 to 10 pounds
Sulphate of potash..................................3 to 6 pounds
Pears.-The fertilizing requirements of the pear are much
the same as for the peach. With insufficient plant food, espe-
cially if the season is dry, there is much danger of the fruit drop-
ping off. To prevent this the tree should make a vigorous growth
while the fruit is setting and for this purpose, available plant
food should be supplied abundantly. The general formula may
be used at the rate of 1ooo pounds per acre or more, followed by
a later application of 100oo to 200 pounds of nitrate of soda per
acre.
Pecans.-Although this tree, when once properly started,
would probably continue to bear nuts without further attention
or care, there is no doubt that fertilization is necessary to preserve








Fertilizer Suggestions


the quality and to get the best and most profitable returns. No
systematic experiments have been carried on in regard to fertiliz-
ing the pecan. When the trees are young, if other crops are
grown between the rows, they should be well fertilized in order
not to remove the plant food in the soil necessary to the trees.
Cotton seed meal, raw ground bone and materials of this nature
may be applied around young trees, with small amounts of muri-
ate of potash. As the trees get into bearing the potash should
be increased and small applications of nitrate of soda could be
made to advantage.
Pineapples.-Experiments on the fertilization of this plant
have been carried on by this Station for four years and are still
in progress. Until they have been conducted further, definite
results, as to the best formula to be used, cannot be given. They
are, however, giving some indications that are of value. The
formula here recommended is taken from the experience of
growers. The following formula may be used at the rate of
2000 to 3000 pounds per acre in two applications, February and
and July :
Nitrogen............3 per cent as dried blood or cotton seed meal
Phosphoric acid............. per cent. as fine ground bone, dis-
solved bone black or slag
Potash.......7 per cent as high or low grade sulphate of potash
some growers make an additional application in the fall or early
winter.
Strawberries.-This crop should be liberally fertilized.
The following application, per acre, may be used:
Nitrate of soda................................................200 pounds
Dried blood....................................................300 pounds
Dissolved bone............................................... 50 pounds
Acid phosphate................................................350 pounds
Sulphate of potash (high grade).........................600 pounds
The dried blood, phosphate and potash may be applied im-
mediately after the harvest, the nitrate of soda as soon as the
new growth begins in the spring.









Bulletin No. S1


N
S
D
C<
N
R
St
A
D
G
Tl
H
Lc
K
M
T(


AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF THE MATERIALS
RECOMMENDED .IN PER CENTS.
Nitrogen Phosphoric acid Pota
itrate of soda.................... 15
ulphate of ammonia............. 20
ried blood.......................... 12
cotton seed meal.................. 6'Y ] to 2 2 to
itrate of potash.................... 10 ... 40
aw ground bone................... 3 20
eamed bone ................... 2 25
cid phosphate.................... ... 15
issolved bone black............. ... 18
uano.................................. 3 to 10 10 to 25 2 to
homas slag......................... ... 18
igh grade sulphate of potash... ... ... 50
ow grade sulphate of potash... ... ... 28
ainit ................ .................. ... ... 12
uriate of potash................... ...... 50
tobacco stems..... ................ 2 1 6


sh



'3






,4




2






















The following publications of the Florida Experiment Sta-
tion are available for free distribution, and may be secured by
addressing the director of the Experiment Station, University of


Florida, Lake City, Fla.:
22 Fertilizers....................... pp. 48
24 Annual Report................... 32
25 Leeches and Leeching.......... 17
26 Big Head........................ 19
27 Pineapple....................... 14
28 Liver Fluke-Southern Cattle
Fever.......................... 15
30 The Culture of Tobacco........ 28
32 Cotton and Its Cultivation..... 4
33 Orange Groves................... 33
34 Insect Enemies.............. ... 96
36 Insects Injurious to Grain..... 31
37 Pineapple.......................... 15
38 Tobacco in Florida............. 63
39 Strawberries..................... 48
40 The Fall Army Worm........... 8
41 The San Jose Scale............. 30
42 Some Strawberry Insects....... 55
43 A Chemical Study of Some
Typical Florida Soils......... 128
45 Injurious Insects............... 74
51 Some Common Florida Scales.. 24
52 Baking Powders................ 15
53 Some Citrus Troubles........... 35
55 Feeding With Florida Feed
Stuffs.......................... 95
56 The Cottony Cushion Scale.... 48
57 Top-working of Pecans........ 124


58 Pomelos.......................... pp. 43
59 Cauliflower....................... 20
60 Velvet Beans................... 24
61 Two Peach Scales............... 32
62 Peen-to Peach Group........... 22
6J Packing Citrus Fruits........... Folio
64 Texas Fever and Salt Sick..... pp. 31
65 The Kumquats................... 14
66 The Mandarin Orange Group.. 32
67 The White Fly................... 94
68 Pineapple Culture. I. Soils... 35
69 Cultivation of Citrus Groves.. 30
70 Pineapple Culture. II. Va-
rieties.......................... 32
71 Japanese Persimmons.......... 48
72 Feeding Horses and Mules on
Home-Grown Feed-Stuffs... 16
73 The Honey Peach Group....... 20
74 Anthracnose of the Pomelo... 20
75 Potato Diseases................ 16
76 Insecticides and Fungicides... 44
77 Equine Glanders and Its Eradi-
cation ......................... 43
78 Forage Crops................... 16
79 Diseases of the Pecan......... 33
80 Composition of Concentrated
Feeding Stuffs on Sale in
Florida.......................... 18























PRESS BULLETINS.


1 Directions for Preparation of Bor-
deaux Mixture.
2 Lime and Its Relation to Agriculture.
3 Seed Testing.
4 The White Fly.
6 Nursery Inspection (part I).
7 Nursery Inspection (part II).
8 Care of Irish Potatoes Harvested in
the Spring and Held for Fall Plant-
ing.
9 Sore Head.
10 Plants Affected by Root Knot.
11 Vinegar.
12 Seed Beds and Their Management
13 Treatment of San Jose Scale.
14 Beef from Velvet Beans and Cassava.
15 and 16 Some Poultry Pests.
17 Preservatives in Canned Goods.
18 Cantaloupe Blight.
19 Cut Worms.
20 Hog Cholera and Swine Plague.
21 Parturient Paralysis.
22 Nitrogen as a Fertilizer.
23 Protection Against Drought.
24 Orange Mites.
25 Roup.
26 Lumpy Jaw.
27 Cover Crops.
28 Moon Blindness.
29 Food Adulteration.


30 Dehorning Cattle.
31 Food Adulteration-Coffee.
32 Foot and Mouth Disease.
33 Red Soldier Bug or Cotton Stainer.
34 Ox Warbles.
35 Food Adulteration-Butter.
36 Hook Worms in Cattle.
37 Velvet Bean.
38 Practical Results of Texas Fever Inoc-
ulations.
39 Lung Worms in Swine.
40 and 41 Glanders.
42 Food Adulterations-Spices and Con-
diments.
43 How to Feed a Horse.
44 Tree Planting.
45 The Sugar Cane Borer.
46 Selecting Seed Corn.
47 The Rabid Dog.
48 Adulterated Drugs and Chemicals.
49 Saw Palmetto Ashes.
50 Insect Pests to Live Stock.
51 Wormy Fowls.
52 Loss of Nitrogen on the Farm.
53 Hog Cholera and Swine Plague.
54 Seed Potatoes.
55 Potato Blight and Its Remedy.
56 White Fly Conditions in Northern
Florida.




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