• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 Board of trustees
 Table of Contents
 Introduction
 The province of chemistry
 How chemistry aids the farmer
 The composition of the soil
 Why we fertilize
 The lesson taught
 Definitions of fertilizers
 Fertilizers--how to make and use...
 Natural fertilizers
 Mechanical fertilizers
 Other mechanical manures and farm-yard...
 What farm-yard manure is
 The treatment of manure
 Protection from rain necessary
 Improved farming operations...
 Commercial fertilizers
 Composition of various commerical...
 Phosphoric acid
 Potash
 Sulphate of potash
 Kainit
 Saltpetre
 Domestic sources of potash
 Nitrogen
 Nitrate of soda
 Nitrate of potash (Saltpetre)
 Sulphate of ammonia
 Other commercial sources of...
 What tables of analyses teach
 How to employ raw material
 Appendix
 A correction in bulletin no. 22...






Group Title: Bulletin - University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station ; 22
Title: Fertilizers
CITATION THUMBNAILS PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027422/00001
 Material Information
Title: Fertilizers how to make and how to use them
Series Title: Bulletin University of Florida. Agricultural Experiment Station
Physical Description: 47 p. : ; 22 cm.
Language: English
Creator: Persons, A. A
Publisher: Florida Agricultural Experiment Station
Place of Publication: Lake City Fla
Publication Date: 1893
 Subjects
Subject: Fertilizers   ( lcsh )
Genre: government publication (state, provincial, terriorial, dependent)   ( marcgt )
non-fiction   ( marcgt )
 Notes
Statement of Responsibility: by A.A. Persons.
General Note: Cover title.
General Note: "Chemical Department"--T.p.
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027422
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: aleph - 000919932
oclc - 18151014
notis - AEN0324

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Page 1
        Page 2
    Board of trustees
        Page 3
    Table of Contents
        Page 4
    Introduction
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
    The province of chemistry
        Page 8
    How chemistry aids the farmer
        Page 9
    The composition of the soil
        Page 9
    Why we fertilize
        Page 10
    The lesson taught
        Page 11
    Definitions of fertilizers
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
    Fertilizers--how to make and use them
        Page 16
    Natural fertilizers
        Page 17
    Mechanical fertilizers
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
    Other mechanical manures and farm-yard manure
        Page 21
    What farm-yard manure is
        Page 22
    The treatment of manure
        Page 23
    Protection from rain necessary
        Page 24
    Improved farming operations needed
        Page 25
    Commercial fertilizers
        Page 26
        Page 27
    Composition of various commerical fertilizing material
        Page 28
    Phosphoric acid
        Page 29
        Page 30
    Potash
        Page 31
    Sulphate of potash
        Page 32
    Kainit
        Page 32
    Saltpetre
        Page 33
    Domestic sources of potash
        Page 33
    Nitrogen
        Page 34
    Nitrate of soda
        Page 35
    Nitrate of potash (Saltpetre)
        Page 35
    Sulphate of ammonia
        Page 36
    Other commercial sources of nitrogen
        Page 36
    What tables of analyses teach
        Page 37
    How to employ raw material
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
    Appendix
        Page 41
        Page 42
        Page 43
        Page 44
        Page 45
        Page 46
        Page 47
        Page 48
    A correction in bulletin no. 22 of the Florida Experiment Station
        Page 49
        Page 50
        Page 51
        Page 52
Full Text

November, 1893.


FLORIDA


ASIEULTURAL XPEMN STMATON
CHEMICAL. DEPARTMENT.





FERTILIZERS:
How to Make and How to Use Them,


By A.A. PERSONS.


The Bulletins of this Station will be sent free to any address in Florida
upon application to the Director of the Experiment
Station, Lake City, Fla.


THE VANCE PRINTING CO., JACKSONVILLE.


Bulletin No. 22.























BOARD OF TRUSTEES.


HON. WALTER GWYNN, President..................................Sanford
HON. W. D. CHIPLEY, Vice-President.................Pensacola
HON. F. E. HARRIS, Chairman Executive Committee ........Ocala
HON. A. B. HAGAN, Secretary..................................Lake City
HON. S. STRINGER...................................................Brooksville
HoN. S. J. TURNBULL ............................................Monticello
HON. C. F. A. BIELBY ..................................................DeLand

STATION STAFF.

O. CLUTE, M S. LL. D ................................. ................Director
J. N. WHITNER, A. M..........................................Horticulturist
P. H ROLPs, M S.............................................. .........Biologist
A. A. PERSONS, M S.......................................................Chem ist
WM. G. DEPAS.....................................Assistant Agriculturist
C. A. FINLEY...............................................Director's Secretary
L. C. WASHBURN............Superintendent Fort Myers Sub-station
J. T. STUBBS..................Superintendent DeFuniak Sub-station
















FERTILIZERS:

HOW TO MAKE AND HOW TO USE THEM.

CONT'ENTS.

Introduction...................................... ......................... 5
Recapitulation of Bulletin No. 20 ........................................ 5-6
Scope of Present Bulletin.................................................... 6-7
The N ew Farming............................................................... 7-8
The Province of Chemistry........................... ................ 8
The Composition of the Soil................................................ 9-10
W hy we Fertilize ..............................................................10-11
The Principal Elements of Plant Food............................... 11
Definitions of Fertilizers............................................... 12
Constantly Recurring Questions ................................... 12-13-14
Table Showing Amounts of Plant Food Taken from Soils by
C rops........................... .......... ............. ........ ............. 15
Defects in Commercial Fertilizers..................................15-16
N natural Fertilizers................................... .........................17-18
Mechanical Fertilizers ............................ ................... 18-19-20
Plant Food in Mechanical Fertilizers..................................20-21
Farm Yard M anure.............................................................21-22
What Farm Yard Manure Is ...............................................22-23
The Treatment of Home Manures................................. 23-24-25
Chemical Composition of Animal Manures.....................25-26
Comm ercial Fertilizers................................................... 26-27-28
Chemical Composition of Commercial Fertilizer Materials...28-29
Sources of Phosphoric Acid ..............................................29-30
Table of Sources of Phosphoric Acid, with per cent. of same. 31
Sources of Potash .................................. ..................... 31-32-33
Table of Sources of Potash, with per cent. of same............... 33
Sources of Nitrogen...................... ............................. 34 -35- 6
'Table of Sources of Nitrogen, with per cent. of same .......... 37
What the Tables of Analyses Teach.....................................37-38
How to Employ Raw Material...................................38-39-40-41
Fertilizers Adapted to Special Crops................. 42-43-44-45-46-47











INTRODUCTION. -


In Bulletin No. 20, of the Station series, which was
devoted to a discussion of Soils and Fertilizers, a few ele-
mentary principles referring more especially to the chem-
istry of farming were carefully emphasized. The object
of the writer was to make a simple and practical explana-
tion of certain scientific terms that must find frequent
employment in our Station publications, and terms which
no one can be expected to comprehend and employ most
profitably, unless their full meaning has been clearly
stated. The generous reception that this Bulletin has
met with from press and people alike all over the State,
has been a source of satisfaction and encouragement to
the Station authorities, and the demand for it has been
almost unprecedented in the history of the Station publica-
tions. If those who were the recipients of Bulletin No. 20
are familiar with its contents, they are entirely prepared
to utilize the present Bulletin to the best advantage, for
what will be found in these pages is only the practical
employment of those principles which previously have
been explained.
The salient features of the previous publication inclu-
ded a brief discussion of the soil elements and its liability
to become deficient in one or more of them under a pro-
longed system of cropping. This explanation naturally
led to a discussion in regard to the use of fertilizers as a
means of restoring either of them to an exhausted soil.
It was also remarked that in the present stage of agricul-
tural progress in the United States, it seldom occurs that
more than three of these essential soil ingredients will be
found deficient in the average soil. These three are
Phosphoric Acid, Potash and Nitrogen, and only these,
therefore, under ordinary circumstances, need concern the
farmer when he is desirous either of restoring or else of
preserving the fertility of his land. The mode of occur-
rence of these several substances in nature and the various
sources whence each is obtained when employed in the
manufacture of commercial fertilizers, were carefully








pointed out, together with an explanation of a chemical
analysis of a fertilizer and a method of computing their
commercial values. Attention was likewise directed to
the merits possessed by many so-called "home manures,"
and the necessity for preserving and employing them as
plant-food material was strongly urged. Undoubtedly,
all over Florida, there prevails at this time a system of
reckless extravagance in dealing with this material, and
as a result, thousands of hard earned dollars are annually
taken from the pockets of our farmers and appropriated to
purchasing commercial fertilizers which could as well, or
even better, have been expended for articles more neces-
sary, if only a little intelligence and economy had been
exercised in dealing with various waste materials and
natural manures occurring about all premises.
It is the object of the present Bulletin to continue the
discussion previously entered upon, by pointing out the
fertilizing values possessed by the several substances, and
how each can be most economically preserved and em-
ployed in enriching the soil. "How to make and use"
fertilizers-both domestic and commercial-will be care-
fully explained, and practical examples, illustrating each
explanation, will be given, so that after carefully studying
the Bulletin's contents, each farmer will have acquired
information sufficient to enable him to buy intelligently,
and use economically any kind of fertilizer that need
engage his attention. Not only so, but he will be entirely
competent to buy the unmixed raw materials and com-
pound them into any high or low grade fertilizer, or any
special fertilizer, containing an unusual quantity of some
particular element he may desire. At the end, will be
given a table showing the chemical composition of com-
monly occurring substances, both animal and vegetable,
that are useful for enriching the soil, and in connection
with that table, it will be explained how to utilize any of
the several substances enumerated in the list, in making
at home, and for home use, a fertilizer containing the
desired amount of any particular substance, i. e., of either
Phosphoric Acid, Potash, or Nitrogen. Before entering
upon the details of these several explanations, however, it
may be desirable, even at the risk of repetition, to lay
down a few chemical principles which we should all have








Sin mind before we can be in a position to understand the,
several explanations which are to follow.
The successful farmer of to-day is the one who follows
his profession in a scientific manner. The orthodox sys-
tem of farming, such as was practiced by our forefathers,
was probably well adapted to the environments of those
times, when rich and virgin soils were plentiful, and
when all that was needed to induce a soil to yield a
bountiful harvest, was simply to "scrach its back" with
plow and harrow, and then leave it to smile with fruits
and flowers and vegetables and grain. Owing to the con-
tinuous system of cultivation to which our soils have,
since then, been constantly subjected, and without fertili-
zation, they scarcely now serve more than as a medium,
or means of conveyance of plant food from the earth into
the plant. If, therefore, we are to prosper as farmers, we
must alter our system of farming--of sowing, reaping,
fertilizing, etc., to suit the changed conditions. We must
emerge from the chrysalis of primitive agriculture, as
practiced by our ancestors, and seek to learn more and
more of the teachings of science as related to our profes-
sion, if we would solve the problem of our prosperity. In
all cases it is absolutely necessary that thought go before
work, and in every instance the successful farmer of
to-day invariably has a theory upon which to base his
practice. No farmer can any more understand the prin-
ciples that underlie the science of fertilization without
some knowledge of the chemistry of soils, of plants, and
of fertilizers, than could a railway be accurately planned
and constructed by one unskilled in the sciences of math-
ematics and mechanics. Indeed, the farmer without his
reasons, his theory, if you please his science, can have no
plans. With these wanting, agriculture would prove as
complete a failure with him as would the banking busi-
ness when he was entirely ignorant of all the laws of
finance.
In years gone by the farmers had but little use for
agricultural chemistry. The rich and virgin soil usually
chosen by the farmer of former times were quite well
supplied with all the substances needed for plant nutrition,
and all that was needed was simply for the farmer to stir
the soil occasionally, and reap ,abundant harvests. But
since then times and conditions have changed. Under a








continued system of cultivation, and the consequent
drainage of plant' food by a constant removal of crops,
without a proper replenishment of this nourishment to
the soil in the form of a fertilizer, it has grown weary
and hungry. It now looks for food, coaxing and petting,
before it can be induced to supply remunerative yields.
We, therefore, find ourselves burdened with duties that
were not imposed upon our fathers. The foremost and
most formidable task which to-day confronts us as farm-
ers, is that of providing the raw materials required for
the manufacture of the crops that we desire to grow-
and that, too, at prices that will yield us a just and reason-
able profit on our investment. These raw materials are
expensive. If we purchase them carelessly and apply,
them injudiciously, or indiscriminately, we will be sure
to find ourselves losers in the transaction.


The Province of Chemistry.

It is just here that chemistry comes to the farmer's
rescue, and enables him to solve many of the problems
concerning the needs of his crops; the nature and value
of various raw materials for different fertilizing purposes;
and to: make and use fertilizers with a mind to both
wisdom and economy.
Briefly mentioned, the chief benefits to be derived by
the farmer from a knowledge of chemistry, may be thus
defined:
1st. It teaches the composition of soils, of plants, of
fertilizers, and of the atmosphere, and tells how to con-
form one to the requirements of the other.
2nd. It determines both the variety and quantity of
the food that different plants require for healthy and vig-
orous growth.
3rd. It gives information in regard to manufacturing
fertilizers, and explains how all kinds of refuse matter
occurring about either the slaughter house or the premises,
may be made useful in manufacturing wholesome food
for plants. Much more has chemistry done toward solv-
ing agricultural problems, but what has been pointed out
above will be quite sufficient to subserve the purposes of
this bulletin.








How Chemistry Aids the Farmer.

To explain how chemistry is of such substantial aid
to the farmer, it is only necessary to say that the chemist,
in his investigations, proceeds to analyze the soil, the
plant, the atmosphere, and fertilizers, and having thus
acquired a knowledge of their several properties and con-
stituents, he is in a position to proceed in an intelligent
manner to conform one to the needs and requirements of
the other.

The Composition of the Soil.

Among other things, we have learned from chemistry
that the soil we cultivate is usually made up of from
fourteen to fifteen elements when in a healthy state for
cultivation. (By the term "element" is meant: A sim-
ple substance which cannot be further subdivided into
two or more kinds of substance possessing different iden-
tities.) In all, there are now know to the chemist about
seventy of these elements, but only about fifteen of them
occur in soils, generally, and these fifteen are all that are
believed to be essential, either to plant or animal growth.
It, therefore, becomes us as farmers to concern ourselves
only with such of them as must be present before our
soils can possibly produce profitable crops.
Of these fifteen elements which are regarded as indis-
pensable to the fertile soil, seven are designated by the
chemist as "non-metallic," and eight as "'metallic" ele-
ments. The "non-metallic" elements are oxygen, nitro-
gen, carbon, silicon, sulphur, phosphorus and chlorine, and
the "metallic" elements are hydrogen, potassium, sodium,
calcium, magnesium, aluminum, iron, and manganese.
The chemist has been accustomed for a long time to
divide the elements into "organic" and "in-organic" ele-
ments. For many years those included under "organic"
were such as appeared to be destructible by fire, and those
comprising the list of "in-organic" elements were such
as were incombustible, or such as remained as a residue,
or ash, whenever a plant was burnt. In recent years,
however, the barriers between organic and in-organic
chemistry have been rapidly giving way, and the agree-
ment is now universal among chemists, that an element








How Chemistry Aids the Farmer.

To explain how chemistry is of such substantial aid
to the farmer, it is only necessary to say that the chemist,
in his investigations, proceeds to analyze the soil, the
plant, the atmosphere, and fertilizers, and having thus
acquired a knowledge of their several properties and con-
stituents, he is in a position to proceed in an intelligent
manner to conform one to the needs and requirements of
the other.

The Composition of the Soil.

Among other things, we have learned from chemistry
that the soil we cultivate is usually made up of from
fourteen to fifteen elements when in a healthy state for
cultivation. (By the term "element" is meant: A sim-
ple substance which cannot be further subdivided into
two or more kinds of substance possessing different iden-
tities.) In all, there are now know to the chemist about
seventy of these elements, but only about fifteen of them
occur in soils, generally, and these fifteen are all that are
believed to be essential, either to plant or animal growth.
It, therefore, becomes us as farmers to concern ourselves
only with such of them as must be present before our
soils can possibly produce profitable crops.
Of these fifteen elements which are regarded as indis-
pensable to the fertile soil, seven are designated by the
chemist as "non-metallic," and eight as "'metallic" ele-
ments. The "non-metallic" elements are oxygen, nitro-
gen, carbon, silicon, sulphur, phosphorus and chlorine, and
the "metallic" elements are hydrogen, potassium, sodium,
calcium, magnesium, aluminum, iron, and manganese.
The chemist has been accustomed for a long time to
divide the elements into "organic" and "in-organic" ele-
ments. For many years those included under "organic"
were such as appeared to be destructible by fire, and those
comprising the list of "in-organic" elements were such
as were incombustible, or such as remained as a residue,
or ash, whenever a plant was burnt. In recent years,
however, the barriers between organic and in-organic
chemistry have been rapidly giving way, and the agree-
ment is now universal among chemists, that an element









may be either organic or in-organic, according as it is, or
is not, a part of an organized body.
The plant-forming elements naturally group them-
selves into two distinct divisions, which are marked by
well defined and widely varying characteristics. The
first includes those elements that are derived exclusively
from the air; the second refers to those which are fur-
nished exclusively by the soil. And thus we have two
distinct classes of elementary substances entering into the
composition of plants, both of which are equally essential
to their life and growth. Those elements comprising the
first class, and which are derived by plants, either directly
or indirectly, from the atmosphere, Are only four in num-
ber, viz.: Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen. These
four air-derived elements constitute much the larger pro-
portion of all plants, forming from 95 to 99 per cent. of
their entire weight. When plants are burnt, or when they
undergo decay, these atmospheric elements mostly pass
off into the air in the form of gas. It must not be
inferred that because these elements are a source of atmos-
pheric plant food, they are always derived by plants
directly from the air, for such is not the case. True,
plants do obtain large quantities of their food in this
way, but it is likewise true that the air-derived elements
are always present in the soil, in combination with the
soil elements, and forming what are called chemical com-
pounds.
It must not be inferred that. because the soil-derived
elements (i. e.: phosphorus, sulphur, chlorin, silicon, cal-
cium, iron, potassium, sodium, magnesium, etc.) occur in
such small proportions in plants, they are not equally as
essential to growth as are the more important air-derived
ones, for such is not the case. Though all of them com-
bined constitute only from one to ten, or twelve, per cent.
of the entire weight of plants, still they are just as essen-
tial to growth as are the more abundantly occurring air-
derived ones, and the entire absence of a single one will
materially retard the vigor of any crop.

Why We Fertilize.

From accurately conducted experiments chemists have
learned that though all plants must have a nourishment








of each of the elements enumerated above, no'two plants,
even of the same variety, consiime precisely the same
quantity of each; neither do different families of plants
require the same elements in identical proportions. This
discovery naturally offered an explanation for the ex-
haustion of soils by a continuous system of cropping, and
demonstrated, most emphatically, the necessity for using
fertilizers if the fertility of the soil is either to be main-
tained or restored.


The Lesson Taught.

We have also learned from the chemical lesson cited
above that the elements most largely drawn upon by
growing plants are three in number, to-wit: Phosphorus,
potassium and nitrogen, and the supply of these elements,
therefore, will become exhausted in a soil earlier than all
others when it is subjected to a continuous system of
cropping, and we then find ourselves confronted with the
necessity either of replenishing such a soil with them, or
else ceasing to produce good crops. In practically all the
cultivated soils of Florida, and, indeed, of the entire
country, all of the other essential elements are present in
the soil in sufficient quantities to last for years to come.
There is little probability of the early exhaustion of either
of them, and in estimating the fertility of his land the
farmer of to-day rarely finds it necessary to take any
account of them, but in a sterile or worn soil it will be
found that one, two, or all three of the elements-phos-
phorus, potassium and nitrogen-are deficient, and this
deficiency will have to be made up, and the only process
by which this can be accomplished is known as fertilizing,
which simply means adding to a poor soil certain mate-
rials which will contribute to it the necessary quantities
of phosphoric acid, potash and nitrogen to insure a profit-
able yield of agricultural products. The material used
for this purpose may be either homemade (i. e. stable
manure, pea vines, saw-palmetto root ashes, etc., etc.),
or they may be applied in the form of artificial or com-
mercial fertilizers (i. e. bone meal, phosphate, sulphate of
potash, nitrate of soda, cotton seed meal, etc.).








Definitions of Fertilizers.

Before proceeding directly to a discussion of various
kinds of home and commercial fertilizing material that is
available for enriching the soil, it will doubtless be well
to offer a few explanations which will enable all better to
understand the real worth of different kinds of material
for fertilizing purposes; i. e. what essential element or ele-
ments of plant food any particular substance will con-
tribute to a soil when it is applied.
First, then, we will remark that a fertilizer may be
either a partial or a complete one, according as it contains
one, or two, or all three of the essential elements (phos-
phorus, potassium and nitrogen) in proper proportions.
Thus, acid-phosphate is a partial fertilizer. It contains
only one of the three essentials, i. e., phosphorous. Sul-
phate of potash is a partial, or incomlilete fertilizer, because
it contains only potash (Potassium). And nitrate of soda
is also a partial fertilizer, because it contains only nitro-
gen. A combination of any two of these, that is of acid
phosphate and sulphate of potash, or of acid phosphate
and nitrate of soda, will still be an incomplete fertilizer
mixture, but a combination of the three, in proper propor-
tions, would give a complete, well-rounded fertilizer,
because.the acid phosphate will contribute the necessary
phosphoric acid, the sulphate of potash, the necessary
potassium, and the nitrate of soda the required amount of
nitrogen. This latter combination is the form whose
application is usually found to be most profitable to the
average cultivated soil.
Seldom a week passes without the chemical department
of the station receiving a letter of inquiry, couched in
language about as follows:
"I have a plantation which has been in constant culti-
vation for a number of years. For a long while, the soil
never failed to yield a good crop, but of late, it matters
not what care is exercised in cultivation, it is never pos-
sible to induce it to make anything like a satisfactory
yield. In the past the soil has received very little fer-
tilizer treatment, but of late I have tried, first, acid phos-
phate, and afterwards nitrate of soda, neither of which
seemed to afford any very marked benefit. Can you sug-
gest to me any form of fertilizer which will enable me to








restore to my soil the fertility that it once possessed ?"
This is a fair illustration of letters that we are almost
daily in receipt of, and the answer which is always
sent, is found, in substance, in what has already been said.
Where crops have been constantly growing, and in
harvesting carrying out of a soil a large quantity of all
the three essential elements which they draw so largely in
growth, and which usually are present in soils in smaller
quantities than any of the others, it is but a simple propo-
sition that their exhaustion in soils will occur much
earlier than that of those occurring in larger quantities,
and of which plants consume less. Now what will be the
result? If, such a soil has never received a fertilizer
treatment, and if crops have been constantly grown upon
it, is it not clear to all that its failure to produce abundant
harvests (barring external influences)'is due to the fact
that it has become exhausted of one or more of those
elements which plants must have before they can grow ?
And it may be safely concluded that under such a con-
tinued system of cultivation as has "been described in our
correspondent's letter, that the soil will be found sorely in
need, not only of one, but of all three essential elements
to which reference has been made.
Where, then, is fault to be fu-nd with the system of
fertilizing practiced by our correspondent? Clearly, he
is not using the kind of fertilizer which will replenish the
soil with all elements of which a system of cropping has
deprived it. In the first case, he gave his land a dressing
of phosphate, which only enriched it with phosphoric
acid; and in the latter instance, an application of nitrate
of soda was administered, which only afforded nitrogen.
In the first case, the soil lacked both nitrogen and potash,
and in the latter case, both potash and phosphoric acid.
Instead, then, of applying only one of the forms of mate-
rial in a single season, he should have applied both and
should have supplemented them with a proper proportion
of potash in some commercial or natural source. In
other words, the doctor's prescription for his sick or
imperfect soil is a complete, well-rounded fertilizer.
But it is very often the case that some special crop
will require more than a normal amount of some particu-
lar form of plant food. For instance, tobacco needs a
much larger supply of potash for perfect growth than








many other crops require, and the same may be said of
fruit crops in general. Since it naturally follows that
where one of these several crops is grown continuously on
the same plot of land, such a plot will become exhausted
of its store of potash sooner than of any other plant food
substance, and, of course, in such a case, only a form of
potash fertilizer need to be applied, or, better still, in order
to maintain the fertility of such a soil, it will be found
judicious to apply to it from time to time a complete fer-
tilizer mixture (i. e., one containing potash, phosphoric
acid and nitrogen) in which the ratio of potash to phos-
phoric acid would be as 3:1 and the ratio of potash to
nitrogen about as 1i:1.
We see, therefore, that in the case of special crops,
requiring an over-amount of some particular element, the
proper variation in the proportion of such an element
must be taken into account in compounding the fertilizing
mixture with which such crops are to be nourished.
Such a mixture may be aptly designated, "a special
fertilizer."
To illustrate the various proportions of the several
fertilizing elements removed by different crops from soils
during growth, we append, just here, a table showing
how many pounds of phosphoric acid, potash and nitro-
gen are withdrawn, per acre, by an average crop of the
different varieties mentioned.
The table is commended to our farmers for careful
study, because its thorough comprehension will afford an
insight into the kind of fertilizer that will be best adapted
to growing any special crop enumerated in the list. It
will afford a knowledge of'how a mixture can be best
compounded for economical use, so as to furnish a healthy
nourishment for both soil and plant, and at the same
time guard against the extravagant use of any kind of
plant food.









TABLE SHOWING HOW MANY POUNDS OF THE CONSTITU-
ENTS MENTIONED ARE WITHDRAWN, PER
ACRE, BY AN AVERAGE CROP.


POTASH. PHOSPHOR- NITROGEN.
(LBS.) IC ACID. (LBS.)
(LBS.)

Apples-15 tons per acre........ 45 3 30
Pears-10 tons per acre......... 36 10 12
Plums-2 tons per acre......... .8 2 16
Grapes-4 tons per acre......... 40 12 13
Berries--l tons per acre........ 7 2 ........
Sugar Beets-20 tons per acre... 72 12 110
Carrots-20 tons per acre....... 150 24 70
Mangolds-20 tons per acre...... 160 18 90
Turnips-20 tons per acre....... 110 25 75
Onions ...................... 96 49 96
Cucumbers ................... 193 94 142
Lettuce ...................... 72 17 41
Cauliflower .................. 265 76 202
Cabbage.................... 514 125 213
Rape......................... 124 79 154
Wheat ..................... 58 45 111
Rye......................... 76 44 87
Barley ....................... 62 35 78
Oats .................. ...... 96 35 89
Rice ........................ 45 24 39
Corn ....................... 174 69 .146
Corn Fodder (green) ........... 236 66 122
Meadow Hay................. 201 53 166
Sorghum ...................... 71 68 129
Sugar Cane.................. 107 37 518
Tobacco ...................... 148 32 127

The above table will suffice to show that a fertilizer
properly compounded for a fruit orchard is not an
economical one for pse on cereal crops, such as wheat,
barley, rye, etc. Neither does a fertilizer mixture which
is well adapted to vegetable growing meet the require-
ments of ordinary farm purposes.
In the case of fruit crops it may easily be observed
(though the figures are only approximately correct) that
they often remove from the soil an amount of potash ten
or fifteen times as large as that of phosporic acid, and yet
we often see so-called special fruit fertilizers advertised








for sale, in which the proportion of phosphoric acid guar-
anteed is double that of either potash or nitrogen.
The usual forms of complete fertilizer mixtures for
sale in this state contain, on an average, about the follow-
ing proportions of the several fertilizing elements:
Phosphoric acid...... 8 to 10 per cent.
Potash ................ 4 to 5 per cent.
Nitrogen ............. 4 to 6 per cent.
From chemical analyses of the soils of various sections
of Florida made in this laboratory, it is made apparent
that the soils of this state are universally more deficient
in potash than any other element, while phosphoric acid
is more generally diffused throughout the soil than either
of the others. This fact, taken into consideration along
with the other fact that, generally speaking, the character
of the crops grown throughout the state is such as re-
quires a predominance of both potash and nitrogen, it
would seem, to say the least, that a majority of the fer-
tilizer combinations put annually upon our markets for
sale are ill adapted to fruit and vegetable growing. The
writer is of the opinion that, as a general rule, it would
be well for our manufacturers to reverse the proportions
of many of the fertilizer formulas that they are daily
commending as admirably adapted to fruit growing, and
have the constituents proportioned about as follows:
Phosphoric acid..... 5 to 6 per cent.
Potash ............... 10 to 12 per cent.
Nitrogen ............ 6 to 8 per cent.
It is confidently believed that a mixture compounded
in accordance with the above formula will, in a great
majority of instances, yield results far more favorable in
the case of fruit crops than the ordinary routine formula
that our fruit growers have been accustomed to use for
years.
And what has been said with regard to fruit tree fer-
tilizers applies with equal force to vegetable growing.

Fertilizers-How to Make and Use Them.
With what has been said in explanation of fertilizer
terms, the chemistry of fertilizers, and the care that is to








be exercised in compounding them judiciously (i. e. with
special reference to the requirements of the crops to be
grown), we are in a position to proceed intelligently io
study the different sources, both natural and commercial,
whence each kind of fertilizing material may be easily
obtained.
It is no uncommon thing to hear a farmer say that
phosphate, or cotton seed meal, or ashes, or pea-vine,
placed upon his land will serve to enhance its fertility,
and thus insure larger crop returns in the season of har-
vest; but if that same farmer be asked what element of
fertility, phosphate, or bone meal, or cotton seed meal,
etc., contributed to soil enrichment, in a great majority of
cases he will be unable to answer you.
The object of the present bulletin is to diffuse knowl-
edge along these very lines. It is the design to study
with much care many of the more commonly occurring
forms of material, which occur in profusion about almost
every farm premises, with a view of acquainting our
farmers with the availability of such substances for fer-
tilizing purposes, and inducing them to pursue such meth-
ods as may be suggested for properly saving and employ-
ing such materials (which now through carelessness are
allowed to go to waste) in enriching the soils they are
compelled to cultivate.
After covering this phase of the scope of the bulletin,
it is the intention to refer to the more commonly avail-
able sources of the three fertilizing elements in the form of
commercial fertilizers, and subsequently show how each
farmer may, for himself, prepare his formula at home,
and of any specific proportions desired, so that any special
crop will be sure to receive just such a fertilizer ration as
will seem best adapted to subserving its requirements.

Natural Fertilizers.

First in order, then, will come the consideration of
natural fertilizers, many of which only benefit a soil in
a mechanical way, and are appropriately designated as
mechanical manures.
This subject of natural manure is one of immense
importance to economic and scientific agriculture. Un-








doubtedly our farmers make a serious mistake in failing
properly to employ for fertilization the various forms of
refuse material that exist on every farm. The writer
has often had occasion to refer to the different systems of
farming practiced in the North and the South. The
economic and intensive' system of agriculture carried on
in the Northern States he has frequently contrasted with
the system that is prevalent among us, and he has made
earnest appeals for an improved, economical system of
farming in Florida.
To bring into usage this improved system, our methods
of dealing with natural fertilizers will have to be revolu-
tionized. The extravagance that characterizes our present
methods of dealing with them will have to give place to
more prudent, intelligent and economical ones. These
natural manures must be collected and preserved with as
much care as is now bestowed upon the commercial fer-
tilizers which the farmer is compelled to purchase.
The various natural fertilizers occurring about every
farm have just as really an agricultural value as have the
more concentrated forms of commercial fertilizers. Just
in proportion, then, as their merits are appreciated and
they are carefully collected and preserved for farm use,
will the necessity for purchasing artificial fertilizers dimin-
ish, and the money which would have been expended in
their purchase be saved. With a view to impressing the
farmers with the immense importance of this subject, as a
factor in their prosperity, we shall suggest desirable
methods for saving these manures so that the soil may
receive the largest possible benefit from their application.
In the list of natural manures there are certain ones
which are useful chiefly on account of the fact that they
improve the physical character of the soil., Of course, in
addition to their physical, or mechanical efficiency, they
also contain small quantities of plant food and thus con-
tribute, in a small degree, to the nourishment of plants.
Their chief value, however, is due to the mechanical effect
they have upon soils. Such a class of fertilizers is usually
designated by chemists as
Mechanical Fertilizers.
In the list is usually included organic matter of
various kinds, both animal and vegetable. Chief among








such manures may be mentioned grass, leaves, straw, cot-
ton hulls, plant roots, corn stalks and woody matter of
various descriptions. Other vegetable matter, such, as
peavines, cotton seed meal and cotton seed are also
mechanical manures, but they contain a much larger
quantity of real nutriment (i. e. nitrogen) than those pre-
viously mentioned, and are therefore to be prized not only
because of their mechanical effects, but also on account of
their chemical constitution. When any of these mechani-
cal manures are plowed into the soil, they soon begin to
undergo decay, and their decomposition serves to render
the soil porous, loose and open. The effect is greatly to
improve a soil's mechanical condition by facilitating the
admission of air and water, thus hastening the "weather-
ing" process. Mechanical manures also absorb water and
thus tend to keep the soil moist. They likewise absorb
heat, and thereby contribute, in a manner, to the warmth
of soils. As they decompose, certain acids are formed,
which begin at once to act on the mineral matters in the
soil, making them more soluble. Of course, the rapidity
of decomposition in mechanical manures varies greatly
with the character of the substance; and the rapidity of
decomposition will measure the immediate benefits that
the soil receives from them. Thus, peavine,: lqves,
grass, etc., will decompose more rapidly than corn stalks
or cotton stalks; and so, crushed cotton seed or cotton
hulls will decay more readily than either uncrushed seed
or cotton seed meal. When either of the forms of me-
chanical manures enumerated above is to be employed,
it will always-be found advantageous to subject it to par-
tial decomposition in a prudent manner before applying
it to the soil. The process by which this is done is
usually designated "rotting" the manure, and it is easily
accomplished simply by placing the material that is to
be used, such, for instance, as stalks, straw and cotton
hulls, first in the stable to be used as litter, and subse-
quently transferring it to a compost heap, judiciously
constructed, and there allowing it to remain for several
months or until ready for use.
Woods-earth and muck are, too, generally referred to
as mechanical manures. Each, when properly collected
and treated, will prove beneficial to a soil, both mechani-
cally and chemically, but neither of them is usually as









rich in fertilizing substance as many of the mechanical
manures already mentioned. On soils that are well nigh
destitute of organic substance, both will be likely to pro-
duce excellent results, and they should be highly
esteemed. The physical character of leaf-mold, being
easily disintegrated, renders, its application easy, and
enhances its value as a mechanical manure.
We quote below for the information of the farmers, the
quantity, in pounds, of the three fertilizing constituents,
phosphoric acid, potash and nitrogen, contained in 1,000
pounds of vegetation usually included in the list of
mechanical manures. In studying the fertilizing compo-
sition of the several substances, it should be remembered
that it is not solely on account of the number of pounds
of the several elements of plant food enumerated above
that these materials are valuable, but also on account of the
mechanical improvement already spoken of that they
produce.


TABLE SHOWING
ACID, POTASH
POUNDS OF


THE NUMBER OF POUNDS OF PHOSPHORIC
AND 'NITROGEN OCCURRING IN 1,000
MECHANICAL FERTILIZER MATERIAL.


Phosphoric
Acid.


- I I-


Crab Grass (green)............
Crab Grass (dry).............
Ordinary Weeds (average)......
Oat Straw ..................
Wheat Straw .................
Corn Stalks ..................
Corn Cobs ....................
Cotton Stalks, Bolls and Leaves..
Cotton Hulls ...............
Oak Leaves (dry)................
Pine Straw ..................
Pine Wood (saw dust) .........
Oak Wood (saw dust) ..........


0.75
2.50
1.00
2.00
2.00
3.00
0.60
3.00
2.80
2.60
0.70
0.07
0.50


Potash. Nitrogen


0.40 4.00
1.50 15.00
0.75 10.00
12.40 6.20
5.10' 5.90
6.00 3.20
0.60 5.00
15.00 14.00
3.00 7.50
1.70 10.00
0.30 6.00
0.08 5.00
1.40 10.00


Among mechanical fertilizers that are valuable for
their high per cent. of fertilizing constituents as well, are
the following. This table, like the preceding one, shows,
the number of pounds of each of the several constituents
occurring in 1,000 pounds of the several materials:







~iERTILIZING CONSTITUENTS IN 1,000 POUNDS.

Phosphoric Potash. Nitrogen

Cotton Seed................. .10.00 12.00 30.00
Cotton Seed Meal ............ 25.00 17.50 67.50
Linseed Meal ................ 17.50 1350 56.00
Pea Vines (greqn)............ 1.00 3.10 2.70
Pea Vines (dry).............. 5.20 14.50 19.50
Pea Vine Roots (green)........ 1.50 4.50 4.10
Clover (green)............... 1.00 4.90 4.30
Clover (dry)................. 3.80 22.00 20.70
Clover Roots (green).......... 1.25 5.00 5.20
The above figures represent the' average of various
analyses made. in different laboratories throughout the
country, and may,,therefore, be considered reliable.
If farmers will carefully preserve this bulletin they
will be sure to find the above tables of great service.
They will have occasion frequently to refer to them when
it is desired to know the real fertilizing value of any sub-
stance included in either of the tables. The figures given .
should serve to impress every one who is desirous of
farming economically with the high value that many of
the substances possess. They should also serve as a warn-
ing to all who have been careless in regard to the use of
such material that they must be more economical, if they
ever expect to make their vocation remunerative.

Other Mechanical Manures.
Thus far what has been written in regard to mechan-
ical manure has been with special reference to those which
are of vegetable origin. It is in order now to make men-
tion of forms which are of animal origin, and in this list
the several varieties of animal excrement will be included
in the discussion under the general heading:

Farm-Yard Manure.

The various forms of animal manure may also be said
to be comprised in that list of mechanical and home-
made fertilizers which are valuable to be applied to soils,
both on account of physical and chemical properties







which they possess. Under farm-yard manure" is in-
cluded the excrement, or droppings, from all kinds of
farm animals. Such manure, properly preserved, should
consist of both the liquid and solid excrement of farm
stock, together with straw occurring along with the
manure, and which was employed as litter. The compo-
sition of such manure will naturally vary according to
the character of the animal, the quality of the food it
received, and the proportion and variety of the litter em-
ployed. If the animal voiding the excrement be an
adult, and neither gaining nor losing weight-such, for
example, as a working horse-the excrement will contain
approximately the same quantity of nitrogen and ash
constituents that was present in the food the animal
received. But if the animal be one which is constantly
increasing in size, or producing young, or furnishing milk
or wool, then the nitrogen and ash constituents of the
voided excrement will be perceptibly less than the quan-
tity originally present in the food, and the difference will
have gone to what is called "animal increase." Mani-
festly, the manure obtained from the latter class of animals
will be inferior to that obtained from the former, provided,
of course, that both kinds receive the same quantity and
variety of food. It follows that we should not expect as
valuable manure from a milch cow as from a dry one, or
from a growing colt as from a full grown horse, or from a
growing pig as from a well grown porker.
The character of the food eaten by the animal will
affect the quality of the manure, even more than it is
affected by the character and age of the animal. A diet
of corn-fodder or straw can yield only an inferior quality
of manure, simply because these foods contain only a
very small quantity of either of the essential elements of
plant food. A diet of cotton seed, cotton seed meal, pea-
vines, or oil cake, etc., will, on the other hand, yield a
very rich manure, because these foods are rich both in
nitrogen and ash constituents.

What Farm=Yard Manure Is.
From a chemical standpoint the composition of barn-
yard manure will average about as follows: In a com-
paratively fresh state, the per cent. of water will range








from 65 to 80. The nitrogen will vary from .0.40 to
.0.65 per cent., and higher, if produced from well-fed
animals. Exclusive of sand, etc., which are always
present, the ash constituents will run from 2J to 3 per
cent. Of the ash constituents, from 40 to 70 per cent.
will be potash, and from 0.20 to 0.40 per cent. will be
phosphoric acid. A ton of farm-yard manure will, there-
fore, average from 4 to 9 lbs. of phosphoric acid, 9 to 15
lbs. of potash, and 9 to 15 lbs. of nitrogen. Estimating
its farm value on the strength of its fertilizing constitu-
ents alone, (i. e., regardless of the beneficial mechanical
influence it exerts when applied to a soil), it should be
worth from $2.50 to $4.00 per ton (2,000 lbs.)
Farm-yard manure may be said to be a "general"
manure, because it supplies all of the essential elements
of plant food. The immediate returns (crop productions)
from an application of farm manure (in an undecomposed
state) are much less than from the same amount of plant
food applied in the form of artificial fertilizers, because in
the case of the former, the effect of an application is
spread over a period of several years. Its nitrogen is
chiefly present, not as ammonia, but in the form of car-
bonaceous compounds, which decompose much more
slowly in the soil, and to overcome this and make sure of
a sufficient supply of available plant food in a single
season, it is always desirable when fertilizing with farm-
yard manure to supplement their application with a
moderate quantity of commercial fertilizers. Of course,
the quantity of the latter that it will then be necessary to
employ will be much less than it would have been had
no home manure been used.

The'Treatment of Manure.
We come now to the most important feature of the
discussion, viz.: the proper treatment of home manures,
(both vegetable and chemical), when it is desired to
employ them so as to reap the greatest possible benefit
from their application.
In reckoning the true fertilizer value of any variety of
manure, a great deal depends upon the kind of treatment
to which it has been subjected. Thus, when stable
manure is piled into heaps and left to decompose, exposed









to sun and rain in the barn-yard, without'any form of
shelter, it will lose fully one-half of its value as a fertilizer.
Animal manure (excrement, etc.) decomposes much
more rapidly than vegetable matter, and when mixed
with the latter cause it to decompose with more rapidity
than it otherwise would. The facility with which it
readily undergoes the "rotting" process admirably adapts
it to the purposes of a mechanical manure. It is also
generally true that animal matter is richer in plant food,
especially in nitrogen, than vegetable matter, and if dur-
ing the heating process the proportion of animal to vege-
table matter is unusually great, there is danger of enough
heat being produced to cause much of the nitrogen to be
driven out of the heap in the form of a compound known
as ammonia, unless precautions are taken to retain this
volatile substance intact. This may be done by sprink-
ling over the manure pile from time to time a liberal
quantity of gypsum, or land plaster (sulphate of lime).
The same results could be largely accomplished by mix-
ing with the manure a sufficiently large amount of litter
to reduce the relative proportions of animal matter in the
manure, or where the mixing with litter is done in the
stalls before the excrement is transferred to the permanent
heap. The same results are accomplished by frequently
changing the litter so as to prevent it from becoming
oversaturated with the excrement.
The overheating of manure heaps can also be pre-
vented in a measure by occasionally wetting it. Perhaps
it will be safe, in any case, to prevent the escape of ammo-
nia by supplementing either method of treating manure.
A little gypsum, powdered earth (clay) or some porous
material which is known to be a good absorbent, should
always be added. Such material, applied either to the
manure heap or in the stall, will likely be advantageous
in preventing the volatilization of ammonia.

Protection from Rain Necessary.

The plant foods in farmyard manure speedily become
soluble in water. Such manure should therefore be pro-
tected from rain to prevent leaching. A large proportion
of the nitrogen in animal refuse is voided in the form of
urine, and, generally speaking, the richer the diet, the









higher will this proportion be. If, therefore, the manure
is exposed and allowed to be washed by rain, and these
washings allowed to drain away, much loss of valuable
material will surely occur. To this fact is attributed the
superiority of "box" manure, or that collected in stalls and
under shelter, over that which is collected and rotted in
an open lot.
It should also be remembered that urea, which consti-
tutes the chief nitrogenous ingredient of urine, is speedily
changed by fermentation into carbonate of ammonia,
which is very volatile, and which will speedily escape if
means are not ready at hand for catching and retaining
it in the heap as fast as it is produced by fermentation.
When the fermentation goes on in a place protected from
rain, carbonaceous matter is destroyed, but very little
nitrogen is lost provided the proper means for retaining
it have been provided. The rotted manure when well
made is more concentrated than the fresh, having lost
much weight during fermentation, with comparatively
little loss of valuable constituents.
Any kind of vegetable substance which is to be appro-
priated for manurial purposes should also be cared for in
a similar manner to that proposed for farm-yard manure.
By storing it in the protected compost and allowing it to
decompose along with animal droppings, a home manure
possessing a high agricultural value will be secured.
Each farmer who has been careless in his methods of
collecting these manures, or who has entirely disregarded
them in his farm operations, should be convinced that his
reckless policy is annually involving him in a useless ex-
pense that could, in a large measure, be dispensed with if
only a little more prudence and economy were exercised
in dealing with his home manures. The probability is
that fully one-half the amount that is now annually ex-
pended by every farmer who is compelled to buy artificial
fertilizers, cauld be saved to him, or the money devoted
to other purposes, if only he would proceed in an econom-
ical and intelligent manner to make use of all the waste
products occurring about his farm for fertilizing purposes.
Improved Farming Operations Needed.
The time is ripe for improvement in many of the
farming operations as practiced by even the most pro-










gressive of our Southern farmers. A new era must dawn
before mother earth will consent to yield to the husband-
man the rich store of harvest that she can so easily furnish
if only a little inducement is offered her.
The writer will continue to press the importance of
agricultural economy until it is apparent that the farmers
of Florida are giving more attention to the matter, and
until there dawns an era of agricultural prosperity in
this state hitherto unknown, and which, in fact, is hardly
possible under the present extravagant, careless and un-
scientific method that now characterizes most of our
farming operations.
The table given below shows the average chemical
composition of the most commonly occurring forms of
animal manures about every farm premises. The figures
used designate the per cent. of the several substances
present.


NAME OF SUSBTANCE.


Cattle-solid, fresh excrement.. 0.17- 1.10 0.29
Cattle-fresh urine..................... 0.49 0.58
Hen manure-fresh ............ 1.54 0.58 1.63
Horse-solid, fresh excrement. 0.17 0.35 0.44
Horse-fresh urine............ ......... 1.50 1.55
Human excrement-solid ....... 1.09 0.25 1.00
Human urine............... 0.17 0.20 0.60
Pigeon manure-dry.......... 1.90 1.00 3.20
Poudrette-night soil......... 1.40 0.30 0.80
Sheep-solid, fresh excrement.. 0.31 0.15 ,0.55
Sheep-fresh urine............ 0.02 2.26 1.95
Stable manure-mixed ........ 0.30 0.60 0.60
Swine-solid, fresh excrement... 0.41 0.13 0.60
Swine-fresh urine............ 0.07 0.83 0.43
Tankage.................... 11.80 ......... 6.70

Commercial Fertilizers.
It is undoubtedly true that our modern system of
cropping is removing plant food from the soil much more
rapidly than it is being returned, or is capable of being
returned by the application of all the available forms of










home fertilizers from whatever sources. All the availa-
ble supplies of barn-yard manure, hen droppings, muck
or peat, and in fact every phase of material occurring
about the farm premises, and which may be utilized in
enriching the soil, cannot replenish the entire amount of
plant nourishment that is withdrawn from a soil in the
harvesting of crops. This, or these facts have led to
searches for other sources, to the importation of various
substances adapted to th6 purpose, and finally to the
manufacture of what we, in later days, are accustomed to
call "commercial fertilizers."
"There is as wide difference," says Mr. Greiner in his
creditable little work on "Farm Chemistry," "between
commercial fertilizers as there is between sand and ma-
nure, or between sugar and salt, or between a tender,
juicy tenderloin steak and the sole of an old boot. Buy-
ing and applying concentrated fertilizers promiscuously,
without having the least idea what they contain or what
the soil needs, is little better than taking chances in a
lottery."
"In compounding the various concentrated fertilizers,
all sorts of materials are made use of-fish, bone, blood,
slaughter house refuse, phosphate rock, guano, potash, salts,
sulphate of ammonia, and many other things-and man-
ufacturers are always on the lookout for everything avail-
able for this purpose, and purchasable at a reasonable
price. As a result of all this, and of different ways of
preparation, and different proportions in mixing, etc., we
have the thousand and one different brands, in different
degrees of strength and composition, for general and spe-
cial purposes, and of different prices, from twenty dollars
or less to forty-five dollars and upwards, per ton."
It is not the intention to attempt any extensive discus-
sion of these several commercial fertilizing materials at
this time, but after strongly warning the farmers of this
State against the folly displayed in purchasing the
so-called cheap fertilizers, especially if they have to be
freighted for any distance, we shall simply mention the
different kinds of materials that are 'the principal com-
mercial sources of all the phosphoric acid, potash and
nitrogen that are sold to the great farming classes
throughout the entire country.










After doing this, a method for preparing a fertilizer
mixture of any desirable strength will be given so that
any farmer may, for himself, prepare at home, either out
of home fertilizers or raw unmixed commercial products
purchased in the markets, a special fertilizer of any char-
acter whatsoever, and adapted to the needs of any par-
ticular crop, or the requirements of any particular soil.
Finally, a number of formulas, especially prepared for
the requirements of various crops, and which have been
repeatedly tested with good results, will be given.
It is believed that a close study and observance of the
directions prescribed, will prove of lasting benefit to the
farmers by creating within them a spirit of economy in,
the use of fertilizing material, and afford them instruc-
tion in regard to the various requirements of different
soils and crops.

The Composition of Various Commercial Fertil=
izing Material.

It might not be supposed, but nevertheless it is true,
that there are a great many farmers in Florida who are
not familiar -with the fertilizing composition of 'tie very
commercial material that they are daily using for enrich-
ing their soil. For instance, many a man is accustomed to
use cotton seed meal to increase the harvest on his land,
and yet is unaware of the particular element of plant food
that a dressing of it contributes. He simply knows that
a soil may be in such a condition that by administering
to it a treatment of cotton seed meal, its ability to produce
crops will be increased. To know what element of fer-
tility any particular substances possesses is, therefore, of
the greatest importance. To illustrate: Suppose an acre
of land has been continuously cultivated in tobacco, with-
out receiving any fertilizer, until it ceases to produce a
full crop, what would then be the plausable method for
ascertaining the defect in said land ? \Vhy, undoubtedly,
the sensible course of procedure would be to study the
requirements of tobacco in growing, (this should have
been done prior to its cultivation), and in this way ascer-
tain what element (or elements) is likely to have been
most largely drawn upon and removed from the soil by
repeated croppings. This knowledge will, in all likeli-









hood, remedy the defect that has existed. It will doubt-
less be found that the tobacco soil (if previously it had
possessed average fertility), had been partially or wholly
exhausted of its store of potash sooner than of either of
the other elements. Now, then, if this were the case,
what kind of material should be added to make a soil to
replenish its potash deficiency ? Would cotton seed meal
or dried blood be the proper kind of fertilizing substance
to apply to it? To those who are familiar with the
chemical composition of home and commercial fertilizers,
this may appear to be a very useless question, but it is in
order to say to them that while the query may seem
unnecessary to them there are, nevertheless, a much
larger number of farmers than they, themselves, are able
to muster, who cannot answer it, and who need to know it.
We shall, therefore, proceed briefly to mention the dif-
ferent kinds of material that furnish a commercial source
of the three valuable constituents of a commercial or ar-
tificial fertilizer, to-wit: Phosphoric acid, potash and
nitrogen, beginning with that class of material which
owes its ability to enrich a soil to its supply of

Phosphric Acid.

First under this head will be mentioned the various
forms of naturally occurring phosphates, such as are
found abundantly in Florida and South Carolina, and
which are supposed to be the fossil remains of pre-historic
marine animals. The second source of phosphoric acid
to be mentioned is the bones of animals. If the bones
have been ground into what is termed "bone meal" and
have never been burnt, they will contain in addition to
their store of phosphoric acid, a goodly store of nitrogen
(about 4 per cent.), so that in fertilizing with this material
both phosphoric acid and nitrogen are added to a soil.
If the bone meal has been subjected to a steaming pro-
cess, it will have only a little more than half the nitrogen
that is contained in the raw bone meal mentioned above.
If the bones have been burnt until converted into ash,
or bone black, (the spent residue from sugar refineries),
then this ash will contain no nitrogen at all, but will owe its
fertilizing value solely to its content of phosphoric acid
(bone phosphate). The bones used for the manufacture









of fertilizers come chiefly from slaughter houses, but are
often picked up here and there. Fresh bone has nearly
one-half of its weight of organic matter, (i. e., gelatine,
water, etc.,) and one-half of its weight phosphate of lime,
and nearly one half of the weight of the latter is phos-
phoric acid, and this, therefore, makes out something
more than 20 per cent. of the fresh bone.
We see, therefore, that when we desire to buy bone
meal for fertilizing purposes, it is very essential that we
know whether we are buying the raw meal, the steamed
meal or the bone ash.
When they are steamed before being ground nearly all
the gelatine matter is extracted to make glue, and the
larger portion of the nitrogen is thus abstracted. Now,
in either of the above forms, we have the phosphoric
acid in the form of simple bone phosphate, which is
intermediate in solubility between the raw, pulverized
phosphate rock and the same rock or bone after being
acid treated. If it is desired to have the raw bone meal
in a more immediately available form, it can be accom-
plished by treating the meal with a proper quantity of
sulphuric acid. We will thus obtain what is called
"dissolved bone," and as such, its store of phosphoric acid
is immediately available. It is in this form that it exists
in most of the so-called "high grade fertilizers." It
should be stated that if the bone material be purchased
in the form of bone ash (burnt bone), its store of phos-
phoric acid will be in a more soluble state than would be
the case with that in the raw, or steamed bone meal, and
it would not be necessary to subject it to sulphuric acid
treatment to render its phosphoric acid available. Other
sources, though not so common, for obtaining phosphoric
acid, are guano and apatite. These sources are usually
imported from foreign countries, chiefly from South
America, but with the abundant supply of phosphate-
containing material that occurs in various sections of our
own country, I fail to see why it should be necessary for
us to look to South America, or elsewhere, for a source of
phosphoric acid.
Another commercial source of phosphoric acid, is a
waste or by-product of iron industries, known as Thomas,
or basic slag. It usually contains from 21 to 22 per cent.
of phosphoric acid. Below will be found a table showing










the average composition of various phosphate-containing
material. The figures used denote the per cent. of phos-
phoric acid present in an average sample:
TABLE SHOWING THE PER CENT. OF TOTAL PHOSPHORIC
ACID PRESENT IN VARIOUS KINDS OF MATERIAL.
Total per
cent. Phos-
phoric Acid

South Carolina Rock Phosphate (land) ........... 27.0
South Carolina Rock.Phosphate (river)........... 26.5
S. Carolina Rock (dissolved, i. e. acid phosphate) 15.20
Florida Rock Phosphate (land and River) ...... 27.0
Florida Rock Phosphate (pebble, kiln dried)..... 27.0
Florida Rock Phosphate (hard rock)............. 34.5
Florida Rock Phosphate (soft rock) ............... 31.0
Ground Bone (raw)................................... 23.5
Ground Bone. (steamed)............................. 22.0
Bone Black (spent from sugar refineries).......... 33.5
Bone Black (spent from oil refineries).............. 27.5
Canadian Apatite................................... 35.5
Phosphatic Guano................................... 26.8
The substances enumerated in the above table consti-
tute the chief commercial sources of phosphoric acid in
all of our manufactured fertilizers, and when either of
them is purchased and applied singly to a soil the prin-
cipal constituent administered as nourishment is phos-
phoric acid.

Potash.

We come now to consider the chief commercial sources
of potash. Among the substances that are to be men-
tioned in this connection are, first of all, the alkaline,
salts imported from Germany, to-wit: Muriate (chloride)
of potash, sulphate of potash and kainit. There is at
present only one mine known where these salts may be
obtained, but the supply there is said to be inexhaustible.
This whole mine is now the property of an English syn-
dicate.
Muriate of potash usually contains from 50 to 55 per
cent. of actual potash in an easily soluble form. For tree
and small fruits this form of potash may be used with








safety, but on account of the presence in it of a rather
large amount of chlorine, it might do some damage when
applied, even in moderate quantities, to some particular
crops. With the information" at present available, it
would seem that, for orchard purposes and for general
farm use, muriate is probably the cheapest commercial
source of potash.

Sulphate of Potash.
Potash in the form of sulphate is one of the most supe-
rior sources of this element of plant food that is available.
Sulphate of potash contains from 35 to 53 per cent. of
pure potash, and its price varies from about $38 to $58
per ton. The high grade sulphate, containing on an
average about 50 per cent. of pure potash, can usually
be had for about sixty dollars per ton, and it is one of
the very safest and most desirable forms of potash for all
agricultural operations.
There is also a double salt of sulphate of potash and
inagnesia that has achieved considerable popularity. It
contains about 26 per cent. of potash.

Kainit.
This substance, though it contains only a relatively
small quantity of potash, (about 12 per cent.), is never-
theless a very prominent source of this element of plant
food. The potash in kainit occurs partly as muriate and
partly as sulphate of potash. It also contains chloride of
sodium (common salt), sulphate of lime (gypsum), and
chloride of magnesia. It has been found that kainit has
the power of retaining or "fixing" ammonia to a very
decided extent, so that it not only contributes to. a soil its
store of potash, but it also serves to retain ammonia
which might be present in the soil in an easily volatile
form, (i. e., carbonate of ammonia), and perhaps even
draws it in from the atmosphere and retains it for the
use of crops. On account of its large bulk, and its com-
paratively small per cent. of potash, it is hardly probable
that if will prove a profitable investment for Florida
farmers to purchase this substance where it will be neces-
sary for them to pay for long freight hauls. Better buy








safety, but on account of the presence in it of a rather
large amount of chlorine, it might do some damage when
applied, even in moderate quantities, to some particular
crops. With the information" at present available, it
would seem that, for orchard purposes and for general
farm use, muriate is probably the cheapest commercial
source of potash.

Sulphate of Potash.
Potash in the form of sulphate is one of the most supe-
rior sources of this element of plant food that is available.
Sulphate of potash contains from 35 to 53 per cent. of
pure potash, and its price varies from about $38 to $58
per ton. The high grade sulphate, containing on an
average about 50 per cent. of pure potash, can usually
be had for about sixty dollars per ton, and it is one of
the very safest and most desirable forms of potash for all
agricultural operations.
There is also a double salt of sulphate of potash and
inagnesia that has achieved considerable popularity. It
contains about 26 per cent. of potash.

Kainit.
This substance, though it contains only a relatively
small quantity of potash, (about 12 per cent.), is never-
theless a very prominent source of this element of plant
food. The potash in kainit occurs partly as muriate and
partly as sulphate of potash. It also contains chloride of
sodium (common salt), sulphate of lime (gypsum), and
chloride of magnesia. It has been found that kainit has
the power of retaining or "fixing" ammonia to a very
decided extent, so that it not only contributes to. a soil its
store of potash, but it also serves to retain ammonia
which might be present in the soil in an easily volatile
form, (i. e., carbonate of ammonia), and perhaps even
draws it in from the atmosphere and retains it for the
use of crops. On account of its large bulk, and its com-
paratively small per cent. of potash, it is hardly probable
that if will prove a profitable investment for Florida
farmers to purchase this substance where it will be neces-
sary for them to pay for long freight hauls. Better buy









the potash in the more concentrated forms of sulphate or
muriate, thereby procuring more actual potash, with less
bulk, and consequently, with smaller freight charges to
pay.
Saltpetre.

Saltpetre (nitrate of potash), is, if pure, nearly one-half
potash. This is the best and most expensive form
because it is rich in two essential plant basis-potash
and nitrogen. Owing to its comparative scarcity and
high cost, it has no extensive use as a fertilizer in this
country. It is probably worth about one hundred dollars
per ton.
Domestic Sources of Potash.

The domestic or home sources of this material have
already been referred to. The most important sources
are saw palmetto ashes, (in Florida). The freshly dug
root, after drying, yields an ash that contains about 43
per cent. of actual potash. Wood ashes, tobacco dust and
stems, (these also contain nitrogen), cotton seed hull
ashes, etc.
Below is given a table showing the average per cent.
of potash present in each of the potash-containing sub-
stances which have been mentioned above:


Muriate of Potash contains..........................
Sulphate of Potash (high grade) .................
Sulphate of Potash and Magnesia.................
Nitrate of Potash (also contains nitrogen)........
Kainit..................................................
Saw-Palmetto Ash (freshly dug and burnt).......
Wood Ashes (unleached)............................
Wood Ashes (leached)................................
Tobacco Stalks.........................................
Tobacco Stems........................................
Corn Cob Ashes........................................
Cotton Hull Ashes...................................


Per Cent. of
True
Potash.
51.5
50.0
26.0
45.20
12.5
43.0
5.25
1.27
5.02
8.20
23.20
22.75


The above constitute the principal available sources of
potash for use in the manufacture of fertilizers.


~-------


-~-------------


t


-----









the potash in the more concentrated forms of sulphate or
muriate, thereby procuring more actual potash, with less
bulk, and consequently, with smaller freight charges to
pay.
Saltpetre.

Saltpetre (nitrate of potash), is, if pure, nearly one-half
potash. This is the best and most expensive form
because it is rich in two essential plant basis-potash
and nitrogen. Owing to its comparative scarcity and
high cost, it has no extensive use as a fertilizer in this
country. It is probably worth about one hundred dollars
per ton.
Domestic Sources of Potash.

The domestic or home sources of this material have
already been referred to. The most important sources
are saw palmetto ashes, (in Florida). The freshly dug
root, after drying, yields an ash that contains about 43
per cent. of actual potash. Wood ashes, tobacco dust and
stems, (these also contain nitrogen), cotton seed hull
ashes, etc.
Below is given a table showing the average per cent.
of potash present in each of the potash-containing sub-
stances which have been mentioned above:


Muriate of Potash contains..........................
Sulphate of Potash (high grade) .................
Sulphate of Potash and Magnesia.................
Nitrate of Potash (also contains nitrogen)........
Kainit..................................................
Saw-Palmetto Ash (freshly dug and burnt).......
Wood Ashes (unleached)............................
Wood Ashes (leached)................................
Tobacco Stalks.........................................
Tobacco Stems........................................
Corn Cob Ashes........................................
Cotton Hull Ashes...................................


Per Cent. of
True
Potash.
51.5
50.0
26.0
45.20
12.5
43.0
5.25
1.27
5.02
8.20
23.20
22.75


The above constitute the principal available sources of
potash for use in the manufacture of fertilizers.


~-------


-~-------------


t


-----








Nitrogen.

Although vast and exhaustless stores of nitrogen in a
free, or uncombined, state float as a component of the
atmosphere over every acre of soil known to man-
enough, indeed to furnish many hundred times as much
plant food as all the crops of the globe could employ,
still it is, nevertheless, far the most expensive of the three
elements of plant nourishment that the farmer is called
upon to purchase. This is due to the fact that, as yet,
few processes are known by which the nitrogen of the
atmosphere can be induced to enter into forms of combi-
nation that will carry it into the soil, there to serve as
food for plants. It is known that nature does contribute
a small amount of the atmosphere's vast nitrogen fund
to the enrichent of the soil; and although the quantity
thus contributed is probably too small to afford any per-
ceptible effects on a growing crop, still it is altogether
likely that enough is obtained in this way to slowly
improve a piece of ground which is not under cultiva-
tion. The manner in which atmospheric nitrogen is thus
contributed to a soil may be explained as follows: The
ammonia escaping from the soil, and from various other
sources in processes of decay, diffuses itself through the
atmosphere; nitric acid is formed through the agency of
the electricity which permeates the atmosphere during
lightning flashes. The acid thus produced is absorbed
by the rain and carried into the soil ready to be employed
in the growth of vegetation.
Aside from this, the only atmospheric nitrogen which
can be rendered available for such purposes is that which
is drawn into the soil through the agency of certain little
microscopic plants that infest the roots of that division of
plants which are known as the Legumes, (i. e., peas,
beans, clover, vetches, etc).
We see, therefore, that although nitrogen occurs in
great abundance all around us, we are able to appro-
priate only the smallest amount of it to our agricultural
needs, and must content ourselves, at present, with pur-
chasing it at fully three times the cost that we are
required to expend either for phosphoric acid or potash.
With these observations, we are now prepared to study
the kinds of material that are available for supplying the







nitrogen that is constantly employed in the manufacture
of fertilizers. And first in this connection, we will speak of

Nitrate of Soda.
In this substance we probably have the cheapest as well
as one of the most valuable commercial sources of nitrogen.
The greater quantity of this substance is imported to this
country from Chili. Vast beds of it extend along the
coast of South America for several hundred miles. There
is an export duty on it of about ten dollars per ton, and
but for this it would be much more extensively used in
the United States. Comparatively little of this material
is brought into this country, but Europe consumes annu-
ally upwards of a hundred thousands tons. In a chemi-
cally pure state, nitrate of soda would have 16.47 per
cent. of nitrogen, but it takes a very pure sample of
native nitrate to yield 16 per cent.,or 320 lbs. of nitrogen
per ton. It is claimed that on account of its color,
nitrate of soda can very easily be adulterated, simply by
mixing with it white sand, or some cheap form of potash
salts; but it will be very easy for any one to detect such
adulteration, simply by seeing if it will all dissolve in
water. If it does not, then the insoluble portion will be
either sand or some similar adulterant. Next taste the
solution, and if it has no decided salty taste, it may be
relied on that there is no cheap form of potash salt
present.
The great advantage that nitrate of soda possesses over
many other forms of nitrogen-containing material is that
its nitrogen is very readily available, while that in farm
manures, etc., and various other sources is only slowly
available. It may be remembered that the nitrate forms
are always those which can be relied upon to yield up
their store of nourishment to crops with little if any delay.

Nitrate of Potash, (Saltpetre.)
This substance has already been spoken of as a com-
mercial source of potash, but it is well to remember that
it owes its excellent merits as fertilizer to its content of
nitrogen as well as its potash. It contains, on an aver-
-age, about 13 per cent. of nitrogen. Like nitrate of soda
this salt is imported from South America. Its applica-







nitrogen that is constantly employed in the manufacture
of fertilizers. And first in this connection, we will speak of

Nitrate of Soda.
In this substance we probably have the cheapest as well
as one of the most valuable commercial sources of nitrogen.
The greater quantity of this substance is imported to this
country from Chili. Vast beds of it extend along the
coast of South America for several hundred miles. There
is an export duty on it of about ten dollars per ton, and
but for this it would be much more extensively used in
the United States. Comparatively little of this material
is brought into this country, but Europe consumes annu-
ally upwards of a hundred thousands tons. In a chemi-
cally pure state, nitrate of soda would have 16.47 per
cent. of nitrogen, but it takes a very pure sample of
native nitrate to yield 16 per cent.,or 320 lbs. of nitrogen
per ton. It is claimed that on account of its color,
nitrate of soda can very easily be adulterated, simply by
mixing with it white sand, or some cheap form of potash
salts; but it will be very easy for any one to detect such
adulteration, simply by seeing if it will all dissolve in
water. If it does not, then the insoluble portion will be
either sand or some similar adulterant. Next taste the
solution, and if it has no decided salty taste, it may be
relied on that there is no cheap form of potash salt
present.
The great advantage that nitrate of soda possesses over
many other forms of nitrogen-containing material is that
its nitrogen is very readily available, while that in farm
manures, etc., and various other sources is only slowly
available. It may be remembered that the nitrate forms
are always those which can be relied upon to yield up
their store of nourishment to crops with little if any delay.

Nitrate of Potash, (Saltpetre.)
This substance has already been spoken of as a com-
mercial source of potash, but it is well to remember that
it owes its excellent merits as fertilizer to its content of
nitrogen as well as its potash. It contains, on an aver-
-age, about 13 per cent. of nitrogen. Like nitrate of soda
this salt is imported from South America. Its applica-








tion to a soil often produces more marked and speedy
effects than results from an application of nitrate of soda,
but, as has been already stated, it is too expensive to be
used in a general system of cropping.
Sulphate of Ammonia.
Sulphate of ammonia, though only a by-product of the
gas works, is, nevertheless, a very valuable commercial
source of nitrogen. In appearance it very closely resem-
bles fine salt, but it does not absorb moisture so rapidly,
nor does it, as a rule, form itself into hard, solid chunks
like nitrate of soda. Because of these facts, it is much
easier and more convenient to handle, and to mix with
other substances in preparing a uniform fertilizing mix-
ture. It contains, on an average, about 20 per cent. of
nitrogen, and many claim that it gives about as good
results as nitrate of soda. Experience has demonstrated
that its nitrogen is not so immediately available as that
in nitrate of soda, but this would really seem to be an
advantage, because its nitrogen, which is not immediately
available, will be retained in the soil to be used at some
later day when plants will be sure to demand it, whereas,
in the case of nitrate of soda, where all the nitrogen is
readily available, such as might not be used by growing
plants at the time, is likely to be dissolved by rains and
washed down into the soil out of the reach of plant roots.
It is but fair to say, however, that it is customary these
days not to apply all of the nitrate of soda to a soil at
one time, but to sprinkle it on at intervals, whenever the
appearance of vegetation indicates that another dressing
will prove beneficial.
Other Commercial Sources of Nitrogen.
Other commercial sources of nitrogen which may be
mentioned, are: Cotton seed and cotton seed meal, lin-
seed meal, castor pomace, dried blood, fish scrap, dried
flesh, tankage, tobacco stems, etc., all of which possess
good fertilizing merits; and other material, such as horns,
hoofs, wood-waste, etc., are also comparatively rich in
nitrogen, but on account of the fact that their nitrogen is
much less readily available they cannot be commended
along with that class of material previously mentioned.








tion to a soil often produces more marked and speedy
effects than results from an application of nitrate of soda,
but, as has been already stated, it is too expensive to be
used in a general system of cropping.
Sulphate of Ammonia.
Sulphate of ammonia, though only a by-product of the
gas works, is, nevertheless, a very valuable commercial
source of nitrogen. In appearance it very closely resem-
bles fine salt, but it does not absorb moisture so rapidly,
nor does it, as a rule, form itself into hard, solid chunks
like nitrate of soda. Because of these facts, it is much
easier and more convenient to handle, and to mix with
other substances in preparing a uniform fertilizing mix-
ture. It contains, on an average, about 20 per cent. of
nitrogen, and many claim that it gives about as good
results as nitrate of soda. Experience has demonstrated
that its nitrogen is not so immediately available as that
in nitrate of soda, but this would really seem to be an
advantage, because its nitrogen, which is not immediately
available, will be retained in the soil to be used at some
later day when plants will be sure to demand it, whereas,
in the case of nitrate of soda, where all the nitrogen is
readily available, such as might not be used by growing
plants at the time, is likely to be dissolved by rains and
washed down into the soil out of the reach of plant roots.
It is but fair to say, however, that it is customary these
days not to apply all of the nitrate of soda to a soil at
one time, but to sprinkle it on at intervals, whenever the
appearance of vegetation indicates that another dressing
will prove beneficial.
Other Commercial Sources of Nitrogen.
Other commercial sources of nitrogen which may be
mentioned, are: Cotton seed and cotton seed meal, lin-
seed meal, castor pomace, dried blood, fish scrap, dried
flesh, tankage, tobacco stems, etc., all of which possess
good fertilizing merits; and other material, such as horns,
hoofs, wood-waste, etc., are also comparatively rich in
nitrogen, but on account of the fact that their nitrogen is
much less readily available they cannot be commended
along with that class of material previously mentioned.







37

Below is given a table showing the per cent. of nitrogen
occurring on an average in each of the substances which
have been discussed:


Nitrate of Soda......................................
Nitrate of Potash........... ..... ...................
Sulphate of Ammonia............................
Cotton Seed Meal.................................
Linseed Meal.........................................
Castor Pomace........ .................
Dried Blood...........................................
Dried Fish.................................. .......
Tankage.............................. ............
Tobacco Stems.......................................
Horn and Hoof Waste .............................
Wool Waste............................... ........

MISCELLANEOUS PRODUCTS.

Gas Lime ..............................................
Muck (fresh) ........................................
Muck (air dry)....... ................ ..........
Mud (fresh water) ...................................
Mud (from sea meadows) ..........................
Peat..................................................
Pine Straw (dead leaves or needles) .............
Shells (crustacea).....................................
Scum (sugar house)..................................


----------


What the Tables of Analyses Teach.
With what has been said it ought to be an easy mat-
ter for every farmer who studies these pages closely to
understand the real fertilizing value of any substance
incorporated in either of the foregoing tables. Such
knowledge ought to enable him better to understand how
to proceed to fertilize his soil, using only such material
for the purpose as will be sure to subserve the desired ends.
When phosphoric acid is what is needed, then any mate-
rial enumerated in the foregoing list of phosphatic
manures may be counted on to supply the deficiency, and


Per Cent of
Nitrogen.
15.75
13.09
20.50
6.66
5.78
5.56
10.52
7.25
6.82
2.29
13.25
5.64
i


0.30
0.30
1.30
1.37
0.20
0.75
0.30
6.20
2.10








the same may be said in regard to potash and nitrogen.
Where one substance contains an appreciable quantity of
both potash and nitrogen (such, for instance, as nitrate of
potash and tobacco stems), the fact has been referred to.
How to Employ Raw Material
in compounding fertilizers for all general and special
agricultural requirements. Having. explained fully the
several points to be considered in using fertilizers, and
the various sources whence each element of plant food
used in the preparation of the same may be obtained, it
is now in order to .explain how to make use of such
information, and how to employ the analyses of the
various substances quoted, in making up definite quanti-
ties of both general and special mixtures of any desired
strength, to subserve in any and all requirements.
Let us suppose that we desire to make up a ton (2,000
lbs.) of fertilizer mixture which shall analyze:
Phosphoric acid................. 8.00 per cent.
Potash................................12.00 per cent.
Nitrogen............................. 8.00 per cent.
The following material, with the chemical analysis of
each substance, is at hand to be used in compounding the
desired mixture: Acid phosphate, 20 per cent. (i. e. con-
taining 20 per cent. phosphoric acid); muriate of potash,
50 per cent. (i. e. containing 50 per cent. potash); nitrate
soda, 16 per cent. (i. e. containing 16 per cent. nitrogen).
Now the proportion is this: How much of these several
substances will it be necessary to use in preparing a fer-
tilizer that shall have, per ton, the proportions of the
several fertilizing ingredients specified above?
To begin with, it is manifest that if the ton of com-
pounded fertilizer is to contain 8 per cent. of phosphoric
acid, it must contain exactly 160 lbs. of true phosphoric
acid (2,000 x .08 = 160 lbs.), because 8 per cent. of 2,000
lbs. is'160 lbs. And if the said fertilizer is to contain 12
per cent. of potash per ton it must have exactly 240 lbs.
of actual potash for the same reason (2,000 x .12 = 240
lbs), and similarly, if the prepared fertilizer is to contain
8 per cent. of nitrogen, it must have 160 lbs. of true
nitrogen (2,000 x .08 = 160 lbs.).
Now, then, the next question that presents itself is,
how much of these several raw materials will it be neces-






39


sary to use in order to obtain the required amounts of
phosphoric acid, potash and nitrogen.
Reverting to the raw materials and their analyses, we
see that the acid phosphate which is to furnish the neces-
sary phosphoric acid is guaranteed to contain 20 per cent.
of phosphoric acid. Now, how much, or how many
hundred pounds of this material will it be necessary to
use to supply the required amount of phosphoric acid ?
(i. e., 160 lbs. per ton of mixture).
To ascertain this, we reason as follows: If 100 lbs. of
the acid phosphate contains 20 lbs. of phosphoric acid
(which is guaranteed), then it will take as many hundred
lbs. of acid phosphate to provide 160 lbs. of phosphoric
acid as 20 is contained times into 160, or, in other words,
800 lbs. of acid phosphate will be required.
And pursuing exactly the same line -of reason, it will
be found that 480 lbs. of muriate of potash, of the guar-
anteed strength' (50 per cent.) will be required to furnish
the required amount of potash (i. e. 240 lbs.)
And similarly, 1,000 lbs. of nitrate of soda (analyzing
16 per cent. of nitrogen), will be needed to furnish the
necessary amount of nitrogen (140 lbs.)
Summarizing, we find that we have employed
800 lbs. of acid phosphate,
480 lbs. of muriate potash, and
1,000 lbs. of nitrate of soda, or

2,280 lbs. of total raw material.
This mixture, when thoroughly mixed, should analyze:
Phosphoric acid, 8.00 per cent.
Potash, 12.000 per cent.
Nitrogen, 8.00 per cent.
and these were the proportions of the several fertilizing
constituents required. But our proposition was to make
up exactly one ton (2,000 lbs.) of this mixture, whereas
we have on hand 2,280 lbs. of mixed material. There-
fore, to make up exactly one ton, or 2,000 lbs., we must "
resort to still further figuring.
We next ask ourselves what proportion of the entire
mixture (2,280 lbs.) is acid phosphate, what proportion is
muriate potash, and what nitrate of soda? To answer
this, we look back and find that 800 lbs of acid phos-
phate were used. Therefore, the proportion of acid phos-








phate to the entire mixture is as 840 is to 2,280, or
expressed in simpler language, the acid phosphate is 8o
of the entire mixture. And similarly, the proportion of
muriate of potash will be found to be
_ of the total mixture, and the proportion of nitrate of
soda will be l of the whole amount. We have, there-
fore, in the mixture the following proportions of the
several substances:
2_0 acid phosphate,
40 muriate potash,
- nitrate of soda.
After obtaining these figures, it is an easy matter,
then, to make up any definite quantity of mixture of a
specified strength. For instance, to make up exactly one
ton (2,000 lbs.) the proportion would be:
S8-x 2,000 ( = 701.75 lbs.) of acid phosphate.
2 x 2,000 ( = 421.05 + lbs.) muriate potash.
0 x 2,000 ('= 877.19 + lbs.) nitrate soda.
Adding these, we have:
701.75 + lbs. acid phosphate.
421.05 lbs. muriate potash.
877.19 + lbs. nitrate soda, or

1999.99 lbs. of total mixture, which is as
near as one could well come to the absolutely correct
amount of the several quantities in practice. This
method will hold good in preparing a fertilizer of a
required strength from any kind of raw material whatso-
ever. It is commended to the careful study of every
farmer in Florida. It should be filed carefully and
referred to whenever it is desired by any farmer to pre-
pare a special home fertilizer for a particular purpose out
of any of the various products whose analyses have been
Given in the preceding pages.
Of course, after obtaining the requisite amount of
material for mixing in one ton, it will be very easy to
make up five or ten, or twenty tons of the same grade
mixture simply by using' five or ten, or twenty times the
amount of the different substances it was found necessary
to employ in preparing one ton of the mixture. In con-








clusion, it is necessary to remind all that it will require
constant and repeated stirring of the different raw mate-
rials before a uniform mixture will be obtained. Too
much stress cannot be laid upon this point, otherwise no
uniform results, in the way of yield of crops need be
expected, when it is applied to a soil.

Appendix.
On the following pages is given a tabulated table, com-
piled by Prof. Frank W. Sempers for his admirable little
work on Manures, and showing the proportions of nitrogen,
phosphoric acid and potash which ought to be present in a
fertilizer in order to best adapt it to growing various
kinds of crops. The figures used are accurate and may
be relied upon, for they are all the results of scientific
investigations, which have been carried on at the various
Experiment Stations throughout the United States, and
elsewhere. The tables also show the kinds of material
best suited to furnishing the supplies of nitrogen, phos-
phoric acid and potash for different crops, and the quan-
tity of the fertilizer mixture, per acre, that it will be
found best to apply. Where the quantity of the latter
varies from 500 to 1,000 lbs. per acre, etc., of course the
different amounts recommended have reference to the
original fertility of the land which is to receive them.
If the soil is already one of average fertility, then 500 lbs.
of the mixture will be deemed a sufficient application, but
if the soil is known to be deficient in the essential ele-
ments of plant food, then larger quantities of the fertili-
zers should be applied; in a very poor soil, the largest
figures recommended should be used.










Proportions of Nitrogen, Phosphoric Acid and Potash, and Quan-
tities of Fertilizer, Per Acre, Recommended for Crops.

[NoTE.-Unleached wood ashes and high-grade sulphate of potash are always intended when used in these tables.]


CROP.


Asparagus.......... ...... 4

Barley..................... 5


PER CENT (

Q ]o
0I

r r s
Si a
B t-'
SB3 II
0 z


6 to 7

7 to 8


Beans ...................... 1 to 2 6 to 8


Beets-Mangels...........

Blackberries..............

Buckwheat................


5 to 6 5 to 6

2 to 3 5 to 6

4 to 41 7 to 8


OF








7to9 400 to800

3 to 5 250 to 600
0



7to9 400 to800
3 to 5 25a to 600


7 to 9 400 to 800

7 to 9 400 to 800

7 to 9 500 to 800

9 to 10i 400 to 800


BEST FORM FOR CROP.

[When different forms for applying are given, either will do.]


SNitrate of Soda.
Dried Blood.
Dissolved Bone Meal.
SNitrate of Soda.
Sulphate of Ammo-
nia.
Nitrate of Soda. Sul-
phate of Ammonia,
Dried Blood.

Nitrate of Soda.

Nitrate of Soda.
Raw Bone Meal.

Nitrate of Soda.


Dissolved Bone Black. Wood Ashes.
Basic Slag Phosphate. Kainit
Dissolved Florida Rock.
Dissolved Bone Black. Wood Ashes.
Dissolved Florida Rock Muriate of Potash.

Dissolved Bone Black. Wood Ashes.
Dissolved Florida Rock Muriate of Potash.

Dissolved Bone Black. Sulpate of Potash.
Dissolved Florida Rock phate of Potash.
Dissolved Bone Black. Wood Ashes.
Raw Bone Meal. Kainit.
Dissolved Florida Rock. Muriate of Potash.
Basic Slag Phosphate.









Cabbage....................

Cauliflower ..............

Bananas....................

Castor Oil Plant..........

Celery.......................

Clover and Legumens...

Corn ........................

Cotton ....................

Cucumber ...............

Fruit Trees................

Grape Vines.............


5 to 6

4to5

4 to 5

6 to 8

5 to 6

1 to 2

2 to 3

2 to 3

4) to 5

1l to 2

lf to 2


5 to 6

5 to 7

6 to 8

6 to 8

5 to 6

6 to 8

7 to 8

7 to 9

5 to 6

7 to 9

7 to 9


7 to 9

7 to 9

7 to 9

3 to 5

8 to 10

8 to 10

6 to 7

4 to 5

6 to 8

10 to 12

10 to 12


800 to 2000

900 to 1800

500 to 800

400 to 600

1000 to 1500

400 to 800

500 to 1000

300 to 400

1000 to 1500

400 to 700

500 to 700


In the three forms o1
Nitric Acid, Ammonia
and Organic Nitrogen.
In the three forms ol
Nitric Acid, Ammonia
and Organic Nitrogen.
Nitrate soda.
Cotton Seed Meal.

t Nitrate Soda.
Sulphate Ammonia.
( In the three forms of
Nitric Acid, Ammonia
and Organic Nitrogen.
Sulphate of Ammo-
nia. Dried Blood.

Nitrate Soda.
Organic Nitrogen.
Nitrate Soda.
Cotton Seed Meal.
S In the three forms of
Nitric Acid, Ammonia
and Organic Nitrogen.
Nitrate Soda.'
Raw Bone Meal.

SNitrate Soda.
Raw Bone Meal.


Dissolved Bone Black.
Dissolved Florida Rock

Dissolved Bone Black.
Dissolved Florida Rock

Dissolved Florida Rock
Dissolved Bone Meal.

Dissolved Florida Rock
Dissolved Bone Meal.

Dissolved Florida Rock
Dissolved Bone Meal.

Dissolved Florida Rock
Dissolved Bone Meal.

Dissolved Florida Rock
Dissolved Bone Meal.

Dissolved Florida Rock
Dissolved Bone Meal.

Dissolved Bone Black.
Dissolved Florida Rock
Dissolved Rose Black.
Dissolved Bone Meal.
Dissolved Florida Rock
Dissolved Bone Black.
Dissolved Bone Meal.
Dissolved Florida Rock.


Wood Ashes.
Muriate of Potash.

Wood Ashes.
Muriate of Potash.

Sulphate of Potash.
Kainit.

Moriate of Potash.
Kainit.

Wood Ashes.
Muriate of Potash.

Wood Ashes.
M.urit of Potash.

Wood Ashes.
Muriate of Potash.
Cotton Seed Hull Ashes.
Wood Ashes.
Kainit.
Wood Ashes.
Muriate Potash.
WooR Ashes.
Muriate Potash.
. Kainit.
Wood Ashes.
Muriate Potash.
. Kainit.










Proportions of Nitrogen,Phosphoric Acid and Potash, and Quan-
tities of Fertilizer, Per Acre, Recommended for Crops.
[NoTE.-Unleached wood ashes and high-grade sulphate of potash are always intended when used in these tables.]


PER CENT. OF

-. BEST FORM FOR CROP.
CROP. P
4 o [When different forms for applying are given, either will do.J


Ea Jn es


Grass .......................: 5 to

Hops ..................... 2 to


5 to 6


7 to 8

12 to 14


Lettuce .................... 5 to 6 5 to 6 8 to 10


Melons ..................... 5 to 6

Oats ........................ 4 to 5

Olives........................ 4 to 5


5 to 6 7 to 9

5 to 6 8 to 10

5 to 7 7 to 8


Nitrate Soda.
400 to 800 Dried Blood.
I Raw Bone Meal.
800 to 1201 I Nitrate Soda.
800 to O1rganic Nitrogen.
In the three forms of
900 to 1500 Nitric Acid, Ammonia
and Organic Nitrogen.
5W0to M { Nitrate Soda.
500 to 1500 Dissolved Bone Meal

300 to 600 Nitrate Soda.
300 to 600 Dissolved Bone Meal

0 to 70 Nitrate Soda.
500 to 700 Sulphate Ammonia.


Raw Bone iLeal. Wood Ashes.
Basic Slag Phosphate. Kainit
Dissolved Florida Rock.
Dissolved Bone Black. Wood Ashes.
Dissolved Bone Meal. Muriate Potash
Dissolved Florida Rock.
Dissolved Bone Meal. W A .
Dissolved Bone Black. ate Potash.
Dissolved Florida Rock.
Dissolved Bone Meal. Wood Ashes.
Dissolved Bone Black. Muriate Potash.
Dissolved Florida Rock.
Dissolved Florida Rock Wood Ashes.
Basic Slag Phosphate. Muriate Potash.
Dis. Florida Phosphate. Muriate Potash.
Dissolved Bone Black. Kainit.









Onions.....................

Oranges and Lemons....

Peanuts.....................

Peas .......................

Pineapples..................

Potatoes....................

Pumpkins.................


5to6

4 to 6




1 to 2


5 to 6

6 to 8'

6 to 7

7 to 9


Each plant is
Guano; or, one


4 to 6

5 to 6


Raspberries................ 2 to 3

Rice (water)........... 2 to 3

Rice (mountain).......... 2 to 3

Rye........................ 4 to 5


5 to 7

5 to 6

5 to 7

8 to 1(


6 to 7

5 to 7


8 to 10

8 to 10

7 to 8

7 to 9


900 to 1800




500 to 800

400 to 800
400 to 800


SNitrate Soda.

{ Nitrate Soda.
Sulphate. Ammonia.

{ .. ..................

{ Nitrate Soda.
Sulphate Ammonia.


Dissolved Bone Black.
Dissolved Florida Rock

Dis. Florida Phosphate.
Dissolved Bone Black.

Dissolved Florida Rock
Dissolved Bone Black.

Dissolved Bone Black.
Dissolved Florida Rock


Wood Ashes.
Muriate Potash.
Sulphate Potash.
Muriate Potash.
Kainit.
Muriate Potash.
Kainit.

Muriate Potash.
Kainit.


manured with a mixture of one part of sulphati of potash and three parts of Peruvian
part phosphate potash and one part of phosphate of ammonia.
0Nitrate Soda. Dissolved Bone Black. Sulphate of Potash.
7 to 9 500 to 1500 Dried Blood. Dissolved Florida Rock

8 9 600 to Nitre Dissolved Bone Black. Wood Ashes.
8 to 9 600 to 1000 iNitrate Soda. Dissolved Florida Rock Muriate Potash.
Dissolved Florida Rock Muriate Potash.
( Dissolved Bone Meal.
toRaw Bone Meal. Dissolved Bone Meal. Wood Ashes.
8 to 10 500 to 1000 e Dissolved Bone Black. K t.
1Nitrate Soda. Dissolved Florida Rock. Kainit.
Ground Bone. Thomas Slag. Muriate Potash.
3 3to4 500 to 600 Ground Bone. Ground Bone. Kainit.
Dissolved Florida Rock. Muriate Potash.
6 to 8 600 to 700 Nitrate Soda. Thomas Slag. Kainit.
Dissolved Bone Black.
Dissolved Florida Rock. Wood Ashes.
8 to 10 300 to 600 Nitrate Soda. Thomas Slag. Muriate Potash.
Dissolved Bone Black.


I












Proportions of Nitrogen, Phosphoric Acid and Potash, and Quan-
tities of Fertilizer, Per Acre, Recommended for Crops.
[NOTE.-Unleached wood arhes and high-grade sulphate of potash are always intended when used in these tables.]


CROP.


Squash....................

Strawberries..............


Sorghum (for sugar).....


Sorghum (for forage)....

Sugar cane ................

Tobacco.....................


PER CENT. OF




SM 0
S4 P4
S. S t0
p. p


5 to 6


2j to 3


31 to 44


3j to 4Q

11 to 2

5 to 7


5 to 6 7 to 9


5to7 7to9

8 to 9 8 to 9


51 to 6I 4to 5

7to9 7to9

5to6 8 to 11


Pi
w
p4

0
PL,


500 to 1500

500 to 1500


400 to 500


650 to 750


600 to 900


1000 to 2000


BEST FORM FOR CROP.

[When different forms for applying are given, either will do.]


{Nitrate Soda.

Nitrate Soda.
Raw Bone Meal.

SNitrate Soda.

SNitrate Soda.

Nitrate Soda.
Cotton Seed Meal.

Nitrate Soda.


Dissolved Florida Rock.
Thomas Slag.
Dissolved Bone Black.
Dissolved Bone Black.
Raw Bone Meal.
Dissolved Florida Rock.

Dissolved Florida Rock.


Dissolved Florida Rock.

Dissolved Florida Rock
Dissolved Bone Black.

Dissolved bone Black.


Wood Ashes.
Muriate Potash.

Wood Ashes.
Kainit.

Sulphate Potash.
Kainit.

Muriate Potash.
Kainit.

Muriate Potash.
Kainit.
Cotton Seed Hull Ashes.
Wood Ashes.
Sulphate Potash.







Tomatoes ............4 to 6 5 t 6 6 t 8 5 t 1 Nitrate Soda. Dissolved Bone Black. Wood Ashes.
4 to to 6 6 to 8 o Dried Blood. Dissolved Florida Rock Muriate Potash.

Disoled Bone Mea l Dissolved Bone Meal. o h.
Turnips (Ruta Baga).... 4 to 5 6 to 7 7 to 9 300 to 800 1 e ne Meal Dissolved Bone Black. Wood8A es.o
Dissolved Bone Meal Dissolved Florida Rock. Muriate Potash.
SNitrate Soda. Dissolved Bone Black.
Wheat ................ 4 to 5 6 to 8 3 to 4 300 to 600 A Sulphate Ammonia. Thomas Slag. Muriate Potash.
_[ Dried Blood. Dissolved Florida Rock.
NOTE:-The above formulas have been chiefly taken from Prof. Sempers' Treatise on Manures, but frequent deviations have
been made in order better to adapt them to Florida.
Fertilizers for a number of crops grown in this State, which Prof. Sempers' little work failed to mention, have been inserted.











A CORRECTION IN BULLETIN NO. 22.







--OF THE-








Florida'=. Experiment'=.Station







PAGES 38 TO 40 INCLUSIVE.


In Bulletin No. 22, of this Station, there appears an error in calculation
which, though so apparent as to be easily detected by any one at all accustomed
to mixing fertilizers, nevertheless, would seem to admit of correction in this form.
It is the desire of the Station authorities to provide the farmers only with the
most trustworthy and accurate information, and while, as stated above, the error
which'is herein noted is so plain that it would not be likely to deceive and there-
by work injury to any one, still the writer deems it his duty to call attention to
the error in the aforesaid calculation
In answer to an urgent summons, it was necessary tor the author of the Bul-
letin to leave the Station very suddenly for an extended absence, just as the
closing pages of the publication were being prepared and only a few moments
were available for jotting down the calculation in question. He had no oppor-
unity for revising the proof sheets, and hence the error escaped detection until
the Bulletin made its appearance.
The necessity for this correction is deeply regretted, but the writer is impell-
ed to this step in justice to the many readers of the Station publications, as well
as to himself. In conclusion, the author of the Bulletin in question, desires to ex-
press his thanks to the agricultural public for the very generous reception that
has been accorded the publication.. It will be well for every one wno has been
th je: : iet of Bulletin 22,'to insert this correction at page 38.
Very Respectfully,
A. A. PERSONS,
CHliEMIST.










HOW TO EfIPLOY RAW MATERIAL IN fiIXING FER-
TILIZERS OF A SPECIFIC STRENGTH.

In preparing a quantity of a fertilizer of any re-
quired strength, care must be exercised in purchasing
the raw material for mixing, to see that the material
purchased is sufficiently concentrated (i. e., is rich
enough in the element of plant food which it contains)
to provide the definite quantity of mixed fertilizers
sought. That is to say, if it is desired to compound
exactly one ton (2000 lbs.) of a complete fertilizer mix-
ture that will analyze, say:
Phosporic acid 8.00 per cent.
Potash 12.00 per cent.
Nitrogen 8.00 per cent.
then it will be necessary to use a very concentrated
form of material for supplying each constituent of
plant food, so that in providing the ton of mixed ma-
terial with the requisite quantities of the several plant
food constituents (to-wit: Phosporic acid, Potash and
Nitrogen), the quantity of raw material used must not
aggregate more than 2000 lbs. otherwise, the fertilizer
mixture would not be of the strength desired, but
might be considerably less-depending, of course,
upon the strength, or degree of concentration, of the
several sources of plant food.
Let us suppose that we have on hand :
Acid phosphate containing 20% Phos. acid;
Muriate Potash containing 12% Potash;
Nirate Joda containing 16% Nitrogen;
and we desire to employ this raw material in prepar-
ing a ton (2000 lbs.) of fertilizer mixture which will
analyze :
8.00 per cent Phosphoric acid
12.00 per cent Potash
8.00 per cent Nitrogen
The first question we would ask ourselves would
be: H"ow many pounds of Phosphoric acid, must the
ton of fertilizer contain, if it is to analyze 8.00 per
cent. of this substance? The answer to this would be
1601bs.. (2000 x .08 = 160 lbs.) A similar query in re-
gard to the number of pounds of Potash and Nitrogen
that the ton of mixture would contain, would reveal
the fact that 240 lbs. of the former .and 160 lbs of the
latter must be present in every ton of mixture, in
order that the prepared fertilizer mny be of the desir-
ed strength.









Having gained this information, the next question
to be asked is: :How much acid .phosphate of the
strength designated above, will it be necessary to use
in order to supply 160 lbs. of Phosphoric acid? To
answer this, we revert to the analysis of the acid
phosphate and find that it is guaranteed to contain 20
per cent of phosphoric acid. Now, then, we reason
that if each one hundred pounds of the acid phosphate
contain 20 lbs. of phosphoric acid, it will require as
many hundred pounds of this phosphate to provide 160
lbs. of phosphoric acid as 20 is contained times into
160, or, in other words, it will be necessary to employ
800 lbs. of the acid phosphate in order to provide the
necessary 160 lbs. of phosphoric acid
A similar course of reasoning, with a view to as-
certainining the amount of muriate of potash and
nitrate of soda to be used for supplying the requisite
amounts of Potash and Nitrogen, will show that 480
lbs. of Muriate of Potash and 10CO lbs. of Nitrate of
soda will have to be employed. We find, therefore,
that in supplying the requisite number of pounds of
phosphoric acid, potash and ritrogen, we have em-
ployed:
800 lbs. Acid phosphate
480 Ibs. Muriate potash
1, 000 lbs. Nitrate soda, or

2, 280 lbs. of mixture.
We see, therefore, that instead of our mixture
containing 160 lbs. of phosphoric acid (i. e., 8% of 2,-
000) in one ton, it contains 160 lbs, in 2,280 lbs.
Plainly, then, the mixture will not analyze 8.00
per cent. of phosphoric acid, but only about 7.00 per
cent. (i. e., 160 divided by 2,280 = 7.00 per cent.) The
same would be found true with reference to the potash
and nitrogen. It is very evident, therefore, that it is
impossible to make a ton of mixture of the strength des-
ignated, out of the material at hand. Unmixed
material, more concentrated, will have to be resorted
to.
It does not always happen that a fertilizer mixture
so concentrated as the one mentioned above will be
desirable, and, hence, it will not often be found neces-
sary to prepare such a mixture, but when it is deemed
desirable to employ such an one, care should be ex-
ercised to purchase unmixed material sufficiently rich
in the several plant food elements as not to to aggre-
gate more than the quantity of mixture it was desired
to prepare. If, for instance, you desire to mix one
ton, use material that will supply the necessary num-









ber of pounds of the several plant foods, and at the
same time not weigh more than 2,000 lbs. when mixed.
If the several substances used are sufficiently concen-
trated to provide the desired quantities of plant food,
per ton, without employing as much as 2,000 lbs. of
the mixed material, then, of course, all that will be
necessary will be to fill in the remainder of the 2,000
lbs. with some cheap filling, such as sand. The accu-
racy of the mixture, will not be appreciably im-
pairec, because we know that in each ton of such a
mixture, there will be present the necessary number
of pounds of the several plant-food substances.
Here in Florida, a suitable fertilizer for fruit crops
in general should probably be proportioned about as
follows:
Phosphoric acid 6.00 per cent. (available)
Potash 10.00 per cent
Nitrogen 5.00 per cent.
Let us suppose that we desire to make up a ton
(2,000 lbs.) of mixture which would analyze as stated
above. We will use the same material that was used
in the other instance, for supplying the desired quan-
tity of the several constitutens of plant food. Pursu-
ing the same course of reasoning that has already
been given, it will be found that a ton of this mixture
must contain 120 lbs. phosphoric acid, 200 lbs. potash,
and 100 lbs. nitrogen; and by another process of
reasoning, already described, it will be found, further,
that the following quantities will have to be used to
provide these several amounts of plant food:
600 lbs. Acid phosphate
400 lbs. Muriate potash
625 lbs. Nitrate soda or

1,625 lbs. of the mixed material will provide
the requisite amounts of the several plant foods.
Now, to make exactly one ton, all that is necessary, is
to add 375 lbs. of some cheap filling, such as sand,
etc., which has little or no fertilizing value.
Then, in the ton of mixture, so prepared, there
will be present 120 lbs. of available phorphoric acid,
200 lbs. potash and 100 lbs nitrogen. This mixture,
when thoroughly prepared, should analyze:
Phosphoric acid 6.00 per cent.
Potash 10.00 per cent.
Nitrogen .5.00 per cent.
With this data at hand, it should be an easy mat-
ter for every farmer to mix and prepare his fertilizers
at home, of any desired strength, but the greatest care
should invariably be exercised to insure thorough mix-
ing.




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