• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Front Cover
 How to use this soil survey
 Table of Contents
 Foreword
 General nature of the county
 General soil map units
 Detailed soil map units
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of the soils
 Soils series and their morphol...
 Formation of the soils
 References
 Glossary
 Tables
 General soil map
 Index to map sheets
 Map






Title: Soil survey of Hamilton County, Florida.
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027416/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Hamilton County, Florida.
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Weatherspoon, Robert L.
Howell, David A.
Baldwin, Robert
Publisher: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service
Publication Date: 2004
 Notes
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027416
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 58457212

Table of Contents
    Front Cover
        Page 1
        Page 2
    How to use this soil survey
        Page 3
        Page 4
    Table of Contents
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
    Foreword
        Page 9
        Page 10
    General nature of the county
        Page 11
        Page 12
        How this survey was made
            Page 13
            Page 14
    General soil map units
        Page 15
        Soils on sand hills and ridges
            Page 15
            1. Valdosta-Balanton-Lowndes
                Page 15
            2. Alpin-Foxworth
                Page 16
        Souls on uplands, low ridges, and broad flats
            Page 16
            3. Blanton
                Page 16
            4. Albany-Plummer
                Page 16
                Page 17
            5. Pottsburg-Chipley
                Page 18
            5. Pottsburg-Chipley
                Page 18
            6. Albany-Ocilla-Blanton
                Page 18
        Soils in areas of flatwoods and in depressions
            Page 18
            8. Mascotte-Plummer-Surrency
                Page 19
            9. Dorovan-Sapelo-Mascotte
                Page 19
        Soils on flood plains
            Page 20
            10. Mascotte-Plummer
                Page 20
            Eunola-Alpin-Bigbee
                Page 20
            12. Blanton-Kenansville
                Page 21
            13. Pelham-Bibb-Bigbee
                Page 21
            14. Blanton-Bigbee-Wahee
                Page 22
        Soils in mined area
            Page 22
            15. Arents-hydraquents
                Page 22
                Page 23
                Page 24
    Detailed soil map units
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
        Page 35
        Page 36
        Page 37
        Page 38
        Page 39
        Page 40
        Page 41
        Page 42
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        Page 46
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        Page 53
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        Page 58
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        Page 66
        Page 67
        Page 68
        Page 69
        Page 70
        Page 71
        Page 72
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 73
        Crops and pasture
            Page 73
            Page 74
            Page 75
            Page 76
        Ecological communities
            Page 77
            Page 78
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 79
        Recreation
            Page 80
            Page 81
            Page 82
        Engineering
            Page 83
            Building site development
                Page 83
            Sanitary faciliites
                Page 84
            Construction materials
                Page 85
            Water management
                Page 86
                Page 87
                Page 88
    Soil properties
        Page 89
        Engineering index properties
            Page 89
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 90
        Soil and water features
            Page 91
            Page 92
    Classification of the soils
        Page 93
    Soils series and their morphology
        Page 93
        Albany series
            Page 93
        Alpin series
            Page 94
        Bibb series
            Page 95
        Bigbee series
            Page 95
        Bivans series
            Page 96
        Blanton series
            Page 96
        Bonneau series
            Page 97
        Chipley series
            Page 98
        Dorovan series
            Page 98
        Eunola series
            Page 99
        Foxworth series
            Page 100
        Goldhead series
            Page 100
        Kenansville series
            Page 101
        Lowndes series
            Page 102
        Mascotte series
            Page 102
        Norfolk series
            Page 103
        Ocilla series
            Page 104
        Osier series
            Page 104
        Otela series
            Page 105
        Pamlico series
            Page 105
        Pelham series
            Page 106
        Plummer series
            Page 106
            Page 107
            Page 108
        Shadesville series
            Page 109
        Stockade series
            Page 109
        Surrency series
            Page 110
        Valdosta series
            Page 111
        Wadley series
            Page 111
        Wahee series
            Page 112
        Wampee series
            Page 113
            Page 114
    Formation of the soils
        Page 115
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 115
            Parent material
                Page 115
            Climate
                Page 115
            Plants and animals
                Page 115
            Relief
                Page 116
            Time
                Page 116
        Processes of horizon differentiate
            Page 116
        Geomorphology
            Page 117
            Page 118
            Geology
                Page 119
                Page 120
            Ground water
                Page 121
            Mineral resources
                Page 122
    References
        Page 123
        Page 124
    Glossary
        Page 125
        Page 126
        Page 127
        Page 128
        Page 129
        Page 130
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
    Tables
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
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        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
    General soil map
        Page 190
    Index to map sheets
        Page 191
        Page 192
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
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Full Text


JSDA United States In cooperation with
Department of the University of Florida, S o I S survey of
Agriculture Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences, *
Natural Agricultural Experiment H am ilto n C o un
Resources Stations, and Soil and
Conservation Water Science Department,
Service and the Florida Department Flo rida
of Agriculture and
Consumer Services













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~~~~~ ~~ ",: .- ,2,

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3









How to Use This Soil Survey


General Soil Map

The general soil map, which is the color map preceding the detailed soil maps, shows the survey area divided
into groups of associated soils called general soil map units.This map is useful in planning the use and
management of large areas.

To find information about your area of interest, locate that area on the map,
identify the name of the map unit in the area on the color-coded map
legend, then refer to the section General Soil Map Units lor a
general description of the soils in your area.
Kov mo
Detailed Soil Maps- 2

The detailed soil maps follow the --- -
general soil map. These maps MAP SHEET
can be useful in planning the use _
and management of small areas. 1r..... 17 48- -
INDEX TO MAP SHEETS
To find information about your
area of interest, locate that area
on the Index to Map Sheets, \ \aF
which precedes the soil maps. 7, a\Fa \Ba
Note the number of the map \- r\ N-A) AsBA
sheet and turn to that sheet. BaC

Locate your area of interest on AREA OF INTEREST
the map sheet. Note the map NOTE: Map unit symbols in a soil
units symbols that are in that survey may consist only of numbers or
area. Turn to the Contents, which letters, or they may be a combination
of numbers and letters.
lists the map units by symbol and of n s ad
name and shows the page where MAP SHEET
each map unit is described.

The Contents shows which table has data on a specific land use for each detailed soil map unit. Also see the
Contents for sections of this publication that may address your specific needs.







4













This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a joint effort
of the United States Department of Agriculture and other Federal agencies, State
agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and local agencies. The
Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly the Soil Conservation Service) has
leadership for the Federal part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in 1991. Soil names and
descriptions were approved in 1992. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in this
publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1991. This survey was made
cooperatively by the Natural Resources Conservation Service and the University of
Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations,
and Soil and Water Science Department, and the Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services. The survey is part of the technical assistance furnished to the
Hamilton County Soil and Water Conservation District. The Hamilton County Board of
Commissioners contributed financially to the acceleration of this survey. Additional
assistance was provided by the Florida Department of Transportation.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of these
maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping. If enlarged,
maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could have been shown at a
larger scale.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in all its
programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age,
disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, or marital or family status. (Not all
prohibited bases apply to all programs.) Persons with disabilities who require alternative
means for communication of program information (Braille, large print, audiotape, etc.)
should contact USDA's TARGET Center at (202) 720-2600 (voice and TDD).
To file a complaint of discrimination, write USDA, Director, Office of Civil Rights,
Room 326-W, Whitten Building, 1400 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, D.C.
20250-9410 or call (202) 720-5964 (voice and TDD). USDA is an equal opportunity
provider and employer.


Cover:The Suwannee River between Hamilton and Columbia Counties. Pelham, Bibb, and Bigbee
soils are along the river.They are occasionally flooded.








Additional information about the Nation's natural resources is available on the
Natural Resources Conservation Service home page on the World Wide Web. The
address is http://www.nrcs.usda.gov (click on "Technical Resources").


















Contents


How to Use This Soil Survey ................................ 3 15-Valdosta sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes .......... 39
Contents ........................................ 5 16-Valdosta sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes .......... 39
Foreword ................................ .......... ............ 9 17-Wadley sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes .......... 40
General Nature of the County ................................. 11 18-Wadley sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ............ 41
How This Survey Was Made ............................. 13 19-Valdosta-Lowndes complex, 12 to 20
General Soil Map Units ......................................... 15 percent slopes ............................................. 42
Soils on Sand Hills and Ridges......................... 15 20-Pamlico muck, depressional........................ 43
1. Valdosta-Blanton-Lowndes .................... 15 21-Plummer and Surrency soils,
2. Alpin-Foxworth ....................................... 16 depressional ............................................. 43
Soils on Uplands, Low Ridges, and Broad 22-Alpin fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes,
Flats ........................................... 16 occasionally flooded ..................................... 44
3. Blanton................................................ 16 23-Blanton loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent
4. Albany-Plum m er .................................... 16 slopes ........................... ...... .... ............ 45
5. Pottsburg-Chipley................................... 18 24-Ocilla loamy fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
6. Albany-Ocilla-Blanton .............................. 18 slopes ............................................. ............ 46
Soils in Areas of Flatwoods and in 25-Wampee-Blanton complex, 8 to 12
Depressions .............................................. 18 percent slopes ......................................... 47
7. Mascotte-Pamlico .................................. 18 26-Mascotte and Plummer soils,
8. Mascotte-Plummer-Surrency ................... 19 occasionally flooded ..................................... 48
9. Dorovan-Sapelo-Mascotte ....................... 19 27-Kenansville loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent
Soils on Flood Plains .......................................... 20 slopes ........................ ................... ............ 49
10. Mascotte-Plummer................................ 20 28-Wampee loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent
11. Eunola-Alpin-Bigbee .............................. 20 slopes ............................................. ........... .. 49
12. Blanton-Kenansville ............................ 21 29-Bonneau sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.......... 50
13. Pelham-Bibb-Bigbee ............................ 21 31-Wampee-Blanton complex, 12 to 20
14. Blanton-Bigbee-Wahee .......................... 22 percent slopes ............................................. 51
Soils in Mined Areas ....................................... 22 32-Norfolk loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent
15. Arents-Hydraquents ............................... 22 slopes ....................... ..... ............ 52
Detailed Soil Map Units ...................................... 25 33- Pelham sand ........................................... 53
2-Albany fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ........ 26 34-Plummer sand ........................................... 54
3-Alpin sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ................ 27 35-Wahee fine sandy loam, 0 to 4 percent
4-Alpin sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes ............... 28 slopes, occasionally flooded......................... 55
5-Blanton sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ............. 28 36-Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes,
6-Blanton sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes ............ 29 occasionally flooded ................................. 56
7-Kenansville fine sand, 0 to 5 percent 37-Eunola loamy fine sand, 0 to 5 percent
slopes, occasionally flooded....................... 30 slopes, occasionally flooded..................... 57
8-Chipley sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ............ 31 46-Stockade fine sandy loam ....................... 58
9-Foxworth sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes .......... 32 47-Goldhead fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes .... 59
10-Lowndes sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.......... 33 48-Bivans loamy sand, 8 to 12 percent
11- Lowndes sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.......... 34 slopes ...................................................... 60
12-Lowndes and Norfolk soils, 8 to 12 49-Otela-Alpin complex, 0 to 5 percent
percent slopes ......................................... 35 slopes ........................................................ 60
13-Mascotte sand .......................................... 36 51-Bigbee fine sand, undulating, occasionally
14- Pottsburg sand ......................................... 37 flooded ................................ .................... 61







6














52-Pelham fine sand, occasionally flooded ...... 62 Goldhead Series ............................................. 100
54-Pits .............................................................. 63 Kenansville Series ............................................ 101
56-Bibb-Bigbee complex, undulating, Lowndes Series ........................................... 102
occasionally flooded ..................................... 63 Mascotte Series ...................................... 102
57-Osier sand, occasionally flooded ................ 65 Norfolk Series ................................................ 103
58-Sapelo sand .............................................. 65 Ocilla Series.................................................... 104
59-Dorovan muck, depressional ...................... 66 Osier Series ............................................... 104
60-Alpin-Shadeville complex, karst ................. 67 Otela Series ................................................ 105
61-Arents, 0 to 5 percent slopes .................... 68 Pamlico Series ...................................... 105
62-Resota-Blanton-Bigbee complex, Pelham Series.............................................. 106
occasionally flooded ..................................... 69 Plummer Series ............................................. 106
63-Arents-Water complex ................................. 70 Pottsburg Series ...................................... 107
64-Hydraquents, clayey .................................... 70 Resota Series ................................................ 108
65-Gypsum land ............................................ 71 Sapelo Series ................................................ 108
66-Urban land ................................................ 71 Shadeville Series ......................................... 109
67-Quartzipsamments, 1 to 5 percent Stockade Series........................................... 109
slopes ........................................................ 71 Surrency Series ............................................. 110
Use and Management of the Soils ...................... 73 Valdosta Series .............................................. 111
Crops and Pasture ......................................... 73 Wadley Series ................................................ 111
Ecological Communities ..................................... 77 Wahee Series ................................................ 112
Woodland Management and Productivity ........... 79 Wampee Series ..................... ........................ 113
Recreation .................................................... 80 Formation of the Soils ........................................ 115
Wildlife Habitat ................................................. 81 Factors of Soil Formation .................................. 115
Engineering ......................................................... 83 Parent M material ...................... ..................... 115
Building Site Development............................ 83 Climate ................................. ......... 115
Sanitary Facilities ......................................... 84 Plants and Animals ..................................... 115
Construction Materials.................................. 85 Relief ..................... ......................... 116
Water Management ........................................ 86 Time .......................................................... 116
Soil Properties..................................................... 89 Processes of Horizon Differentiation................. 116
Engineering Index Properties ............................. 89 Geomorphology ............................................. 117
Physical and Chemical Properties ...................... 90 Geology ........................ ..................... 119
Soil and Water Features ..................................... 91 Ground Water ............................................ 121
Classification of the Soils .................................. 93 Mineral Resources ..................................... 122
Soil Series and Their Morphology ........................... 93 References........................................................ 123
Albany Series .................................................... 93 Glossary ........................... ......... .......... ... 125
A lpin S series .................. ... ................................. 94 Tables ................................................................... 135
Bibb Series ................................................. 95 Table 1.-Temperature and Precipitation .......... 136
Bigbee Series ................................................... 95 Table 2.-Freeze Dates in Spring and Fall........ 136
Bivans Series .................................................... 96 Table 3.-Acreage and Proportionate Extent
B lanton S series .................................................... 96 of the S oils .................................................. 137
Bonneau Series .................................................. 97 Table 4.-Land Capability Classes and Yields
Chipley Series..................................................... 98 per Acre of Crops and Pasture ................... 138
Dorovan Series ................................................... 98 Table 5.-Woodland Management and
Eunola Series .................................................. 99 Productivity .............................................. 141
Foxworth Series ................................................ 100 Table 6.-Recreational Development ................ 147







7













Table 7.-Wildlife Habitat ................................ 152 Table 12.-Engineering Index Properties ......... 175
Table 8.-Building Site Development .............. 156 Table 13.-Physical and Chemical Properties
Table 9.- Sanitary Facilities ............................ 161 of the Soils................................................ 182
Table 10.-Construction Materials.................. 166 Table 14.-Soil and Water Features ............... 186
Table 11 .-Water Management ...................... 170 Table 15.-Classification of the Soils.............. 189


Issued 2004










9










Foreword


This soil survey contains information that affects land use planning in Hamilton
County. It contains predictions of soil behavior for selected land uses. The survey also
highlights soil limitations, improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the
impact of selected land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, ranchers, foresters,
and agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and the management
needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners, community officials,
engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use the survey to plan land use,
select sites for construction, and identify special practices needed to ensure proper
performance. Conservationists, teachers, students, and specialists in recreation, wildlife
management, waste disposal, and pollution control can use the survey to help them
understand, protect, and enhance the environment.
Various land use regulations of Federal, State, and local governments may impose
special restrictions on land use or land treatment. The information in this report is
intended to identify soil properties that are used in making various land use or land
treatment decisions. Statements made in this report are intended to help the land users
identify and reduce the effects of soil limitations that affect various land uses. The
landowner or user is responsible for identifying and complying with existing laws and
regulations.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some soils are
seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are shallow to bedrock. Some are too
unstable to be used as a foundation for buildings or roads. Clayey or wet soils are
poorly suited to use as septic tank absorption fields. A high water table makes a soil
poorly suited to basements or underground installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in this soil
survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The location of each
soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey area is described.
Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in using this publication and
additional information are available at the local office of the Natural Resources
Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.




T. Niles Glasgow
State Conservationist
Natural Resources Conservation Service

















Soil Survey of


Hamilton County, Florida


By Robert L. Weatherspoon, David A. Howell, and Robert Baldwin

Fieldwork by John Campbell, Joseph V. Chiaretti, Ed Horn, William R. Johnson,
Bruce Lindsey, Patti Obyrne-Hazen, Dan Shurtliff, Ken VanDoran, Christopher A.
Williams, and Dennis C. Wonderlich, Natural Resources Conservation Service

United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service,
in cooperation with
the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural
Experiment Stations, and Soil and Water Science Department, and the Florida
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services





HAMILTON COUNTY is in the northeastern part of
Florida (fig. 1). It extends about 15 miles from the TALLAHASSEE
Georgia State line to the Suwannee and Columbia
County lines. It has a maximum width, between the
Suwannee River and the Withlacoochee River, of
about 33 miles. Hamilton County is bordered on the
west by Madison County, on the east and southeast by
Columbia County, and on the south by Suwannee
County. The Suwannee River separates Hamilton
County from Suwannee County and Columbia County.
The Withlacoochee River separates Hamilton County
from Madison County.
Hamilton County has a total area of 331,194 acres,
or 515 square miles (IFAS, 1990). Jasper, the county
seat, is in the central part of the county. In 1991, the
population of the county was about 10,996. This was
an increase of 25 percent from 1980. The population
of Jasper was about 2,099. This was an increase of 3 Figure .-Location of Hamilton County in Florida.
percent.
Cultivated crops, forestry, timber, and dairy farms
are the principal sources of income in the county.
Related enterprises support these industries. Climate
Climatic data for this section were prepared by the National
General Nature of the County Climatic Data Center, Asheville, North Carolina.
This section gives general information about the Hamilton County has a moderate climate that is
climate, history and development, farming, and favorable for the production of crops, livestock, and
recreation in the county, pine trees. The summers are long, hot, and humid.






12 Soil Survey



Winters, although punctuated by a periodic invasion of In 1850, the population of the county was 2,511.
cool to occasionally cold air from the north, are mild This number included 685 slaves. By 1860, the
because the county is in the southern latitude and is a population had increased to 4,149. This number
short distance from the ocean, which is relatively warm. included 1,397 slaves. Cotton was the main crop. A
Table 1 gives data on temperature and precipitation variety of foodstuffs was also produced, commonly for
for the survey area for the period 1957 to 1987. Table 2 home consumption.
shows probable dates of the first freeze in fall and the Between 1855 and 1886, a new courthouse was
last freeze in spring. built at a cost of approximately $2,000.00. The
Mean annual precipitation in Hamilton County is courthouse was burned in 1929. It was later
54.24 inches. October and November are the driest remodeled and repaired.
months. About 60 percent of the annual rainfall occurs In 1858, the town of Jasper was incorporated. It had
during the months of April through September. About various stores and other businesses and a fraternal
once in 10 years, however, excessive rainfall occurs in organization at this time. The railroad came to Jasper
the spring. Spring storms have caused rivers to from Live Oak during 1864.
overflow their banks. Heavy summer thundershowers About 1875, the first newspaper in the county was
can produce 2 or 3 inches of rainfall in 1 or 2 hours. started. It was named "Spirit of the Times" and was
Daylong rains in the summer are rare. When they do published by Augustus Dupont.
occur, they are usually associated with tropical storms. Sometime in the 1880's, an academy was formed in
The average relative humidity is about 75 percent Jasper. The White Spring Normal College, located in
(USDC, 1972). White Springs, was a teacher's college. On March 5,
Hail occasionally falls during thundershowers, but 1890, the Jasper Normal Institute was organized. It
the hailstones generally are small and seldom cause was later incorporated into the public school system.
much damage. Snow is very rare and usually melts as During the period 1886 to 1898, Hamilton County
it hits the ground. voted "wet." In 1898, the county voted "dry."
Tropical storms can effect the area from early June A railroad was constructed from Lake City to
through November. The wind and rain associated with Valdosta in 1891.
these storms can cause timber and crop damage and By 1915, the population in the county had
local flooding. Hurricane-force winds rarely develop grown to more than 12,000. Thriving farms,
because of the inland location of the county. lumber mills, turpentine stills, basket and box
Extended dry periods can occur any time during the mills, hotels, grocery stores, dry goods shops,
year but are most common in the spring and fall. hardware stores, drug stores, churches, livery
These periods can adversely affect crops and other stables, schools, gins, and commissaries were in
plants. Higher temperatures in summer can also many parts of the county.
increase evaporation, affecting plants during dry Through many years, the county grew despite bank
periods of several days. failures, wars, freezes, and booms and depressions;
Tornadoes occasionally accompany heavy but with the coming of the boll weevil, World War I, the
thunderstorms or tropical storms. They generally depression of the 1930's, and further bank failures, the
cause limited damage in local areas. county declined in population to a low of 7,705 in
1960. It had a slight gain to 7,787 by 1970. In 1990,
History and Development the population was about 11,000.
Agriculture still has an important role in the county.
Hamilton County was created from Jefferson About 77,219 acres of cropland, range, and woodland
County (Jasper News, 1976). It was named in honor of in the county produces a gross income of $7,768,000.
Alexander Hamilton, the first Secretary of the Treasury Another 228,055 acres of woodland produces a gross
of the United States. Settlers began to move into the income of $12,498,215. Timber, dairy cattle, beef
area by 1830. cattle, swine, poultry, and field crops, such as tobacco,
After 1842, the Armed Occupation Act was passed watermelons, corn, peanuts, soybeans, peas, wheat,
to encourage settlers to come to Florida and, in oats, and sorghum, are the major agricultural products
particular, to settle south of Micanopy. Military land (IFAS, 1990).
grants and Homestead Acts provided free land to
many settlers in Hamilton County. Farming
Trails, small creeks, and rivers were used to carry
trade goods and produce to markets. Small boats and Hamilton County is a general farming and tree
barges were built at some of the lumber mills, producing area. The main crops are corn, tobacco,






Hamilton County, Florida 13



soybeans, peanuts, watermelon, small grains, and a observed the steepness, length, and shape of the
few vegetables. Most of the cropland is in the northern slopes; the general pattern of drainage; the kinds of
part of the county. Most of the soils that are used for crops and native plants; and the kinds of bedrock.
crops are deep, drought sands. They dug many holes to study the soil profile, which is
Historically, deep plowing and clean cultivation were the sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil.
used in the county. Gully-control structures, grassed The profile extends from the surface down into the
waterways, windbreaks, and permanent vegetative unconsolidated material in which the soil formed. The
cover are needed to help control erosion. unconsolidated material is devoid of roots and other
In 1937, the enactment of legislation to create Soil living organisms and has not been changed by other
Conservation Districts stirred the interest of many biological activity.
landowners in Hamilton county. The Hamilton County The soils and miscellaneous areas in the survey
Soil and Water Conservation District was created and area are in an orderly pattern that is related to the
began to promote farming, tree planting, and other geology, landforms, relief, climate, and natural
farming practices. It had, and still has, the goal of vegetation of the area. Each kind of soil and
assisting farmers, public agencies, and other land miscellaneous area is associated with a particular kind
users solve problems related to soil and water of landform or with a segment of the landform. By
conservation. This soil survey is part of that observing the soils and miscellaneous areas in the
assistance, survey area and relating their position to specific
For more information regarding farming in the segments of the landform, a soil scientist develops a
county, see "Crops and Pasture" in the "Use and concept or model of how they were formed. Thus,
Management" section. during mapping, this model enables the soil scientist
to predict with a considerable degree of accuracy the
Recreation kind of soil or miscellaneous area at a specific location
on the landscape.
Hamilton County provides a wide variety of Commonly, individual soils on the landscape merge
opportunities for recreation. Many of these into one another as their characteristics gradually
opportunities come from the county's wide-open change. To construct an accurate soil map, however,
spaces and favorable weather, soil scientists must determine the boundaries between
Blue Spring Park is the most popular recreational the soils. They can observe only a limited number of
site in the county. A crystal clear spring that rises soil profiles. Nevertheless, these observations,
within the park and flows southward attracts supplemented by an understanding of the soil-
thousands of swimmers, divers, canoeists, and other vegetation-landscape relationship, are sufficient to
visitors each year. verify predictions of the kinds of soil in an area and to
Troy Spring County Park provides opportunities for determine the boundaries.
water activities on the Suwannee River. Camping, Soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the
hiking, picnicking, and observing wildlife are also soil profiles that they studied. They noted color,
popular activities at this park. texture, size and shape of soil aggregates, kind and
The rivers in the county provide opportunities for amount of rock fragments, distribution of plant roots,
canoeing, kayaking, swimming, diving, and reaction, and other features that enable them to
sightseeing, identify soils. After describing the soils in the survey
Recreational activities of a more organized nature area and determining their properties, the soil
are available in or near Mayo, where facilities are scientists assigned the soils to taxonomic classes
available for outdoor games, baseball, tennis, (units). Taxonomic classes are concepts. Each
racquetball, and basketball. Civic clubs and church taxonomic class has a set of soil characteristics
groups sponsor many of these activities, with precisely defined limits. The classes are used
as a basis for comparison to classify soils
How This Survey Was Made systematically. Soil taxonomy, the system of
taxonomic classification used in the United States, is
This survey was made to provide information about based mainly on the kind and character of soil
the soils and miscellaneous areas in the survey area. properties and the arrangement of horizons within the
The information includes a description of the soils and profile. After the soil scientists classified and named
miscellaneous areas and their location and a the soils in the survey area, they compared the
discussion of their suitability, limitations, and individual soils with similar soils in the same
management for specified uses. Soil scientists taxonomic class in other areas so that they could






14



confirm data and assemble additional data based on predict that a high water table will always be at a
experience and research. specific level in the soil on a specific date.
While a soil survey is in progress, samples of some After soil scientists located and identified the
of the soils in the area generally are collected for significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area,
laboratory analyses and for engineering tests. Soil they drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial
scientists interpret the data from these analyses and photographs and identified each as a specific map
tests as well as the field-observed characteristics and unit. Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields,
the soil properties to determine the expected behavior roads, and rivers, all of which help in locating
of the soils under different uses. Interpretations for all boundaries accurately.
of the soils are field tested through observation of the The descriptions, names, and delineations of the
soils in different uses and under different levels of soils in this survey area do not fully agree with those
management. Some interpretations are modified to fit of the soils in adjacent survey areas. Differences are
local conditions, and some new interpretations are the result of a better knowledge of soils, modifications
developed to meet local needs. Data are assembled in series concepts, or variations in the intensity of
from other sources, such as research information, mapping or in the extent of the soils in the survey areas.
production records, and field experience of specialists.
For example, data on crop yields under defined levels Ground-Penetrating Radar
of management are assembled from farm records and
from field or plot experiments on the same kinds of In Hamilton County, a ground-penetrating radar
soil. (GPR) system was used to document the type and
Predictions about soil behavior are based not only variability of soils that occur in the detailed map units
on soil properties but also on such variables as (Doolittle, 1982). Random transects were made with
climate and biological activity. Soil conditions are the GPR and by hand. Radar data and information
predictable over long periods of time, but they are not from notes and ground-truth observations made in the
predictable from year to year. For example, soil field were used to classify the soils and to determine
scientists can predict with a fairly high degree of the composition of the map units. The map units
accuracy that a given soil will have a high water table described in the section "Detailed Soil Map Units" are
within certain depths in most years, but they cannot based on this data.






15










General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication s a T
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of surrounding areas. The natural vegetation consists of
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of mixed hardwoods and pines.
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the m d hardwoods a e e eeie ine
Valdosta soils are somewhat excessively drained.
general soil map is a unique natural landscape.
general soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, the surface layer is dark brown sand about 9
Typically, it consists of one or more major soils or inches thick. The upper part of the subsoil is yellowish
miscellaneous areas me or soils or brown loamy sand, the next part is dark yellowish brown
miscellaneous areas. It is named for the major soils or sand, and the lower part is yellowish brown loamy sand.
miscellaneous areas. The components of one map unit sand nd he lor part is yellowish brown loamy sand.
can occur in another but in a different pattern. The underlying material is light yellowish brown loamy
The general soil map can be used to compare the sand that has thin layers of yellowish brown sandy loam.
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of Blanton soils are moderately well drained. Typically,
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise, the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand about 9
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified. inches thick. The upper part of the subsurface layer is
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable yellowish brown sand, the next part is very pale brown
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable
for planning the management of a farm or field or for sand and the ower part is yelowish brown sandtha
has mottles in shades of yellow. The upper part of the
selecting a site for a road or building or other structure. s o n shaes of ye a th
The soils in any one map unit differ from place to place subsoil is yellowish brown sandy clay loam that has
in slope, depth, drainage, and other characteristics mottles in shades of brown and gray, the next part is
that affect management. light brownish gray sandy clay loam that has mottles in
shades of brown, and the lower part is gray sandy clay
loam.
Soils on Sand Hills and Ridges Lowndes soils are well drained.Typically, the surface
The map units in this group consist of excessively layer is dark grayish brown sand. The subsurface layer is
yellowish brown loamy sand. The upper subsoil is strong
drained to moderately well drained, nearly level to yeow brown loamy sand The upr ubsoil is strong
moderately sloping sandy soils on uplands. Most of brown sandy loam. The layer between the upper subsoil
the soils are sandy throughout. The map units are in and the lower subsoil is strong brown loamy sand. The
the soils are sandy throughout. The map units are in
the western part of the county. lower subsoil is strong brown sandy clay loam that has
the western part of the county. mottles in shades of gray.
mottles in shades of gray.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
1. Valdosta-Blanton-Lowndes Albany, Chipley, and Norfolk soils.

Nearly level to strongly sloping, somewhat excessively Most areas of this map unit are used for crops,
drained, moderately well drained, and well drained pasture, or the production of pine trees. A few areas
soils that have sandy surface and subsurface layers are used for urban development.
underlain by a loamy subsoil; formed in sandy and This map unit is poorly suited, very poorly suited, or
loamy sediments not suited to cultivated crops and is suited to pasture
and the production of pine trees. Slope, seasonal
This map unit consists of soils on sand hills and droughtiness, and rapid leaching of plant nutrients are
ridges. Most areas of the map unit are in the management concerns.
northwestern part of the county adjacent to the This map unit is suited to urban development.
Lowndes County line. This map unit makes up 9 Seasonal wetness in the Blanton soils, poor filtering
percent of the county. It is about 38 percent Valdosta characteristics in the Lowndes soils, and slope in
soils, 34 percent Blanton soils, 14 percent Lowndes some areas are management concerns.
soils, and 14 percent soils of minor extent. This map unit is poorly suited to recreational
The landscape is interspersed with sharp breaking, development. Sandy surface layers and the slope in
long and narrow slopes that are steeper than the some areas are management concerns.






15










General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication s a T
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of surrounding areas. The natural vegetation consists of
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of mixed hardwoods and pines.
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the m d hardwoods a e e eeie ine
Valdosta soils are somewhat excessively drained.
general soil map is a unique natural landscape.
general soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, the surface layer is dark brown sand about 9
Typically, it consists of one or more major soils or inches thick. The upper part of the subsoil is yellowish
miscellaneous areas me or soils or brown loamy sand, the next part is dark yellowish brown
miscellaneous areas. It is named for the major soils or sand, and the lower part is yellowish brown loamy sand.
miscellaneous areas. The components of one map unit sand nd he lor part is yellowish brown loamy sand.
can occur in another but in a different pattern. The underlying material is light yellowish brown loamy
The general soil map can be used to compare the sand that has thin layers of yellowish brown sandy loam.
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of Blanton soils are moderately well drained. Typically,
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise, the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand about 9
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified. inches thick. The upper part of the subsurface layer is
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable yellowish brown sand, the next part is very pale brown
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable
for planning the management of a farm or field or for sand and the ower part is yelowish brown sandtha
has mottles in shades of yellow. The upper part of the
selecting a site for a road or building or other structure. s o n shaes of ye a th
The soils in any one map unit differ from place to place subsoil is yellowish brown sandy clay loam that has
in slope, depth, drainage, and other characteristics mottles in shades of brown and gray, the next part is
that affect management. light brownish gray sandy clay loam that has mottles in
shades of brown, and the lower part is gray sandy clay
loam.
Soils on Sand Hills and Ridges Lowndes soils are well drained.Typically, the surface
The map units in this group consist of excessively layer is dark grayish brown sand. The subsurface layer is
yellowish brown loamy sand. The upper subsoil is strong
drained to moderately well drained, nearly level to yeow brown loamy sand The upr ubsoil is strong
moderately sloping sandy soils on uplands. Most of brown sandy loam. The layer between the upper subsoil
the soils are sandy throughout. The map units are in and the lower subsoil is strong brown loamy sand. The
the soils are sandy throughout. The map units are in
the western part of the county. lower subsoil is strong brown sandy clay loam that has
the western part of the county. mottles in shades of gray.
mottles in shades of gray.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
1. Valdosta-Blanton-Lowndes Albany, Chipley, and Norfolk soils.

Nearly level to strongly sloping, somewhat excessively Most areas of this map unit are used for crops,
drained, moderately well drained, and well drained pasture, or the production of pine trees. A few areas
soils that have sandy surface and subsurface layers are used for urban development.
underlain by a loamy subsoil; formed in sandy and This map unit is poorly suited, very poorly suited, or
loamy sediments not suited to cultivated crops and is suited to pasture
and the production of pine trees. Slope, seasonal
This map unit consists of soils on sand hills and droughtiness, and rapid leaching of plant nutrients are
ridges. Most areas of the map unit are in the management concerns.
northwestern part of the county adjacent to the This map unit is suited to urban development.
Lowndes County line. This map unit makes up 9 Seasonal wetness in the Blanton soils, poor filtering
percent of the county. It is about 38 percent Valdosta characteristics in the Lowndes soils, and slope in
soils, 34 percent Blanton soils, 14 percent Lowndes some areas are management concerns.
soils, and 14 percent soils of minor extent. This map unit is poorly suited to recreational
The landscape is interspersed with sharp breaking, development. Sandy surface layers and the slope in
long and narrow slopes that are steeper than the some areas are management concerns.






15










General Soil Map Units


The general soil map at the back of this publication s a T
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of surrounding areas. The natural vegetation consists of
shows broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of mixed hardwoods and pines.
soils, relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the m d hardwoods a e e eeie ine
Valdosta soils are somewhat excessively drained.
general soil map is a unique natural landscape.
general soil map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, the surface layer is dark brown sand about 9
Typically, it consists of one or more major soils or inches thick. The upper part of the subsoil is yellowish
miscellaneous areas me or soils or brown loamy sand, the next part is dark yellowish brown
miscellaneous areas. It is named for the major soils or sand, and the lower part is yellowish brown loamy sand.
miscellaneous areas. The components of one map unit sand nd he lor part is yellowish brown loamy sand.
can occur in another but in a different pattern. The underlying material is light yellowish brown loamy
The general soil map can be used to compare the sand that has thin layers of yellowish brown sandy loam.
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of Blanton soils are moderately well drained. Typically,
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas of
suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise, the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand about 9
areas where the soils are not suitable can be identified. inches thick. The upper part of the subsurface layer is
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable yellowish brown sand, the next part is very pale brown
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable
for planning the management of a farm or field or for sand and the ower part is yelowish brown sandtha
has mottles in shades of yellow. The upper part of the
selecting a site for a road or building or other structure. s o n shaes of ye a th
The soils in any one map unit differ from place to place subsoil is yellowish brown sandy clay loam that has
in slope, depth, drainage, and other characteristics mottles in shades of brown and gray, the next part is
that affect management. light brownish gray sandy clay loam that has mottles in
shades of brown, and the lower part is gray sandy clay
loam.
Soils on Sand Hills and Ridges Lowndes soils are well drained.Typically, the surface
The map units in this group consist of excessively layer is dark grayish brown sand. The subsurface layer is
yellowish brown loamy sand. The upper subsoil is strong
drained to moderately well drained, nearly level to yeow brown loamy sand The upr ubsoil is strong
moderately sloping sandy soils on uplands. Most of brown sandy loam. The layer between the upper subsoil
the soils are sandy throughout. The map units are in and the lower subsoil is strong brown loamy sand. The
the soils are sandy throughout. The map units are in
the western part of the county. lower subsoil is strong brown sandy clay loam that has
the western part of the county. mottles in shades of gray.
mottles in shades of gray.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
1. Valdosta-Blanton-Lowndes Albany, Chipley, and Norfolk soils.

Nearly level to strongly sloping, somewhat excessively Most areas of this map unit are used for crops,
drained, moderately well drained, and well drained pasture, or the production of pine trees. A few areas
soils that have sandy surface and subsurface layers are used for urban development.
underlain by a loamy subsoil; formed in sandy and This map unit is poorly suited, very poorly suited, or
loamy sediments not suited to cultivated crops and is suited to pasture
and the production of pine trees. Slope, seasonal
This map unit consists of soils on sand hills and droughtiness, and rapid leaching of plant nutrients are
ridges. Most areas of the map unit are in the management concerns.
northwestern part of the county adjacent to the This map unit is suited to urban development.
Lowndes County line. This map unit makes up 9 Seasonal wetness in the Blanton soils, poor filtering
percent of the county. It is about 38 percent Valdosta characteristics in the Lowndes soils, and slope in
soils, 34 percent Blanton soils, 14 percent Lowndes some areas are management concerns.
soils, and 14 percent soils of minor extent. This map unit is poorly suited to recreational
The landscape is interspersed with sharp breaking, development. Sandy surface layers and the slope in
long and narrow slopes that are steeper than the some areas are management concerns.






16 Soil Survey



2. Alpin-Foxworth throughout. Some have loamy material below a
depth of 20 to 40 inches. The map units are in the
Nearly level to strongly sloping, excessively drained northeastern, western, central, and southern parts
and moderately well drained soils that are sandy of the county.
throughout
This map unit consists of soils on uplands, sand 3. Blanton
hills, and ridges. Most areas of the map unit are in the Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained
southwestern part of the county adjacent to the
soils that have a sandy surface layer and a loamy
Madison and Suwannee County lines. This map unit sls thathave a dy surface layer and a loamy
subsoil
makes up 13 percent of the county. It is about 81
percent Alpin soils, 13 percent Foxworth soils, and 6 This map unit consists of soils on uplands and low
percent soils of minor extent. ridges. Most areas of the unit are in the southern part
The landscape is interspersed with sharp breaking, of the county adjacent to the Alapaha River. This map
long and narrow slopes that are steeper than the unit makes up 5 percent of the county. It is about 77
surrounding areas. The natural vegetation is mixed percent Blanton soils and 23 percent soils of minor
hardwoods and pines, extent.
Alpin soils are excessively drained. Typically, the The landscape is interspersed with sharp breaking,
surface layer is dark grayish brown fine sand. The long and narrow slopes that are steeper than the
upper part of the subsurface layer is yellowish brown surrounding areas. The natural vegetation consists of
fine sand. The lower part is yellow sand. The upper mixed hardwoods and pines (fig 2.).
part of the subsoil is very pale brown sand that has Typically, the surface layer of the Blanton soils is
thin layers of strong brown loamy sand. The lower part very dark grayish brown loamy sand about 6 inches
is pinkish white sand that has thin layers of strong thick. The subsurface layer is dark brown grading to
brown loamy sand. yellowish brown, brownish yellow, and yellow loamy
Foxworth soils are moderately well drained, sand. The upper part of the subsoil is very pale
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown sand. The brown sandy clay loam. The lower part is sandy clay
underlying material is sand. The upper part of the loam that is mottled in shades of gray, yellow, and
underlying material is yellowish brown, the next part brown.
is brownish yellow and has mottles in shades of The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
brown, and the lower part is very pale brown grading Albany, Chipley, Valdosta, and Wampee soils.
to white and has mottles in shades of brown, red, and Most areas of this map unit are used for crops,
yellow, pasture, or the production of pine trees. A few areas
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include are used for urban development.
Otela, Shadeville, and Wadley soils. This map unit is poorly suited to cultivated crops
Most areas of this map unit are used for crops, and is suited to pasture and to the production of pine
pasture, or the production of pine trees. A few areas trees. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant
are used for urban development, nutrients are management concerns.
This map unit is poorly suited to crops and is suited This map unit is suited to urban development.
to pasture, hayland, and the production of pine trees. Seasonal wetness is a management concern.
Seasonal droughtiness is a management concern. This map unit is poorly suited to recreational
This map unit is suited to urban development, development. Sandy surface layers and the slope in
Seasonal droughtiness is a management concern, some areas are management concerns.
This map unit is poorly suited to recreational
development. Sandy surface layers are a management
concern. 4. Albany-Plummer
Nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly
Soils on Uplands, Low Ridges, and drained and poorly drained soils that have a sandy
Broad Flats surface layer and a loamy subsoil
Broad Flats
This map unit consists of soils in low areas of the
The map units in this group consists of moderately uplands and on low ridges in areas of flatwoods. It is
well drained to poorly drained, nearly level to gently throughout the county along the Lowndes County,
sloping soils. Some of the soils are sandy Suwannee County, and Columbia County lines. This






16 Soil Survey



2. Alpin-Foxworth throughout. Some have loamy material below a
depth of 20 to 40 inches. The map units are in the
Nearly level to strongly sloping, excessively drained northeastern, western, central, and southern parts
and moderately well drained soils that are sandy of the county.
throughout
This map unit consists of soils on uplands, sand 3. Blanton
hills, and ridges. Most areas of the map unit are in the Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained
southwestern part of the county adjacent to the
soils that have a sandy surface layer and a loamy
Madison and Suwannee County lines. This map unit sls thathave a dy surface layer and a loamy
subsoil
makes up 13 percent of the county. It is about 81
percent Alpin soils, 13 percent Foxworth soils, and 6 This map unit consists of soils on uplands and low
percent soils of minor extent. ridges. Most areas of the unit are in the southern part
The landscape is interspersed with sharp breaking, of the county adjacent to the Alapaha River. This map
long and narrow slopes that are steeper than the unit makes up 5 percent of the county. It is about 77
surrounding areas. The natural vegetation is mixed percent Blanton soils and 23 percent soils of minor
hardwoods and pines, extent.
Alpin soils are excessively drained. Typically, the The landscape is interspersed with sharp breaking,
surface layer is dark grayish brown fine sand. The long and narrow slopes that are steeper than the
upper part of the subsurface layer is yellowish brown surrounding areas. The natural vegetation consists of
fine sand. The lower part is yellow sand. The upper mixed hardwoods and pines (fig 2.).
part of the subsoil is very pale brown sand that has Typically, the surface layer of the Blanton soils is
thin layers of strong brown loamy sand. The lower part very dark grayish brown loamy sand about 6 inches
is pinkish white sand that has thin layers of strong thick. The subsurface layer is dark brown grading to
brown loamy sand. yellowish brown, brownish yellow, and yellow loamy
Foxworth soils are moderately well drained, sand. The upper part of the subsoil is very pale
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown sand. The brown sandy clay loam. The lower part is sandy clay
underlying material is sand. The upper part of the loam that is mottled in shades of gray, yellow, and
underlying material is yellowish brown, the next part brown.
is brownish yellow and has mottles in shades of The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
brown, and the lower part is very pale brown grading Albany, Chipley, Valdosta, and Wampee soils.
to white and has mottles in shades of brown, red, and Most areas of this map unit are used for crops,
yellow, pasture, or the production of pine trees. A few areas
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include are used for urban development.
Otela, Shadeville, and Wadley soils. This map unit is poorly suited to cultivated crops
Most areas of this map unit are used for crops, and is suited to pasture and to the production of pine
pasture, or the production of pine trees. A few areas trees. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant
are used for urban development, nutrients are management concerns.
This map unit is poorly suited to crops and is suited This map unit is suited to urban development.
to pasture, hayland, and the production of pine trees. Seasonal wetness is a management concern.
Seasonal droughtiness is a management concern. This map unit is poorly suited to recreational
This map unit is suited to urban development, development. Sandy surface layers and the slope in
Seasonal droughtiness is a management concern, some areas are management concerns.
This map unit is poorly suited to recreational
development. Sandy surface layers are a management
concern. 4. Albany-Plummer
Nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly
Soils on Uplands, Low Ridges, and drained and poorly drained soils that have a sandy
Broad Flats surface layer and a loamy subsoil
Broad Flats
This map unit consists of soils in low areas of the
The map units in this group consists of moderately uplands and on low ridges in areas of flatwoods. It is
well drained to poorly drained, nearly level to gently throughout the county along the Lowndes County,
sloping soils. Some of the soils are sandy Suwannee County, and Columbia County lines. This






16 Soil Survey



2. Alpin-Foxworth throughout. Some have loamy material below a
depth of 20 to 40 inches. The map units are in the
Nearly level to strongly sloping, excessively drained northeastern, western, central, and southern parts
and moderately well drained soils that are sandy of the county.
throughout
This map unit consists of soils on uplands, sand 3. Blanton
hills, and ridges. Most areas of the map unit are in the Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained
southwestern part of the county adjacent to the
soils that have a sandy surface layer and a loamy
Madison and Suwannee County lines. This map unit sls thathave a dy surface layer and a loamy
subsoil
makes up 13 percent of the county. It is about 81
percent Alpin soils, 13 percent Foxworth soils, and 6 This map unit consists of soils on uplands and low
percent soils of minor extent. ridges. Most areas of the unit are in the southern part
The landscape is interspersed with sharp breaking, of the county adjacent to the Alapaha River. This map
long and narrow slopes that are steeper than the unit makes up 5 percent of the county. It is about 77
surrounding areas. The natural vegetation is mixed percent Blanton soils and 23 percent soils of minor
hardwoods and pines, extent.
Alpin soils are excessively drained. Typically, the The landscape is interspersed with sharp breaking,
surface layer is dark grayish brown fine sand. The long and narrow slopes that are steeper than the
upper part of the subsurface layer is yellowish brown surrounding areas. The natural vegetation consists of
fine sand. The lower part is yellow sand. The upper mixed hardwoods and pines (fig 2.).
part of the subsoil is very pale brown sand that has Typically, the surface layer of the Blanton soils is
thin layers of strong brown loamy sand. The lower part very dark grayish brown loamy sand about 6 inches
is pinkish white sand that has thin layers of strong thick. The subsurface layer is dark brown grading to
brown loamy sand. yellowish brown, brownish yellow, and yellow loamy
Foxworth soils are moderately well drained, sand. The upper part of the subsoil is very pale
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown sand. The brown sandy clay loam. The lower part is sandy clay
underlying material is sand. The upper part of the loam that is mottled in shades of gray, yellow, and
underlying material is yellowish brown, the next part brown.
is brownish yellow and has mottles in shades of The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
brown, and the lower part is very pale brown grading Albany, Chipley, Valdosta, and Wampee soils.
to white and has mottles in shades of brown, red, and Most areas of this map unit are used for crops,
yellow, pasture, or the production of pine trees. A few areas
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include are used for urban development.
Otela, Shadeville, and Wadley soils. This map unit is poorly suited to cultivated crops
Most areas of this map unit are used for crops, and is suited to pasture and to the production of pine
pasture, or the production of pine trees. A few areas trees. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant
are used for urban development, nutrients are management concerns.
This map unit is poorly suited to crops and is suited This map unit is suited to urban development.
to pasture, hayland, and the production of pine trees. Seasonal wetness is a management concern.
Seasonal droughtiness is a management concern. This map unit is poorly suited to recreational
This map unit is suited to urban development, development. Sandy surface layers and the slope in
Seasonal droughtiness is a management concern, some areas are management concerns.
This map unit is poorly suited to recreational
development. Sandy surface layers are a management
concern. 4. Albany-Plummer
Nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly
Soils on Uplands, Low Ridges, and drained and poorly drained soils that have a sandy
Broad Flats surface layer and a loamy subsoil
Broad Flats
This map unit consists of soils in low areas of the
The map units in this group consists of moderately uplands and on low ridges in areas of flatwoods. It is
well drained to poorly drained, nearly level to gently throughout the county along the Lowndes County,
sloping soils. Some of the soils are sandy Suwannee County, and Columbia County lines. This






16 Soil Survey



2. Alpin-Foxworth throughout. Some have loamy material below a
depth of 20 to 40 inches. The map units are in the
Nearly level to strongly sloping, excessively drained northeastern, western, central, and southern parts
and moderately well drained soils that are sandy of the county.
throughout
This map unit consists of soils on uplands, sand 3. Blanton
hills, and ridges. Most areas of the map unit are in the Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained
southwestern part of the county adjacent to the
soils that have a sandy surface layer and a loamy
Madison and Suwannee County lines. This map unit sls thathave a dy surface layer and a loamy
subsoil
makes up 13 percent of the county. It is about 81
percent Alpin soils, 13 percent Foxworth soils, and 6 This map unit consists of soils on uplands and low
percent soils of minor extent. ridges. Most areas of the unit are in the southern part
The landscape is interspersed with sharp breaking, of the county adjacent to the Alapaha River. This map
long and narrow slopes that are steeper than the unit makes up 5 percent of the county. It is about 77
surrounding areas. The natural vegetation is mixed percent Blanton soils and 23 percent soils of minor
hardwoods and pines, extent.
Alpin soils are excessively drained. Typically, the The landscape is interspersed with sharp breaking,
surface layer is dark grayish brown fine sand. The long and narrow slopes that are steeper than the
upper part of the subsurface layer is yellowish brown surrounding areas. The natural vegetation consists of
fine sand. The lower part is yellow sand. The upper mixed hardwoods and pines (fig 2.).
part of the subsoil is very pale brown sand that has Typically, the surface layer of the Blanton soils is
thin layers of strong brown loamy sand. The lower part very dark grayish brown loamy sand about 6 inches
is pinkish white sand that has thin layers of strong thick. The subsurface layer is dark brown grading to
brown loamy sand. yellowish brown, brownish yellow, and yellow loamy
Foxworth soils are moderately well drained, sand. The upper part of the subsoil is very pale
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown sand. The brown sandy clay loam. The lower part is sandy clay
underlying material is sand. The upper part of the loam that is mottled in shades of gray, yellow, and
underlying material is yellowish brown, the next part brown.
is brownish yellow and has mottles in shades of The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
brown, and the lower part is very pale brown grading Albany, Chipley, Valdosta, and Wampee soils.
to white and has mottles in shades of brown, red, and Most areas of this map unit are used for crops,
yellow, pasture, or the production of pine trees. A few areas
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include are used for urban development.
Otela, Shadeville, and Wadley soils. This map unit is poorly suited to cultivated crops
Most areas of this map unit are used for crops, and is suited to pasture and to the production of pine
pasture, or the production of pine trees. A few areas trees. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant
are used for urban development, nutrients are management concerns.
This map unit is poorly suited to crops and is suited This map unit is suited to urban development.
to pasture, hayland, and the production of pine trees. Seasonal wetness is a management concern.
Seasonal droughtiness is a management concern. This map unit is poorly suited to recreational
This map unit is suited to urban development, development. Sandy surface layers and the slope in
Seasonal droughtiness is a management concern, some areas are management concerns.
This map unit is poorly suited to recreational
development. Sandy surface layers are a management
concern. 4. Albany-Plummer
Nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly
Soils on Uplands, Low Ridges, and drained and poorly drained soils that have a sandy
Broad Flats surface layer and a loamy subsoil
Broad Flats
This map unit consists of soils in low areas of the
The map units in this group consists of moderately uplands and on low ridges in areas of flatwoods. It is
well drained to poorly drained, nearly level to gently throughout the county along the Lowndes County,
sloping soils. Some of the soils are sandy Suwannee County, and Columbia County lines. This







Hamilton County, Florida 17










































Figure 2.-An area of Blanton soils, which are suited to the commercial production of pines.



map unit makes up 10 percent of the county. It is about grading to light brownish gray and light gray. The
56 percent Albany soils, 33 percent Plummer soils, subsoil is light gray sandy loam grading to sandy clay
and 11 percent soils of minor extent. loam.
The natural vegetation consists of mixed hardwoods The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
and pines. Goldhead, Pelham, and Sapelo soils.
Albany soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically, Most areas of this map unit are poorly suited to
the surface layer is dark gray loamy fine sand about 10 cultivated crops and are suited to pasture and to the
inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand. It is brown production of pine trees. Seasonal wetness is a
grading to light gray. The upper part of the subsoil is management concern.
light brownish gray sandy loam. The next part is light This map unit is poorly suited to urban
brownish gray sandy clay loam. The lower part is dark development. Seasonal wetness is a management
brown sandy loam. concern.
Plummer soils are poorly drained. Typically, the This map unit is poorly suited to recreational
surface layer is very dark gray sand about 9 inches development. Sandy surface layers and wetness are
thick. The subsurface layer is sand. It is grayish brown management concerns.






18 Soil Survey




5. Pottsburg-Chipley the surface layer is dark gray loamy fine sand about 10
inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand. It is brown
Nearly level to gently sloping, poorly drained and grading to light gray. The upper part of the subsoil is
somewhat poorly drained soils that are sandy to a light brownish gray sandy loam. The next part is light
depth of 80 inches or more brownish gray sandy clay loam. The lower part is dark
brown sandy loam.
This map unit consists of soils in low areas on the brown sandy loam.
Ocilla soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically,
uplands and on low ridges in areas of flatwoods. It is in t s l
the northwestern part of the county along the he surface layer is dark gray loamy fine sand about 10
the northwestern part of the county along the .
inches thick. The subsurface layer is loamy fine sand.
Lowndes County line. This map unit makes up 3
Lowndes County line. This map unit makes up 3 The upper part is brownish yellow, the next part is pale
percent of the county. It is about 50 percent Pottsburg e er part is brownish yellow. The
yellow, and the lower part is brownish yellow. The
soils, 40 percent Chipley soils, and 10 percent soils of the is l
upper part of the subsoil is coarsely mottled dark
e ntl veettn cnts o e h yellowish brown, gray, yellowish brown, and red fine
The natural vegetation consists of mixed hardwoods T p i
and pines. sandy loam. The lower part is gray sandy clay.
Blanton soils are moderately well drained. Typically,
Pottsburg soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
Pottsburg soils are poorly drained. Typically, the the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand about 9
surface layer is very dark gray brown sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand. It is
inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand. It is
inches thick. The subsurface layer is dark grayish
inches thick. The subsurface layer is dark grayish yellowish brown grading to very pale brown. The upper
brown and light brownish gray sand. The upper part of a a a
th susi is .ai brw lm sa Th part of the subsoil is yellowish brown sandy clay loam.
the subsoil is grayish brown loamy sand. The lower
part is dark reddish brown sand. The lower part is light brownish gray or gray sandy
part is dark reddish brown sand.
Chipley soils are somewhat poorly drained. clay oam.
Cr s ae s a p l diThe soils of minor extent in this map unit include
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand he oil o minor een in hi map i il
about 8 inches thick. The upper part of the underlying Bonneau, Chipley Plummer, and Sapeo sois.
material is brown sand, the next part is pale brown Most areas of this map unit a suited to
cultivated crops and are suited to improved pasture
sand, and the lower part is light brownish gray sand. c s and e sed t proed stre
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include grasses and to the production of pine trees.
Mascotte, Plummer, and Sapelo soils. Droughtiness and seasonal wetness are management
Mascotte, Plummer, and Sapelo soils.
concerns
Most areas of this map unit are poorly suited to concerns.
This map unit is moderately suited to urban
cultivated crops and are suited to improved pastures rn
development. Wetness is a management concern.
grasses and to the production of pine trees. Seasonal This map unit is poorly suited to recreational
wetness is a management concern.
wetness is a management concern development. Sandy surface layers and wetness are
This map unit is poorly suited to urban development, development n c n n
Seasonal wetness is a management concern.
This map unit is poorly suited to recreational
development. Sandy surface layers and wetness are Soils in Areas of Flatwoods and in
management concerns. Depressions

6. Albany-Ocilla-Blanton The map units in this group consist of poorly
drained and very poorly drained, nearly level soils.
Nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly Some of the soils have an organic and loamy subsoil.
drained and moderately well drained soils that have a Some have an organic surface layer underlain by a
sandy surface layer to a depth of 20 to 40 inches and sandy and loamy subsoil. The map units are in the
have a loamy subsoil eastern part of the county.
This map unit consists of soils in low areas on the mli
uplands and on low ridges in areas of flatwoods. It is in Mascotte-Pali
the southern part of the county along the Suwannee
the southern part of the county along the Suwannee Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained
River. This map unit makes up 5 percent of the county. Nearly level poorly drained and very poorly drained
It is about 56 percent Albany soils, 19 percent Ocilla soils; some are sandy, are organic coated in the upper
soils, 11 percent Blanton soils, and 14 percent soils of part of the subsoil, and are loamy in the lower part of
minor extent the subsoil, and some have an organic surface layer
minor extent. and a loamy subsoil
The natural vegetation consists of mixed hardwoods and a loamy subs
and pines. This map unit consists of soils in areas of flatwoods.
Albany soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically, It is in the northern and southeastern parts of the






18 Soil Survey




5. Pottsburg-Chipley the surface layer is dark gray loamy fine sand about 10
inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand. It is brown
Nearly level to gently sloping, poorly drained and grading to light gray. The upper part of the subsoil is
somewhat poorly drained soils that are sandy to a light brownish gray sandy loam. The next part is light
depth of 80 inches or more brownish gray sandy clay loam. The lower part is dark
brown sandy loam.
This map unit consists of soils in low areas on the brown sandy loam.
Ocilla soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically,
uplands and on low ridges in areas of flatwoods. It is in t s l
the northwestern part of the county along the he surface layer is dark gray loamy fine sand about 10
the northwestern part of the county along the .
inches thick. The subsurface layer is loamy fine sand.
Lowndes County line. This map unit makes up 3
Lowndes County line. This map unit makes up 3 The upper part is brownish yellow, the next part is pale
percent of the county. It is about 50 percent Pottsburg e er part is brownish yellow. The
yellow, and the lower part is brownish yellow. The
soils, 40 percent Chipley soils, and 10 percent soils of the is l
upper part of the subsoil is coarsely mottled dark
e ntl veettn cnts o e h yellowish brown, gray, yellowish brown, and red fine
The natural vegetation consists of mixed hardwoods T p i
and pines. sandy loam. The lower part is gray sandy clay.
Blanton soils are moderately well drained. Typically,
Pottsburg soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
Pottsburg soils are poorly drained. Typically, the the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand about 9
surface layer is very dark gray brown sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand. It is
inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand. It is
inches thick. The subsurface layer is dark grayish
inches thick. The subsurface layer is dark grayish yellowish brown grading to very pale brown. The upper
brown and light brownish gray sand. The upper part of a a a
th susi is .ai brw lm sa Th part of the subsoil is yellowish brown sandy clay loam.
the subsoil is grayish brown loamy sand. The lower
part is dark reddish brown sand. The lower part is light brownish gray or gray sandy
part is dark reddish brown sand.
Chipley soils are somewhat poorly drained. clay oam.
Cr s ae s a p l diThe soils of minor extent in this map unit include
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand he oil o minor een in hi map i il
about 8 inches thick. The upper part of the underlying Bonneau, Chipley Plummer, and Sapeo sois.
material is brown sand, the next part is pale brown Most areas of this map unit a suited to
cultivated crops and are suited to improved pasture
sand, and the lower part is light brownish gray sand. c s and e sed t proed stre
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include grasses and to the production of pine trees.
Mascotte, Plummer, and Sapelo soils. Droughtiness and seasonal wetness are management
Mascotte, Plummer, and Sapelo soils.
concerns
Most areas of this map unit are poorly suited to concerns.
This map unit is moderately suited to urban
cultivated crops and are suited to improved pastures rn
development. Wetness is a management concern.
grasses and to the production of pine trees. Seasonal This map unit is poorly suited to recreational
wetness is a management concern.
wetness is a management concern development. Sandy surface layers and wetness are
This map unit is poorly suited to urban development, development n c n n
Seasonal wetness is a management concern.
This map unit is poorly suited to recreational
development. Sandy surface layers and wetness are Soils in Areas of Flatwoods and in
management concerns. Depressions

6. Albany-Ocilla-Blanton The map units in this group consist of poorly
drained and very poorly drained, nearly level soils.
Nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly Some of the soils have an organic and loamy subsoil.
drained and moderately well drained soils that have a Some have an organic surface layer underlain by a
sandy surface layer to a depth of 20 to 40 inches and sandy and loamy subsoil. The map units are in the
have a loamy subsoil eastern part of the county.
This map unit consists of soils in low areas on the mli
uplands and on low ridges in areas of flatwoods. It is in Mascotte-Pali
the southern part of the county along the Suwannee
the southern part of the county along the Suwannee Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained
River. This map unit makes up 5 percent of the county. Nearly level poorly drained and very poorly drained
It is about 56 percent Albany soils, 19 percent Ocilla soils; some are sandy, are organic coated in the upper
soils, 11 percent Blanton soils, and 14 percent soils of part of the subsoil, and are loamy in the lower part of
minor extent the subsoil, and some have an organic surface layer
minor extent. and a loamy subsoil
The natural vegetation consists of mixed hardwoods and a loamy subs
and pines. This map unit consists of soils in areas of flatwoods.
Albany soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically, It is in the northern and southeastern parts of the






18 Soil Survey




5. Pottsburg-Chipley the surface layer is dark gray loamy fine sand about 10
inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand. It is brown
Nearly level to gently sloping, poorly drained and grading to light gray. The upper part of the subsoil is
somewhat poorly drained soils that are sandy to a light brownish gray sandy loam. The next part is light
depth of 80 inches or more brownish gray sandy clay loam. The lower part is dark
brown sandy loam.
This map unit consists of soils in low areas on the brown sandy loam.
Ocilla soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically,
uplands and on low ridges in areas of flatwoods. It is in t s l
the northwestern part of the county along the he surface layer is dark gray loamy fine sand about 10
the northwestern part of the county along the .
inches thick. The subsurface layer is loamy fine sand.
Lowndes County line. This map unit makes up 3
Lowndes County line. This map unit makes up 3 The upper part is brownish yellow, the next part is pale
percent of the county. It is about 50 percent Pottsburg e er part is brownish yellow. The
yellow, and the lower part is brownish yellow. The
soils, 40 percent Chipley soils, and 10 percent soils of the is l
upper part of the subsoil is coarsely mottled dark
e ntl veettn cnts o e h yellowish brown, gray, yellowish brown, and red fine
The natural vegetation consists of mixed hardwoods T p i
and pines. sandy loam. The lower part is gray sandy clay.
Blanton soils are moderately well drained. Typically,
Pottsburg soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
Pottsburg soils are poorly drained. Typically, the the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand about 9
surface layer is very dark gray brown sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand. It is
inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand. It is
inches thick. The subsurface layer is dark grayish
inches thick. The subsurface layer is dark grayish yellowish brown grading to very pale brown. The upper
brown and light brownish gray sand. The upper part of a a a
th susi is .ai brw lm sa Th part of the subsoil is yellowish brown sandy clay loam.
the subsoil is grayish brown loamy sand. The lower
part is dark reddish brown sand. The lower part is light brownish gray or gray sandy
part is dark reddish brown sand.
Chipley soils are somewhat poorly drained. clay oam.
Cr s ae s a p l diThe soils of minor extent in this map unit include
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand he oil o minor een in hi map i il
about 8 inches thick. The upper part of the underlying Bonneau, Chipley Plummer, and Sapeo sois.
material is brown sand, the next part is pale brown Most areas of this map unit a suited to
cultivated crops and are suited to improved pasture
sand, and the lower part is light brownish gray sand. c s and e sed t proed stre
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include grasses and to the production of pine trees.
Mascotte, Plummer, and Sapelo soils. Droughtiness and seasonal wetness are management
Mascotte, Plummer, and Sapelo soils.
concerns
Most areas of this map unit are poorly suited to concerns.
This map unit is moderately suited to urban
cultivated crops and are suited to improved pastures rn
development. Wetness is a management concern.
grasses and to the production of pine trees. Seasonal This map unit is poorly suited to recreational
wetness is a management concern.
wetness is a management concern development. Sandy surface layers and wetness are
This map unit is poorly suited to urban development, development n c n n
Seasonal wetness is a management concern.
This map unit is poorly suited to recreational
development. Sandy surface layers and wetness are Soils in Areas of Flatwoods and in
management concerns. Depressions

6. Albany-Ocilla-Blanton The map units in this group consist of poorly
drained and very poorly drained, nearly level soils.
Nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly Some of the soils have an organic and loamy subsoil.
drained and moderately well drained soils that have a Some have an organic surface layer underlain by a
sandy surface layer to a depth of 20 to 40 inches and sandy and loamy subsoil. The map units are in the
have a loamy subsoil eastern part of the county.
This map unit consists of soils in low areas on the mli
uplands and on low ridges in areas of flatwoods. It is in Mascotte-Pali
the southern part of the county along the Suwannee
the southern part of the county along the Suwannee Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained
River. This map unit makes up 5 percent of the county. Nearly level poorly drained and very poorly drained
It is about 56 percent Albany soils, 19 percent Ocilla soils; some are sandy, are organic coated in the upper
soils, 11 percent Blanton soils, and 14 percent soils of part of the subsoil, and are loamy in the lower part of
minor extent the subsoil, and some have an organic surface layer
minor extent. and a loamy subsoil
The natural vegetation consists of mixed hardwoods and a loamy subs
and pines. This map unit consists of soils in areas of flatwoods.
Albany soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically, It is in the northern and southeastern parts of the






18 Soil Survey




5. Pottsburg-Chipley the surface layer is dark gray loamy fine sand about 10
inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand. It is brown
Nearly level to gently sloping, poorly drained and grading to light gray. The upper part of the subsoil is
somewhat poorly drained soils that are sandy to a light brownish gray sandy loam. The next part is light
depth of 80 inches or more brownish gray sandy clay loam. The lower part is dark
brown sandy loam.
This map unit consists of soils in low areas on the brown sandy loam.
Ocilla soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically,
uplands and on low ridges in areas of flatwoods. It is in t s l
the northwestern part of the county along the he surface layer is dark gray loamy fine sand about 10
the northwestern part of the county along the .
inches thick. The subsurface layer is loamy fine sand.
Lowndes County line. This map unit makes up 3
Lowndes County line. This map unit makes up 3 The upper part is brownish yellow, the next part is pale
percent of the county. It is about 50 percent Pottsburg e er part is brownish yellow. The
yellow, and the lower part is brownish yellow. The
soils, 40 percent Chipley soils, and 10 percent soils of the is l
upper part of the subsoil is coarsely mottled dark
e ntl veettn cnts o e h yellowish brown, gray, yellowish brown, and red fine
The natural vegetation consists of mixed hardwoods T p i
and pines. sandy loam. The lower part is gray sandy clay.
Blanton soils are moderately well drained. Typically,
Pottsburg soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
Pottsburg soils are poorly drained. Typically, the the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand about 9
surface layer is very dark gray brown sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand. It is
inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand. It is
inches thick. The subsurface layer is dark grayish
inches thick. The subsurface layer is dark grayish yellowish brown grading to very pale brown. The upper
brown and light brownish gray sand. The upper part of a a a
th susi is .ai brw lm sa Th part of the subsoil is yellowish brown sandy clay loam.
the subsoil is grayish brown loamy sand. The lower
part is dark reddish brown sand. The lower part is light brownish gray or gray sandy
part is dark reddish brown sand.
Chipley soils are somewhat poorly drained. clay oam.
Cr s ae s a p l diThe soils of minor extent in this map unit include
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand he oil o minor een in hi map i il
about 8 inches thick. The upper part of the underlying Bonneau, Chipley Plummer, and Sapeo sois.
material is brown sand, the next part is pale brown Most areas of this map unit a suited to
cultivated crops and are suited to improved pasture
sand, and the lower part is light brownish gray sand. c s and e sed t proed stre
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include grasses and to the production of pine trees.
Mascotte, Plummer, and Sapelo soils. Droughtiness and seasonal wetness are management
Mascotte, Plummer, and Sapelo soils.
concerns
Most areas of this map unit are poorly suited to concerns.
This map unit is moderately suited to urban
cultivated crops and are suited to improved pastures rn
development. Wetness is a management concern.
grasses and to the production of pine trees. Seasonal This map unit is poorly suited to recreational
wetness is a management concern.
wetness is a management concern development. Sandy surface layers and wetness are
This map unit is poorly suited to urban development, development n c n n
Seasonal wetness is a management concern.
This map unit is poorly suited to recreational
development. Sandy surface layers and wetness are Soils in Areas of Flatwoods and in
management concerns. Depressions

6. Albany-Ocilla-Blanton The map units in this group consist of poorly
drained and very poorly drained, nearly level soils.
Nearly level to gently sloping, somewhat poorly Some of the soils have an organic and loamy subsoil.
drained and moderately well drained soils that have a Some have an organic surface layer underlain by a
sandy surface layer to a depth of 20 to 40 inches and sandy and loamy subsoil. The map units are in the
have a loamy subsoil eastern part of the county.
This map unit consists of soils in low areas on the mli
uplands and on low ridges in areas of flatwoods. It is in Mascotte-Pali
the southern part of the county along the Suwannee
the southern part of the county along the Suwannee Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained
River. This map unit makes up 5 percent of the county. Nearly level poorly drained and very poorly drained
It is about 56 percent Albany soils, 19 percent Ocilla soils; some are sandy, are organic coated in the upper
soils, 11 percent Blanton soils, and 14 percent soils of part of the subsoil, and are loamy in the lower part of
minor extent the subsoil, and some have an organic surface layer
minor extent. and a loamy subsoil
The natural vegetation consists of mixed hardwoods and a loamy subs
and pines. This map unit consists of soils in areas of flatwoods.
Albany soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically, It is in the northern and southeastern parts of the






Hamilton County, Florida 19



county. It makes up 14 percent of the county. It is 17 percent Surrency soils, and 9 percent soils of
about 65 percent Mascotte soils, 30 percent Pamlico minor extent.
soils, and 5 percent soils of minor extent. The landscape consists of areas of flatwoods
The landscape consists of areas of flatwoods interspersed with a few slight knolls and many
interspersed with a few slight knolls and many depressions. Some of the depressional areas are
depressions. Some of the depressional areas are connected by narrow drainageways. In the areas of
connected by narrow drainageways. In the areas of flatwoods, the natural vegetation is slash pine, loblolly
flatwoods, the natural vegetation is slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine. The understory consists
pine, and longleaf pine. The understory consists mostly of saw palmetto and mixed shrubs and
mostly of saw palmetto and mixed shrubs and grasses. In the depressions, the natural vegetation
grasses. In the depressions, the natural vegetation consists of mixed hardwoods and water-tolerant
consists of mixed hardwoods and water-tolerant shrubs, sedges, rushes, and grasses.
shrubs, sedges, rushes, and grasses. Mascotte soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
Mascotte soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface layer is black sand about 5 inches thick. The
surface layer is black sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light brownish gray sand. The
subsurface layer is light brownish gray sand. The upper subsoil is very dark brown and dark reddish
upper subsoil is very dark brown and dark reddish brown loamy sand. The transitional layer between the
brown loamy sand. The transitional layer between the upper subsoil and the lower subsoil is light gray sand.
upper subsoil and the lower subsoil is light gray sand. The lower subsoil is gray fine sandy loam. The
The lower subsoil is gray fine sandy loam. The underlying material is reddish gray loamy sand.
underlying material is reddish gray loamy sand. Plummer soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
Pamlico soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand about 9 inches
surface layer is 25 inches thick. It is dark reddish thick. The upper part of the subsurface layer is sand. It
brown muck over black muck. The underlying layers is grayish brown grading to light brownish gray. The
are grayish brown sand grading to very dark gray lower part is light gray sand. The subsoil is light gray
sandy clay loam. sandy loam grading to sandy clay loam.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include Surrency soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
Pelham and Sapelo soils, surface layer is black mucky fine sand about 10 inches
Most areas of this map unit are poorly suited to thick. The subsurface layer is light gray sand grading
cultivated crops and are suited to pasture and to the to grayish brown loamy sand. The subsoil is dark gray
production of pine trees. Wetness is a management fine sandy loam grading to dark gray loamy sand.
concern. In the areas of flatwoods, this map unit is poorly
This map unit is poorly suited to urban suited to cultivated crops and is suited to pasture and
development. Wetness is a management concern, to the production of pine trees. In the depressions, it is
This map unit is poorly suited to recreational poorly suited to crops, pasture, and pine trees.
development. Wetness and a high content of sand or Wetness is a management concern.
organic matter in the surface layer are management This map unit is poorly suited to urban
concerns. development. Wetness is a management concern.
This map unit is poorly suited to recreational
development. Wetness, sandy surface layers, and
8. Mascotte-Plummer-Surrency ponding are management concerns.

Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained
soils; some are sandy, are organic coated in the upper 9. Dorovan-Sapelo-Mascotte
part of the subsoil, and are loamy in the lower part of
the subsoil; some have sandy surface and subsurface Nearly level, very poorly drained and poorly drained
layers to a depth of 40 inches and have a loamy soils; some have an organic surface layer underlain by
subsoil; and some have sandy surface and subsurface sandy material, and some are sandy, have an organic
layers to a depth of 30 inches and have a loamy coated subsoil, and have a loamy subsoil below a
subsoil depth of 30 inches
This map unit consists of soils in areas of This map unit consists of soils in areas of
flatwoods. It is in the eastern part of the county. It flatwoods. It is in the eastern part of the county. It
makes up 21 percent of the county. It is about 57 makes up 3 percent of the county. It is about 50
percent Mascotte soils, 17 percent Plummer soils, percent Dorovan soils, 20 percent Sapelo soils, 20






Hamilton County, Florida 19



county. It makes up 14 percent of the county. It is 17 percent Surrency soils, and 9 percent soils of
about 65 percent Mascotte soils, 30 percent Pamlico minor extent.
soils, and 5 percent soils of minor extent. The landscape consists of areas of flatwoods
The landscape consists of areas of flatwoods interspersed with a few slight knolls and many
interspersed with a few slight knolls and many depressions. Some of the depressional areas are
depressions. Some of the depressional areas are connected by narrow drainageways. In the areas of
connected by narrow drainageways. In the areas of flatwoods, the natural vegetation is slash pine, loblolly
flatwoods, the natural vegetation is slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine. The understory consists
pine, and longleaf pine. The understory consists mostly of saw palmetto and mixed shrubs and
mostly of saw palmetto and mixed shrubs and grasses. In the depressions, the natural vegetation
grasses. In the depressions, the natural vegetation consists of mixed hardwoods and water-tolerant
consists of mixed hardwoods and water-tolerant shrubs, sedges, rushes, and grasses.
shrubs, sedges, rushes, and grasses. Mascotte soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
Mascotte soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface layer is black sand about 5 inches thick. The
surface layer is black sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light brownish gray sand. The
subsurface layer is light brownish gray sand. The upper subsoil is very dark brown and dark reddish
upper subsoil is very dark brown and dark reddish brown loamy sand. The transitional layer between the
brown loamy sand. The transitional layer between the upper subsoil and the lower subsoil is light gray sand.
upper subsoil and the lower subsoil is light gray sand. The lower subsoil is gray fine sandy loam. The
The lower subsoil is gray fine sandy loam. The underlying material is reddish gray loamy sand.
underlying material is reddish gray loamy sand. Plummer soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
Pamlico soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand about 9 inches
surface layer is 25 inches thick. It is dark reddish thick. The upper part of the subsurface layer is sand. It
brown muck over black muck. The underlying layers is grayish brown grading to light brownish gray. The
are grayish brown sand grading to very dark gray lower part is light gray sand. The subsoil is light gray
sandy clay loam. sandy loam grading to sandy clay loam.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include Surrency soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
Pelham and Sapelo soils, surface layer is black mucky fine sand about 10 inches
Most areas of this map unit are poorly suited to thick. The subsurface layer is light gray sand grading
cultivated crops and are suited to pasture and to the to grayish brown loamy sand. The subsoil is dark gray
production of pine trees. Wetness is a management fine sandy loam grading to dark gray loamy sand.
concern. In the areas of flatwoods, this map unit is poorly
This map unit is poorly suited to urban suited to cultivated crops and is suited to pasture and
development. Wetness is a management concern, to the production of pine trees. In the depressions, it is
This map unit is poorly suited to recreational poorly suited to crops, pasture, and pine trees.
development. Wetness and a high content of sand or Wetness is a management concern.
organic matter in the surface layer are management This map unit is poorly suited to urban
concerns. development. Wetness is a management concern.
This map unit is poorly suited to recreational
development. Wetness, sandy surface layers, and
8. Mascotte-Plummer-Surrency ponding are management concerns.

Nearly level, poorly drained and very poorly drained
soils; some are sandy, are organic coated in the upper 9. Dorovan-Sapelo-Mascotte
part of the subsoil, and are loamy in the lower part of
the subsoil; some have sandy surface and subsurface Nearly level, very poorly drained and poorly drained
layers to a depth of 40 inches and have a loamy soils; some have an organic surface layer underlain by
subsoil; and some have sandy surface and subsurface sandy material, and some are sandy, have an organic
layers to a depth of 30 inches and have a loamy coated subsoil, and have a loamy subsoil below a
subsoil depth of 30 inches
This map unit consists of soils in areas of This map unit consists of soils in areas of
flatwoods. It is in the eastern part of the county. It flatwoods. It is in the eastern part of the county. It
makes up 21 percent of the county. It is about 57 makes up 3 percent of the county. It is about 50
percent Mascotte soils, 17 percent Plummer soils, percent Dorovan soils, 20 percent Sapelo soils, 20






20 Soil Survey



percent Mascotte soils, and 10 percent soils of 10. Mascotte-Plummer
minor extent.
The landscape is depressional and is interspersed Nearly level, poorly drained soils on flood plains; some
with a few areas of flatwoods and slight knolls. Most of are sandy and have an organic coated subsoil
the depressional areas are connected by narrow underlain by loamy material, and some are sandy to a
drainageways. In the depressional areas, the depth of 40 inches and are underlain by loamy
vegetation is mixed hardwoods and an understory of material
shrubs. In the areas of flatwoods, the natural
This map unit is on the long, narrow flood plain
vegetation is slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf along the Suwannee River at the eastern edge of the
pine and the understory consists mostly of saw
pine and the understory consists mostly of saw county. It makes up 3 percent of the county. It is about
palmetto and mixed shrubs and grasses. 51 percent Mascotte soils, 35 percent Plummer soils,
Dorovan soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is very dark brown muck. The underlying landscape is interspersed with depressions.
The landscape is interspersed with depressions.
material is black muck and dark gray sand.
material is black muck andSome of the depressional areas are connected by
Sapelo soils are poorly drained. Typically, the Some of the depressional areas are connected by
o sils are poory drainedTpc the narrow drainageways. The natural vegetation is live
surface layer is black sand about 7 inches thick. The oak and slash pine. The understory consists mostly of
subsurface layer is sand. It is dark gray grading to shrubs
gray. The upper subsoil is 9 inches thick and stained shrubs.
Typically, the surface layer of the Mascotte soils is
with organic matter. It is very dark brown sand in the s l o t M
very dark gray sand about 5 inches thick. The
upper part and dark yellowish brown sand in the lower v ery dark rayer i s grayish brown sand. The
subsurface layer is grayish brown sand. The upper
part. The transitional layer between the upper subsoil sand The
and the lower subsoil is 20 inches of sand. It is very part of the upper subsoil is black sand, the next part is
and the lower subsoil is 20 inches of sand. It is very
very dark grayish brown sand, and the lower part is
pale brown grading to pale brown. The lower subsoil is dark reddish brn sd transitional layer
light gray sandy clay loam to a depth of more than 80 beee he e su and the lower ssoil
e. between the upper subsoil and the lower subsoil is
inches.
brown loamy sand. The upper part of the lower subsoil
Mascotte soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
Mascotte soils are poorly drained. Typically, the is light gray sandy loam. The lower part is light gray
surface layer is black sand about 5 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is light brownish gray sand. The upper sandy clay loam grading to light gray sandy loam.
subsoil is very k brown loamy s and dark reddish Typically, the surface layer of the Plummer soils is
subsoil is very dark brown loamy sand and dark reddish y y 9
very dark gray sand about 9 inches thick. The
brown loamy sand. The transitional layer between the
brown loamy sand The transitional layer between the subsurface layer is sand. In the upper part, it is grayish
upper subsoil and the lower subsoil is light gray sand.
upper subsoil and the lower subsoil is light gray sand. brown grading to light brownish gray. In the lower part,
The lower subsoil is gray fine sandy loam. The
The lower subsoil is gray fine sandy loamy. The it is light gray. The subsoil is light gray sandy loam
underlying material is reddish gray loamy sand.
In the areas of flatwoods, this map unit is poorly grading to sandy clay loam.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
suited to cultivated crops and is suited to pasture and Or ad S
Osier and Stockade soils.
to the production of pine trees. In the depressional .
to the production of pine trees. In the depressional Most areas of this map unit are unsuited to cultivated
areas, it is poorly suited to crops, pasture, and pine crops, pasture, and the production of pine trees.
trees. Wetness is a management concern. Wetness and flooding are management concerns.
This map unit is poorly suited to urban This map unit is poorly suited to urban development.
development. Wetness d f management concerns
Wetness and flooding are management concerns.
This map unit is poorly suited to urban .
This map unit is poorly suited to recreational This map unit is poorly suited to recreational
development. Wetness and a high content of sand or e. s s ,
development. Wetness, sandy surface layers, and
organic matter in the surface layer are management lodn are anaeent c er
concernsflooding are management concerns.
concerns.

Soils on Flood Plains 11. Eunola-Alpin-Bigbee
Th m u i t g Nearly level to strongly sloping, moderately well
The map units in this group consist of excessively
drained and excessively drained soils on flood plains;
drained, moderately well drained, somewhat poorly o .l, n
some are sandy to a depth of 20 inches or less, and
drained, and poorly drained, nearly level and gently some are sandy to
some are sandy throughout
sloping soils. Some are sandy throughout, others are
sandy to a depth of 20 to 80 inches and have a loamy This map unit is on the long, narrow flood plain
subsoil. The map units are mainly on flood plains along along the Withlacooche River at the southwestern
the Alapaha, Withlacooche, and Suwannee Rivers. edge of the county and along the Alapaha River in the






20 Soil Survey



percent Mascotte soils, and 10 percent soils of 10. Mascotte-Plummer
minor extent.
The landscape is depressional and is interspersed Nearly level, poorly drained soils on flood plains; some
with a few areas of flatwoods and slight knolls. Most of are sandy and have an organic coated subsoil
the depressional areas are connected by narrow underlain by loamy material, and some are sandy to a
drainageways. In the depressional areas, the depth of 40 inches and are underlain by loamy
vegetation is mixed hardwoods and an understory of material
shrubs. In the areas of flatwoods, the natural
This map unit is on the long, narrow flood plain
vegetation is slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf along the Suwannee River at the eastern edge of the
pine and the understory consists mostly of saw
pine and the understory consists mostly of saw county. It makes up 3 percent of the county. It is about
palmetto and mixed shrubs and grasses. 51 percent Mascotte soils, 35 percent Plummer soils,
Dorovan soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is very dark brown muck. The underlying landscape is interspersed with depressions.
The landscape is interspersed with depressions.
material is black muck and dark gray sand.
material is black muck andSome of the depressional areas are connected by
Sapelo soils are poorly drained. Typically, the Some of the depressional areas are connected by
o sils are poory drainedTpc the narrow drainageways. The natural vegetation is live
surface layer is black sand about 7 inches thick. The oak and slash pine. The understory consists mostly of
subsurface layer is sand. It is dark gray grading to shrubs
gray. The upper subsoil is 9 inches thick and stained shrubs.
Typically, the surface layer of the Mascotte soils is
with organic matter. It is very dark brown sand in the s l o t M
very dark gray sand about 5 inches thick. The
upper part and dark yellowish brown sand in the lower v ery dark rayer i s grayish brown sand. The
subsurface layer is grayish brown sand. The upper
part. The transitional layer between the upper subsoil sand The
and the lower subsoil is 20 inches of sand. It is very part of the upper subsoil is black sand, the next part is
and the lower subsoil is 20 inches of sand. It is very
very dark grayish brown sand, and the lower part is
pale brown grading to pale brown. The lower subsoil is dark reddish brn sd transitional layer
light gray sandy clay loam to a depth of more than 80 beee he e su and the lower ssoil
e. between the upper subsoil and the lower subsoil is
inches.
brown loamy sand. The upper part of the lower subsoil
Mascotte soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
Mascotte soils are poorly drained. Typically, the is light gray sandy loam. The lower part is light gray
surface layer is black sand about 5 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is light brownish gray sand. The upper sandy clay loam grading to light gray sandy loam.
subsoil is very k brown loamy s and dark reddish Typically, the surface layer of the Plummer soils is
subsoil is very dark brown loamy sand and dark reddish y y 9
very dark gray sand about 9 inches thick. The
brown loamy sand. The transitional layer between the
brown loamy sand The transitional layer between the subsurface layer is sand. In the upper part, it is grayish
upper subsoil and the lower subsoil is light gray sand.
upper subsoil and the lower subsoil is light gray sand. brown grading to light brownish gray. In the lower part,
The lower subsoil is gray fine sandy loam. The
The lower subsoil is gray fine sandy loamy. The it is light gray. The subsoil is light gray sandy loam
underlying material is reddish gray loamy sand.
In the areas of flatwoods, this map unit is poorly grading to sandy clay loam.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
suited to cultivated crops and is suited to pasture and Or ad S
Osier and Stockade soils.
to the production of pine trees. In the depressional .
to the production of pine trees. In the depressional Most areas of this map unit are unsuited to cultivated
areas, it is poorly suited to crops, pasture, and pine crops, pasture, and the production of pine trees.
trees. Wetness is a management concern. Wetness and flooding are management concerns.
This map unit is poorly suited to urban This map unit is poorly suited to urban development.
development. Wetness d f management concerns
Wetness and flooding are management concerns.
This map unit is poorly suited to urban .
This map unit is poorly suited to recreational This map unit is poorly suited to recreational
development. Wetness and a high content of sand or e. s s ,
development. Wetness, sandy surface layers, and
organic matter in the surface layer are management lodn are anaeent c er
concernsflooding are management concerns.
concerns.

Soils on Flood Plains 11. Eunola-Alpin-Bigbee
Th m u i t g Nearly level to strongly sloping, moderately well
The map units in this group consist of excessively
drained and excessively drained soils on flood plains;
drained, moderately well drained, somewhat poorly o .l, n
some are sandy to a depth of 20 inches or less, and
drained, and poorly drained, nearly level and gently some are sandy to
some are sandy throughout
sloping soils. Some are sandy throughout, others are
sandy to a depth of 20 to 80 inches and have a loamy This map unit is on the long, narrow flood plain
subsoil. The map units are mainly on flood plains along along the Withlacooche River at the southwestern
the Alapaha, Withlacooche, and Suwannee Rivers. edge of the county and along the Alapaha River in the






20 Soil Survey



percent Mascotte soils, and 10 percent soils of 10. Mascotte-Plummer
minor extent.
The landscape is depressional and is interspersed Nearly level, poorly drained soils on flood plains; some
with a few areas of flatwoods and slight knolls. Most of are sandy and have an organic coated subsoil
the depressional areas are connected by narrow underlain by loamy material, and some are sandy to a
drainageways. In the depressional areas, the depth of 40 inches and are underlain by loamy
vegetation is mixed hardwoods and an understory of material
shrubs. In the areas of flatwoods, the natural
This map unit is on the long, narrow flood plain
vegetation is slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf along the Suwannee River at the eastern edge of the
pine and the understory consists mostly of saw
pine and the understory consists mostly of saw county. It makes up 3 percent of the county. It is about
palmetto and mixed shrubs and grasses. 51 percent Mascotte soils, 35 percent Plummer soils,
Dorovan soils are very poorly drained. Typically, the
surface layer is very dark brown muck. The underlying landscape is interspersed with depressions.
The landscape is interspersed with depressions.
material is black muck and dark gray sand.
material is black muck andSome of the depressional areas are connected by
Sapelo soils are poorly drained. Typically, the Some of the depressional areas are connected by
o sils are poory drainedTpc the narrow drainageways. The natural vegetation is live
surface layer is black sand about 7 inches thick. The oak and slash pine. The understory consists mostly of
subsurface layer is sand. It is dark gray grading to shrubs
gray. The upper subsoil is 9 inches thick and stained shrubs.
Typically, the surface layer of the Mascotte soils is
with organic matter. It is very dark brown sand in the s l o t M
very dark gray sand about 5 inches thick. The
upper part and dark yellowish brown sand in the lower v ery dark rayer i s grayish brown sand. The
subsurface layer is grayish brown sand. The upper
part. The transitional layer between the upper subsoil sand The
and the lower subsoil is 20 inches of sand. It is very part of the upper subsoil is black sand, the next part is
and the lower subsoil is 20 inches of sand. It is very
very dark grayish brown sand, and the lower part is
pale brown grading to pale brown. The lower subsoil is dark reddish brn sd transitional layer
light gray sandy clay loam to a depth of more than 80 beee he e su and the lower ssoil
e. between the upper subsoil and the lower subsoil is
inches.
brown loamy sand. The upper part of the lower subsoil
Mascotte soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
Mascotte soils are poorly drained. Typically, the is light gray sandy loam. The lower part is light gray
surface layer is black sand about 5 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is light brownish gray sand. The upper sandy clay loam grading to light gray sandy loam.
subsoil is very k brown loamy s and dark reddish Typically, the surface layer of the Plummer soils is
subsoil is very dark brown loamy sand and dark reddish y y 9
very dark gray sand about 9 inches thick. The
brown loamy sand. The transitional layer between the
brown loamy sand The transitional layer between the subsurface layer is sand. In the upper part, it is grayish
upper subsoil and the lower subsoil is light gray sand.
upper subsoil and the lower subsoil is light gray sand. brown grading to light brownish gray. In the lower part,
The lower subsoil is gray fine sandy loam. The
The lower subsoil is gray fine sandy loamy. The it is light gray. The subsoil is light gray sandy loam
underlying material is reddish gray loamy sand.
In the areas of flatwoods, this map unit is poorly grading to sandy clay loam.
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
suited to cultivated crops and is suited to pasture and Or ad S
Osier and Stockade soils.
to the production of pine trees. In the depressional .
to the production of pine trees. In the depressional Most areas of this map unit are unsuited to cultivated
areas, it is poorly suited to crops, pasture, and pine crops, pasture, and the production of pine trees.
trees. Wetness is a management concern. Wetness and flooding are management concerns.
This map unit is poorly suited to urban This map unit is poorly suited to urban development.
development. Wetness d f management concerns
Wetness and flooding are management concerns.
This map unit is poorly suited to urban .
This map unit is poorly suited to recreational This map unit is poorly suited to recreational
development. Wetness and a high content of sand or e. s s ,
development. Wetness, sandy surface layers, and
organic matter in the surface layer are management lodn are anaeent c er
concernsflooding are management concerns.
concerns.

Soils on Flood Plains 11. Eunola-Alpin-Bigbee
Th m u i t g Nearly level to strongly sloping, moderately well
The map units in this group consist of excessively
drained and excessively drained soils on flood plains;
drained, moderately well drained, somewhat poorly o .l, n
some are sandy to a depth of 20 inches or less, and
drained, and poorly drained, nearly level and gently some are sandy to
some are sandy throughout
sloping soils. Some are sandy throughout, others are
sandy to a depth of 20 to 80 inches and have a loamy This map unit is on the long, narrow flood plain
subsoil. The map units are mainly on flood plains along along the Withlacooche River at the southwestern
the Alapaha, Withlacooche, and Suwannee Rivers. edge of the county and along the Alapaha River in the






Hamilton County, Florida 21



northern part of the county. This map unit makes up 2 of the county. It is about 41 percent Blanton soils, 36
percent of the county. It is about 35 percent Eunola percent Kenansville soils, and 23 percent soils of
soils, 33 percent Alpin soils, 20 percent Bigbee soils, minor extent.
and 12 percent soils of minor extent. The natural vegetation consists of mixed
The natural vegetation consists of mixed hardwoods and pines and an understory of shrubs
hardwoods and pines and an understory of shrubs and vines.
and weeds. Typically, the surface layer of the Blanton soils is
Eunola soils are moderately well drained. Typically, dark grayish brown sand about 9 inches thick. The
the surface layer is grayish brown loamy fine sand subsurface layer is sand. It is yellowish brown grading
about 6 inches thick. The next layer is light yellowish to very pale brown. The upper part of the subsoil is
brown fine sandy loam. The subsoil is sandy clay yellowish brown sandy clay loam. The lower part is
loam. It is dark yellowish brown grading to yellowish light brownish gray or gray sandy clay loam.
brown. The next layer is brownish yellow fine sandy Typically, the surface layer of the Kenansville soils is
loam. The underlying material is very pale brown dark brown loamy sand 9 inches thick. The subsurface
loamy sand that has strata of sandy loam. layer is yellowish brown loamy sand. The upper part of
Alpin soils are excessively drained. Typically, the the subsoil is dark yellowish brown sandy loam. The
surface layer is dark grayish brown fine sand about 3 lower part is yellowish brown sandy loam. The
inches thick. The upper part of the subsurface layer is underlying material is light yellowish brown loamy
light yellowish brown fine sand. The next part is also sand.
fine sand. It is very pale brown grading to yellow. The The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
lower part is very pale brown sand grading to white Alpin and Ocilla soils.
sand and contains thin layers of very pale brown This map unit is poorly suited to cultivated crops
loamy sand. and is suited to improved pasture grasses and to the
Bigbee soils are excessively drained. Typically, the production of pine trees. Flooding is a management
surface layer is light brownish gray fine sand about 9 concern.
inches thick. The underlying layers are fine sand. The This map unit is unsuited to urban development.
upper part is dark yellowish brown, the next part is Flooding is a management concern.
pale brown grading to brown, and the lower part is This map unit is poorly suited to recreational
light gray. development. Sandy surface layers and flooding are
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include management concerns.
Kenansville and Ocilla soils.
In most areas of the Eunola soils, this map unit is
suited to cultivated crops, pasture, and the production 13. Pelham-Bibb-Bigbee
of pine trees. In most areas of the Alpin and Bigbee Nearly level to undulating, poorly drained and
soils, it is unsuited to crops, pasture, and the eary levelto undulatng poory dranedand
psois, it is unsuited to rees. Flood is a mnaement excessively drained soils that are sandy to a depth of
rocon o30 inches and have a loamy subsoil or that are sandy
concern.
o re o throughout; in wet, lowland positions and on ridged
Most areas of this map unit are unsuited to urban terraces on flood plains along rivers and tributaries
development. Flooding is a management concern.
This map unit is poorly suited to recreational This map unit is on the long, narrow flood plain
development. Sandy surface layers and flooding are along the Withlacooche River at the southwestern
management concerns, edge of the county and along the Suwannee River in
the eastern and southern parts of the county. This map
unit makes up 2 percent of the county. It is about 56
12. Blanton-Kenansville percent Pelham soils, 15 percent Bibb soils, 10

Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained percent Bigbee soils, and 19 percent soils of minor
extent.
soils that are sandy to a depth of 40 inches or more extent.
In areas of the Pelham and Bibb soils, the natural
and have a loamy subsoil; on low terraces on flood
plains along rivers vegetation is mixed hardwoods and an understory of
plains along rivers
saw palmetto and shrubs. In areas of the Bigbee soils,
This map unit is on the long, narrow flood plain the vegetation is mixed pines and oaks and an
along the Withlacooche River at the western edge of understory of shrubs and weeds.
the county and along the Alapaha River in the central Pelham soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
part of the county. This map unit makes up 1 percent surface layer is very dark gray sand about 7 inches






Hamilton County, Florida 21



northern part of the county. This map unit makes up 2 of the county. It is about 41 percent Blanton soils, 36
percent of the county. It is about 35 percent Eunola percent Kenansville soils, and 23 percent soils of
soils, 33 percent Alpin soils, 20 percent Bigbee soils, minor extent.
and 12 percent soils of minor extent. The natural vegetation consists of mixed
The natural vegetation consists of mixed hardwoods and pines and an understory of shrubs
hardwoods and pines and an understory of shrubs and vines.
and weeds. Typically, the surface layer of the Blanton soils is
Eunola soils are moderately well drained. Typically, dark grayish brown sand about 9 inches thick. The
the surface layer is grayish brown loamy fine sand subsurface layer is sand. It is yellowish brown grading
about 6 inches thick. The next layer is light yellowish to very pale brown. The upper part of the subsoil is
brown fine sandy loam. The subsoil is sandy clay yellowish brown sandy clay loam. The lower part is
loam. It is dark yellowish brown grading to yellowish light brownish gray or gray sandy clay loam.
brown. The next layer is brownish yellow fine sandy Typically, the surface layer of the Kenansville soils is
loam. The underlying material is very pale brown dark brown loamy sand 9 inches thick. The subsurface
loamy sand that has strata of sandy loam. layer is yellowish brown loamy sand. The upper part of
Alpin soils are excessively drained. Typically, the the subsoil is dark yellowish brown sandy loam. The
surface layer is dark grayish brown fine sand about 3 lower part is yellowish brown sandy loam. The
inches thick. The upper part of the subsurface layer is underlying material is light yellowish brown loamy
light yellowish brown fine sand. The next part is also sand.
fine sand. It is very pale brown grading to yellow. The The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
lower part is very pale brown sand grading to white Alpin and Ocilla soils.
sand and contains thin layers of very pale brown This map unit is poorly suited to cultivated crops
loamy sand. and is suited to improved pasture grasses and to the
Bigbee soils are excessively drained. Typically, the production of pine trees. Flooding is a management
surface layer is light brownish gray fine sand about 9 concern.
inches thick. The underlying layers are fine sand. The This map unit is unsuited to urban development.
upper part is dark yellowish brown, the next part is Flooding is a management concern.
pale brown grading to brown, and the lower part is This map unit is poorly suited to recreational
light gray. development. Sandy surface layers and flooding are
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include management concerns.
Kenansville and Ocilla soils.
In most areas of the Eunola soils, this map unit is
suited to cultivated crops, pasture, and the production 13. Pelham-Bibb-Bigbee
of pine trees. In most areas of the Alpin and Bigbee Nearly level to undulating, poorly drained and
soils, it is unsuited to crops, pasture, and the eary levelto undulatng poory dranedand
psois, it is unsuited to rees. Flood is a mnaement excessively drained soils that are sandy to a depth of
rocon o30 inches and have a loamy subsoil or that are sandy
concern.
o re o throughout; in wet, lowland positions and on ridged
Most areas of this map unit are unsuited to urban terraces on flood plains along rivers and tributaries
development. Flooding is a management concern.
This map unit is poorly suited to recreational This map unit is on the long, narrow flood plain
development. Sandy surface layers and flooding are along the Withlacooche River at the southwestern
management concerns, edge of the county and along the Suwannee River in
the eastern and southern parts of the county. This map
unit makes up 2 percent of the county. It is about 56
12. Blanton-Kenansville percent Pelham soils, 15 percent Bibb soils, 10

Nearly level to gently sloping, moderately well drained percent Bigbee soils, and 19 percent soils of minor
extent.
soils that are sandy to a depth of 40 inches or more extent.
In areas of the Pelham and Bibb soils, the natural
and have a loamy subsoil; on low terraces on flood
plains along rivers vegetation is mixed hardwoods and an understory of
plains along rivers
saw palmetto and shrubs. In areas of the Bigbee soils,
This map unit is on the long, narrow flood plain the vegetation is mixed pines and oaks and an
along the Withlacooche River at the western edge of understory of shrubs and weeds.
the county and along the Alapaha River in the central Pelham soils are poorly drained. Typically, the
part of the county. This map unit makes up 1 percent surface layer is very dark gray sand about 7 inches






22 Soil Survey



thick. The subsurface layer is sand. It is dark gray Bigbee soils are excessively drained. Typically, the
grading to grayish brown. The subsoil is grayish brown surface layer is light brownish gray fine sand about 9
sandy loam grading to gray and dark gray sandy clay inches thick. The underlying layers are fine sand. In
loam. the upper part, the underlying layers are dark
Bibb soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface yellowish brown. In the next part, they are pale brown
layer is very dark gray silt loam about 2 inches thick grading to brown. In the lower part, they are light gray.
grading to dark brown sandy loam. The underlying Wahee soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically,
layers are grayish brown sand grading to sandy loam. the surface layer is very dark gray fine sandy loam
Below this is dark gray clay stratified with light gray about 5 inches thick. The subsoil, to a depth of 56
loamy fine sand. inches, is brown grading to gray clay. The underlying
Bigbee soils are excessively drained. Typically, the layer to a depth of 80 inches or more is gray sandy
surface layer is light brownish gray fine sand about 9 clay loam.
inches thick. The underlying layers are fine sand. In The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
the upper part, the underlying layers are dark Bivans soils.
yellowish brown. In the next, they are pale brown This map unit is poorly suited to cultivated crops
grading to brown. In the lower part, they are light gray. and is suited to improved pasture grasses and to the
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include production of pine trees. Wetness and flooding are
Blanton and Wahee soils. management concerns.
This map unit is poorly suited to cultivated crops This map unit is poorly suited to urban
and is suited to improved pasture grasses and to development. Wetness and flooding are management
trees. Wetness and flooding are management concerns.
concerns. This map unit is poorly suited to recreational
This map unit is poorly suited to urban development. Sandy surface layers, wetness, and
development. Wetness and flooding are management flooding are management concerns.
concerns.
This map unit is poorly suited to recreational
development. Sandy surface layers, wetness, and Soils in Mined Areas
flooding are management concerns.
flooding are management concerns. This map unit consists of nearly level to gently
sloping areas that have been reworked by earth
14. Blanton-Bigbee-Wahee moving equipment during phosphate mining and areas
of colloidal clay (slime) pumped from the mines and
Nearly level to strongly sloping, somewhat poorly settled in holding ponds. Some areas are stratified with
drained, moderately well drained, and excessively sandy, loamy, and clayey layers; others are clayey
drained soils that are sandy to a depth of 40 inches or throughout. The map unit is in the southern part of the
more and have loamy subsoil, that are sandy county.
throughout, or that are sandy to a depth of less than
20 inches and have a loamy subsoil; on low terraces 15. Arents-Hydraquents
on flood plains along rivers and tributaries
Sm u i o t l, n Nearly level to gently sloping areas that have been
This map unit is on the long, narrow flood plain
reworked by earth moving equipment during
along the Suwannee River in the southern part of the y ing
county. It makes up 1 percent of the county. It is about pospat ii hodg pods cotnin see
colloidal clay (slime) pumped from the mines; some
38 percent Blanton soils, 27 percent Bigbee soils, 27d m
areas are stratified with sandy, loamy, and clayey
percent Wahee soils, and 8 percent soils of minor s ,
extent. layers; some are clayey throughout
extent.
The natural vegetation consists of mixed This map unit is in the southern part of the county. It
hardwoods and an understory of shrubs. makes up 8 percent of the county. It is about 51
Blanton soils are moderately well drained. Typically, percent Arents, 28 percent Hydraquents, and 21
the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand about 9 percent soils of minor extent.
inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand. It is The landscape is interspersed with constructed
yellowish brown grading to very pale brown. The upper holding ponds. This map unit has no natural
part of the subsoil is yellowish brown sandy clay loam. vegetation. The Arents support grasses or pine trees.
The lower part is light brownish gray or gray sandy The Hydraquents support water-tolerant plants.
clay loam. The Arents have variable drainage. The surface






22 Soil Survey



thick. The subsurface layer is sand. It is dark gray Bigbee soils are excessively drained. Typically, the
grading to grayish brown. The subsoil is grayish brown surface layer is light brownish gray fine sand about 9
sandy loam grading to gray and dark gray sandy clay inches thick. The underlying layers are fine sand. In
loam. the upper part, the underlying layers are dark
Bibb soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface yellowish brown. In the next part, they are pale brown
layer is very dark gray silt loam about 2 inches thick grading to brown. In the lower part, they are light gray.
grading to dark brown sandy loam. The underlying Wahee soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically,
layers are grayish brown sand grading to sandy loam. the surface layer is very dark gray fine sandy loam
Below this is dark gray clay stratified with light gray about 5 inches thick. The subsoil, to a depth of 56
loamy fine sand. inches, is brown grading to gray clay. The underlying
Bigbee soils are excessively drained. Typically, the layer to a depth of 80 inches or more is gray sandy
surface layer is light brownish gray fine sand about 9 clay loam.
inches thick. The underlying layers are fine sand. In The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
the upper part, the underlying layers are dark Bivans soils.
yellowish brown. In the next, they are pale brown This map unit is poorly suited to cultivated crops
grading to brown. In the lower part, they are light gray. and is suited to improved pasture grasses and to the
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include production of pine trees. Wetness and flooding are
Blanton and Wahee soils. management concerns.
This map unit is poorly suited to cultivated crops This map unit is poorly suited to urban
and is suited to improved pasture grasses and to development. Wetness and flooding are management
trees. Wetness and flooding are management concerns.
concerns. This map unit is poorly suited to recreational
This map unit is poorly suited to urban development. Sandy surface layers, wetness, and
development. Wetness and flooding are management flooding are management concerns.
concerns.
This map unit is poorly suited to recreational
development. Sandy surface layers, wetness, and Soils in Mined Areas
flooding are management concerns.
flooding are management concerns. This map unit consists of nearly level to gently
sloping areas that have been reworked by earth
14. Blanton-Bigbee-Wahee moving equipment during phosphate mining and areas
of colloidal clay (slime) pumped from the mines and
Nearly level to strongly sloping, somewhat poorly settled in holding ponds. Some areas are stratified with
drained, moderately well drained, and excessively sandy, loamy, and clayey layers; others are clayey
drained soils that are sandy to a depth of 40 inches or throughout. The map unit is in the southern part of the
more and have loamy subsoil, that are sandy county.
throughout, or that are sandy to a depth of less than
20 inches and have a loamy subsoil; on low terraces 15. Arents-Hydraquents
on flood plains along rivers and tributaries
Sm u i o t l, n Nearly level to gently sloping areas that have been
This map unit is on the long, narrow flood plain
reworked by earth moving equipment during
along the Suwannee River in the southern part of the y ing
county. It makes up 1 percent of the county. It is about pospat ii hodg pods cotnin see
colloidal clay (slime) pumped from the mines; some
38 percent Blanton soils, 27 percent Bigbee soils, 27d m
areas are stratified with sandy, loamy, and clayey
percent Wahee soils, and 8 percent soils of minor s ,
extent. layers; some are clayey throughout
extent.
The natural vegetation consists of mixed This map unit is in the southern part of the county. It
hardwoods and an understory of shrubs. makes up 8 percent of the county. It is about 51
Blanton soils are moderately well drained. Typically, percent Arents, 28 percent Hydraquents, and 21
the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand about 9 percent soils of minor extent.
inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand. It is The landscape is interspersed with constructed
yellowish brown grading to very pale brown. The upper holding ponds. This map unit has no natural
part of the subsoil is yellowish brown sandy clay loam. vegetation. The Arents support grasses or pine trees.
The lower part is light brownish gray or gray sandy The Hydraquents support water-tolerant plants.
clay loam. The Arents have variable drainage. The surface






22 Soil Survey



thick. The subsurface layer is sand. It is dark gray Bigbee soils are excessively drained. Typically, the
grading to grayish brown. The subsoil is grayish brown surface layer is light brownish gray fine sand about 9
sandy loam grading to gray and dark gray sandy clay inches thick. The underlying layers are fine sand. In
loam. the upper part, the underlying layers are dark
Bibb soils are poorly drained. Typically, the surface yellowish brown. In the next part, they are pale brown
layer is very dark gray silt loam about 2 inches thick grading to brown. In the lower part, they are light gray.
grading to dark brown sandy loam. The underlying Wahee soils are somewhat poorly drained. Typically,
layers are grayish brown sand grading to sandy loam. the surface layer is very dark gray fine sandy loam
Below this is dark gray clay stratified with light gray about 5 inches thick. The subsoil, to a depth of 56
loamy fine sand. inches, is brown grading to gray clay. The underlying
Bigbee soils are excessively drained. Typically, the layer to a depth of 80 inches or more is gray sandy
surface layer is light brownish gray fine sand about 9 clay loam.
inches thick. The underlying layers are fine sand. In The soils of minor extent in this map unit include
the upper part, the underlying layers are dark Bivans soils.
yellowish brown. In the next, they are pale brown This map unit is poorly suited to cultivated crops
grading to brown. In the lower part, they are light gray. and is suited to improved pasture grasses and to the
The soils of minor extent in this map unit include production of pine trees. Wetness and flooding are
Blanton and Wahee soils. management concerns.
This map unit is poorly suited to cultivated crops This map unit is poorly suited to urban
and is suited to improved pasture grasses and to development. Wetness and flooding are management
trees. Wetness and flooding are management concerns.
concerns. This map unit is poorly suited to recreational
This map unit is poorly suited to urban development. Sandy surface layers, wetness, and
development. Wetness and flooding are management flooding are management concerns.
concerns.
This map unit is poorly suited to recreational
development. Sandy surface layers, wetness, and Soils in Mined Areas
flooding are management concerns.
flooding are management concerns. This map unit consists of nearly level to gently
sloping areas that have been reworked by earth
14. Blanton-Bigbee-Wahee moving equipment during phosphate mining and areas
of colloidal clay (slime) pumped from the mines and
Nearly level to strongly sloping, somewhat poorly settled in holding ponds. Some areas are stratified with
drained, moderately well drained, and excessively sandy, loamy, and clayey layers; others are clayey
drained soils that are sandy to a depth of 40 inches or throughout. The map unit is in the southern part of the
more and have loamy subsoil, that are sandy county.
throughout, or that are sandy to a depth of less than
20 inches and have a loamy subsoil; on low terraces 15. Arents-Hydraquents
on flood plains along rivers and tributaries
Sm u i o t l, n Nearly level to gently sloping areas that have been
This map unit is on the long, narrow flood plain
reworked by earth moving equipment during
along the Suwannee River in the southern part of the y ing
county. It makes up 1 percent of the county. It is about pospat ii hodg pods cotnin see
colloidal clay (slime) pumped from the mines; some
38 percent Blanton soils, 27 percent Bigbee soils, 27d m
areas are stratified with sandy, loamy, and clayey
percent Wahee soils, and 8 percent soils of minor s ,
extent. layers; some are clayey throughout
extent.
The natural vegetation consists of mixed This map unit is in the southern part of the county. It
hardwoods and an understory of shrubs. makes up 8 percent of the county. It is about 51
Blanton soils are moderately well drained. Typically, percent Arents, 28 percent Hydraquents, and 21
the surface layer is dark grayish brown sand about 9 percent soils of minor extent.
inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand. It is The landscape is interspersed with constructed
yellowish brown grading to very pale brown. The upper holding ponds. This map unit has no natural
part of the subsoil is yellowish brown sandy clay loam. vegetation. The Arents support grasses or pine trees.
The lower part is light brownish gray or gray sandy The Hydraquents support water-tolerant plants.
clay loam. The Arents have variable drainage. The surface







Hamilton County, Florida 23



layer commonly is grayish brown sand to a depth of Of minor extent in this map unit are areas of
about 3 inches. The underlying material is light gray Gypsum land, water, and Pits.
sand mixed with brown sand. Some areas have coarse Most areas of this map unit are unsuited to
sand or fragments of rocks, cultivated crops, pasture, and pine trees. Droughtiness
The Hydraquents are very poorly drained. The soil and ponding are management concerns.
material is gray and light gray clay. Most of this This map unit is generally unsuited to urban
material is about 85 percent clay, 10 percent silt, and 5 development. Sandy surface layers and ponding are
percent sand. management concerns.









25











Detailed Soil Map Units


The map units delineated on the detailed maps at descriptions. A few included areas may not have been
the back of this survey represent the soils or observed, and consequently they are not mentioned in
miscellaneous areas in the survey area. The map unit the descriptions, especially where the pattern was so
descriptions in this section, along with the maps, can complex that it was impractical to make enough
be used to determine the suitability and potential of a observations to identify all the soils and miscellaneous
unit for specific uses. They also can be used to plan areas on the landscape.
the management needed for those uses. More The presence of included areas in a map unit in no
information about each map unit, including a way diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the data.
description of the ecological communities (USDA, The objective of mapping is not to delineate pure
1989), is given under the heading "Use and taxonomic classes but rather to separate the
Management of the Soils." landscape into landforms or landform segments that
A map unit delineation on a map represents an area have similar use and management requirements. The
dominated by one or more major kinds of soil or delineation of such segments on the map provides
miscellaneous areas. A map unit is identified and sufficient information for the development of resource
named according to the taxonomic classification of the plans, but if intensive use of small areas is planned,
dominant soils or miscellaneous areas. Within a onsite investigation is needed to define and locate the
taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits for soils and miscellaneous areas.
the properties of the soils. On the landscape, however, An identifying symbol precedes the map unit name
the soils and miscellaneous areas are natural in the map unit descriptions. Each description includes
phenomena, and they have the characteristic general facts about the unit and gives the principal
variability of all natural phenomena. Thus, the range of hazards and limitations to be considered in planning
some observed properties may extend beyond the for specific uses.
limits defined for a taxonomic class. Areas of soils of a Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make
single taxonomic class rarely, if ever, can be mapped up a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the
without including areas of other taxonomic classes, surface layer, all the soils of a series have major
Consequently, every map unit is made up of the soils horizons that are similar in composition, thickness,
or miscellaneous areas for which it is named and and arrangement.
some "included" areas that belong to other taxonomic Soils of one series can differ in texture of the
classes, surface layer, slope, stoniness, salinity, degree of
Most included soils have properties similar to those erosion, and other characteristics that affect their use.
of the dominant soil or soils in the map unit, and thus On the basis of such differences, a soil series is
they do not affect use and management. These are divided into soilphases. Most of the areas shown on
called noncontrasting, or similar, inclusions. They may the detailed soil maps are phases of soil series. The
or may not be mentioned in the map unit description, name of a soil phase commonly indicates a feature
Other included soils and miscellaneous areas, that affects use or management. For example, Blanton
however, have properties and behavioral sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, is a phase of the Blanton
characteristics divergent enough to affect use or to series.
require different management. These are called Some map units are made up of two or more major
contrasting, or dissimilar, inclusions. They generally soils or miscellaneous areas. These map units are
are in small areas and could not be mapped complexes or undifferentiated groups.
separately because of the scale used. Some small A complex consists of two or more soils or
areas of strongly contrasting soils or miscellaneous miscellaneous areas in such an intricate pattern or in
areas are identified by a special symbol on the maps. such small areas that they cannot be shown
The included areas of contrasting soils or separately on the maps. The pattern and proportion of
miscellaneous areas are mentioned in the map unit the soils or miscellaneous areas are somewhat similar







26 Soil Survey



in all areas. Valdosta-Lowndes complex, 12 to 20 Permeability: Moderate or moderately slow
percent slopes, is an example. Available water capacity: Low
An undifferentiated group is made up of two or Flooding: None
more soils or miscellaneous areas that could be
mapped individually but are mapped as one unit Thls soil is cn the Upand Hardwood ammocks
because similar interpretations can be made for use ecological community. The type and amount of
and management. The pattern and proportion of the vegetation in this ecological community vary
soils or miscellaneous areas in a mapped area are not depending on the successional stage. In the early
uniform. An area can be made up of only one of the successional stages, pine and sweetgum generally are
major soils or miscellaneous areas, or it can be made dominant and the understory is blackberries and
up of all of them. Plummer and Surrency soils, broomsedge. This community is considered to be in a
up of all of them. Plummer and Surrency soils, climax stage of vegetation when it has only a few
depressional, is an undifferentiated group in this climax state o vegetation when it has only a few
survy ae. pines and is dominated by hardwoods. Under climax
survey area.
This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such conditions, the understory vegetation may be quite
This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such
areas have little or no soil material and support little or phase.
no vegetation. Pits is an example. Characteristic plant community-
Table 3 gives the acreage and proportionate extent T B b blk
Trees: Blue beech, American holly, black cherry,
of each map unit. Other tables give properties of the eastern hhrnbeam ler
eastern hophornbeam, flowering dogwood,
soils and the limitations, capabilities, and potentials for at rn a e l rel err
hawthorn, laurel oak, laurelcherry, live oak, loblolly
many uses. The Glossary defines many of the terms p s p p
pine, slash pine, pignut hickory, southern
used in describing the soils or miscellaneous areas.
magnolia, sweetgum, and water oak
Shrubs: American beautyberry, arrowwood,
2-Albany fine sand, 0 to 5 percent sparkleberry, and wax-myrtle
slopes Herbaceous plants and vines: Aster, cat greenbrier,
common greenbrier, crossvine, partridgeberry,
partridge pea, poison ivy, ragweed, Virginia
This very deep, somewhat poorly drained soil is in partridge pea, poison ivy, ragweed, Virginia
low areas on uplands and on low ridges. Individual creeper, wild grape, yellow jessamine, dotted
horsemint, and blackberry
areas are irregular or elongated in shape. They range hrsen, and blackbe
Grasses and grasslike plants: Low panicum,
from 3 to 100 acres in size.
switchgrass, and broomsedge bluestem
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown switchgrass, and broomsedge blueste
fine sand about 9 inches thick. The subsurface layer This soil is suited to cultivated crops. Seasonal
extends to a depth of 57 inches. In the upper part, it is wetness and droughtiness are management concerns.
light yellowish brown fine sand. In the next part, it is Irrigation is needed during dry periods. Residue
pale yellow fine sand that has strong brown and white management, including minimum tillage, is needed to
mottles. In the lower part, it is pale yellow fine sand preserve moisture during dry periods and to minimize
that has yellowish red and white mottles. The subsoil erosion. Planting water-tolerant crops and using
extends to a depth of 80 inches. In the upper part, it is shallow surface drainage help to overcome the
light yellowish brown fine sandy loam that has brown seasonal wetness. Lime and fertilizer, which are
and light gray mottles. In the lower part, it is gray needed to compensate for the low fertility of the soil,
sandy clay loam that has strong brown mottles. should be applied according to the needs of the crop.
In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Albany fine This soil is suited to pasture and to hay crops.
sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, the Albany soil and similar Seasonal wetness and droughtiness are management
soils make up 80 to 99 percent of the unit. Dissimilar concerns. Improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass
soils make up the other 1 to 20 percent. Included in produce moderate yields if properly managed.
mapping are Blanton and Plummer soils. The Controlled grazing helps to overcome the seasonal
moderately well drained Blanton soils are in the wetness and droughtiness. Proper applications of lime
slightly higher positions. The poorly drained Plummer and fertilizer are needed to obtain optimum production.
soils are in the slightly lower positions. Also included This soil is suited to the production of loblolly pine,
are small areas that have a slope of 5 to 10 percent. slash pine, and longleaf pine. Moderate equipment
Sp ie o t A i- limitations, seedling mortality, and plant competition
Important properties of the Albany soil--
are management concerns. Using field machinery that
Depth to the seasonal high water table: 1 to 21/2 feet is equipped with large, low-pressure rubber tires or
from December through March tracks helps overcome the equipment limitations,







Hamilton County, Florida 27



reduces the extent of soil compaction, and minimizes Permeability: Rapid
the root damage caused by harvesting. Site Available water capacity: Low
preparation, such as harrowing and bedding, helps Flooding: None
establish seedlings, reduces the seedling mortality This soil is in the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills
rate, and increases early growth. Chopping and bedding ecological community, which has several variations of
help to control competing vegetation and facilitate tree stands. Mature, natural stands of trees have an
planting. Logging systems that leave residual biomass overstory of scattered longleaf pine. In areas where
well distributed over the site increase the content of the pines have been removed, oaks are predominant.
organic matter and the residual fertility of the soil. Ground cover is scattered, and numerous bare areas
This soil is poorly suited to urban development. are noticeable.
Wetness and seasonal droughtiness are management
concerns. Septic tank absorption fields can be Characteristic plant community-
mounded to maintain the system above the seasonal
high water table. Suitable fill material can be used to Trees: Longleaf pine, turkey oak, and bluejack oak
elevate building sites. Mulch, fertilizer, and irrigation Herbaceous plants and vines: Aster, blazingstar,
help establish lawn grasses and other small-seeded brackenfern, butterfly pea, elephantsfoot,
plants. This soil is poorly suited to local roads and grassleaf goldaster, partridge pea, pineland
streets. Drainage and the placement of suitable fill for beggarweed, sandhill milkweed, showy crotalaria,
elevating roadbeds can be used to alleviate the and wild indigo
wetness affecting road construction. Grasses and grasslike plants: Curtiss' dropseed, hairy
The capability subclass is Ille. The woodland panicum, yellow Indiangrass, low panicum, and
ordination symbol is 10W. pineywood dropseed
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. The
3-Alpin sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes coarse texture prevents the soil from retaining
sufficient moisture during the dry periods, and
This very deep, excessively drained soil is in broad seasonal droughtiness is a management concern.
areas on uplands. Individual areas are irregular in Plant nutrients leach rapidly. Corn, peanuts, and
shape. They range from about 4 to 300 acres in size. watermelons can be grown on this soil but require
Slopes are smooth and convex, intensive management. A crop rotation system that
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown includes cover crops, the return of crop residue to the
sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer soil, and proper applications of fertilizer and lime are
extends to a depth of 47 inches. It is yellowish brown recommended. Irrigation is needed during drought
sand in the upper part and yellow sand in the lower periods. Wind erosion is a severe hazard if the surface
part. The subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches or layer is unprotected. Planting cover crops helps to
more. In the upper part, it is very pale brown sand that minimize this hazard.
has thin layers of strong brown loamy sand. In the This soil is suited to pasture and to hay crops.
lower part, it is pinkish white sand that has thin layers Seasonal droughtiness is a management concern.
of strong brown loamy sand. Deep-rooted plants, such as improved bermudagrass
In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Alpin sand, 0 and bahiagrass, can be grown, but yields are reduced
to 5 percent slopes, the Alpin soil and similar soils by periodic drought. Controlled grazing helps to
make up 80 to 99 percent of the unit. Dissimilar soils maintain plant vigor and to obtain maximum yields.
make up the other 1 to 20 percent. Included in Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed.
mapping are small areas of Albany, Blanton, and This soil is suited to the production of slash pine,
Chipley soils. The somewhat poorly drained Albany longleaf pine, and sand pine. Moderate equipment
and moderately well drained Blanton soils are in the limitations and seedling mortality are management
lower positions and have a loamy subsoil below a concerns. The equipment limitations can be overcome
depth of 40 inches. The somewhat poorly drained by harvesting when the soil is moist. Seedling mortality
Chipley soils are also in the lower positions. Also can be partly offset by increasing the rate and depth of
included in mapping are soils that have a clayey tree planting and by mulching with the residual
subsoil within a depth of 40 inches, biomass that is left after harvesting. A logging system
That leaves most of the biomass on the surface is
Important properties of the Alpin soil--
preferred.
Depth to the seasonal high water table: More than 6 This soil is suited to urban development. The sandy
feet textures are a management concern. Landscaping






28 Soil Survey



with drought-tolerant grasses, shrubs, and trees; panicum, yellow Indiangrass, low panicum, and
watering on a regular basis; and mulching help to pineywood dropseed
establish plants and lawns.
The capability subclass is IVs. The woodland This soil is not suited to cultivated crops. Slope and
The capability subclass is IVs. The woodland droughtiness are severe limitations.
ordination symbol is 8S droughtiness are severe limitations.
This soil is suited to pasture and to hay crops.
Seasonal droughtiness is a management concern.
4-Alpin sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes Deep-rooted plants, such as improved bermudagrass
and bahiagrass, can be grown, but yields are reduced
This very deep, excessively drained soil is on by periodic drought. Controlled grazing helps to
upland side slopes. Individual areas are irregular in maintain plant vigor and to obtain maximum yields.
shape. They range from about 4 to 80 acres in size. Regular applications of fertilizer and lime are needed.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown This soil is suited to the production of slash pine,
sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer longleaf pine, and sand pine. Moderate equipment
extends to a depth of 47 inches. It is yellowish brown limitations and seedling mortality are management
sand in the upper part and yellow sand in the lower concerns. The equipment limitations can be overcome
part. The subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches. In by harvesting when the soil is moist. Seedling mortality
the upper part, it is very pale brown sand that has thin can be partly offset by increasing the rate and depth of
layers of strong brown loamy sand. In the lower part, it tree planting and by mulching with the residual
is pinkish white sand that has thin layers of strong biomass that is left after harvesting. A logging system
brown loamy sand. that leaves most of the biomass on the surface is
In 90 percent of the areas mapped as Alpin sand, 5 preferred.
to 8 percent slopes, the Alpin soil and similar soils This soil is suited to urban development. The sandy
make up 80 to 99 percent of the unit. Dissimilar soils texture of the surface layer is a management concern.
make up the other 1 to 20 percent. Included in Also, the slope is a management concern affecting
mapping are small areas of Albany and Blanton soils, small commercial buildings. Landscaping with drought-
The somewhat poorly drained Albany soils and the tolerant grasses, shrubs, and trees; regularly applying
moderately well drained Blanton soils are in the lower water; and mulching help to establish lawns and
positions and have a loamy subsoil below a depth of landscaping plants.
40 inches. The capability subclass is Vis. The woodland
ordination symbol is 8S.
Important properties of the Alpin soil-
Depth to the seasonal high water table: More than 6 5-Blanton sand, 0 to 5 percent
feet
Permeability: Rapid Slopes
Available water capacity: Low
Available water capacity Low This very deep, moderately well drained soil is in
Flooding: None broad upland areas. Slopes are smooth and convex.
This soil is in the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills Individual areas are irregular or elongated in shape.
ecological community, which has several variations of They range from about 3 to 80 acres in size.
tree stands. Mature, natural stands of trees have an Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
overstory of scattered longleaf pine. In areas where sand about 9 inches thick. The subsurface layer
the pines have been removed, oaks are predominant, extends to a depth of 54 inches. In the upper part, it is
Ground cover is scattered, and numerous bare areas yellowish brown sand. In the next part, it is light
are noticeable. yellowish brown sand. In the lower part, it is very pale
brown sand that has brownish yellow mottles. The
Characteristic plant community- .
subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches. In the upper
Trees: Longleaf pine, slash pine, loblolly pine, post part, it is yellowish brown sandy clay loam that has
oak, turkey oak, bluejack oak, and blackjack oak strong brown and gray mottles. In the next part, it is
Herbaceous plants and vines: Aster, blazingstar, .light brownish gray sandy clay loam that has strong
brackenfern, butterfly pea, elephantsfoot, brown mottles. In the lower part, it is gray sand clay
grassleaf goldaster, partridge pea, pineland loam.
beggarweed, sandhill milkweed, showy crotalaria, In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Blanton
and wild indigo sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, the Blanton soil and
Grasses and grasslike plants: Curtiss' dropseed, hairy similar soils make up 87 to 99 percent of the unit.







Hamilton County, Florida 29



Dissimilar soils make up the other 1 to 13 percent. applications of lime and fertilizer are needed to obtain
Included in mapping are some small areas of the optimum production and to minimize the effects of
somewhat poorly drained Albany soils in the lower seasonal droughtiness.
positions. Also included are small areas of soils that This soil is suited to the production of loblolly pine,
have a water table at a depth of 30 to 48 inches and slash pine, and longleaf pine. This map unit has
soils that have a subsoil that is stained with organic moderate equipment limitations and a moderate
matter below a depth of 60 inches. seedling mortality rate. Using field machinery that is
equipped with large, low-pressure rubber tires or
Important properties of the Blanton soil- tracks helps overcome the equipment limitations,
Seasonal high water table: At a depth of 4 to 6 feet reduces the extent of soil compaction, and minimizes
from March through August, perched the root damage caused by thinning operations. Site
Permeability: Moderate preparation, such as harrowing and bedding, helps
Available water capacity: Low establish seedlings, reduces the seedling mortality
Flooding: None rate, and increases early growth. Chopping and
s sl is in te U d H d H s bedding minimize debris, help to control competing
isoil is in the Upland Hawd ammoc vegetation, and facilitate planting. Logging systems
ecological community. The type and amount of that leave residual biomass well distributed over the
vegetation in this ecological community vary
vegetation in this ecological community vary site increase the content of organic matter and the
depending on the successional stage. In the early residual fertility of the soil.
successional stages, pine and sweetgum generally are s develoent. Wete
This soil is suited to urban development. Wetness
dominant and the understory is blackberries and and seasonal droughtiness are management
., and seasonal droughtiness are management
broomsedge. This community is considered to be in a
climax stage of vegetation when it has only a few concerns. Septic tank absorption fields can be
mounded to maintain the system above the seasonal
pines and is dominated by hardwoods. Under climax hih wte tabe. L andscain ith ohttoeant
conditions, the understory vegetation may be quite hwatere andsaping wi g
sparse. grasses, shrubs, and trees; applying water on a
regular basis; and mulching help to establish lawns
Characteristic plant community- and landscaping plants.
Trees: Blue beech, American holly, black cherry, The capability subclass is Is.The woodland
eastern hophornbeam, flowering dogwood, ordination symbol is 11
hawthorn, laurel oak, laurelcherry, live oak, loblolly
pine, slash pine, pignut hickory, southern 6-Blanton sand, 5 to 8 percent
magnolia, sweetgum, and water oak
Shrubs: American beautyberry, arrowwood, slopes
sparkleberry, and wax-myrtle
Herbaceous plants and vines: Aster, cat greenbrier, Ths very deep, moderately well drained soil is on
common greenbrier, crossvine, partridgeberry, upland side slopes. Slopes are concave or convex.
partridge pea, poison ivy, ra eIndividual areas are irregular or elongated in shape.
partridge pea, poison ivy, ragweed, Virginia
creeper, wild grape, yellow jessamine, dotted They r from about 3 to 50 acres in size.
horsemint, and blackberry Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
Grasses and grasslike plants: Low panicum, sand about 9 inches thick. The subsurface layer
switchgrass, and broomsedge extends to a depth of 54 inches. In the upper part, it is
yellowish brown sand. In the next part, it is light
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. yellowish brown sand. In the lower part, it is very pale
Seasonal droughtiness and erosion in the more brown sand that has brownish yellow mottles. The
sloping areas are management concerns. Irrigation is subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches. In the upper
needed during dry periods. Residue management, part, it is yellowish brown sandy clay loam that has
including minimum tillage, is needed to preserve strong brown and gray mottles. In the next part, it is
moisture during dry periods and to minimize erosion, light brownish gray sandy clay loam that has strong
Applications of lime and fertilizer help to compensate brown mottles. In the lower part, it is gray sandy clay
for the low fertility, loam.
This soil is suited to pasture and to hay crops. In 90 percent of the areas mapped as Blanton
Seasonal droughtiness is a management concern, sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, the Blanton soil and
Improved bermudagrass produces moderate yields if similar soils make up 75 to 99 percent of the unit.
properly managed. Controlled grazing and proper Dissimilar soils make up the other 1 to 25 percent.






30 Soil Survey



Included in mapping are small areas of Albany and equipment limitations and a moderate seedling
Alpin soils. The excessively drained Alpin soils are in mortality rate. Using field machinery that is equipped
the higher positions. The somewhat poorly drained with large, low-pressure rubber tires or tracks helps
Albany soils are in the lower positions. Also included overcome the equipment limitations, reduces the
are small areas of soils that have a water table at a extent of soil compaction, and minimizes the root
depth of 30 to 48 inches and soils that have fragments damage caused by thinning operations. Site
of phosphatic limestone in and above the subsoil. preparation, such as harrowing and bedding, helps
establish seedlings, reduces the seedling mortality
Important properties of the Blanton soil- rate, and increases early growth. Chopping and
Seasonal high water table: At a depth of 4 to 6 feet bedding minimize debris, help to control competing
from March through August, perched vegetation, and facilitate planting. Logging systems
Permeability: Moderately slow that leave residual biomass well distributed over the
Available water capacity Low site increase the content of organic matter and the
Flooding:lNone residual fertility of the soil.
This soil is suited to urban development. Wetness,
This soil is in the Upland Hardwood Hammocks slope, and seasonal droughtiness are management
ecological community. The type and amount of concerns. Septic tank absorption fields can be
vegetation in this ecological community vary mounded to maintain the system above the water
depending on the successional stage. In the early table. Cutting and filling the more sloping areas helps
successional stages, pine and sweetgum generally are to overcome the slope. Landscaping with drought-
dominant and the understory is blackberries and tolerant grasses, shrubs, and trees; applying water on
broomsedge. This community is considered to be in a a regular basis; and mulching help to establish lawns
climax stage of vegetation when it has only a few and landscaping plants.
pines and is dominated by hardwoods. Under climax The capability subclass is IVs. The woodland
conditions, the understory vegetation may be quite ordination symbol is 11S.
sparse.
Characteristic plant community- 7-Kenansville fine sand, 0 to 5
Trees: Blue beech, American holly, black cherry, percent slopes, occasionally
eastern hophornbeam, flowering dogwood, flooded
hawthorn, laurel oak, laurelcherry, live oak, loblolly This very deep, well drained soil is on the flood
pine, slash pine, pignut hickory, southern
pine, slash pine, pignut hickory, southern plains of rivers and creeks. Individual areas are
magnolia, sweetgum, and water oak irregular in shape. They range from 5 to 25 acres in
Shrubs: American beautyberry, arrowwood, size.
sparkleberry, and wax-myrtle Typically, the surface layer is dark brown fine sand 9
Herbaceous plants and vines: Aster, cat greenbrier, inches thick. The subsurface layer, which extends to a
common greenbrier, crossvine, partridgeberry,thick. The subsurface layer, which extends to a
common greenbrier, crossvine, partridgeberry, depth of 23 inches, is yellowish brown fine sand. The
partridge pea, poison ivy, ragweed, Virginia subsoil extends to a depth of 58 inches. It is dark
creeper, wild grape, yellow jessamine, dotted yellowish brown sandy loam in the upper part and
horsemint, and blackberry yellowish brown sandy loam in the lower part. The
Grasses and grasslike plants: Low panicum, underlying layer, which extends to a depth of 80
switchgrass, and broomsedge inches or more, is light yellowish brown loamy sand
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops. Seasonal that has yellowish brown loamy layers.
droughtiness, slope, a severe hazard of erosion, and In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Kenansville
low fertility are severe limitations, fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, occasionally flooded,
This soil is suited to pasture and to hay crops, the Kenansville soil and similar soils make up 80 to 99
Improved bermudagrass produces moderate yields if percent of the unit. Dissimilar soils make up the other
properly managed. Controlled grazing and proper 1 to 20 percent. Included in mapping are Blanton and
applications of lime and fertilizer are needed to obtain Ocilla soils. The moderately well drained Blanton soils
optimum production and to minimize the effects of are in the slightly lower positions. The somewhat
seasonal droughtiness. poorly drained Ocilla soils are also in the lower
This soil is suited to the production of loblolly pine, positions and have a loamy subsoil within a depth of
slash pine, and longleaf pine. It has moderate 40 inches. Also included are small areas of the soils






Hamilton County, Florida 31



that have a slope of 5 to 8 percent and small areas of plant competition are management concerns. The
soils that have a loamy subsoil within a depth of 20 sandy texture somewhat restricts the use of wheeled
inches. equipment. This restriction can be overcome by
harvesting when the soil is moist. Seedling mortality
Important properties of the Kenansville soil- caused by droughtiness can be partly overcome by
Depth to the seasonal high water table: More than 6 selecting proper species andby scheduling planting
feet for times when favorable weather is predicted.
Permeability Rapid Seedling mortality can also be caused by the flooding.
Available water capacity Moderate Plant competition can be controlled by site
Available water capacity: Moderate
Flooding:Occasional preparation, such as chopping with a drum chopper. A
Flooding: Occasional
logging system that leaves most of the biomass on the
This soil is in the Mixed Hardwood and Pine surface is preferred.
ecological community, which has several variations of This soil is poorly suited to urban development. The
tree stands. In the early successional stages, pine is flooding and poor filtration are management concerns.
present with loblolly pine predominating. As the Depending upon the thickness of the subsoil, an
system matures, hardwoods replace the pines. The expanded absorption field may help to overcome the
natural climax vegetation is thought to be a beech- poor filtration.
magnolia-maple association. The capability subclass is Ills. The woodland
Characteristic plant community- ordination symbol is 11S.
Trees: Blue beech, American holly, eastern
hophornbean, flowering dogwood, hawthorns, 8-Chipley sand, 0 to 5 percent
loblolly pine, slash pine, longleaf pine, mockernut slopes
hickory, pignut hickory, southern red oak, southern
magnolia, white oak, water oak, and laurel oak This very deep, somewhat poorly drained soil is in
Shrubs: Shining sumac and sparkleberry broad low areas on uplands and on low ridges in
Herbaceous plants and vines: Aster, common areas of flatwoods. Individual areas are irregular in
ragweed, partridgeberry, partridge pea, poison ivy, shape. They range from about 20 to 200 acres in size.
viola, Virginia creeper, and wild grape Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand
Grasses: Broomsedge bluestem, longleaf uniola, low about 8 inches thick. The underlying material is brown
panicum, and spike uniola sand in the upper part, pale brown sand in the next
This soil is suited to cultivated crops. The part, and light brownish gray sand to a depth of 80
This soil is suited to cultivated crops. The
inches or more.
occasional flooding is a management concern. Most of n ercen o e res e s e sn
In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Chipley sand,
the crops that are adapted to the area can be grown
the crops that are adapted to the area can be grown 0 to 5 percent slopes, the Chipley soil and similar soils
on this soil but require good management and the use 0 percent o the unit. Dissimilar soils
of conservation practices, such as contour farming, a make u to cent o te n
crop rotation system that includes cover crops, the mae p the other 1 to 20 pierce ended in
mapping are small areas of Mascotte and Pottsburg
return of crop residue to the soil, and proper
applications of fertilizer and lime. Irrigation is needed soils. These poorly drained soils are in the lower
during drought periods. Wind erosion is a hazard if positions and have an organic-staed subsoil.
the surface layer is unprotected. Important properties of the Chipley soil-
This soil is suited to pasture and to hay crops.
This soil is suited to pasture and to hay crops. Depth to the seasonal high water table: 2 to 3 feet
Droughtiness is a management concern. Deep-rooted Dep th t o the seao hgh er bl
plants, such as improved bermudagrass andom December through April
bahiagrass, can be grown if a medium level of Permeability: Rapid
management is applied, but yields are reduced by Avalable water capac ery ow or low
periodic drought. Regular applications of fertilizer and Flooding: None
lime are needed. Controlled grazing helps to maintain This soil is in the Upland Hardwood Hammocks
plant vigor and to obtain maximum yields. The flooding ecological community. The type and amount of
prevents grazing in some years. vegetation in this ecological community vary
This soil is suited to the production of slash pine, depending on the successional stage. In the early
longleaf pine, and loblolly pine. Moderate equipment successional stages pine, water oak and sweetgum
limitations, moderate seedling mortality, and moderate are dominant and the understory is blackberries,






32 Soil Survey



broomsedge, and greenbriers. This community is 9-Foxworth sand, 0 to 5 percent
considered to be in a climax state of vegetation when s
it has only a few pines and is dominated by Slopes
hardwoods. Under climax conditions, understory
hardwoods. Under climax conditions, understory This very deep, moderately well drained soil is in
vegetation may be quite sparse.
vegetation may be quite sparseareas of flatwoods. Individual areas are irregular in
Characteristic plant community- shape. They range from about 3 to 75 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown sand
Trees: Blue beech, American holly, black cherry, Typically, the surface layer is dark wn sand
eastern hohoean, flow dogoo, about 7 inches thick. The upper part of the substratum
eastern hophornbean, flowering dogwood,
hawthorns laurel oa, l er live oak, extends to a depth of 55 inches. It is yellowish brown
hawthorns, laurel oak, laurelcherry, live oak,
orn, le o, slau h liv and brownish yellow sand. The lower part extends to a
loblolly pine, longleaf pine, slash pine, pignut .
ioboly pi, ongleaf pine, slash pine, put depth of 80 inches or more. It is very pale brown sand
hickory, southern magnolia, sweetgum, water oak, and white sand.
post oak, turkey oak, and blackjack oak n e t t a a a
Shrubs: American beautyberry, arrowwood, 80 percent of the areas mapped as Foxworth
Shrubs: American beautyberry, arrowwood,
1, ad w sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, the Foxworth soil and
sparkleberry, and wax-myrtle
sparkleberry, and wax-myrtle similar soils make up 80 to 99 percent of the unit.
Herbaceous plants and vines: Aster, cat greenbrier,similar soils make up t ot 1 to percent.
commo g i Dissimilar soils make up the other 1 to 20 percent.
common greenbrier, crossvine, partridgeberry,
c om on greenbrier, crossvine, partridgeerry, Included in mapping are small areas of Albany soils.
partridge pea, poio iy, ragweed, Viiia These somewhat poorly drained soils have a loamy
creeper, wild grape, yellow jessamine, dotted subsoil below a depth of 40 inches.
n, and blacksubsoil below a depth of 40 inches.
horsemint, and blackberry
Grasses and grasslike plants: Low panicum, Important properties of the Foxworth soil-
switchgrass, and broomsedge
switchgrass, and broomsedge Depth to the seasonal high water table: 4 to 6 feet
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. from June through October
Seasonal wetness and low fertility are management Available water capacity: Very low or low
concerns. Irrigation is needed during dry periods. Flooding: None
Residue management, including minimum tillage, is This soil is in the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills
This soil is in the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills
needed to preserve moisture during dry periods and to e c w h s v
minimize erosion. Lime and fertilizer, which are ecological community, which has several variations of
needed to compensate for the low fertility of the tree sandsMature natural stands of trees have an
needed to compensate for the low fertility of the overstory of scattered longleaf pine. In areas where
soil, should be applied according to the needs of e es ve ereoveoa are predomina
the pines have been removed, oaks are predominant.
the crop.
th. o Ground cover is scattered, and numerous bare areas
This soil is suited to improved pasture grasses. are noticeable.
are noticeable.
Improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass produce
moderate yields if properly managed. Controlled Characteristic plant community-
grazing and proper applications of lime and fertilizer
Trees: Longleaf pine, turkey oak, bluejack oak, slash
are needed to obtain optimum production.
Sn pine, live oak, post oak, and laurel oak
This soil is suited to the production of slash pine Herbaces Aste, lainar rakener
Herbaceous plants: Aster, blazingstar, brackenfern,
and loblolly pine. Moderate equipment limitations and antft gra af gater
butterfly pea, elephantsfoot, grassleaf goldaster,
moderate plant competition are management partridge pea, pineland beggarweed, sandhill
partridge pea, pineland beggarweed, sandhill
concerns. Chopping and bedding minimize debris, milkweed, showy crotalaria, and wild indigo
milkweed, showy crotalaria, and wild indigo
help to control competing vegetation, and facilitate .
help to control competing vegetation, and facilitate Grasses and grasslike plants: Curtiss' dropseed, hairy
planting. The equipment limitations can be overcome p y I
.. panicum, yellow Indiangrass, low panicum, and
by harvesting when the soil is moist. Logging systems pineywood dropseed
that leave residual biomass well distributed over the
site increase the content of organic matter and the This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops.
residual fertility of the soil. Droughtiness is a management concern. Irrigation is
This soil is poorly suited to urban development. The needed during dry periods. Corn, peanuts, and
seasonal high water table, poor filtration, and sandy watermelons can be grown on this soil but require
textures are management concerns. Deep drainage intensive management, including such conservation
can help to lower the seasonal high water table. If this practices as a crop rotation system that includes cover
soil is used as a site for septic tanks absorption fields, crops, the return of crop residue to the soil, and proper
mounding may be needed, applications of fertilizer and lime. Wind erosion is a
The capability subclass is Ills. The woodland severe hazard if the surface layer is unprotected.
ordination symbol is 11S. This soil is suited to pasture and to hay crops.






Hamilton County, Florida 33



Droughtiness is a management concern. Deep-rooted Available water capacity: Low
plants, such as improved bermudagrass, can be Flooding: None
grown if a high level of management is applied, but This soil is in the Mixed Hardwood and Pine
This soil is in the Mixed Hardwood and Pine
yields are reduced by periodic drought. Regular ecological community, which has several variations of
ecological community, which has several variations of
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed.
tree stands. In the early successional stages, pine is
Controlled grazing helps to maintain plant vigor and to tree stands theearly ine redoinal stages pne
obtain maximum yields present with loblolly pine predominating. As the
obtain maximum yields.
i m system matures, hardwoods replace the pines. The
This soil is suited to the production of slash pine atura a vegeao s replace the nes. The
and longleaf pine. Moderate equipment limitations, nata limaple assation
magnolia-maple association.
seedling mortality, and plant competition are
management concerns. Using field machinery that is
Characteristic plant community--
equipped with large, low-pressure tires or tracks helps
overcome the equipment limitations, reduces the Trees: Blue beech, American holly, eastern
extent of soil compaction, and minimizes the root hophornbean, flowering dogwood, hawthorns,
damage caused by harvesting. Seedling mortality loblolly pine, slash pine, longleaf pine, mockernut
caused by droughtiness can be partly overcome by hickory, pignut hickory, southern red oak, southern
selecting proper species and by scheduling planting to magnolia, white oak, and water oak
coincide with favorable weather predictions. Plant Shrubs: Shining sumac and sparkleberry
competition can be controlled by site preparation, such Herbaceous plants and vines: Aster, common
as chopping with a drum chopper. A logging system that ragweed, partridgeberry, partridge pea, poison ivy,
leaves most of the biomass on the surface is preferred. viola, Virginia creeper, and wild grape
This soil is moderately suited to urban development. Grasses: Broomsedge bluestem, longleaf uniola, low
The seasonal high water table and the sandy textures panicum, and spike uniola
are management concerns. Deep drainage can help to
are management concerns. Deep drainage can help to This soil is suited to cultivated crops (fig. 3). Most of
lower the seasonal high water table.
The capability subclass is Ills. The woodland the crops that are adapted to the area can be grown
ordination symbol is 10S. on this soil but require good management and the use
of conservation practices, such as a crop rotation
system that includes cover crops, the return of crop
10--Lowndes sand, 0 to 5 percent residue to the soil, and proper applications of fertilizer
slopes and lime. Irrigation is needed during drought
periods. Wind erosion is a hazard if the surface
This very deep, well drained soil is on uplands. layer is unprotected.
Individual areas are irregular in shape. They range This soil is suited to pasture and to hay crops.
from 5 to 25 acres in size. Deep-rooted plants, such as improved bermudagrass
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown and bahiagrass, can be grown if a medium level of
sand 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, which management is applied, but yields are reduced by
extends to a depth of 33 inches, is yellowish brown periodic drought. Regular applications of fertilizer and
loamy sand. The upper subsoil, which extends to a lime are needed. Controlled grazing helps to maintain
depth of 53 inches, is strong brown sandy loam. The plant vigor and to obtain maximum yields.
layer between the upper subsoil and the lower subsoil This soil is suited to the production of slash pine,
is 5 inches of strong brown loamy sand. The lower longleaf pine, and loblolly pine. Moderate equipment
subsoil is strong brown sandy clay loam to a depth of limitations and moderate seedling mortality are
80 inches. management concerns. Using field machinery that is
In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Lowndes equipped with large, low-pressure tires or tracks helps
sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, the Lowndes soil and overcome the equipment limitations, reduces the
similar soils make up 80 to 99 percent of the unit. extent of soil compaction, and minimizes the root
Dissimilar soils make up the other 1 to 20 percent. damage caused by thinning operations. Seedling
Included in mapping are small areas of Norfolk soils mortality caused by droughtiness can be partly
that have loamy horizons within a depth of 20 inches. overcome by selecting proper species and by
Important properties of the Lowndes soil- scheduling planting for times when favorable weather
is predicted. Plant competition can be controlled by
Depth to the seasonal high water table: More than 6 site preparation, such as chopping with a drum
feet chopper. A logging system that leaves most of the
Permeability: Moderate biomass on the surface is preferred.






34 Soil Survey







































Figure 3.-Tobacco growing in an area of Lowndes sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.


This soil is suited to urban development. It has no loam. The layer between the upper subsoil and the
significant management concerns, lower subsoil is 5 inches of strong brown loamy sand.
The capability subclass is IIs. The woodland The lower subsoil is strong brown loam to a depth of
ordination symbol is 10S. 80 inches.
In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Lowndes
sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, the Lowndes soil and
11 -Lowndes sand, 5 to 8 percent similar soils make up 80 to 99 percent of the unit.
slopes Dissimilar soils make up the other 1 to 20 percent.
Included in mapping are small areas of Valdosta soils,
This very deep, well drained soil is on side slopes which are sandy to a depth of 80 inches or more.
on uplands. Individual areas are irregular in shape. Important properties of the Lowndes soil-
Important properties of the Lowndes soil-
They range from 5 to 40 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish Depth to the seasonal high water table: More than 6
brown sand 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, feet
which extends to a depth of 33 inches, is yellowish Permeability: Moderate
brown loamy sand. The upper subsoil, which extends Available water capacity: Low
to a depth of 53 inches, is strong brown fine sandy Flooding: None






Hamilton County, Florida 35



This soil is in the Mixed Hardwood and Pine The capability subclass is Ills. The woodland
ecological community, which has several variations of ordination symbol is 10S.
tree stands. In the early successional stages, pine is
present with loblolly pine predominating. As the
system matures, hardwoods replace the pines. The 12-Lowndes and Norfolk soils, 8 to
natural climax vegetation is thought to be a beech- 12 percent slopes
magnolia-maple association.
These very deep, well drained soils are on ridges
Characteristic plant community-*
and side slopes on uplands. Individual areas are
Trees: Blue beech, American holly, eastern irregular in shape. They range from 5 to 40 acres in
hophornbean, flowering dogwood, hawthorns, size.
loblolly pine, slash pine, longleaf pine, mockernut Typically, the Lowndes soil has a surface layer of
hickory, pignut hickory, southern red oak, southern dark grayish brown sand 4 inches thick. The
magnolia, white oak, and water oak subsurface layer, which extends to a depth of 33
Shrubs: Shining sumac and sparkleberry inches, is yellowish brown loamy fine sand. The upper
Herbaceous plants and vines: Aster, common subsoil is brown fine sandy loam to a depth of 53
ragweed, partridgeberry, partridge pea, poison ivy, inches. The lower subsoil is strong brown sandy clay
viola, Virginia creeper, and wild grape to a depth of 80 inches.
Grasses: Broomsedge bluestem, longleaf uniola, low Typically, the Norfolk soil has a surface layer of dark
panicum, and spike uniola yellowish brown loamy fine sand 6 inches thick. In
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. Slope sequence downwardthe upper part of the subsoil is 5
inches of strong brown sandy loam, 14 inches of
and seasonal droughtiness are management nchesof strong brown sandy clay loam, and 1 inches of strong
concerns. Most of the crops that are adapted to the strong brown sandy laloam, and 19 nhes ofstrong
brown sandy clay loam. The lower part of the subsoil
area can be grown on this soil but require good
management and the use f consetion ptis extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. It is light
management and the use of conservation practices, bo h
such as contour farming, a crop rotation system that ye ow n sandy clay lam ta has mottles
includes cover crops, the return of crop residue to the Lowndes and similar soils make up about 40
soil, and proper applications of fertilizer and lime. percent ofthe map unit. Norfok and similar soils make
Irrigation is needed during drought periods. Wind up about30 recent Each soil is not in every mapped
area, and the relative proportion of each soil varies.
erosion is a hazard if the surface layer is unprotected. Inded in mang are sal areas o alosa a
Ts. .s. .i e t p r a t Included in mapping are small areas of Valdosta and
This soil is suited to pasture and to hay crops.
This soil is suited to pasture and to hay crops. Wampee soils. Valdosta soils are sandy to a depth
Deep-rooted plants, such as improved bermudagrass o ies o m soils are in the
of 80 inches or more. Wampee soils are in the
and bahiagrass, can be grown if a medium level ofe som e i o
slightly lower positions and are somewhat poorly
management is applied, but yields are reduced by .
periodic drought. Regular applications of fertilizer and drained.
In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Lowndes and
lime are needed. Controlled grazing helps to maintain N l l 8 t percent slop the Lowndes
plant vigor and to obtain maximum yields.
plant vigor and to obtain maximum yields. Norfolk, and similar soils make up 75 to 99 percent ofLowndes,
This soil is suited to the production of slash pine, Norfolk, and similar soils make up 75 to99 percent of
longleaf pine, and loblolly pine. Moderate equipment the un Dsslar souls make the other 1 to 25
limitations and moderate seedling mortality are percent.
management concerns. Using field machinery that is Important properties of the Lowndes and Norfolk
equipped with large, low-pressure tires or tracks helps soils-
overcome the equipment limitations, reduces the
extent of soil compaction, and minimizes the root Depth to the seasonal hgh water table: Lowndes-
more than 6 feet; Norfolk-4 to 6 feet from
damage caused by thinning operations. Seedling January through March
mortality caused by droughtiness can be partly Permeabilit Mhroudeh March
overcome by selecting proper species and by Permeability:Moderate
scheduling planting for times when favorable weather Avalable water capacity: Medum
is predicted. Plant competition can be reduced by site Flooding:None
preparation, such as chopping with a drum chopper. A This map unit is in the Mixed Hardwood and Pine
logging system that leaves most of the biomass on the ecological community, which has several variations of
surface is preferred. tree stands. In the early successional stages, pine is
This soil is suited to urban development. It has no present with loblolly pine predominating. As the
significant management concerns, system matures, hardwoods replace the pines. The






36 Soil Survey



natural climax vegetation is thought to be a beech- The capability subclass is IVs in areas of the
magnolia-maple association. Lowndes soil and Ille in areas of the Norfolk soil.The
Characteristic plant community-woodland ordination symbol is 10S in areas of the
Lowndes soil and 8A in areas of the Norfolk soil.
Trees: Blue beech, American holly, eastern
hophornbean, flowering dogwood, hawthorns,
slash pine, longleaf pine, loblolly pine, mockernut 13-Mascotte sand
hickory, pignut hickory, southern red oak, southern ,
magnolia, white oakThis very deep, poorly drained soil is in areas of
magnolia, white oak, and water oak
Shrubs: Shining sumac and sparkleberry flatwoods on low stream terraces and in areas
Herbaceous plants and vines: Aster, common bordering swamps and depressions. Individual areas
are irregular in shape. They range from 10 to 200
ragweed, partridgeberry, partridge pea, poison ivy, are in size. Slpe. range from 0 to 2 p
viola, Virginia creeper, and wild grape acres in size. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
viola, Virginia creeper, and wild grape Typically, the surface layer is black sand about 5
Grasses: Broomsedge bluestem, longleaf uniola, low incs ick. he surface layer is black sand abo
ipanicum, and spike uniola nches thick. The subsurface layer is light brownish
gray sand about 8 inches thick. The upper subsoil is
This map unit is not suited to cultivated crops. The stained with organic matter. It is 2 inches of very dark
slope, droughtiness, and rapid leaching of plant brown loamy sand and 2 inches of dark reddish brown
nutrients are severe limitations, loamy sand. The transitional layer between the upper
This map unit is suited to pasture and to hay crops. subsoil and the lower subsoil is 19 inches of light gray
In the steeper areas, the slope increases the hazard of sand. The lower subsoil is gray fine sandy loam. The
erosion and reduces potential yields. Pasture and hay underlying material is reddish gray loamy sand that
crops are preferred over row crops because of the extends to a depth of more than 80 inches.
hazard of erosion. Deep-rooted plants, such as In 90 percent of the areas mapped as Mascotte
improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass, can be sand, the Mascotte soil and similar soils make up 80
grown if a medium level of management is applied, but to 99 percent of the unit. Dissimilar soils make up the
yields are reduced by periodic drought. Regular other 1 to 20 percent. Included in mapping are small
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. areas of Pottsburg and Sapelo soils in the slightly
Controlled grazing helps to maintain plant vigor, to higher positions. Pottsburg soils do not have a loamy
obtain maximum yields, and to reduce the hazard of subsoil.
erosion.
eon Important properties of the Mascotte soil-
This map unit is suited to the production of slashant of the Mascotte soil-
pine, longleaf pine, and loblolly pine. Moderate Depth to the seasonal high water table:1/2 foot to 11/2
equipment limitations, moderate seedling mortality, feet from March through September
and moderate plant competition are management Permeability: Moderate
concerns. Using field machinery that is equipped with Available water capacity: Low
large, low-pressure tires or tracks helps overcome the Flooding: None
equipment limitations, reduces the extent of soil
This soil is in the North Florida Flatwoods
compaction, and minimizes the root damage caused eoloial co nit. he te and aont o
ecological community. The type and amount of
by thinning operations. Seedling mortality caused by .
y gg m y y vegetation in this ecological community vary
droughtiness can be partly overcome by selecting eeninn the scce al stag. Areas of t
depending on the successional stage. Areas of this
proper species and by scheduling planting for times t c
.. community typically have a moderate to dense
when favorable weather is predicted. Plant competition c unit tycaly have a derate to ds
stand of pine trees and an understory of saw

can be reduced by site preparation, such as chopping a tt and rsses ona
with a drum chopper. A logging system that leaves palmetto d lngleaf pnhe areas that oriinall
most of the biomass on the surface is preferred. s p h
Establishing logging trails on the contour and planting slas
on the contour reduce the hazard of erosion during Characteristic plant community-
harvesting.
This map unit is moderately suited to urban Trees: Live oak, slash pine, longleaf pine, and loblolly
development. Slow percolation, wetness, and slope pine
are management concerns. The use of mounds for Shrubs: Ground blueberry, gallberry, saw palmetto,
onsite sewage disposal helps to overcome the shining sumac, tarflower, and wax-myrtle
wetness and slow percolation. Cutting and filling help Herbaceous plants and vines: Cat greenbrier, common
to overcome the slope. greenbrier, brackenfern, creeping beggarweed,







Hamilton County, Florida 37



deertongue, dogfennel, gayfeather, greenbrier, 14-Pottsburg sand
and milkwort
Grasses and grasslike plants: Low panicum, This very deep, poorly drained soil is in areas of
broomsedge bluestem, yellow Indiangrass, flatwoods. Individual areas are irregular in shape. They
lopsided Indiangrass, low panicum, pineland range from about 10 to 40 acres in size. Slopes range
threeawn, and sedges from 0 to 2 percent.
STypically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops. Wetness about 7 inches thick. The upper part of the subsurface
and low natural fertility are severe limitations. Adapted la tns to a deph of 9 hes. t is dk g h
crops and very intensive management practices are layer extends to a depth of 19 inches. It is dark grayish
crops and very intensive management practices are
brown sand. The lower part, which extends to a depth
needed. In areas that have a good water-control
Sthl of 51 inches, is light brownish gray sand. The upper
system, this soil is suited to many crops if soil
system, this soil is suited to many crops if soil part of the subsoil extends to a depth of 65 inches. It
improving measures are applied. A water-control
system is needed to remove excess surface waters grayish brown loamy sand. The lower part is dark
system is needed to remove excess surface water
reddish brown sand to a depth of 80 inches or
during wet periods and to provide water for subsurface
more.
irrigation during dry periods. Row crops should be more.
In 90 percent of the areas mapped as Pottsburg
rotated with close-growing, soil improving cover crops. an the r so ad s r ss me u
Soil improving cover crops and residue from othersand, the Pottsburg soil and similar soils make up 87
Soil improving cover crops and residue from other
crops should be used to maintain the content of to 99 percent of the unit. Dissimilar soils make up the
crops should be used to maintain the content of .
other 1 to 13 percent. Included in mapping are small
organic matter and to help control erosion. Seedbed Incld in ppg are
Areas of Albany, Mascotte, and Plummer soils. Albany
preparation should include bedding of the rows.
soils are in the slightly higher positions. Mascotte soils
Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to the soils are in the slightly higher positions. Mascotte soils
Sd e s e p c t have loamy subsoil horizons below the stained subsoil.
needs of the crops.
neds .of the crops. Plummer soils are in the slightly lower positions and
This soil is suited to pasture and to hay crops.
Improved bermudagrass, improved bahiagrass, andave a loamy
clover are well adapted to this soil and grow well if I t p s o t P
properly managed. A water-control system is needed
to remove excess surface water during heavy rains. Depth to the seasonal high water table: 1/2 to 1 foot
Regular applications of fertilizer are needed to obtain from March through September
high yields. Controlled grazing helps to maintain plant Permeability: Moderate
vigor. Available water capacity: Low
This soil is suited to the production of slash pine Flooding: None
and loblolly pine. Moderate equipment limitations, This soil is in the North Florida Flatwoods
moderate seedling mortality, and moderate plant
moderate seedling mortality, and moderate plant ecological community (fig. 4). The type and amount of
competition are management concerns. Bedding of
rows helps to overcome the limitations caused by vegetation n th l nityvary
ws helps to overcome the limitations c d by depending on the successional stage. The areas that
excessive wetness. Using field machinery that is
excessive wetness. Usig field machine th is originally supported longleaf pine have been replanted
equipped with low-pressure tires or tracks helps to slash me. T has a moderate
to slash pine. This community typically has a moderate
overcome the equipment limitations, reduces the y
eet imin es the to dense stand of pine trees and an understory of saw
extent of soil compaction, and minimizes the root palmetto and grasses.
damage caused by thinning operations. Plant
competition can be controlled by site preparation, such Cc pt
Characteristic plant community--
as chopping with a drum chopper. Conventional
methods of harvesting timber generally can be used Trees: Live oak, slash pine, longleaf pine, loblolly pine,
but may be limited during rainy periods. A logging and water oak
system that leaves most of the biomass on the surface Shrubs: Ground blueberry, gallberry, saw palmetto,
is preferred. shining sumac, tarflower, and wax-myrtle
This soil is poorly suited to urban development. The Herbaceous plants and vines: Cat greenbrier, common
seasonal high water table, poor filtration, and sandy greenbrier, brackenfern, creeping beggarweed,
textures are management concerns. Deep drainage deertongue, dogfennel, gayfeather, milkwort, and
can help to lower the seasonal high water table. If this blackberry
soil is used as a site for septic tanks absorption fields, Grasses and grasslike plants: Low panicum,
mounding is needed. broomsedge bluestem, yellow Indiangrass,
The capability subclass is Illw. The woodland lopsided Indiangrass, pineland threeawn, Chalky
ordination symbol is 11W. bluestem, and sedges






38 Soil Survey












...



























have been removed from this location. Pamlico muck, depressional, which is a very poorly drained soil, is in the background.
i k
..4- -0, ,'





















.-crops and very intensive management practices are to this soil and grow well if properly managed. A water- ..
i .K ^ :::- -+'-^ k. ., '















needed. In areas that have a good water-control control system is needed to remove excess surface
system, this soil is suited to many crops if soil water during heavy rains. Regular applications of



Soil improving cover crops area th a nd residue from otherol competition are m management concerns. Using field
crops should be usuited to maintain the content of machinery thati is equipped with relarge, low-preassure




organic matter and to help control wind erosion, rubber tires or tracks helps overcome the equipment
Seedbed preparation should include bedding of the limitations, reduces the extent of soil compaction, and
rows. Fertilizer and lime should be applied according minimizes the root damage caused by thinning
to the needs of the crops, operations. Plant competition can be controlled by site
1B~i-ll..~1i-~ ~Jt a ~t:~~5~~sp;~.~t ~ ~a~t~v, kr,.
-q-~t
Figue 4-Anareaof he ort FloidaFlawoos eclogcalcomunit onPotsbur sad i th forgrond.Allof te pne ree
haebe emvdfo hi oain Pmiomck ersinawihi avr orl rie oii nte akrud

Ths oi i nt uiedt cltvaedcrps Wtns Tissol s uiedt improed pstur grases
andlo ntualfetiit ae evreliittins Aaptd mpovd erudgrssan covr rewel date



imroig eauesar ppie.A aercotolfetlierae eee t btinhghyils.Cotole
syte i needtoreoe xcsssufcewaergaznghepst minai lat igr






Hamilton County, Florida 39



preparation, such as chopping with a drum chopper. A Shrubs: American beautyberry, arrowwood,
logging system that leaves most of the biomass on the sparkleberry, and wax-myrtle
surface is preferred. Herbaceous plants and vines: Aster, cat greenbrier,
This soil is poorly suited to urban development. The common greenbrier, crossvine, partridgeberry,
seasonal high water table, poor filtration, and sandy partridge pea, poison ivy, ragweed, Virginia
textures are management concerns. Deep drainage creeper, wild grape, yellow jessamine, dotted
can help to lower the seasonal high water table. If this horsemint, and blackberry
soil is used as a site for septic tanks absorption fields, Grasses and grasslike plants: Low panicum,
mounding is needed. switchgrass, and broomsedge
The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland cultivated crops. The
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. The
ordination symbol is 10W. sandy textures are a management concern. Corn,
peanuts, and watermelons can be grown on this soil
15-Valdosta sand, 0 to 5 percent but require moderately intensive management,
including such conservation practices as a crop
SlopeS rotation system that includes cover crops, the return of
crop residue to the soil, and proper applications of
This very deep, somewhat excessively drained soil a
This very deep, somewhat excessively drained soil fertilizer and lime. Irrigation is needed during drought
is on the uplands. Individual areas are irregular in periods. Wind erosion is a severe hazard if the surface
shape. They range from about 15 to 300 acres in size. layer is unprotected
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown sand
This soil is suited to pasture and to hay crops.
about 9 inches thick. The upper part of the subsoil Deep-rooted plants, such as improved bermudagrass
extends to a depth of 23 inches. It is yellowish brown an bahiagrass, can be grown if a high level of
loamy sand. The lower part, which extends to a depthag nt i aid bu y ae re e
of 58 inches, is dark yellowish brown grading to management is applied, but yields are reduced by
of 58 inches, is dark yellowish brown grading to periodic drought. Regular applications of fertilizer and
yellowish brown loamy sand. The underlying material Controlled grazing helps to maintain
lime are needed. Controlled grazing helps to maintain
to a depth of 80 inches or more is light yellowish maximum yields.
brown loamy sand and contains thin strata of yellowish v o m i ied
brown ay a a a This soil is suited to the production of slash pine,
brown sandy loam. longleaf pine, and loblolly pine. Moderate seedling
In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Valdosta
mortality is a management concern. The sandy texture
sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, the Valdosta soil and restricts the use of wheeled equipment. This restriction
similar soils make up 79 to 99 percent of the unit.
Dsml can be overcome by harvesting when the soil is moist.
Dissimilar soils make up the other 1 to 21 percent. Seedling mortality caused by droughtiness can be
Included in mapping are small areas of Blanton and y increasing the
Lowndes soils. Blanton soils have a loamy subsoil partly overcome by increasing the rate and depth of
Lowndes soils. Blanton soils have a loamy subsoil mulching with the residual
tree planting and by mulching with the residual
below a depth of 40 inches. Lowndes soils have a harvesting. A logging system
biomass that is left after harvesting. A logging system
loamy horizon between depths of 20 and 40 inches. that leaves most of the biomass on the surface is
Important properties of the Valdosta soil- preferred.
h to te s l hh w r t : M t 6 This soil is suited to urban development. The sandy
Depth to the seasonal high water table: More than 6 r
feettextures are a management concern. The use of
Permeability Rapid drought-tolerant plants and grasses helps to overcome
Permeability: Rapid
this problem.
Available water capacity: Low this problem.
Flood: Ne The capability subclass is Ills. The woodland
Flooding: None .
ordination symbol is 10S.
This soil is in the Mixed Hardwood and Pine
ecological community.
ecological community. 16-Valdosta sand, 5 to 8 percent
Characteristic plant community- slopes
slopes
Trees: Blue beech, American holly, black cherry,
eastern hophornbeam, flowering dogwood, This very deep, excessively drained soil is on
hawthorn, laurel oak, laurelcherry, live oak, uplands. Individual areas are irregular in shape. They
longleaf pine, loblolly pine, slash pine, pignut range from about 15 to 300 acres in size.
hickory, southern magnolia, sweetgum, and water Typically, the surface layer is dark brown sand
oak about 9 inches thick. The subsoil is loamy sand. The






40 Soil Survey



upper part of the subsoil extends to a depth of 23 management is applied, but yields are reduced by
inches and is yellowish brown. The lower part extends periodic drought. Regular applications of fertilizer and
to a depth of 58 inches and is dark yellowish brown lime are needed. Controlled grazing helps to maintain
grading to yellowish brown. The underlying material to plant vigor and to obtain maximum yields.
a depth of 80 inches or more is light yellowish brown This soil is suited to the production of slash pine,
loamy sand that has thin layers of yellowish brown longleaf pine, and loblolly pine. Moderate seedling
sandy loam. mortality is a management concern. The sandy texture
In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Valdosta restricts the use of wheeled equipment. This restriction
sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, the Valdosta soil and can be overcome by harvesting when the soil is moist.
similar soils make up 79 to 99 percent of the unit. Seedling mortality caused by droughtiness can be
Dissimilar soils make up the other 1 to 21 percent. partly overcome by increasing the rate and depth of
Included in mapping are small areas of Lowndes soils tree planting and by mulching with the residual
that have a loamy horizon between depths of 20 and biomass that is left after harvesting. A logging system
40 inches. that leaves most of the biomass on the surface is
Important properties of the Valdosta soil- preferred.
This soil is suited to urban development. The sandy
Depth to the seasonal high water table: More than 6 textures are a management concern. The use of
feet drought-tolerant plants and grasses helps to overcome
Permeability: Rapid this problem.
Available water capacity: Low The capability subclass is IVs. The woodland
Flooding: None ordination symbol is 10S.
This soil is in the Mixed Hardwood and Pine
ecological community. 17-Wadley sand, 5 to 12 percent

Characteristic plant community- slopes
Trees: Blue beech, American holly, black cherry, This very deep, well drained soil is on uplands.
eastern hophornbeam, flowering dogwood, Individual areas are irregular in shape. They range
hawthorn, laurel oak, laurelcherry, live oak, from about 15 to 40 acres in size.
longleaf pine, loblolly pine, slash pine, pignut Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
hickory, southern magnolia, sweetgum, and water sand about 3 inches thick. Next is 3 inches of dark
oak brown sand. The subsurface layer extends to a depth
Shrubs: American beautyberry, arrowwood, of 70 inches. It is dark yellowish brown sand in the
sparkleberry, and wax-myrtle upper part, yellowish brown loamy sand in the next
Herbaceous plants and vines: Aster, cat greenbrier, part, and very pale brown sand in the lower part. The
common greenbrier, crossvine, partridgeberry, underlying material is reddish yellow sandy clay loam
partridge pea, poison ivy, ragweed, Virginia to a depth of 80 inches or more.
creeper, wild grape, yellow jessamine, dotted In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Wadley sand,
horsemint, and blackberry 5 to 12 percent slopes, the Wadley soil and similar
Grasses and grasslike plants: Low panicum, soils make up 76 to 98 percent of the unit. Dissimilar
switchgrass, and broomsedge soils make up the other 2 to 24 percent. Included in
mapping are small areas of Foxworth soils, which are
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops. The sandy
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops. The sandy in the lower positions, have a seasonal high water
textures are a management concern. Corn, peanuts,
and watermelons can be grown on this soil but require
moderately intensive management, including such Important properties of the Wadley soil-
conservation practices as a crop rotation system that Depth to the seasonal high water table: More than 6
includes cover crops, the return of crop residue to the feet
soil, and proper applications of fertilizer and lime. Permeability:Moderate
Irrigation is needed during drought periods. Wind Available water capacity: Low
erosion is a severe hazard if the surface layer is Flooding: None
unprotected.
This soil is suited to pasture and to hay crops. This soil is in the Upland Hardwood Hammocks
Deep-rooted plants, such as improved bermudagrass ecological community. The type and amount of
and bahiagrass, can be grown if a high level of vegetation in this ecological community vary







Hamilton County, Florida 41



depending on the successional stage. In the early The capability subclass is Vis. The woodland
successional stages, pine and sweetgum generally are ordination symbol is 11S.
dominant and the understory is blackberries and
broomsedge. This community is considered to be in a
climax stage of vegetation when it has only a few 18-Wadley sand, 0 to 5 percent
pines and is dominated by hardwoods. Under climax slopes
conditions, the understory vegetation may be quite
sparse. This very deep, well drained soil is on uplands.
Individual areas are irregular in shape. They range
from about 15 to 50 acres in size.
Trees: Blue beech, American holly, black cherry, Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
eastern hophornbeam, flowering dogwood, sand about 3 inches thick. Next is 3 inches of dark
hawthorn, laurel oak, bluejack oak, laurelcherry, brown sand. The subsurface layer, which extends to a
turkey oak, live oak, longleaf pine, loblolly pine, depth of 50 inches, is light yellowish brown grading to
slash pine, pignut hickory, southern magnolia, very pale brown sand. The next layer, which extends to
sweetgum, and water oak a depth of 62 inches, is very pale brown sand that has
Shrubs: American beautyberry, arrowwood, thin layers of yellowish brown loamy sand. The subsoil,
sparkleberry, and wax-myrtle which extends to a depth of 80 inches or more, is
Herbaceous plants and vines: Aster, cat greenbrier, yellowish brown grading to strong brown sandy clay
common greenbrier, crossvine, partridgeberry, loam.
partridge pea, poison ivy, ragweed, Virginia In 90 percent of the areas mapped as Wadley sand,
creeper, wild grape, yellow jessamine, dotted 0 to 5 percent slopes, the Wadley soil and similar soils
horsemint, and blackberry make up 75 to 99 percent of the unit. Dissimilar soils
Grasses and grasslike plants: Low panicum, make up the other 1 to 25 percent. Included in
switchgrass, and broomsedge mapping are some small areas of Alpin and Blanton
soils. Alpin soils do not have continuous subsoil
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops. The sandy soils. Alpinsois do not have continuous subsoil
horizons. Blanton soils are in the lower positions and
texus and the slope are manaeent concerns, have a seasonal high water table within a depth of 4
This soil is poorly suited to pasture and to hay feet.
crops. Deep-rooted plants, such as coastal
bermudagrass and bahiagrass, can be grown if a very Important properties of the Wadley soil-
high level of management is applied, but yields are Depth to the seasonal high water table: More than 6
reduced by periodic drought. Regular applications of feet
fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing should be
strictly controlled to maintain plant vigor and to obtain Permeability Moderate
maximum yields. Available water capacity: Low
maximum yields.
This soil is suited to the production of slash pine,looding None
longleaf pine, and loblolly pine. Moderate equipment This soil is in the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills
limitations, moderate seedling mortality, and moderate ecological community, which has several variations of
plant competition are management concerns. The tree stands. Mature, natural stands of trees have an
sandy texture restricts the use of wheeled equipment. overstory of scattered longleaf pine. In areas where
This restriction can be overcome by harvesting when the pines have been removed, oaks are predominant.
the soil is moist. Seedling mortality caused by Ground cover is scattered, and numerous bare areas
droughtiness can be partly overcome by increasing are noticeable.
the rate and depth of tree planting and by mulching
with the residual biomass that is left after harvesting. Characteristic plant community-
Plant competition can be reduced by site preparation, Trees: Longleaf pine, slash pine, loblolly pine, turkey
such as chopping with a drum chopper. A logging oak, bluejack oak, and live oak
system that leaves most of the biomass on the surface Herbaceous plants: Aster, blazingstar, brackenfern,
is preferred. butterfly pea, elephantsfoot, grassleaf goldaster,
This soil is suited to urban development. The sandy partridge pea, pineland beggarweed, sandhill
textures and the slope are management concerns. The milkweed, showy crotalaria, and wild indigo
use of drought-tolerant plants and grasses helps to Grasses and grasslike plants: Curtiss' dropseed, hairy
overcome the sandy texture. Cutting and filling help to panicum, yellow Indiangrass, low panicum, and
overcome the slope. pineywood dropseed






42 Soil Survey



This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. The Typically, the Lowndes soil has a surface layer of
course texture of the surface layer is a management dark grayish brown loamy fine sand 4 inches thick. The
concern. Plant nutrients leach rapidly. Corn, peanuts, subsurface layer, which extends to a depth of 33
and watermelons can be grown on this soil but require inches, is yellowish brown loamy sand. The upper
intensive management, including such conservation subsoil is brown sandy loam to a depth of 53 inches.
practices as a crop rotation system that includes cover The lower subsoil is strong brown sandy clay to a
crops, the return of crop residue to the soil, and proper depth of 80 inches.
applications of fertilizer and lime. Irrigation is needed Mapped areas of this unit are about 67 percent
during drought periods. Wind erosion is a severe Valdosta and similar soils and 28 percent Lowndes
hazard if the surface layer is unprotected. and similar soils. Dissimilar soils make up the other 5
This soil is suited to pasture and to hay crops. percent of the map unit. The components of this
Deep-rooted plants, such as improved bermudagrass complex occur in a regularly repeating pattern. The
and bahiagrass, can be grown if a very high level of Valdosta soils are on summits and footslopes. The
management is applied, but yields are reduced by Lowndes soils are on shoulder slopes and
periodic drought. Regular applications of fertilizer are backslopes.
needed. Controlled grazing helps to maintain plant In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Valdosta-
vigor and to obtain maximum yields. Lowndes complex, 12 to 20 percent slopes, the
This soil is suited to the production of slash pine Valdosta, Lowndes, and similar soils make up 80 to 99
and longleaf pine. Moderate equipment limitations, percent of the unit. Dissimilar soils make up the other
moderate seedling mortality, and moderate plant 1 to 20 percent. Included in mapping are small areas
competition are management concerns. The sandy of Blanton and Wampee soils. Blanton soils have a
texture restricts the use of wheeled equipment. This loamy subsoil below a depth of 40 inches. Wampee
restriction can be overcome by harvesting when the soils are in the lower positions and are somewhat
soil is moist. Seedling mortality caused by poorly drained.
droughtiness can be partly overcome by increasing
the rate and depth of tree planting and by mulching Important properties of the Valdosta and Lowndes
with the residual biomass that is left after harvesting, soils-
Plant competition can be controlled by site preparation, Depth to the seasonal high water table: More than 6
Depth to the seasonal high water table: More than 6
such as chopping with a drum chopper. A logging feet
system that leaves most of the biomass on the surface e
Permeability: Valdosta-rapid; Lowndes-moderate
is preferred.
is prefe .Available water capacity: Low
This soil is suited to urban development. It has no Flooding: None
Flooding: None
significant management concerns.
The capability subclass is Ills. The woodland This map unit is in the Mixed Hardwood and Pine
ordination symbol is 11S. ecological community, which has several variations of
tree stands. In the early successional stages, pine is
19-Valdosta-Lowndes complex, 12 present with loblolly pine predominating. As the
system matures, hardwoods replace the pines. The
to 20 percent slopes natural climax vegetation is thought to be a beech-
magnolia-maple association.
These very deep, well drained soils are on ridges magnolia-maple association.
and side slopes on uplands. Individual areas are Characteristic plant community-
irregular in shape. They range from about 5 to 20
acres in size. The individual components of this Trees: Blue beech, American holly, eastern
complex occur as areas that are too intermingled and hophornbean, flowering dogwood, hawthorns,
too small to separate at the scale selected for mapping. slash pine, longleaf pine, loblolly pine,
Typically, the Valdosta soil has a surface layer of mockernut hickory, pignut hickory, southern red
dark brown sand about 9 inches thick. The subsoil is oak, southern magnolia, white oak, and water
loamy sand. The upper part of the subsoil extends to a oak
depth of 23 inches and is yellowish brown. The lower Shrubs: Shining sumac and sparkleberry
part extends to a depth of 58 inches and is dark Herbaceous plants and vines: Aster, common
yellowish brown grading to yellowish brown. The ragweed, partridgeberry, partridge pea, poison ivy,
underlying material to a depth of 80 inches or more is viola, Virginia creeper, and wild grape
light yellowish brown loamy sand that has thin layers Grasses: Broomsedge bluestem, longleaf uniola, low
of yellowish brown sandy loam. panicum, and spike uniola







Hamilton County, Florida 43



This map unit is not suited to cultivated crops or Available water capacity: High
pasture. The slope, erodibility, droughtiness, and rapid Flooding: None
leaching of plant nutrients are management concerns. This soil is in the Shrub Bogs-Bay Swamps
This map unit is poorly suited to the production of ecological community. This community is dominated by
slash pine, longleaf pine, and loblolly pine. Moderate evergreen vegetation. Bay swamps are forested
seedling mortality and moderate equipment limitations wetlands and are considered a climax community.
are management concerns. The sandy texture of the Shrub bogs are in the earlier stages of plant
surface layer, the slope, and the hazard of erosion succession.
somewhat restrict the use of wheeled equipment.
These restrictions can be overcome by harvesting Characteristic plant community-
when the soil is moist. Seedling mortality caused by Trees: Blackgum, buckwheat tree, loblolly bay, pond
droughtiness can be partly overcome by selecting pine, redbay, sweetbay, bald cypress, and water
proper species and by scheduling planting for times tupelo
when favorable weather is predicted. Plant competition Shrubs: Black titi, doghobble, fetterbush, large
can be reduced by site preparation, such as chopping gallberry, myrtle-leaved holly, summersweet
with a drum chopper. A logging system that leaves ciethra, and titi
most of the biomass on the surface is preferred. Herbaceous plants and vines: Greenbrier and
Establishing logging trails on the contour and planting spaghnum moss
on the contour reduce the hazard of erosion during
harvesting. This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, pasture,
This map unit is not suited to urban development, production of pine trees, or urban development.
Slope is a severe limitation. Wetness, ponding, and thick layers of soft organic
The capability subclass is Vile. The woodland materials are severe limitations. Most areas of this soil
ordination symbol is 10S. are used for wetland wildlife habitat.
The capability subclass is Vllw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 4W.
20-Pamlico muck, depressional ordination symbol is 4W.

This very deep, very poorly drained soil is in 21-Plummer and Surrency soils,
swamps and depressions. Individual areas are depressional
irregular in shape. They range from about 10 to 75 depression
acres in size. These very deep, very poorly drained soils are in
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown muck over depressions. Individual areas are
black muck and is about 25 inches thick. The
irregular in shape. They range from about 10 to 75
underlying layers are sand and loamy fine sand to a are in size.
depth of 80 inches. The upper part of the underlyingicathe Plummer soil has a surface layer of
layers is grayish brown, and the lower part is very dark vy dak ay sad ao 9 nches tc. Te
very dark gray sand about 9 inches thick. The
gray. subsurface layer is sand. The upper part of the
In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Pamlico subsurface layer extends to a depth of 36 inches and
muck, depressional, the Pamlico soil and similar soils t
is grayish brown grading to light brownish gray. The
make up 80 to 99 percent of the unit. Dissimilar soils owner part extends to a depth of 52 inches and is light
lower part extends to a depth of 52 inches and is light
make up the other 1 to 20 percent. Included in
are small areas of Mascotte, Pelham, gray. The subsoil extends to a depth of 80 inches or
mapping are small areas of Mascotte, Pelham,
mn i more. It is light gray sandy loam grading to sandy clay
Plummer, and Pottsburg soils. Mascotte and Pottsburg loam.
soils have an organic-stained subsoil. Also, Mascotte T t S s h a
soils have a loamy subsoil. Pelham and Plummer soils the Sency s has a layerof
have sa loamy subso Pa and Psubsurfe laers a a undecomposed litter, consisting mostly of roots and
have sandy surface and subsurface layers and a
o s leaves, on the surface. Below this to a depth of 10
inches is black mucky fine sand. The upper part of the
of the Pamlico soil- subsurface layer extends to a depth of 22 inches. It is
Important properties of the Pamlico soil--
light gray sand.The lower part, which extends to a
Seasonal high water table: At the surface to a depth of depth of 24 inches, is grayish brown loamy sand. The
1 foot from December through May; ponded for subsoil to a depth of 80 inches or more is dark gray
long periods following high amounts of rainfall fine sandy loam and dark gray loamy sand.
Permeability: Moderate Mapped areas of this unit are 50 percent Plummer







44 Soil Survey



and similar soils and 33 percent Surrency and similar Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
soils. Each of the soils is not in every mapped area; fine sand about 3 inches thick. The upper part of the
the relative proportion of each soil varies, subsurface layer, to a depth of 15 inches, is light
In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Plummer and yellowish brown fine sand. The next part, to a depth of
Surrency soils, depressional, the Plummer, Surrency, 50 inches, is very pale brown grading to yellow fine
and similar soils make up 80 to 99 percent of the unit. sand. The lower part, to a depth of 72 inches, is very
Dissimilar soils make up the other 1 to 20 percent. pale brown sand grading to white sand that has thin
Included in mapping are small areas of Mascotte and layers of very pale brown loamy sand.
Pottsburg soils that have organic-stained subsoil In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Alpin fine
horizons. Also, Pottsburg soils do not have loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, occasionally flooded, the
subsoil horizons. Alpin soil and similar soils make up 80 to 99 percent of
the unit. Dissimilar soils make up the other 1 to 20
Important properties of the Plummer and Surrency the unit. Dissimlar i make upthe other 1 t20
soils-- percent. Included in mapping are small areas of
Blanton soils that are in the lower positions, have a
Seasonal high water table: Ponded for long periods seasonal high water table, and have a loamy subsoil.
following high amounts of rainfall.
oowin hi aot o raia Important properties of the Alpin soil-
Permeability: Moderate
Available water capacity: High Depth to the seasonal high water table: More than 6
Flooding: None feet
Permeability: Rapid
This map unit is in the Shrub Bogs-Bay Swamps Permeabiity Rapi
., Available water capacity: Low
ecological community. This community is dominated by Ailale wr capit
Flooding: Occasional
evergreen vegetation. Bay swamps are forested
wetlands and are considered a climax community. This soil is in the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills
Shrub bogs are in the earlier stages of plant ecological community, which has several variations of
succession. tree stands. Mature, natural stands of trees have an
overstory of scattered longleaf pine. In areas where
Characteristic plant community-p
the pines have been removed, oaks are predominant.
Trees: Blackgum, buckwheat tree, loblolly bay, pond Ground cover is scattered, and numerous bare areas
pine, redbay, slash pine, and sweetbay are noticeable.
Shrubs: Black titi, doghobble, fetterbush, large Characteristic plant community-
gallberry, myrtle-leaved holly, summersweet
ciethra, and titi Trees: Longleaf pine, loblolly pine, slash pine, turkey
Herbaceous plants and vines: Greenbrier and oak, bluejack oak, and post oak
spaghnum moss Herbaceous plants: Aster, blazingstar, brackenfern,
butterfly pea, elephantsfoot, grassleaf goldaster,
This map unit is not suited to cultivated crops, partridge pea, pineland beggarweed, sandhill
pasture, production of pine trees, or urban milkweed, showy crotalaria, and wild indigo
development. Wetness, ponding, and thick layers of mw s c ai a w indig
development. Wetness, ponding, and thick layers of Grasses and grasslike plants: Curtiss' dropseed, hairy
soft organic materials are severe limitations. Most panicum, yellow Indiangrass, low panicum, and
areas of this map unit are used for wetland wildlife pineywood dropseed
habitat. pineywood dropseed
habitat.
The capability subclass is Vllw in areas of the This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. The
Plummer soil and Vlw in areas of the Surrency soil. coarse texture prevents the soil from retaining
The woodland ordination symbol is 7W in areas of the sufficient moisture during the dry periods. The
Plummer soil and 10W in areas of the Surrency soil. occasional flooding is a management concern. Plant
nutrients leach rapidly. Corn, peanuts, and
watermelons can be grown on this soil but require
22-Alpin fine sand, 0 to 5 percent intensive management, including such conservation
slopes, occasionally flooded practices as a crop rotation system that includes cover
crops, the return of crop residue to the soil, and proper
This very deep, excessively drained soil is on river applications of fertilizer and lime. Irrigation is needed
terraces and creek terraces. Individual areas are during drought periods. Wind erosion is a severe
irregular in shape. They range from about 20 to 100 hazard if the surface layer is unprotected. Planting
acres in size. cover crops helps to minimize this hazard.







Hamilton County, Florida 45



This soil is suited to pasture and to hay crops. Available water capacity: Low
Seasonal droughtiness is a management concern. Flooding: None
Deep-rooted plants, such as improved bermudagrass This soil is in the Upland Hardwood Hammocks
and bahiagrass, can be grown if a high level of ecological community. The type and amount of
management is applied, but yields are reduced by vegetation in this ecological community vary
periodic drought. Regular applications of fertilizer and depending on the successional stage. In the early
lime are needed. Controlled grazing helps to maintain successional stages, pine and sweetgum generally are
plant vigor and to obtain maximum yields. Regular dominant and the understory is blackberries and
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. broomsedge. This community is considered to be in a
This soil is suited to the production of slash pine, climax stage of vegetation when it has only a few
longleaf pine, and sand pine. Moderate equipment pines and is dominated by hardwoods. Under climax
limitations and seedling mortality are management conditions, the understory vegetation may be quite
concerns. The equipment limitations can be overcome
by harvesting when the soil is moist. Seedling mortality
can be partly offset by increasing the rate and depth of Characteristic plant community-
tree planting and by mulching with the residual
biomass that is left after harvesting. A logging system b e n ,
eastern hophornbeam, flowering dogwood,
that leaves most of the biomass on the surface is a rn, ae o laurelcherry, live oak,
hawthorn, laurel oak, laurelcherry, live oak,
preferred
preferred. 'longleaf pine, loblolly pine, slash pine, pignut
This soil is not suited to urban development. The ioy, oen magnolia sweetgum, water oak,
hickory, southern magnolia, sweetgum, water oak,
flooding is a severe hazardturkey oak, southern red oak, and live oak
The capability subclass is IVs. The woodland Shrubs: American beautyberry, arrowwood,
ordination symbol is 8S.
ordination symbol is 8S. sparkleberry, and wax-myrtle
Herbaceous plants and vines: Aster, cat greenbrier,
23-Blanton loamy sand, O to 5 common greenbrier, crossvine, partridgeberry,
rnt s partridge pea, poison ivy, ragweed, Virginia
percent slopes creeper, wild grape, yellow jessamine, dotted
horsemint, and blackberry
This very deep, moderately well drained soil is in horsemint, and blackberry
Grasses and grasslike plants: Low panicum,
broad low areas on uplands. Individual areas are s gs
switchgrass, and broomsedge
irregular in shape. They range from about 3 to 40
acres in size. This soil is suited to cultivated crops. Seasonal
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish droughtiness and low fertility are management
brown loamy sand about 6 inches thick. The concerns. Irrigation is needed during dry periods.
subsurface layer, which extends to a depth of 56 Residue management, including minimum tillage, is
inches, is loamy sand. It is dark brown grading to needed to preserve moisture during dry periods and to
yellowish brown, brownish yellow, and yellow. The minimize erosion. Lime and fertilizer should be applied
upper part of the subsoil extends to a depth of 59 to compensate for the low fertility.
inches. It is very pale brown sandy clay loam. The This soil is suited to improved pasture grasses.
lower part to a depth of 80 inches is sandy clay loam Improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass produce
that is mottled in shades of gray, yellow, and brown. good yields if properly managed. Controlled grazing
In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Blanton and proper applications of lime and fertilizer are
loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, the Blanton soil needed to obtain optimum production.
and similar soils make up 80 to 99 percent of the unit. This soil is suited to the production of loblolly pine,
Dissimilar soils make up the other 1 to 20 percent. slash pine, and longleaf pine. Moderate equipment
Included in mapping are small areas of Kenansville limitations and moderate seedling mortality are
and Valdosta soils. The well drained Kenansville soils management concerns. Site preparation, such as
do not have a water table within a depth of 6 feet. harrowing and bedding, helps establish seedlings,
Valdosta soils do not have a continuous loamy subsoil. reduces the seedling mortality rate, and increases
Important properties of the Blanton soil- early growth. Chopping and bedding minimize debris,
help to control competing vegetation, and facilitate
Seasonal high water table: At a depth of 4 to 6 feet planting. Using field machinery that is equipped with
from March through August, perched large, low-pressure rubber tires or tracks helps
Permeability: Moderate overcome the equipment limitations, reduces the







46 Soil Survey



extent of soil compaction, and minimizes the root dominated by hardwoods. Under climax conditions, the
damage caused by thinning operations. Logging understory vegetation may be quite sparse.
systems that leave residual biomass well distributedharacteristic plant community-
Characteristic plant community--
over the site increase the content of organic matter
and the residual fertility of the soil. Trees: Blue beech, American holly, black cherry,
This soil is suited to urban development. Wetness eastern hophornbeam, flowering dogwood,
and seepage are management concerns. Shallow hawthorn, laurel oak, laurelcherry, live oak, loblolly
placement of septic tank absorption field lines or the pine, longleaf pine, slash pine, pignut hickory,
use of a mound system helps to overcome these southern magnolia, sweetgum, and water oak
concerns. Shrubs: American beautyberry, arrowwood,
The capability subclass is Ills. The woodland sparkleberry, and wax-myrtle
ordination symbol is 11S. Herbaceous plants and vines: Aster, cat greenbrier,
common greenbrier, crossvine, partridgeberry,
partridge pea, poison ivy, ragweed, Virginia
24-Ocilla loamy fine sand, 0 to 5 creeper, wild grape, yellow jessamine, dotted
percent slopes horsemint, and blackberry
Grasses and grasslike plants: Low panicum,
This very deep, somewhat poorly drained soil is on switchgrass, and broomsedge bluestem
low uplands. Individual areas are irregular in shape. This soil is suited to cultivated crops. Seasonal
They range from about 3 to 75 acres in size. management concerns.
wetness and low fertility are management concerns.
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray loamy fine Irrigation is needed during dry periods. Residue
sand about 10 inches thick. The subsurface layer,
sand about 10 inches thick The subsurface layer, management, including minimum tillage, is needed to
which extends to a depth of 34 inches, is light
owih e wn to a depth of 34 inhes, is light preserve moisture during dry periods and to minimize
yellowish brown loamy fine sand grading to pale yellow erosion. Lime and fertilizer, which are needed to
fine sand grading to brownish yellow loamy fine sand. compensate for the low fertility of the soil, should be
The upper part of the subsoil extends to a depth of 52 applied according to the needs of the crop.
inches. It is mottled dark yellowish brown and red fine This soil is suited to improved pasture grasses.
sandy loam. The lower part is gray sandy clay to a Improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass produce
depth of 80 inches. moderate yields if properly managed. Controlled
In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Ocilla loamy grazing and proper applications of lime and fertilizer
fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, the Ocilla soil and are needed to obtain optimum production.
similar soils make up 80 to 99 percent of the unit. This soil is suited to the production of loblolly pine,
Dissimilar soils make up the other 1 to 20 percent. slash pine, and longleaf pine. Equipment limitations,
Included in mapping are small areas of Blanton and seedling mortality, and plant competition are
Pelham soils. Blanton soils are in the slightly higher management concerns. Site preparation, such as
landscape positions and are better drained than the harrowing and bedding, helps establish seedlings,
Ocilla soil. Pelham soils are in the slightly lower reduces the seedling mortality rate, and increases
positions and are poorly drained, early growth. Chopping and bedding minimize debris,
Important properties of the Ocilla soil- help to control competing vegetation, and facilitate
Depth to the seasonal high water table: 1 foot to 21/2 planting. Using field machinery that is equipped with
Depth to the seasonal high water table: 1 foot to 22 large, low-pressure rubber tires or tracks helps
feet from December through April overcome the equipment limitations, reduces the
Permeability: Moderate extent of soil compaction, and minimizes the root
Available water capacity: Low damage caused by thinning operations. Logging
Flooding: None systems that leave residual biomass well distributed
This soil is in the Upland Hardwood Hammocks over the site increase the content of organic matter
ecological community. The type and amount of and the residual fertility of the soil.
vegetation in this ecological community vary depending This soil is poorly suited to urban development. The
on the successional stage. In the early successional seasonal high water table and the sandy textures are
stages, pine and sweetgum generally are dominant management concerns. Deep drainage can help to
and the understory is blackberries and broomsedge. lower the seasonal high water table. The use of a
This community is considered to be in a climax stage mound system for onsite sewage disposal helps to
of vegetation when it has only a few pines and is overcome the seasonal high water table.







Hamilton County, Florida 47



The capability subclass is IIIw. The woodland Available water capacity: Low
ordination symbol is 8W. Flooding: None
This map unit is in the Upland Hardwood Hammocks
25-Wampee-Blanton complex, 8 to ecological community. The type and amount of
vegetation in this ecological community vary depending
12 percent slopes on the successional stage. In the early successional
stages, pine and sweetgum generally are dominant and
These very deep, somewhat poorly drained and the understory is blackberries and broomsedge. This
moderately well drained soils are on side slopes on community is considered to be in a climax stage of
uplands. Individual areas are irregular in shape. They vegetation when it has only a few pines and is
range from about 5 to 40 acres in size. The individual dominated by hardwoods. Under climax conditions, the
components of this complex occur as areas that are understory vegetation may be quite sparse.
too intermingled and too small to separate at the scale
selected for mapping. Characteristic plant community-
Typically, the Wampee soil has a surface layer of Trees: Blue beech, American holly, black cherry,
dark gray loamy sand about 6 inches thick. The eastern hophornbeam, flowering dogwood,
subsurface layer, which extends to a depth of 26 hawthorn, laurel oak, laurelcherry, live oak, loblolly
inches, is brown grading to light brownish gray loamy pine, longleaf pine, slash pine, pignut hickory,
sand. The subsoil, which extends to a depth of 51 southern magnolia, sweetgum, water oak, and red
inches, is light brownish gray gravelly sandy clay loam. mle
The substratum is pale yellow sandy clay to a depth of b
Shrubs: American beautyberry, arrowwood,
80 inches.
Wince. sparkleberry, and wax-myrtle
Typically, the Blanton soil has a surface layer of sparkleberry, and wax-myrtle
ypaly the B on so has a surface laye o Herbaceous plants and vines: Aster, cat greenbrier,
dark grayish brown sand about 9 inches thick. The
subsurface layer, which extends to a depth of 54 prtridge pea, poison iv, rgee, artrid rr
inches, is yellowish brown grading to very pale brown p arid e pea, pis iy ragee, Virgin
creeper, wild grape, yellow jessamine, dotted
sand. The upper part of the subsoil extends to a depth horsemint, and blackberry
of 63 inches. It is yellowish brown sandy clay loam. se and grasslike plants: Low panicum,
of Grasses and grasslike plants: Low panicum,
The lower part to a depth of 80 inches is light brownish switchgrass, and broomsedge bluestem
gray or gray sandy clay loam. The subsoil has brown
and gray mottles. This map unit is poorly suited to cultivated crops.
The components of this complex occur in a Seasonal wetness, slope, erodibility, and low fertility
regularly repeating pattern. The Wampee soils are on are management concerns. Residue management,
shoulder slopes and backslopes. The Blanton soils are including minimum tillage, is needed to preserve
on summits and footslopes. moisture during dry periods and to minimize erosion.
In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Wampee- Lime and fertilizer, which are needed to compensate
Blanton complex, 8 to 12 percent slopes, the Wampee, for the low fertility of the soil, should be applied
Blanton, and similar soils make up 75 to 99 percent of according to the needs of the crop. Row crops and
the unit. Dissimilar soils make up the other 1 to 25 close growing crops should be planted on the contour
percent. Included in mapping are small areas of in alternating strips. The establishment of improved
Albany, Mascotte, and Plummer soils. Albany soils pasture is preferred due to the highly intensive
have a loamy subsoil below a depth of 40 inches. management required for the production of row crops.
Mascotte soils have organic-stained subsoil horizons. This map unit is suited to improved pasture
Plummer soils are in the slightly lower positions and grasses. Improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass
are poorly drained. produce moderate yields if properly managed.
Important properties of the Wampee and Blanton Controlled grazing and proper applications of lime and
soils-- fertilizer are needed to obtain optimum production.
This map unit is suited to the production of loblolly
Depth to the seasonal high water table: Wampee-1 to pine, slash pine, and longleaf pine. Moderate
3 feet from June through December; Blanton-4 to equipment limitations, moderate seedling mortality,
6 feet from March through August and moderate plant competition are management
Permeability: Blanton-moderate; Wampee- concerns. Site preparation, such as harrowing and
moderately slow bedding, helps establish seedlings, reduces the







48 Soil Survey



seedling mortality rate, and increases early growth. Mapped areas of this unit are about 53 percent
Chopping and bedding minimize debris, help to control Mascotte and similar soils and 36 percent Plummer
competing vegetation, and facilitate planting. Using and similar soils. Each of the soils is not in every
field machinery that is equipped with large, low- mapped area; the relative proportion of each soil
pressure rubber tires or tracks helps overcome the varies.
equipment limitations, reduces the extent of soil In 90 percent of the areas mapped as Mascotte and
compaction, and minimizes the root damage caused Plummer soils, occasionally flooded, the Mascotte,
by thinning operations. Logging systems that leave Plummer, and similar soils make up 85 to 99 percent
residual biomass well distributed over the site increase of the unit. Dissimilar soils make up the other 1 to 15
the content of organic matter and the residual fertility percent. Included in mapping are small areas of
of the soil. Stockade soils, which do not have organic-stained
This map unit is poorly suited to urban subsoil layers and do have a loamy subsoil within a
development. Wetness, slow percolation, slope, and depth of 20 inches.
seepage are management concerns. The use of a
mound system for onsite sewage disposal helps to Important properties of the Mascotte and Plummer
overcome the wetness, slow percolation, and soils-
seepage. Cutting and filling can help to minimize the D t t s h
slope in some areas. Depth to the seasonal high water table: 1 foot from
slope in some areas.
December through September
The capability subclass is VIs in areas of the December through September
Wampee soil and IVs in areas of the Blanton soil. Permeability Moderate
Available water capacity: Low
The woodland ordination symbol is 11W in areas of Flooding: Occasional
the Wampee soil and 11S in areas of the Blanton
soil. This map unit is in the North Florida Flatwoods
ecological community. The type and amount of
vegetation in this ecological community vary
26-Mascotte and Plummer soils, depending on the successional stage. This community
occasionally flooded typically has a moderate to dense stand of pine trees
and an understory of saw palmetto and grasses. The
These very deep, poorly drained soils are in areas that originally supported longleaf pine have
drainageways in areas of flatwoods and in areas been replanted to slash pine.
bordering swamps and depressions. Individual
areas are elongated in shape. They range from Characteristic plant community-
about 5 to 40 acres in size. Slopes are less than 1
STrees: Laurel oak, longleaf pine, slash pine, and water
percent. o
Typically, the Mascotte soil has a surface layer of
S. Shrubs: Ground blueberry, gallberry, saw palmetto,
very dark gray sand about 5 inches thick. The
S-shining sumac, tarflower, and wax-myrtle
subsurface layer is grayish brown sand about 7 inches shining sumac, tarflower, and wax-myrtle
subsurface layer is grayish brown sand about 7 inches Herbaceous plants and vines: Cat greenbrier, common
thick. The upper part of the upper subsoil is stained greenbrier, brackenfern, creeping beggarweed,
with organic matter. In sequence downward, the upper deertongue, dogfennel, gayfeather, greenbrier,
subsoil is 2 inches of black sand, 6 inches of very dark and milkwort
and milkwort
grayish brown sand, and 8 inches of dark reddish Grasses and grasslike plants: Low panicum,
brown sand. The transitional layer between the upper broomsedge bluestem, yellow Indiangrass,
subsoil and the lower subsoil is 7 inches of brown
lopsided Indiangrass, low panicum, pineland
loamy sand. The upper part of the lower subsoil is 3 threeawn, and sedges
inches of light gray sandy loam. Below this is 7 inches
of light gray sandy clay loam, which grades to sandy This map unit is not suited to cultivated crops,
loam to a depth of more than 80 inches. pasture, woodland, sanitary facilities, or urban
Typically, the Plummer soil has a surface layer of development. The flooding and wetness are severe
very dark gray sand about 9 inches thick. The limitations.
subsurface layer is sand. It is grayish brown grading to The capability subclass is Vw in areas of the
light brownish gray to a depth of 36 inches. Below this Mascotte soil and IVw in areas of the Plummer soil.
it is light gray to a depth of 52 inches. The subsoil The woodland ordination symbol is 10W in areas of
extends to a depth of 80 inches or more. It is light gray the Mascotte soil and 11W in areas of the Plummer
sandy loam grading to sandy clay loam. soil.







Hamilton County, Florida 49




27-Kenansville loamy sand, 0 to 5 adapted to the area can be grown on this soil but
require good management and the use of
percent slopes conservation practices, such as a crop rotation system
that includes cover crops, the return of crop residue to
This very deep, well drained soil is on uplands the soil, and proper applications of fertilizer and lime.
Individual areas are irregular in shape. They range Irrigation is needed during drought periods. Wind
from 5 to 25 acres in size.
fro 5 to 2 acres se erosion is a hazard if the surface layer is unprotected.
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown loamy .
sand about 9 inches thick. The subsurface layer, This soil is suited to pasture and to hay crops.
sand about inches thick. The subsurface layer, which Droughtiness is a management concern. Deep-rooted
extends to a depth of 23 inches, is yellowish brown
loamy sand. The subsoil, which extends to a depth of plants, such as improved bermudagrass and
bahiagrass, can be grown if a medium level of
58 inches, is sandy loam. It is dark yellowish brown in management is applied, but yields are reduced by
the upper part and is yellowish brown in the lower part. periodic drought. Regular alications of fertilizer and
The underlying layer is light yellowish brown loamy g g
lime are needed. Controlled grazing helps to maintain
sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Kenansville plant vigor and to obtain maximum yields.
This soil is suited to the production of slash pine,
loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, the Kenansville soil ongleaf pine, and oblolly pine. Moderate equipment
longleaf pine, and loblolly pine. Moderate equipment
and similar soils make up 80 to 99 percent of the unit.rate seedling mortality, and moderate
limitations, moderate seedling mortality, and moderate
Dissimilar soils make up the other 1 to 20 percent.
plant competition are management concerns. The
Included in mapping are small areas of Norfolk soils, plant competition are management concerns. The
ic h a l s il witin a d sandy texture somewhat restricts the use of wheeled
which have a loamy subsoil within a depth of 20
equipment. This restriction can be overcome by
inches. Also included are small areas of the soils that equipment. This restriction can be overcome by
harvesting when the soil is moist. Seedling mortality
have a slope of 5 to 8 percent and small areas of soils harestig hn te si is eedlg morly
caused by droughtiness can be partly overcome by
that have a water table within a depth of 40 to 72 inches. csed b ro ies an be partly overcome by
selecting proper species and by scheduling planting
of the K vile soil- for times when favorable weather is predicted. Plant
Important properties of the Kenansville soil-.
Im t p s competition can be controlled by site preparation, such
Depth to the seasonal high water table: More than 6 as chopping with a drum chopper. A logging system
feet that leaves most of the biomass on the surface is
Permeability: Moderately rapid preferred.
Available water capacity: Low This soil is poorly suited to urban development. The
Flooding: None poor filtration and the sandy textures are management
s sl is in te Md H d a P concerns. Depending upon the thickness of the
This soil is in the Mixed Hardwood and Pine
subsoil, an expanded absorption field may help to
ecological community, which has several variations of subsoil, an expanded absorption field may help to
pe is overcome these limitations.
tree stands. In the early successional stages, pine is rli s.
The capability subclass is IIs. The woodland
present with loblolly pine predominating. As the
ordination symbol is 8S.
system matures, hardwoods replace the pines. The
natural climax vegetation is thought to be a beech-
magnolia-maple association. 28-Wampee loamy sand, 5 to 8
Characteristic plant community- percent slopes
Trees: Blue beech, American holly, eastern
Trees: Blue beech, American holly, eastern This very deep, somewhat poorly drained soil is on
hophornbean, flowering dogwood, hawthorns, p
hophornbean, flowering dogwood, hawthorns, side slopes on uplands. Individual areas are irregular
loblolly pine, longleaf pine, mockernut hickory,
pignuy pi, lsouhern red oak, sokut hiory, in shape. They range from about 5 to 40 acres in size.
magnolia, white oak, and water oak Typically, the surface layer is dark gray loamy sand
Shrubs: Shining sumac and sparkleberry about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer, which
Herbaceous plants and vines: Aster, common extends to a depth of 26 inches, is brown grading to
ragweed, partridgeberry, partridge pea, poison ivy, light brownish gray loamy sand. The subsoil, which
viola, Virginia creeper, and wild grape extends to a depth of 51 inches, is light brownish gray
Grasses: Broomsedge bluestem, longleaf uniola, low gravelly sandy clay loam. The substratum is pale
panicum, and spike uniola yellow sandy clay to a depth of 80 inches.
In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Wampee
This soil is suited to cultivated crops. Droughtiness loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes, the Wampee soil
is a management concern. Most of the crops that are and similar soils make up 75 to 99 percent of the unit.







50 Soil Survey



Dissimilar soils make up the other 1 to 25 percent. grazing and proper applications of lime and fertilizer
Included in mapping are small areas of Blanton soils are needed to obtain optimum production.
and Albany soils. The seasonal high water table in This soil is suited to the production of loblolly
areas of the Blanton soils is below a depth of 48 pine, slash pine, and longleaf pine. Moderate
inches. Albany soils have a loamy subsoil below a equipment limitations, a moderate hazard of
depth of 40 inches, windthrow, and moderate plant competition are
management concerns. Using field machinery that
r ris equipped with large, low-pressure rubber tires or
Depth to the seasonal high water table: 1 to 3 feet tracks helps overcome the equipment limitations,
from June through December reduces the extent of soil compaction, and
Permeability: Moderately slow minimizes the root damage caused by thinning
Available water capacity: Low operations. Logging systems that leave residual
Flooding: None biomass well distributed over the site increase the
Content of organic matter and the residual fertility
This soil is in the Upland Hardwood Hammocks
of the soil. Plant competition can be reduced by
ecological community. The type and amount of
e i ni munt site preparation, such as chopping with a drum
vegetation in this ecological community vary
depending on the successional stage. In the early chopper.
This soil is poorly suited to urban development.
successional stages, pine and sweetgum generally arehs sl s p utd uan
dominant and the understory is blackberries and Wetness, slow percolaon, and seepe are
management concerns. The use of mounds for
broomsedge. This community is considered to be in a n s m t
.. onsite sewage disposal helps to minimize these
climax stage of vegetation when it has only a few
concerns
pines and is dominated by hardwoods. Under climax concerns.
The capability subclass is IVs. The woodland
conditions, the understory vegetation may be quite ordination syml s 11W.
ss ordination symbol is 11W.
sparse.

Characteristic plant community-
29-Bonneau sand, 0 to 5 percent
Trees: Blue beech, American holly, black cherry,
eastern hophornbeam, flowering dogwood, Slopes
hawthorn, red maple, laurel oak, laurelcherry, This very deep, moderately well drained soil is on
loblolly pine, slash pine, pignut hickory, southern are irregular in shape. They
uplands. Individual areas are irregular in shape. They
magnolia, sweetgum, and water oak
Shrubs: American beautyberry, arrowwood, from 5 to 25 acres in size.
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown sand
sparkleberry, and wax-myrtle about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer, which
Herbaceous plants and vines: Aster, cat greenbrier, extends to a depth of 25 inches, is yellowish brown
common greenbrier, crossvine, partridgeberry, sand. The upper part of the subsoil extends to a depth
partridge pea, poison ivy, ragweed, Virginia of 42 inches. It is yellowish brown grading to very pale
creeper, wild grape, yellow jessamine, dotted brown sandy loam. The lower part to a depth of 80
horsemint, and blackberry inches is light brownish gray sandy clay loam grading
Grasses and grasslike plants: Low panicum, to sandy clay.
switchgrass, and broomsedge In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Bonneau
This soil is suited to cultivated crops. Seasonal sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, the Bonneau soil and
wetness, slope, erodibility, and low fertility are similar soils make up 80 to 99 percent of the unit.
management concerns. Residue management, Dissimilar soils make up the other 1 to 20 percent.
including minimum tillage, is needed to preserve Included in mapping are small areas of Norfolk soils,
moisture during dry periods and to minimize erosion, which have a loamy subsoil within a depth of 20
Lime and fertilizer, which are needed to compensate inches. Also included are small areas of the soils that
for the low fertility of the soil, should be applied have a slope of 5 to 8 percent and small areas of soils
according to the needs of the crop. Row crops and that have a water table at a depth of more than 72
close growing crops should be planted on the contour inches.
in alternating strips. Important properties of the Bonneau soil-
This soil is suited to improved pasture grasses.
Improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass produce Depth to the seasonal high water table: 31/2 to 5 feet
moderate yields if properly managed. Controlled from December through March






Hamilton County, Florida 51



Permeability: Moderate This soil is suited to urban development. Wetness is
Available water capacity: Low a management concern. Shallow placement of septic
Flooding: None tank absorption field lines helps to minimize this
concern.
This soil is in the Mixed Hardwood and Pine e wood
ecological community, which has several variations of ordination symbol is 10S.
tree stands. In the early successional stages, pine is
present with loblolly pine predominating. As the
system matures, hardwoods replace the pines. The 31--Wampee-Blanton complex, 12
natural climax vegetation is thought to be a beech- to 20 percent slopes
magnolia-maple association.
Characteristic plant community- These very deep, somewhat poorly drained and
moderately well drained soils are on side slopes
Trees: Blue beech, American holly, eastern
on uplands. Individual areas are irregular or elongated
hophonbeam, flowering dogwood, hawthorn, in shape. They range from about 5 to 25 acres in size.
ongleaf pine, lobloly pine, mockernu hickory, The individual components of this complex occur as
pignut hickory, southern red oak, southern
gntoli, w white oak, and wter oak, areas that are too intermingled and too small to
magnolia, white oak, and water oak
Shrubs: Shining sumac and sparkeberry separate at the scale selected for mapping.
rubs: S ning sumac and vesplerry c Typically, the Wampee soil has a surface layer of dark
Herbaceous plants and vines: Aster, common
gray loamy sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
ragweed, partridgeberry, partridge pea, poison ivy, gray loamy sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
viola, Virginia creeper, and wild grapes layer, which extends to a depth of 26 inches, is brown
Grio la, Virginia creeper, and wild grape grading to light brownish gray loamy sand. The subsoil,
Grasses: Broomsedge bluestem, longleaf uniola, low .
which extends to a depth of 51 inches, is light brownish
panicum, and spike uniola gray gravelly sandy clay loam. The substratum is pale
This soil is suited to cultivated crops. Droughtiness yellow sandy clay to a depth of 80 inches.
is a management concern. Most of the crops that are Typically, the Blanton soil has a surface layer of
adapted to the area can be grown on this soil but dark grayish brown sand about 9 inches thick. The
require good management and the use of subsurface layer, which extends to a depth of 54
conservation practices, such as a crop rotation system inches, is yellowish brown grading to very pale brown
that includes cover crops, the return of crop residue to sand. The upper part of the subsoil extends to a depth
the soil, and proper applications of fertilizer and lime. of 63 inches. It is yellowish brown sandy clay loam.
Irrigation is needed during drought periods. Wind The lower part to a depth of 80 inches is light brownish
erosion is a hazard if the surface layer is unprotected. gray to gray sandy clay loam. The subsoil has brown
This soil is suited to pasture and to hay crops, and gray mottles.
Droughtiness is a management concern. Deep-rooted Mapped areas of this unit are about 40 percent
plants, such as improved bermudagrass and Wampee and similar soils, 27 percent Blanton and
bahiagrass, can be grown if a medium level of similar soils, and 33 percent dissimilar soils. The
management is applied, but yields are reduced by components of this complex occur in a regularly
periodic drought. Regular applications of fertilizer and repeating pattern. The Wampee soils are on shoulder
lime are needed. Controlled grazing helps to maintain slopes and backslopes.The Blanton soils are on
plant vigor and to obtain maximum yields. summits and footslopes.
This soil is suited to the production of slash pine, In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Wampee-
longleaf pine, and loblolly pine. Moderate equipment Blanton complex, 12 to 20 percent slopes, the
limitations and moderate seedling mortality are Wampee, Blanton, and similar soils make up 75 to 99
management concerns. The sandy texture somewhat percent of the unit. Dissimilar soils make up the other
restricts the use of wheeled equipment. This restriction 1 to 25 percent. Included in mapping are small areas
can be overcome by harvesting when the soil is moist. of Albany soils, which have a seasonal high water
Seedling mortality caused by droughtiness can be table within a depth of 12 inches and are in the lower
partly overcome by selecting proper species and by landscape positions.
scheduling planting for times when favorable weather I p o t
is predicted. Plant competition can be controlled by important properties of the Wampee and Blantonils-
site preparation, such as chopping with a drum
chopper. A logging system that leaves most of the Seasonal high water table: Wampee-at a depth of 1
biomass on the surface is preferred. to 3 feet from June through December, apparent;






52 Soil Survey



Blanton-at a depth of 4 to 6 feet from March competing vegetation, and facilitate planting. Using
through August, perched field machinery that is equipped with large, low-
Permeability: Blanton-moderately slow; Wampee- pressure rubber tires or tracks helps overcome the
moderate equipment limitations, reduces the extent of soil
Available water capacity: Low compaction and erosion, and minimizes the root
Flooding: None damage caused by thinning operations. Logging
s mp ut is in te U H H systems that leave residual biomass well distributed
This map unit is in the Upland Hardwood Hammocks
over the site increase the content of organic matter
ecological community. The type and amount of
and the residual fertility of the soil.
vegetation in this ecological community vary depending and the resiua l utility suited to uan
on the successional stage. In the early successional development. Wetness seroltion te oe
development. Wetness, slow percolation, the slope,
stages, pine and sweetgum generally are dominant neen conn he so
and the understory is blackberries and broomsedge. and seepage are management concerns. The use of
Se u mounds for onsite sewage disposal helps to overcome
This community is considered to be in a climax stage the wetness, slow percolation, and seepage. Cutting
of vegetation when it has only a few pines and is
and filling can help to minimize the slope in some
dominated by hardwoods. Under climax conditions, the
areas.
understory vegetation may be quite sparse. The capability subclass is Vs. The woodland
Characteristic plant community- ordination symbol is 11W in areas of the Wampee soil
and 1lS in areas of the Blanton soil.
Trees: Blue beech, American holly, black cherry, red and S in areas of the Blanton soil.
maple, eastern hophornbeam, flowering dogwood,
hawthorn, laurel oak, laurelcherry, live oak, loblolly 32-Norfolk loamy fine sand, 2 to 5
pine, slash pine, pignut hickory, southern percent slopes
magnolia, sweetgum, and water oak pece o
Shrubs: American beautyberry, arrowwood,
Shrubs: American beautyberry, arrowwood, This very deep, well drained soil is on uplands.
sparkleberry, and wax-myrtle Individual areas are irregular in shape. They range
Herbaceous plants and vines: Aster, cat greenbrier, from 5 to 50 acres in size.
common greenbrier, crossvine, partridgeberry,
common g reenbrier, crossvine, partridgeberry, Typically, the surface layer is dark yellowish brown
partridge pea, poison ivy, ragweed, Virginia loamy fine sand about 6 inches thick. In sequence
creeper, wild grape, yellow jessamine, dotted downward, the upper part of the subsoil is 5 inches of
horsemint, and blackberry strong brown sandy loam, 14 inches of strong brown
Grasses and grasslike plants: Low panicum, sandy clay loam, and 19 inches of strong brown sandy
sandy clay loam, and 19 inches of strong brown sandy
switchgrass, and broomsedge loam. The lower part of the subsoil extends to a depth
This map unit is not suited to cultivated crops, of 80 inches or more. It is light yellowish brown sandy
Seasonal wetness, slope, severe erodibility, and low clay loam that has mottles.
fertility are management concerns. In 90 percent of the areas mapped as Norfolk loamy
This map unit is poorly suited to improved pasture fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, the Norfolk soil and
grasses. Slope and erodibility are management similar soils make up 80 to 99 percent of the unit.
concerns. Improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass Dissimilar soils make up the other 1 to 20 percent.
produce moderate yields if properly managed. Included in mapping are small areas of Lowndes,
Controlled grazing is critical. Proper applications of Ocilla, and Valdosta soils. Also included are small
lime and fertilizer are needed to obtain optimum areas of the soils that have a slope of 5 to 8 percent.
production. Erosion control practices must be Lowndes soils have sandy subsurface layers at a
implemented during pasture establishment to obtain depth of more than 20 inches. Ocilla soils are in the
maximum yields. lower positions and are somewhat poorly drained.
This map unit is suited to the production of loblolly Valdosta soils are sandy throughout and have sandy
pine, slash pine, and longleaf pine. A moderate hazard layers in the lower part of the subsoil.
of erosion, moderate equipment limitations, moderate Important properties of the Norfolk soil-
seedling mortality, a moderate hazard of windthrow,
and moderate plant competition are management Depth to the seasonal high water table: 4 to 6 feet
concerns. Site preparation, such as harrowing and from January through March
bedding, helps establish seedlings, reduces the Permeability: Moderate
seedling mortality rate, and increases early growth. Available water capacity: Medium
Chopping and bedding minimize debris, help to control Flooding: None







Hamilton County, Florida 53



This soil is in the Mixed Hardwood and Pine shape. They range from about 10 to 40 acres in size.
ecological community, which has several variations of Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
tree stands. In the early successional stages, pine is Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand
present with loblolly pine predominating. As the about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer, which
system matures, hardwoods replace the pines. The extends to a depth of 25 inches, is dark gray grading
natural climax vegetation is thought to be a beech- to grayish brown sand. The subsoil extends to a depth
magnolia-maple association. Most areas are used for of 80 inches or more. It is grayish brown sandy loam
cultivated crops or improved pasture. grading to gray and dark gray sandy clay loam.
In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Pelham sand,
Characteristic plant community-7
rr the Pelham soil and similar soils make up 79 to 99
Trees: Blue beech, American holly, eastern percent of the unit. Dissimilar soils make up the other
hophornbeam, flowering dogwood, hawthorn, 1 to 21 percent. Included in mapping are areas of
longleaf pine, slash pine, loblolly pine, mockernut Albany soils that are in the slightly higher positions
hickory, pignut hickory, southern red oak, southern and are better drained than the Pelham soil.
magnolia, white oak, and water oak
Shrubs: Shining sumac and sparkleberry Important properties of the Pelham soil-
Herbaceous plants and vines: Aster, common
Herbaceous plants and vines: Aster, common i Seasonal high water table: At the surface to a depth of
ragweed, partridgeberry, partridge pea, poison ivy, 1 foot from January through April
viola, Virginia creeper, and wild grape Permeability: y slow
Permeability: Moderately slow
Grasses: Broomsedge bluestem, longleaf uniola, low A able ater aai: ow
Available water capacity: Low
panicum, and spike uniola Flooding: None
Flooding: None
This soil is suited to cultivated crops. Low fertility is T s sl is in te W d Hd
This soil is in the Wetland Hardwood Hammocks
a management concern. Most of the crops that are ecological community. This community has an
ecological community. This community has an
adapted to the area can be grown on this soil but
evergreen appearance because it is dominated by
require good management and the use of
Sg m a t laurel oak, live oak, and water oak. It supports a
conservation practices, such as a crop rotation system luxurious growth of vegetation with a diversity of
luxurious growth of vegetation with a diversity of
that includes cover crops, the return of crop residue to. e S H
species. The Swamp Hardwoods Community is
the soil, and proper applications of fertilizer and lime. common ound in drssion rs o t tnd
Irrig n is n e di d t Wd commonly found in depressional areas of the Wetland
Irrigation is needed during drought periods. Wind
erosion is a hazard if the surface layer is unprotected.
This soil is suited to pasture and to hay crops. Characteristic plant community-
Deep-rooted plants, such as improved bermudagrass
and bahiagrass, can be grown if a medium level of Trees: Live oak, laurel oak, redbay, red maple, slash
management is applied, but yields are reduced by pine, loblolly pine, sweetbay, sweetgum, blackgum,
periodic drought or wetness. Regular applications of water oak, magnolia, and hawthorns
fertilizer and lime are needed. Controlled grazing helps Shrubs: Witchhazel, saw palmetto, shining sumac, and
to maintain plant vigor and to obtain maximum yields. wax-myrtle
This soil is suited to the production of slash pine, Herbaceous plants and vines: Cinnamon fern,
longleaf pine, and loblolly pine. Moderate plant crossvine, poison ivy, royal fern, Spanish moss,
competition is a management concern. Plant Virginia creeper, wild grape, and yellow jessamine
competition can be reduced by site preparation, such as Grasses and grasslike plants: Beaked panicum,
chopping with a drum chopper. A logging system that eastern gamagrass, longleaf uniola, chalky
leaves most of the biomass on the surface is preferred. bluestem, and maidencane
This soil is suited to urban development. It has no
significant management concerns. This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops.
The capability subclass is lie. The woodland Wetness and low natural fertility are management
ordination symbol is 8A. concerns. Adapted crops and very intensive
management practices are needed. In areas that have
a good water-control system, this soil is suited to
33-Pelham sand some crops if soil improving measures are applied. A
water-control system is needed to remove excess
This very deep, poorly drained soil is in wet, surface water during wet periods and to provide water
lowland positions on uplands and in narrow to broad for subsurface irrigation during dry periods. Row crops
areas of flatwoods. Individual areas are irregular in should be rotated with close-growing, soil improving







54 Soil Survey



cover crops. Soil improving cover crops and residue of 36 inches and is grayish brown grading to light
from other crops should be used to maintain the brownish gray. The lower part extends to a depth of 52
content of organic matter and to help control wind inches and is light gray. The subsoil to a depth of 80
erosion. Seedbed preparation should include bedding inches or more is light brownish gray sandy loam
of the rows. Fertilizer and lime should be applied grading to light gray sandy clay loam. It has yellowish
according to the needs of the crops, brown mottles.
This soil is suited to improved pasture grasses. In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Plummer
Improved bermudagrass, improved bahiagrass, and sand, the Plummer soil and similar soils make up
clover are well adapted to this soil and grow well if 79 to 99 percent of the unit. Dissimilar soils make
properly managed. A water-control system is needed up the other 1 to 21 percent. Included in mapping
to remove excess surface water during heavy rains, are areas of Sapelo soils that are in the slightly
Regular applications of fertilizer are needed to obtain higher positions and that have organic-stained
high yields. Controlled grazing helps to maintain plant subsoil horizons.
vigor.
This soil is suited to the production of slash pine Important properties of the Plummer soil-
and loblolly pine. Severe equipment limitations, severe S h w
Seasonal high water table: At the surface to a depth of
seedling mortality, and moderate plant competition are oot ro eeber tr
1 foot from December through July
management concerns. Timely scheduling of site Permeability: Moderately slow
preparation, such as harrowing and bedding, helps able ater aa ow
establish seedlings, reduces the seedling mortality Available water capacity: Low
rate, and increases early growth. Chopping and
bedding minimize debris, help to control competing This soil is in the Wetland Hardwood Hammocks
vegetation, and facilitate planting. Using field ecological community. This community has an
machinery that is equipped with large, low-pressure evergreen appearance because it is dominated by
rubber tires or tracks helps overcome the equipment laurel oak, live oak, and water oak. It supports a
limitations, reduces the extent of soil compaction, and luxurious growth of vegetation with a diversity of
minimizes the root damage caused by thinning species. The Swamp Hardwoods Community is
operations. Drainage is needed to remove excess commonly found in depressional areas of the Wetland
surface water during wet periods. Logging systems Hardwood Hammocks ecological community.
that leave residual biomass well distributed over the C p
site help maintain the content of organic matter and
the residual fertility of the soil. Trees: Live oak, laurel oak, redbay, red maple,
This soil is poorly suited to urban development. The sweetbay, sweetgum, water oak, magnolia, and
seasonal high water table, poor filtration, and sandy hawthorns
textures are management concerns. Deep drainage Shrubs: Witchhazel, saw palmetto, shining sumac, and
can help to lower the seasonal high water table. If this wax-myrtle
soil is used as a site for septic tanks absorption fields, Herbaceous plants and vines: Cinnamon fern,
mounding is needed. If the density of housing is crossvine, poison ivy, royal fern, Spanish moss,
moderate to high, community sewage systems are Virginia creeper, wild grape, and yellow jessamine
needed to prevent the contamination that seepage Grasses and grasslike plants: Beaked panicum,
causes to ground water supplies, eastern gamagrass, longleaf uniola, chalky
The capability subclass is Vw. The woodland bluestem, and maidencane
ordination symbol is 11W. p
ordination symbol is 11 W. This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops.
Wetness and low natural fertility are management
34-Plummer sand concerns. Adapted crops and very intensive
management practices are needed. In areas that have
This very deep, poorly drained soil is in wet lowland a good water-control system, this soil is suited to
positions on uplands and in narrow to broad areas of some crops if soil improving measures are applied. A
flatwoods. Individual areas are irregular in shape. They water-control system is needed to remove excess
range from about 10 to 40 acres in size. Slopes range surface water during wet periods and to provide water
from 0 to 2 percent, for subsurface irrigation during dry periods. Row crops
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand should be rotated with close-growing, soil improving
about 9 inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand. The cover crops. Soil improving cover crops and residue
upper part of the subsurface layer extends to a depth from other crops should be used to maintain the






Hamilton County, Florida 55



content of organic matter and to help control wind sandy loam 5 inches thick. The subsoil, which extends
erosion. Seedbed preparation should include bedding to a depth of 56 inches, is brown grading to gray clay.
of the rows. Fertilizer and lime should be applied The underlying layer is gray sandy clay loam to a
according to the needs of the crops, depth of 80 inches or more.
This soil is suited to improved pasture grasses. In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Wahee fine
Improved bermudagrass, improved bahiagrass, and sandy loam, 0 to 4 percent slopes, occasionally
clover are well adapted to this soil and grow well if flooded, the Wahee soil and similar soils make up 80
properly managed. A water-control system is needed to 99 percent of the unit. Dissimilar soils make up the
to remove excess surface water during heavy rains, other 1 to 20 percent. Included in mapping are some
Regular applications of fertilizer are needed to obtain small areas of Eunola and Ocilla soils. Also included
high yields. Controlled grazing helps to maintain plant are small areas of soils that have a slope of 5 to 8
vigor. percent and small areas of soils that have a sandy
The soil is suited to the production of slash pine surface layer that is more than 20 inches thick. Eunola
and loblolly pine. Severe equipment limitations, severe soils are in the slightly higher positions and are better
seedling mortality, and moderate plant competition are drained than the Wahee soil. Ocilla soils have sandy
management concerns. Timely scheduling of site surface and subsurface layers.
preparation, such as harrowing and bedding, helps
establish seedlings, reduces the seedling mortality Important properties of the Wahee soil-
rate, and increases early growth. Chopping and
rate, and increases early growth. Chopping and Depth to the seasonal high water table: 1/2 foot to 11/2
bedding minimize debris, help to control competing f f D t
feet from December through March
vegetation, and facilitate planting. Using field .
machinery that is equipped with large, low-pressure ermeabilty: Slow
Available water capacity: Low
rubber tires or tracks helps overcome the equipment Alable watrcapac Lo
limitations, reduces the extent of soil compaction, and
minimizes the root damage caused by thinning This soil is in the Mixed Hardwood and Pine
operations. Drainage is needed to remove excess ecological community, which has several variations of
surface water during wet periods. Logging systems tree stands. In the early successional stages, pine is
that leave residual biomass well distributed over the present with loblolly pine predominating. As the
site help maintain the content of organic matter and system matures, hardwoods replace the pines. The
the residual fertility of the soil. natural climax vegetation is thought to be a beech-
This soil is poorly suited to urban development, magnolia-maple association.
The seasonal high water table, poor filtration, and
sandy textures are management concerns. Deep Characteristic plant community-
drainage can help to lower the seasonal high water T B ,
table. If this soil is used as a site for septic tanks Tree: beec, American holly, awthrns
absorption fields, mounding is needed. If the hophornbean, flowering dogwood, hawthorns,
absorption fields, mounding is needed. If the loblolly pine, slash pine, mockernut hickory, pignut
density of housing is moderate to high, community hickory, souhen red oa, mockernut hick ignu
sewage systems are needed to prevent the hickory, southern red oak, sweetgum, blackgum,
southern magnolia, white oak, water oak, willow
contamination that seepage causes to ground water oak, and swamp chestnut oak
oak, and swamp chestnut oak
supplies. Shrubs: Shining sumac and sparkleberry
The capability subclass is IVw. The woodland Herbaceous plants and vines: Aster, common
t yHerbaceous plants and vines: Aster, common
ordination symbol is 1W. ragweed, partridgeberry, partridge pea, poison ivy,
viola, Virginia creeper, and wild grape
35-Wahee fine sandy loam, 0 to 4 Grasses: Broomsedge bluestem, longleaf uniola, low
percent slopes, occasionally panicum and spike uniola
flooded This soil is suited to cultivated crops. Wetness and
the occasional flooding are management concerns.
This very deep, somewhat poorly drained soil is on Most of the crops that are adapted to the area can be
flood plains along rivers and creeks. It is occasionally grown on this soil but require good management and
flooded for long periods following prolonged, high the use of conservation practices, such as a crop
intensity rains. Individual areas are irregular in shape, rotation system that includes cover crops, the return of
They range from 5 to 50 acres in size. crop residue to the soil, and proper applications of
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine fertilizer and lime. Irrigation is needed during drought






56 Soil Survey



periods. Wind erosion is a hazard if the surface layer is subsoil within a depth of 40 inches. Also included are
unprotected, small areas of soils that have a water table at a depth
This soil is suited to pasture and to hay crops. of 30 to 48 inches and soils that have a subsoil that is
Deep-rooted plants, such as improved bermudagrass stained with organic matter below a depth of 60
and bahiagrass, can be grown if a medium level of inches.
management is applied, but yields are reduced by
periodic drought or wetness. Regular applications of Important properties of the Blanton soil-
fertilizer and lime are needed. Controlled grazing helps Seasonal high water table: At a depth of 4 to 6 feet
to maintain plant vigor and to obtain maximum yields. from March through August, perched
The flooding restricts grazing in some years. Permeability: Moderately slow
This soil is suited to the production of slash pine, Available water capacity: Low
longleaf pine, and loblolly pine. Moderate equipment Flooding:Occasional
limitations, moderate seedling mortality, and severe
plant competition are management concerns. Using This soil is in the Upland Hardwood Hammocks
field machinery that is equipped with large, low- ecological community. The type and amount of
pressure tires or tracks helps overcome the equipment vegetation in this ecological community vary
limitation. This restriction can be overcome by depending on the successional stage. In the early
harvesting when the soil is dry. Seedling mortality can successional stages, pine and sweetgum generally are
result from flooding. Plant competition can be reduced dominant and the understory is blackberries and
by site preparation, such as chopping with a drum broomsedge. This community is considered to be in a
chopper. A logging system that leaves most of the climax stage of vegetation when it has only a few
biomass on the surface is preferred. pines and is dominated by hardwoods. Under climax
This soil is not suited to urban development. Slow conditions, the understory vegetation may be quite
percolation, wetness, and the flooding are severe sparse.
limitations.
The capability subclass is llw. The woodland Characteristic plant community-
ordination symbol is 9W. Trees: Blue beech, American holly, black cherry,
eastern hophornbeam, flowering dogwood,
36-Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 hawthorn, laurel oak, laurelcherry, live oak, loblolly
pine, slash pine, longleaf pine, pignut hickory,
percent slopes, occasionally southern magnolia, sweetgum, water oak,
flooded bluejack oak, turkey oak, southern red oak, and
live oak
This very deep, moderately well drained soil is on beautyberry, arrowwood,
low terraces on flood plains along rivers. Individual sar berry, anr
areas are irregular in shape. They range from about 10 Hbacus plants and etertreere
to 75 acres in size. Herbaceous plants and vines: Aster, cat greenbrier,
to 75 acres in size.
common greenbrier, crossvine, partridgeberry,
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown common greenbrier, crossvine, partridgeberry,
partridge pea, poison ivy, ragweed, Virginia
fine sand about 9 inches thick. The subsurface layer, parridg e pea, poin i, ragweed, Vir
which extends to a depth of 54 inches, is yellowish reeerd ape e ea e e
horsemint, and blackberry
brown grading to very pale brown sand. The upper Grases and ak
Grasses and grasslike plants: Low panicum,
part of the subsoil extends to a depth of 63 inches. It is swhgrass, and brooms
switchgrass, and broomsedge
yellowish brown sandy clay loam. The lower part to a
depth of 80 inches is light brownish gray to gray sandy This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops.
clay loam. The subsoil has brown and gray mottles. Seasonal droughtiness and low fertility are
In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Blanton fine management concerns. Irrigation is needed during dry
sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, occasionally flooded, the periods. Residue management, including minimum
Blanton soil and similar soils make up 87 to 99 percent tillage, is needed to preserve moisture during dry
of the unit. Dissimilar soils make up the other 1 to 13 periods and to minimize erosion. Lime and fertilizer,
percent. Included with this soil in mapping are small which are needed to compensate for the low fertility of
areas of Alpin and Kenansville soils. Alpin soils are the soil, should be applied according to the needs of
better drained than the Blanton soil and are in the the crop.
slightly higher positions. Kenansville soils are also This soil is suited to improved pasture grasses.
better drained than the Blanton soil and have a loamy Improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass produce






57
Hamilton County, Florida



moderate yields if properly managed. Controlled surface layer that is more than 20 inches thick. Blanton
grazing and proper applications of lime and fertilizer soils are sandy to a depth of more than 40 inches.
are needed to obtain optimum production. The flooding Ocilla soils are in the slightly lower positions and have
restricts grazing in some years. a higher seasonal high water table than that in the
This soil is suited to the production of loblolly pine, Eunola soil. Wahee soils are in the slightly lower
slash pine, and longleaf pine. Moderate equipment positions and have a clayey subsoil.
limitations, moderate seedling mortality, and moderate Important properties of the Eunola soil-
plant competition are management concerns. Site
preparation, such as harrowing and bedding, helps Depth to the seasonal high water table: 11/2 to 21/2 feet
establish seedlings, reduces the seedling mortality from November through March
rate, and increases early growth. Chopping and Permeability: Moderate
bedding minimize debris, help to control competing Available water capacity: Low
vegetation, and facilitate planting. Using field Flooding: Occasional
machinery that is equipped with large, low-pressure This soil is in the Mixed Hardwood and Pine
rubber tires or tracks helps overcome the equipment ecological community, which has several variations of
limitations, reduces the extent of soil compaction, and tree stands. In the early successional stages, pine is
minimizes the root damage caused by thinning present with loblolly pine predominating. As the
operations. Logging systems that leave residual system matures, hardwoods replace the pines. The
biomass well distributed over the site increase the natural climax vegetation is thought to be a beech-
content of organic matter and the residual fertility of magnolia-maple association.
the soil.
This soil is not suited to urban development. The Characteristic plant community-
flooding and wetness are severe limitations.
Trees: Blue beech, American holly, eastern
The capability subclass is Ills. The woodland hophornbean, flowering dogwood, hawthorns,
t shophornbean, flowering dogwood, hawthorns,
ordination symbol is 11S. oblolly pine, slash pine, mockernut hickory, pignut
hickory, southern red oak, sweetgum, southern
37-Eunola loamy fine sand, 0 to 5 magnolia, white oak, and water oak
S oy Shrubs: Shining sumac and sparkleberry
percent slopes, occasionally Herbaceous plants and vines: Aster, common
flooded ragweed, partridgeberry, partridge pea, poison ivy,
viola, Virginia creeper, and wild grape
This very deep, moderately well drained soil is on vola, Vrgina creeper, and wld gre
Grasses: Broomsedge bluestem, longleaf uniola, low
flood plains along rivers and creeks. It is occasionally
panicum, and spike uniola
flooded for long periods following prolonged, high panicum, and spike uniola
intensity rains. Individual areas are irregular in shape. This soil is suited to cultivated crops. It is limited
They range from 5 to 50 acres in size. only by the occasional flooding. Most of the crops that
Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown loamy are adapted to the area can be grown on this soil but
fine sand 6 inches thick. Below this to a depth of 10 require good management and the use of
inches is a transition layer of light yellowish brown fine conservation practices, such as a crop rotation system
sandy loam. The subsoil, which extends to a depth of that includes cover crops, the return of crop residue to
54 inches, is dark yellowish brown grading to yellowish the soil, and proper applications of fertilizer and lime.
brown sandy clay loam. Below this to a depth of 68 Irrigation is needed during drought periods. Wind
inches is a layer of brownish yellow fine sandy loam erosion is a hazard if the surface layer is unprotected.
that is transitional to the substrata. The underlying This soil is suited to improved pasture and hay
layer to a depth of 80 inches or more is very pale crops. Deep-rooted plants, such as improved
brown loamy sand that has strata of sandy loam. bermudagrass and bahiagrass, can be grown if a
In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Eunola loamy medium level of management is applied, but yields are
fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, occasionally flooded, reduced by periodic drought or wetness. Regular
the Eunola soil and similar soils make up 80 to 99 applications of fertilizer and lime are needed.
percent of the unit. Dissimilar soils make up the other Controlled grazing helps to maintain plant vigor and to
1 to 20 percent. Included in mapping are small areas obtain maximum yields. The flooding restricts grazing
of Blanton, Ocilla, and Wahee soils. Also included are in some years.
small areas of the soils that have a slope of 5 to 8 This soil is suited to the production of slash pine
percent and small areas of soils that have a sandy and loblolly pine. Moderate equipment limitations and







58 Soil Survey



moderate plant competition are management hawthorns, blackgum, loblolly pine, pond pine, and
concerns. They can be overcome by harvesting when swamp chestnut oak
the soil is dry. Plant competition can be reduced by Shrubs: Witchhazel, saw palmetto, shining sumac, and
site preparation, such as chopping with a drum wax-myrtle
chopper. A logging system that leaves most of the Herbaceous plants and vines: Cinnamon fern,
biomass on the surface is preferred. crossvine, poison ivy, royal fern, Spanish moss,
This soil is not suited to urban development. Virginia creeper, wild grape, and yellow jessamine
Wetness and the flooding are severe limitations. Grasses and grasslike plants: Beaked panicum,
The capability subclass is IIw. The woodland eastern gamagrass, longleaf uniola, chalky
ordination symbol is 10w. bluestem, and maidencane
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops.
46-Stockade fine sandy loam Wetness and low natural fertility are management
concerns. Adapted crops and very intensive
This very deep, poorly drained soil is on lowland management practices are needed. In areas that have
flats near drainageways and in shallow depressions. a good water-control system, this soil is suited to
Individual areas are irregular in shape. They range some crops if soil improving measures are applied. A
from about 5 to 80 acres in size. Slopes range from 0 water-control system is needed to remove excess
to 2 percent. surface water during wet periods and to provide water
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine for subsurface irrigation during dry periods. Row crops
sandy loam about 10 inches thick. The subsoil, which should be rotated with close-growing, soil improving
extends to a depth of 54 inches, is sandy clay loam. It cover crops. Soil improving cover crops and residue
is gray and very dark gray in the upper part and very from other crops should be used to maintain the
dark gray and light gray in the lower part. The content of organic matter and to help control wind
underlying material to a depth of 80 inches or more is erosion. Seedbed preparation should include bedding
very dark gray and light gray stratified sandy clay loam of the rows. Fertilizer and lime should be applied
and fine sandy loam. according to the needs of the crops.
In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Stockade fine This soil is suited to improved pasture grasses.
sandy loam, the Stockade soil and similar soils make Improved bermudagrass, improved bahiagrass, and
up 79 to 99 percent of the unit. Dissimilar soils make clover are well adapted to this soil and grow well if
up the other 1 to 21 percent. Included in mapping are properly managed. A water-control system is needed
areas of Pelham and Surrency soils. Pelham soils to remove excess surface water during heavy rains
have sandy surface and subsurface layers. Surrency and during floods. Regular applications of fertilizer are
soils are in the lower positions and have a black needed to obtain high yields. Controlled grazing helps
surface layer. to maintain plant vigor.
This soil is suited to the production of loblolly pine.
Important properties of the Stockade soil- Severe equipment limitations, severe seedling
mortality, and severe plant competition are
Seasonal high water table: At the surface to a depth of mortality, and severe plant competition are
management concerns. Surface drainage is needed to
i f oot fom J thou M obtain optimum yields. Timely scheduling of site
eable water c city M preparation, such as harrowing and bedding, helps
ilale w e establish seedlings, reduces the seedling mortality
Flooding: None rate, and increases early growth. Chopping and
This soil is in the Wetland Hardwood Hammocks bedding minimize debris, help to control competing
ecological community. This community has an evergreen vegetation, and facilitate planting. Using field
appearance because it is dominated by laurel oak, live machinery that is equipped with large, low-pressure
oak, and water oak. It supports a luxurious growth of rubber tires or tracks helps overcome the equipment
vegetation with a diversity of species. Areas of the limitations, reduces the extent of soil compaction, and
Swamp Hardwoods ecological community are minimizes the root damage caused by thinning
commonly found in depressional areas of the Wetland operations. Logging systems that leave residual biomass
Hardwood Hammocks ecological community. well distributed over the site help maintain the content
of organic matter and the residual fertility of the soil.
Characteristic plant community- This soil is poorly suited to urban development. The
Trees: Live oak, laurel oak, redbay, red maple, seasonal high water table, slow percolation, and
sweetbay, sweetgum, water oak, magnolia, seepage are management concerns. Deep drainage







Hamilton County, Florida 59



can help to lower the seasonal high water table. If this Virginia creeper, wild grape, and yellow
soil is used as a site for septic tanks absorption fields, jessamine
mounding is needed. If the density of housing is Grasses and grasslike plants: Beaked panicum,
moderate to high, community sewage systems are eastern gamagrass, longleaf uniola, chalky
needed to prevent the contamination that seepage bluestem, and maidencane
causes to ground water supplies. This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops.
The capability subclass is VIw. The woodland Wetness and low natural fertility are management
ordination symbol is 10W. concerns. Adapted crops and very intensive
management practices are needed. In areas that have
47-Goldhead fine sand, 0 to 5 a good water-control system, this soil is suited to
some crops if soil improving measures are applied. A
percent slopes water-control system is needed to remove excess
surface water during wet periods and to provide water
This very deep, poorly drained soil is in interstreamsurface during periods ow
divides on uplands. Individual areas are irregular in for subsurface irrigation during dry periods. Row crops
divides on uplands. Individual areas are irregular in
should be rotated with close-growing, soil improving
shape. They range from about 5 to 40 acres in size. s b r w
cover crops. Soil improving cover crops and residue
Typically, the surface layer is black grading to dark cs
from other crops should be used to maintain the
gray fine sand and is about 4 inches thick. The t
content of organic matter and to help control wind
subsurface layer is light gray fine sand to a depth of 36 preparation should include bedding
inches. The subsoil is dark gray sandy loam grading to o e ro Fertilizer and lime should be applied
of the rows. Fertilizer and lime should be applied
very dark gray sandy clay loam to a depth of 80 inches.
In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Goldhead .c n t
n 80 p t of te as m a G This soil is suited to improved pasture grasses.
fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, the Goldhead soil and Improved bermuagrass, improved bahiagrass, and
Improved bermudagrass, improved bahiagrass, and
similar soils make up 79 to 99 percent of the unit.
similar soils make up 79 to 99 percent of the unit. clover are well adapted to this soil and grow well if
Dissimilar soils make up the other 1 to 21 percent. properly managed. A water-control system is needed
properly managed. A water-control system is needed
Included in mapping in the slightly higher positions are to remove excess surface water during heavy rains.
to remove excess surface water during heavy rains.
areas of Albany and Wampee soils. Albany soils are
better drained than the Golhead soils. W e soils Regular applications of fertilizer are needed to obtain
better drained than the Goldhead soils. Wampee soils
eaof loay sad. high yields. Grazing should be strictly controlled to
have a surface layer of loamy sand.vigor.
maintain plant vigor.
Important properties of the Goldhead soil- This soil is suited to the production of slash pine
and loblolly pine. Moderate equipment limitations,
Seasonal high water table: At the surface to a depth of and loblo ne Moderate equipment limitations,
1 foot from July through March severe seedling mortality, and moderate plant
Permeability: Moderate competition are management concerns. Timely
Available water capacity: Low scheduling of site preparation, such as harrowing and
Flooding: None bedding, helps establish seedlings, reduces the
seedling mortality rate, and increases early growth.
This soil is in the Wetland Hardwood Hammocks Chopping and bedding minimize debris, help to control
ecological community. This community has an competing vegetation, and facilitate planting. Using
evergreen appearance because it is dominated by field machinery that is equipped with large, low-
laurel oak, live oak, and water oak. It supports a pressure rubber tires or tracks helps overcome the
luxurious growth of vegetation with a diversity of equipment limitations, reduces the extent of soil
species. The Swamp Hardwoods ecological compaction, and minimizes the root damage caused
community is commonly found in depressional areas by thinning operations. Drainage is needed to remove
of the Wetland Hardwood Hammocks ecological excess surface water during wet periods. Logging
community, systems that leave residual biomass well distributed
Characteristic plant community- over the site help maintain the content of organic
matter and the residual fertility of the soil.
Trees: Laurel oak, redbay, slash pine, loblolly pine, red This soil is poorly suited to urban development. The
maple, sweetbay, blackgum, sweetgum, water oak, seasonal high water table, poor filtration, and sandy
magnolia, and hawthorns textures are management concerns. Deep drainage
Shrubs: Witchhazel, saw palmetto, shining sumac, and can help to lower the seasonal high water table. If this
wax-myrtle soil is used as a site for septic tanks absorption fields,
Herbaceous plants and vines: Cinnamon fern, mounding is needed. If the density of housing is
crossvine, poison ivy, royal fern, Spanish moss, moderate to high, community sewage systems are







60 Soil Survey



needed to prevent the contamination that seepage crossvine, poison ivy, royal fern, Spanish moss,
causes to ground water supplies. Virginia creeper, wild grape, and yellow jessamine
The capability subclass is IIIw. The woodland Grasses and grasslike plants: Beaked panicum,
ordination symbol is 1OW. eastern gamagrass, longleaf uniola, chalky
bluestem, and maidencane

48-Bivans loamy sand, 8 to 12 This soil is not suited to cultivated crops. Wetness,
slope, and erosion are management concerns.
percent slopes This soil is poorly suited to improved pasture
grasses. Slope and erosion are management
This very deep, poorly drained soil is on narrow concerns. Improved ermudagrass, improved
side slopes on uplands. Individual areas are irregular bahiagrass, and clover are adapted to this soil and
in shape. They range from about 5 to 25 acres in size. grow well if properly managed. Because of hillside
Typically, the surface layer is dark gray loamy sand seepage, intensive management is required to produce
about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer, which good yields of pasture grasses. Regular applications
extends to a depth of 16 inches, is dark grayish brown of fertilizer are needed to obtain high yields. Grazing
loamy sand. The subsoil, which extends to a depth of should be strictly controlled to maintain plant vigor and
60 inches, is dark gray and grayish brown sandy clay to reduce the hazard of erosion in bare areas.
grading to grayish brown sandy clay loam.The This soil is suited to the production of slash pine
substratum is massive, gray clay extending to a depth and loblolly pine. Moderate equipment limitations and
of 80 inches or more. severe plant competition are management concerns.
In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Bivans loamy Timely scheduling of site preparation, such as
sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes, the Bivans soil and harrowing and bedding, helps establish seedlings,
similar soils make up 79 to 99 percent of the unit. reduces the seedling mortality rate, and increases
Dissimilar soils make up the other 1 to 21 percent, early growth. Chopping and bedding minimize debris,
Included in mapping are areas of Pelham, Plummer, help to control competing vegetation, and facilitate
and Wampee soils. Pelham and Plummer soils are in planting. Using field machinery that is equipped with
the lower positions and have a loamy subsoil. Wampee large, low-pressure rubber tires or tracks helps
soils are better drained than the Bivans soil and have overcome the equipment limitations, reduces the
ironstone nodules in the subsoil. extent of soil compaction and erosion, and minimizes
Important properties of the Bivans soil- the root damage caused by thinning operations.
Logging systems that leave residual biomass well
Seasonal high water table: At a depth of 1 to 1 /2 feet distributed over the site help maintain the content of
from June through September, perched organic matter and the residual fertility of the soil.
Permeability: Slow This soil is poorly suited to urban development. The
Available water capacity: Moderate seasonal high water table, the slope, the slow
Flooding: None permeability, and a high shrink-swell potential are
This soil is in the Wetland Hardwood Hammocks management concerns. The clayey materials in the
ecological community. This community has an subsoil severely restrict this soil for urban uses. Deep
evergreen appearance because it is dominated by drainage can help to lower the seasonal high water
laurel oak, live oak, and water oak. It supports a table. If this soil is used as a site for septic tanks
luxurious growth of vegetation with a diversity of absorption fields, the fields need to be enlarged or
species. The Swamp Hardwoods ecological mounded. Community sewage systems are preferred
community is commonly found in depressional areas because they prevent the contamination that seepage
of the Wetland Hardwood Hammocks ecological causes to ground water supplies.
community. The capability subclass is VIw. The woodland
ordination symbol is 11W.
Characteristic plant community-
Trees: Live oak, laurel oak, redbay, red maple,
sweetbay, sweetgum, water oak, magnolia, 49- tela-Alpin complex, 0 to 5
hawthorn, slash pine, loblolly pine, hickory, and percent slopes
American holly
Shrubs: Witchhazel, saw palmetto, shining sumac, and These very deep, moderately well drained to
wax-myrtle excessively drained soils are in broad areas on low
Herbaceous plants and vines: Cinnamon fern, uplands. Individual areas are irregular or elongated in







Hamilton County, Florida



shape. They range from about 10 to 100 acres in size. Corn, peanuts, and watermelons can be grown on this
The components of this complex occur as areas that soil but require intensive management, including such
are too intermingled and too small to separate at the conservation practices as a crop rotation system that
scale selected for mapping. includes cover crops, the return of crop residue to the
Typically, the Otela soil has a surface layer of gray soil, and proper applications of fertilizer and lime.
sand about 2 inches thick. The subsurface layer, which Irrigation is needed during drought periods. Wind
extends to a depth of 52 inches, is light yellowish erosion is a severe hazard if the surface layer is
brown and very pale brown grading to white sand. The unprotected.
subsoil is reddish yellow sandy clay loam to a depth of This map unit is suited to pasture and to hay crops.
80 inches. Droughtiness is a management concern. Deep-rooted
Typically, the Alpin soil has a surface layer of dark plants, such as improved bermudagrass, can be
grayish brown sand about 4 inches thick. The grown if a high level of management is applied, but
subsurface layer, which extends to a depth of 47 yields are reduced by periodic drought. Regular
inches, is yellowish brown grading to yellowish sand. applications of fertilizer and lime are needed.
Below this to a depth of 80 inches is very pale brown Controlled grazing helps to maintain plant vigor and to
sand grading to white sand that has thin layers of obtain maximum yields.
strong brown loamy sand. This map unit is suited to the production of slash
Mapped areas of this unit are about 59 percent pine and longleaf pine. Moderate equipment
Otela and similar soils and 28 percent Alpin and limitations, moderate to severe seedling mortality, and
similar soils. moderate plant competition are management
In 90 percent of the areas mapped as Otela-Alpin concerns. The sandy texture restricts the use of
complex, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Otela, Alpin, and wheeled equipment. This restriction can be overcome
similar soils make up 78 to 98 percent of the unit. by harvesting when the soil is moist. Seedling mortality
Dissimilar soils make up the other 2 to 22 percent. caused by droughtiness can be partly overcome by
selecting proper species and by scheduling planting
Important properties of the Otela and Alpin soils- s p s a b sani
r rr for periods when favorable weather is predicted. Plant
Seasonal high water table: Otela-at a depth of 4 to 6 competition can be reduced by site preparation, such
feet from July through October, perched; Alpin-at as chopping with a drum chopper. A logging system
a depth of more than 80 inches that leaves most of the biomass on the surface is
Permeability: Otela-moderately slow; Alpin-very rapid preferred.
Available water capacity: Low This map unit is moderately suited to urban
Flooding: None development. The seasonal high water table and the
This map unit is in the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak sandy textures are management concerns. Deep
Hills ecological community, which has several drainage can help to lower the seasonal high water
Hills ecological community, which has several
variations of tree stands. Mature, natural stands of table. If the density of housing is high, community
trees have an overstory of scattered longleaf pine. In sewage systems may be needed to event the
areas where the pines have been removed, oaks are contamination that seepage causes to ground water
predominant. supplies. Onsite evaluation prior to installation is
recommended.
Characteristic plant community- The capability subclass is Ills in area of the Otela
Trees: Longleaf pine, loblolly pine, turkey oak, bluejack soil and IVs in areas of the Alpin soil. The woodland
ordination symbol is 10S in areas of the Otela soil and
oak, blackcherry, southern red cedar, slash pine, ordnaton symb S n areas of the tela soi and
and live oak 8S in areas of the Alpin soil.
Herbaceous plants: Aster, blazingstar, brackenfern,
butterfly pea, elephantsfoot, grassleaf goldaster, 51-Bigbee fine sand, undulating
partridge pea, pineland beggarweed, sandhill i d d
milkweed, showy crotalaria, and wild indigo occasionally flooded
Grasses and grasslike plants: Curtiss' dropseed, hairy ,
panicum, yellow Indiangrass, low panicum, and This very deep, excessively drained soil is on
pineywood dropseed terraces of rivers and creeks. Individual areas are
irregular or elongated in shape. They range from about
This map unit is poorly suited to cultivated crops. 20 to 100 acres in size. Slopes range from 0 to 10
Seasonal droughtiness and low fertility are percent.
management concerns. Plant nutrients leach rapidly. Typically, the surface layer is light brownish gray







62 Soil Survey



fine sand about 9 inches thick. The underlying layers periodic drought. Regular applications of fertilizer and
are fine sand. In the upper part, to a depth of 20 lime are needed. Controlled grazing helps to maintain
inches, they are dark yellowish brown. In the next part, plant vigor and to obtain maximum yields.
to a depth of 55 inches, they are pale brown grading to This soil is suited to the production of loblolly pine.
brown. In the lower part, to a depth of 80 inches, they Moderate seedling mortality is a management
are light gray. concern. The sandy texture restricts the use of
In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Bigbee fine wheeled equipment. This restriction can be overcome
sand, undulating, occasionally flooded, the Bigbee soil by harvesting when the soil is moist. Seedling mortality
and similar soils make up 80 to 99 percent of the unit. caused by droughtiness can be partly overcome by
Dissimilar soils make up the other 1 to 20 percent. increasing the rate and depth of tree planting and by
Included in mapping are some small areas of Blanton mulching with the residual biomass that is left after
soils, which have a seasonal high water table and a harvesting. Plant competition can be reduced by site
loamy subsoil. preparation, such as chopping with a drum chopper. A
logging system that leaves most of the biomass on the
Important properties of the Bigbee soil- surface is preferred. The occasional flooding increases
Depth to the seasonal high water table: More than 80 the seedling mortality rate.
inches This soil is not suited to urban development. The
Permeability: Rapid flooding, poor filtration, and the sandy textures are
Available water capacity: Low severe limitations.
Flooding: Occasional The capability subclass is Ills. The woodland
ordination symbol is 9S.
This soil is in the Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills
ecological community, which has several variations of
tree stands. Mature, natural stands of trees have an 52-Pelham fine sand, occasionally
overstory of scattered longleaf pine. In areas where flooded
the pines have been removed, oaks are predominant.
Ground cover is scattered, and numerous bare areas This very deep, poorly drained soil is in wet lowland
are noticeable, positions on the flood plains along streams. Individual
ristic pt c it areas are irregular in shape. They range from about 10
Characteristic plant community-
to 40 acres in size. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent.
Trees: Longleaf pine, slash pine, turkey oak, bluejack Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray fine
oak, blackjack oak, and post oak sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer, which
Herbaceous plants: Aster, blazingstar, brackenfern, extends to a depth of 25 inches, is dark gray grading
butterfly pea, elephantsfoot, grassleaf goldaster, to grayish brown fine sand. The subsoil to a depth of
partridge pea, pineland beggarweed, sandhill 80 inches or more is grayish brown sandy loam
milkweed, showy crotalaria, and wild indigo grading to gray and dark gray sandy clay loam.
Grasses and grasslike plants: Curtiss' dropseed, hairy In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Pelham fine
panicum, yellow Indiangrass, low panicum, and sand, occasionally flooded, the Pelham soil and similar
pineywood dropseed soils make up 79 to 99 percent of the unit. Dissimilar
s sl is p s t c c soils make up the other 1 to 21 percent. Included in
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops.
mapping are areas of Albany and Stockade soils.
Seasonal droughtiness and low fertility are
Albany soils are in the slightly higher positions and are
management concerns. The occasional flooding is a better drained than the Pelham soil. Stockade soils
hazard. Plant nutrients leach rapidly. Corn, peanuts, hae a rae and subsurface layers.
and watermelons can be grown on this soil but require
intensive management, including such conservation Important properties of the Pelham soil-
practices as a crop rotation system that includes cover Seasonal high water table: At the surface to a depth of
crops, the return of crop residue to the soil, and proper 1 foot from January through April
applications of fertilizer and lime. Irrigation is needed Permeability: Moderately slow
during drought periods. Wind erosion is a severe Available water capacity: Low
hazard if the surface layer is unprotected. Flooding: Occasional
This soil is suited to pasture and to hay crops.
Deep-rooted plants, such as improved bermudagrass This soil is in the Wetland Hardwood Hammocks
and bahiagrass, can be grown if a high level of ecological community. This community has an
management is applied, but yields are reduced by evergreen appearance because it is dominated by






Hamilton County, Florida 63



laurel oak, live oak, and water oak. It supports a limitations, reduces the extent of soil compaction, and
luxurious growth of vegetation with a diversity of minimizes the root damage caused by thinning
species. The Swamp Hardwoods ecological operations. Drainage is needed to remove excess
community is commonly found in depressional areas surface water during wet periods. Logging systems
of the Wetland Hardwood Hammocks ecological that leave residual biomass well distributed over the
community, site help maintain the content of organic matter and
the residual fertility of the soil.
Characteristic plant community- This soil is not suited to urban development. The
Trees: Slash pine, loblolly pine, redbay, red maple, seasonal high water table, flooding, poor filtration, and
sweetbay, sweetgum, water oak, magnolia, and sandy textures are severe limitations.
hawthorns The capability subclass is Vw. The woodland
Shrubs: Witchhazel, saw palmetto, shining sumac, and ordination symbol is 11W.
wax-myrtle
Herbaceous plants and vines: Cinnamon fern,
crossvine, poison ivy, royal fern, Spanish moss, 54-Pits
Virginia creeper, wild grape, and yellow jessamine This miscellaneous area consists of open
Grasses and grasslike plants: Beaked panicum, excavations from which soil and geologic material
eastern gamagrass, longleaf uniola, chalky have been removed. This material is used for
bluestem, and maidencane construction material, roadbeds, and fill. Included in
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. this unit are areas of water. The pits range from 2 to 80
Wetness, flooding, and low natural fertility are acres in size and are 3 to 20 feet deep.
management concerns. Adapted crops and very Onsite evaluation is needed to determine the
intensive management practices are needed. In areas suitability of areas of this unit for land uses.
that have a good water-control system, this soil is
suited to some crops if soil improving measures are
applied. A water-control system is needed to remove 56-Bibb-Bigbee complex,
excess surface water during wet periods and to undulating, occasionally flooded
provide water for subsurface irrigation during dry
periods. Row crops should be rotated with close- These very deep, poorly drained and excessively
growing, soil improving cover crops. Soil improving drained soils are in wet lowland positions and on
cover crops and residue from other crops should be ridged terraces on flood plains along rivers and
used to maintain the content of organic matter and to tributaries. Individual areas are irregular in shape.
help control wind erosion. Seedbed preparation should They range from about 10 to 200 acres in size. Slopes
include bedding of the rows. Fertilizer and lime should range from 0 to 5 percent. Microrelief caused by
be applied according to the needs of the crops. scouring is common. The components of this complex
This soil is suited to improved pasture grasses, occur as areas that are too intermingled and too small
Improved bermudagrass, improved bahiagrass, and to separate at the scale selected for mapping.
clover are well adapted to this soil and grow well if Typically, the Bibb soil has a surface layer of very
properly managed. A water-control system is needed dark gray silt loam about 2 inches thick. The
to remove excess surface water during heavy rains subsurface layer is dark brown sandy loam 15 inches
and during floods. Regular applications of fertilizer are thick. The underlying layers are grayish brown sandy
needed to obtain high yields. Controlled grazing helps loam underlain by dark gray silt loam to a depth of 80
to maintain plant vigor. inches or more.
This soil is suited to the production of slash pine Typically, the Bigbee soil has a surface layer of light
and loblolly pine. Severe equipment limitations, severe brownish gray fine sand about 9 inches thick. The
seedling mortality, and moderate plant competition are underlying layers are fine sand. In the upper part, to a
management concerns. Timely scheduling of site depth of 20 inches, they are dark yellowish brown. In
preparation, such as harrowing and bedding, helps the next part, to a depth of 55 inches, they are pale
establish seedlings, reduces the seedling mortality brown grading to brown. In the lower part, to a depth of
rate, and increases early growth. Chopping and 80 inches, they are light gray.
bedding minimize debris, help to control competing Mapped areas of this unit are about 40 percent Bibb
vegetation, and facilitate planting. Using field and similar soils and 30 percent Bigbee and similar soils.
machinery that is equipped with large, low-pressure The components of this complex occur in a regularly
rubber tires or tracks helps overcome the equipment repeating pattern. The Bibb soils are in backwater






64 Soil Survey



areas and drainageways. The Bigbee soils are on butterfly pea, elephantsfoot, grassleaf goldaster,
ridges and sand flats, usually adjacent to the rivers, partridge pea, pineland beggarweed, sandhill
In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Bibb-Bigbee milkweed, showy crotalaria, and wild indigo
complex, undulating, occasionally flooded, the Bibb, Grasses and grasslike plants: Curtiss' dropseed, hairy
Bigbee, and similar soils make up 85 to 99 percent of panicum, yellow Indiangrass, low panicum, and
the unit. Dissimilar soils make up the other 1 to 15 pineywood dropseed
percent. Included in mapping are areas of Eunola and T m .
lanton soils. Eunola soils ar somewhat poorly This map unit is poorly suited to cultivated crops.
Blanton soils. Eunola soils are somewhat poorly
Wetness, flooding, and low natural fertility are
drained and have loamy layers within a depth of 20
inches. Blanton soils have loamy layers below a depth management concerns. Adapted crops and very
of 40 inches. intensive management practices are needed. In some
areas that have a good water-control system, this soil
is suited to some crops if soil improving measures are
Important properties of the Bibb and Bigbee soils--
applied. A water-control system is needed to remove
Depth to the seasonal high water table: Bibb-'/2 to 1 excess surface water during wet periods and to
foot from December through May; Bigbee-31/2 to provide water for subsurface irrigation during dry
6 feet from January through March periods. Row crops should be rotated with close-
Permeability: Bibb-moderate; Bigbee-rapid growing, soil improving cover crops. Soil improving
Available water capacity: Bibb-medium; Bigbee-low cover crops and residue from other crops should be
Flooding: Occasional used to maintain the content of organic matter and to
The areas of the Bibb soil are in the Wetland help control wind erosion. Seedbed preparation should
Hardwood Hammocks ecological community. This include bedding of the rows. Fertilizer and lime should
Hardwood Hammocks ecological community. This
be applied according to the needs of the crops.
community has an evergreen appearance because it appi a in t te needs of e rop
is dominated by laurel oak, live oak, and water oak. It T mp ut i sued to improved p re
supports a luxurious growth of vegetation with a grasses. Improved bermuagrass, improved
su sports a lrious growth of eetatio with a bahiagrass, and clover are moderately adapted to this
diversity of species. The Swamp Hardwoods
ecological community is found in depressional areas of map unit. Establishing pasture on this map unit is
the Wetland Hardwood Hammocks ecological especially risky due to the flooding. A water-control
the Wetland Hardwood Hammocks ecological
system is needed to remove excess surface water
during heavy rains. Regular applications of fertilizer
Characteristic plant community on the Bibb soil- are needed to obtain high yields. Controlled grazing
helps to maintain plant vigor.
Trees: Live oak, laurel oak, redbay, red maple, helps to maintain plant vigor.
This map unit is suited to the production of loblolly
sweetbay, sweetgum, water oak, magnolia, and pine. Severe equipment limitations, severe seedling
hawthorns mortality, a moderate hazard of windthrow, and severe
Shrubs: Witchhazel, saw palmetto, shining sumac, competition are management concerns. Timely
plant competition are management concerns. Timely
bamboo, and wax-myrtle
Herbaceous plan d vines: Cinnamon fern, scheduling of site preparation, such as harrowing and
Herbaceous plants and vines: Cinnamon fern,
crossvine, poison ivy, royal fern, Virginia creeper, bedding, helps establish seedlings, reduces th
wild grape, and yellow jessamine seedling mortality rate, and increases early growth.
wild grape, and yellow jessamine Chopping and bedding minimize debris, help to control
Gastsesan garasslke plantBeakf uniola chal competing vegetation, and facilitate planting. Using
eastern gamagrassongleaf uniola chalky field machinery that is equipped with large, low-
bluestem, and maidencane
pressure rubber tires or tracks helps overcome the
The areas of the Bigbee soil are in the Longleaf equipment limitations, reduces the extent of soil
Pine-Turkey Oak Hills ecological community, which compaction, and minimizes the root damage caused
has several variations of tree stands. Mature, natural by thinning operations. Drainage is needed to remove
stands of trees have an overstory of scattered longleaf excess surface water during wet periods. Logging
pine. In areas where the pines have been removed, systems that leave residual biomass well distributed
oaks are predominant. Ground cover is scattered, and over the site help maintain the content of organic
numerous bare areas are noticeable. matter and the residual fertility of the soil.
This map unit is not suited to urban development.
Characteristic plant community on the Bigbee soil-- The seasonal high water table, poor filtration, and the
Trees: Longleaf pine, sweetgum, water oak, blackgum, flooding are severe limitations.
turkey oak, and bluejack oak The capability subclass is Illw in areas of the Bibb
Herbaceous plants: Aster, blazingstar, brackenfern, soil and IVs in areas of the Bigbee soil. The woodland






Hamilton County, Florida 65



ordination symbol is 11W in areas of the Bibb soil and management concerns. Adapted crops and very
9S in areas of the Bigbee soil. intensive management practices are needed. In areas
that have a good water-control system, this soil is
57-Osier sand, occasionally suited to some crops if soil improving measures are
applied. A water-control system is needed to remove
flooded excess surface water during wet periods and to
provide water for subsurface irrigation during dry
This very deep, poorly drained soil is in wet lowland periods. Row crops should be rotated with close-
positions on the flood plains along streams. Individual o rop ol r
growing, soil improving cover crops. Soil improving
areas are irregular in shape.They range from to cover crops and residue from other crops should be
to 40 acres in size. Slopes range from 0 to 2 percent. used to maintain the content of organic matter and to
Typically, the surface layer is about 8 inches thick. It ue o mntai n the ontent o organi aer and to
is very dark brown sand grading to dark grayish brown el cnl in eros. eee rear should
include bedding of the rows. Fertilizer and lime should
fine sand. The underlying layer, to a depth of 80 inches te e
or more, is light brownish gray to light gray sand. b alie oi to te eds te crops.
This soil is suited to improved pasture grasses.
In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Osier sand,
Improved bermudagrass, improved bahiagrass, and
occasionally flooded, the Osier soil and similar soils cover are mderaey adped to his si and
make up 79 to 99 percent of the unit. Dissimilar soils deraely te to ts so
well if properly managed. A water-control system is
make up the other 1 to 21 percent. Included in
needed to remove excess surface water during heavy
mapping are areas of Plummer and Pottsburg soils.
rains and during floods. Regular applications of
Plummer soils have loamy layers below a depth of 40 rains and applications of
inches. Pottsburg soils have dark, stained horizons fertilizer are needed to obtain high yields. Controlled
inches. Pottsburg soils have dark, stained horizons
below a depth of 51 inches, grazing helps to maintain plant vigor.
This soil is suited to the production of slash pine
Important properties of the Osier soil- and loblolly pine. Severe equipment limitations, severe
Seasonal high water table: At the surface to a depth of seedling mortality, and severe plant competition are
1/2 foot from November through March management concerns. Timely scheduling of site
Permeability Very rapid preparation, such as harrowing and bedding, helps
Available water capacity: Very low establish seedlings, reduces the seedling mortality
Flooding: Occasional rate, and increases early growth. Chopping and
bedding minimize debris, help to control competing
This soil is in the Wetland Hardwood Hammocks vegetation, and facilitate planting. Using field
ecological community. This community has an machinery that is equipped with large, low-pressure
evergreen appearance because it is dominated by rubber tires or tracks helps overcome the equipment
laurel oak, live oak, and water oak. It supports a limitations, reduces the extent of soil compaction, and
luxurious growth of vegetation with a diversity of minimizes the root damage caused by thinning
species. The Swamp Hardwoods ecological operations. Drainage is needed to remove excess
community is commonly found in depressional areas surface water during wet periods. Logging systems
of the Wetland Hardwood Hammocks ecological that leave residual biomass well distributed over the
community. site help maintain the content of organic matter and
Characteristic plant community- the residual fertility of the soil.
This soil is not suited to urban development. The
Trees: Live oak, slash pine, loblolly pine, laurel oak, seasonal high water table, the flooding, and seepage
redbay, red maple, sweetbay, sweetgum, water are severe limitations.
oak, magnolia, and hawthorns The capability subclass is Vw. The woodland
Shrubs: Witchhazel, saw palmetto, shining sumac, and ordination symbol is 11W.
wax-myrtle
Herbaceous plants and vines: Cinnamon fern,
crossvine, poison ivy, royal fern, Spanish moss, 58-Sapelo sand
Virginia creeper, wild grape, and yellow jessamine This very deep, poorly drained soil is in areas of
Grasses and grasslike plants: Beaked panicum, f s very dee, or drained soil is in areas of
eastern gamagrass, longleaf uniola, chalky flatwoods and in areas bordering swamps and
bluestem, and maidencane depressions. Individual areas are irregular in shape.
They range from about 10 to 200 acres in size. Slopes
This soil is poorly suited to cultivated crops. range from 0 to 2 percent.
Wetness, flooding, and very low natural fertility are Typically, the surface layer is black sand about 7






66 Soil Survey



inches thick. The subsurface layer is about 12 inches irrigation during dry periods. Row crops should be
thick. It is dark gray grading to gray sand. The upper rotated with close-growing, soil improving cover crops.
subsoil is 9 inches thick and is stained with organic Soil improving cover crops and residue from other
matter. It is very dark brown sand in the upper part crops should be used to maintain the content of
and dark yellowish brown sand in the lower part. The organic matter and to help control erosion. Seedbed
transitional layer between the upper subsoil and the preparation should include bedding of the rows.
lower subsoil is 20 inches thick. It is very pale brown Fertilizer and lime should be applied according to the
grading to pale brown sand. The lower subsoil extends needs of the crops.
to a depth of more than 80 inches. It is light gray This soil is suited to pasture and to hay crops.
grading to light brownish gray sandy clay loam. Improved bermudagrass, improved bahiagrass, and
In 90 percent of the areas mapped as Sapelo clover are well adapted to this soil and grow well if
sand, the Sapelo soil and similar soils make up 80 properly managed. A water-control system is needed
to 99 percent of the unit. Dissimilar soils make up to remove excess surface water during heavy rains.
the other 1 to 20 percent. Included in mapping are Regular applications of fertilizer are needed to obtain
small areas of Albany soils that are in the slightly high yields. Controlled grazing helps to maintain plant
higher positions and that do not have a sandy, vigor.
stained subsoil. This soil is suited to the production of slash pine
and loblolly pine. Moderate equipment limitations,
Important properties of the Sapelo soil- moderate seedling mortality, and moderate plant
Depth to the seasonal high water table: /2 foot to 11/2 competition are management concerns. Bedding of
feet from November through April rows helps to overcome the limitations caused by
Permeability Moderately slow excessive wetness. Using field machinery that is
Available water capacity: Low equipped with low-pressure tires or tracks helps
Available water capacity: Low
Flooding: None overcome the equipment limitations, reduces the
Flooding: None
extent of soil compaction, and minimizes the root
This soil is in the North Florida Flatwoods damage caused by thinning operations. Plant
ecological community. The type and amount of competition can be controlled by site preparation, such
vegetation in this ecological community vary as chopping with a drum chopper. Conventional
depending on the successional stage. This community methods of harvesting timber generally can be used
typically has a moderate to dense stand of pine trees but may be limited during rainy periods. A logging
and an understory of saw palmetto and grasses. The system that leaves most of the biomass on the surface
areas that originally supported longleaf pine have is preferred.
been replanted to slash pine. This soil is poorly suited to urban development. The
Chara c pt c- seasonal high water table, poor filtration, and sandy
textures are management concerns. Deep drainage
Trees: Slash pine and loblolly pine can help to lower the seasonal high water table. If this
Shrubs: Ground blueberry, gallberry, saw palmetto, soil is used as a site for septic tanks absorption fields,
shining sumac, tarflower, and wax-myrtle mounding is needed.
Herbaceous plants and vines: Cat greenbrier, common The capability subclass is Illw. The woodland
greenbrier, brackenfern, creeping beggarweed, ordination symbol is 7W.
deertongue, dogfennel, gayfeather, greenbrier,
and milkwort
Grasses and grasslike plants: Low panicum, 59-Dorovan muck, depressional
broomsedge bluestem, yellow Indiangrass, This very deep, poorly drained soil is in swamps
lopsided Indiangrass, pineland threeawn, and and depressions. Individual areas are irregular in
sedges shape. They range from about 10 to 175 acres in size.
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops. Wetness Typically, the surface layer is very dark brown muck.
and low natural fertility are severe limitations. Adapted The underlying materials, which extend to a depth of
crops and very intensive management practices are 55 inches, are black muck containing 15 to 25 percent
needed. In areas that have a good water-control unrubbed fiber. Below this is dark gray sand to a depth
system, this soil is suited to many crops if soil of 80 inches or more.
improving measures are applied. A water-control In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Dorovan
system is needed to remove excess surface water muck, depressional, the Dorovan soil and similar soils
during wet periods and to provide water for subsurface make up 80 to 99 percent of the unit. Dissimilar soils






Hamilton County, Florida 67



make up the other 1 to 20 percent. Included in grayish brown sand about 4 inches thick. The upper
mapping are some small areas of Mascotte, Pelham, part of the subsurface layer extends to a depth of 15
Plummer, and Pottsburg soils. Mascotte and Pottsburg inches. It is yellowish brown sand. The lower part,
soils have organic-stained subsoil horizons. Also, which extends to a depth of 47 inches, is yellow sand.
Mascotte soils have loamy subsoil horizons. Pelham The next layer extends to a depth of 80 inches or
and Plummer soils have sandy surface and more. It is very pale brown grading to pinkish white
subsurface layers and a loamy subsoil. sand and has thin layers of strong brown loamy
sand.
Important properties of the Dorovan soil- Typically, the Shadeville soil has a surface layer of
Seasonal high water table: From 1 foot above the very dark gray sand about 3 inches thick. The upper
surface to a depth of 1/2 foot from January through part of the subsurface layer extends to a depth of 30
December; pounded for long periods following high inches. It is pale brown sand. The lower part, which
amounts of rainfall extends to a depth of 38 inches, is light yellowish
Permeability: Moderate brown fine sand. The subsoil is brownish yellow sandy
Available water capacity: High clay loam to a depth of 72 inches.
Flooding: None Mapped areas of this unit are about 50 percent
Alpin and similar soils, 40 percent Shadeville and
This soil is in the Shrub Bogs-Bay Swamps similar soils, and 10 percent dissimilar soils. The
ecological community. This community is dominated by components of this complex occur in a regularly
evergreen vegetation. Bay swamps are forested repeating pattern. The Alpin soils are on the upper,
wetlands and are considered a climax community, broad, nearly level plateaus. The Shadeville soils are
Shrub bogs are in the earlier stages of plant on the steep side slopes of large sinkholes and old
succession, river beds.
In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Alpin-
Characteristic plant community- Shadeville complex, karst, the Alpin, Shadeville, and
Trees: Blackgum, buckwheat tree, loblolly bay, pond similar soils make up 80 to 99 percent of the unit.
pine, redbay, slash pine, sweetbay, bald cypress, Dissimilar soils make up the other 1 to 20 percent.
swamp tupelo, green ash, red maple, and water Included in mapping are small areas of Blanton,
tupelo Bivans, and Wampee soils. Blanton soils have loamy
Shrubs: Black titi, doghobble, fetterbush, large subsoil layers below a depth of 40 inches. Bivans soils
gallberry, myrtle-leaved holly, summersweet are in the lower landscape positions, are poorly
ciethra, and titi drained, and have a subsoil of sandy clay. Wampee
Herbaceous plants and vines: Greenbrier and soils are somewhat poorly drained.
spaghnum moss Important properties of the Alpin and Shadeville
This soil is not suited to cultivated crops, pasture, soils-
production of pine trees, or urban development. Seasonal high water table: Alpin-at a depth of more
Wetness, ponding, and thick layers of soft organic than 80 inches; Shadeville-at a depth of 4 to 6
materials are severe limitations, feet from July through October, perched
The capability subclass is Vllw. The woodland Permeability:Alpin-rapid; Shadeville-moderate
ordination symbol is 7W. Available water capacity: Low
Flooding: None

60-Alpin-Shadeville complex, karst This map unit is in the Upland Hardwood
Hammocks ecological community. The type and
These deep and very deep, moderately well drained amount of vegetation in this ecological community
to excessively drained soils are incised by deep vary depending on the successional stage. In the early
ravines and interspersed by sinkholes that have steep successional stages, pine and sweetgum generally are
slopes. Individual areas are irregular in shape. They dominant and the understory is blackberries and
range from 20 to 80 acres in size. The individual broomsedge. This community is considered to be in a
components of this complex occur as areas that are climax stage of vegetation when it has only a few
too intermingled and too small to separate at the scale pines and is dominated by hardwoods. Under climax
selected for mapping, conditions, the understory vegetation may be quite
Typically, the Alpin soil has a surface layer of dark sparse.





68 Soil Survey



Characteristic plant community- The capability subclass is IVs in areas of the Alpin
Trees: Blue beech, American holly, black cherry, soil and VIs in areas of the Shadeville soil. The
woodland ordination symbol is 8S in areas of the Alpin
eastern hophornbean, flowering dogwood, soil and ordination symbol is 8S in areas of the AlpinShadeville soil.
hawthorn, turkey oak, post oak, bluejack oak, so and n areas of the hadevlle s
blackjack oak, laurel oak, laurelcherry, live oak,
loblolly pine, slash pine, pignut hickory, southern 61-Arents, 0 to 5 percent slopes
magnolia, sweetgum, and water oak
Shrubs: American beautyberry, arrowwood, This unit consists of very deep, highly variable soil
sparkleberry, and wax-myrtle material that has been reworked by earthmoving
equipment. It includes areas modified during
Herbaceous plants and vines: Aster, cat greenbrier, equipment. It includes areas modified during
common greenbrier, crossvine, partridgeberry, phosphate mining and areas of sanitary landfills.
common greenbrier, crossvine, partridgeberry,
riepe ni, r e, Vir These areas have been reclaimed and planted to
partridge pea, poison ivy, ragweed, Virginia
porridge pea, poiso iy, ragweed, Viiia grasses and pine trees. Individual areas range from 5
creeper, wild grape, yellow jessamine, dotted
reeer, d rae ye eaie tte to 1,000 acres in size. The thickness of the material
horsemint, and blackberry
horsemint, and b lackby ranges from 2 to 30 feet. Small open pits that are filled
Grasses and grasslike plants: Low panicum,
sss grass p s: Low p m, with water are common in some areas. Some areas
switchgrass, and broomsedge
have had sand pumped into the open pit and have
This map unit is poorly suited to cultivated crops, been brought to grade by leveling the reworked
Seasonal droughtiness, erosion, and low fertility are materials.
management concerns. Irrigation is needed during This unit consists of mixed white, light gray,
dry periods but may not be practical in the steeper brownish yellow, very pale brown, yellowish brown,
or depressional areas. Residue management, grayish brown, brown, dark brown, and black fine
including minimum tillage, is needed to preserve sand, sand, loamy sand, sandy loam, sandy clay, and
moisture and to help control erosion. Lime and clay. The mixture is remnant material from spodic and
fertilizers should be applied on the basis of soil argillic horizons. This material lacks any orderly
testing. They are needed to help compensate for the sequence of horizons.
low soil fertility. In 90 percent of the areas mapped as Arents, 0 to 5
This map unit is suited to improved pasture percent slopes, the Arents and similar soils make up
grasses. Droughtiness is a management concern. 80 to 99 percent of the unit. Dissimilar soils make up
Improved bermudagrass and bahiagrass produce the other 1 to 20 percent. Included in mapping are
moderate yields if properly managed. Controlled areas of Pits.
grazing and proper applications of lime and fertilizer
are needed to obtain optimum yields. Important properties of the Arents-
This map unit is suited to the production of slash Depth to the seasonal high water table: More than 6
pine and loblolly pine. Moderate equipment limitations, feet
moderate seedling mortality, and moderate plant PermeabilityVery rapid
competition are management concerns. Site
Available water capacity: Low
preparation, such as harrowing and bedding, helps Flooding:None
establish seedlings, reduces the seedling mortality
rate, and increases early growth. Chopping and Arents do not have a native plant community. Most
bedding minimize debris, help to control competing areas are seeded to bahiagrass or planted to pine
vegetation, and facilitate planting. Using field trees.
machinery that is equipped with large, low-pressure This map unit is unsuited to cultivated crops. Water
rubber tires or tracks helps overcome the equipment percolation varies, causing problems with irrigation,
limitations, reduces the extent of soil compaction, and drainage, and erosion. Aeration is poor due to
minimizes the root damage caused by thinning compaction, and the soil has a tendency to develop a
operations. Logging systems that leave residual surface crust.
biomass well distributed over the site increase the This map unit is suited to improved pasture and the
content of organic matter and the residual fertility of production of pines. Low fertility, erosion, and soil
the soil. compaction are management concerns. Bahiagrass is
This map unit has highly variable suitability for the most common pasture grass. Controlled grazing
urban development. Depth to rock and seepage are helps to maintain plant vigor. Sweetgum and bald
management concerns. Onsite investigation is needed cypress are planted in some wetter areas. Most of
to determine suitability, these plantings are experimental.






Hamilton County, Florida 69



This map unit has variable suitability for urban In 80 percent of the areas mapped as Resota-
development. Onsite evaluation is needed to Blanton-Bigbee complex, undulating, occasionally
determine suitability, flooded, the Resota, Blanton, Bigbee, and similar
This map unit has not been assigned a capability soils make up 75 to 99 percent of the unit.
subclass or a woodland suitability group. Dissimilar soils make up the other 1 to 25 percent.
Included in mapping are small areas of Otela soils,
which have limestone bedrock within a depth of 80
62-Resota-Blanton-Bigbee inches.
complex, occasionally flooded Important properties of the Resota, Blanton, and

These very deep, moderately well drained and Bigbee soils-
excessively drained soils are on flood plains. Seasonal high water table: Resota-at a depth of 31/2
Individual areas are irregular in shape. They range to 5 feet from December through April, apparent;
from 20 to 100 acres in size. The individual Blanton-at a depth of 5 to 6 feet from March
components of this complex occur as areas that are through April, perched; Bigbee-at a depth of 31/2
too intermingled and too small to separate at the to 6 feet from January through March, apparent
scale selected for mapping. Slopes range from 0 to Permeability: Resota-very rapid; Bigbee-rapid;
8 percent. Blanton-moderate
Typically, the Resota soil has a surface layer of gray Available water capacity: Low
fine sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer, Flooding: Occasional
which extends to a depth of 25 inches, is white fine Hardwood
This map unit is in the Upland Hardwood
sand. The upper part of the subsoil is yellowish brown Hammocks ecological community. The type and
fine sand to a depth of 40 inches. The lower part,
i amount of vegetation in this ecological community
which extends to a depth of about 50 inches, is
vary depending on the successional stage. In the early
yellowish brown fine sand that has brownish yellow successional stages, pine and sweetgum generally are
mottles. It is underlain to a depth of 80 inches or more oinan an the understory is blackberries and
by very pale brown fine sand that has light gray broomsedge. This community is considered to be in a
broomsedge. This community is considered to be in a
mottles.
mot es, climax stage of vegetation when it has only a few
Typically, the Blanton soil has a surface layer of ciax sae o eeatn wn h aroods. Un la
pines and is dominated by hardwoods. Under climax
dark grayish brown fine sand about 9 inches thick. The editions, the understory vegetation may be quiet
subsurface layer, which extends to a depth of 54
inches, is yellowish brown grading to very pale brown sparse.
sand. The upper part of the subsoil extends to a depth Characteristic plant community-
of 63 inches. It is yellowish brown sandy clay loam.
The lower part to a depth of 80 inches is light brownish eser hophornbeam, flowering dogwood
gray to gray sandy clay loam. The subsoil has brown hawthorn, laurel oak, laurelcherry, live oak, oblolly
hawthorn, laurel oak, laurelcherry, live oak, loblolly
and gray mottles.
and gray m .pine, longleaf pine, sand pine, slash pine, spruce
Typically, the Bigbee soil has a surface layer of light pine, ng in, san in, la
S pine, pignut hickory, southern magnolia,
brownish gray fine sand about 9 inches thick. The pe, pgnut hckory, southern maoia,
sweetgum, bluejack oak, turkey oak, southern red
underlying layers are fine sand. In the upper part, to a oak, a a oak
oak, and water oak
depth of 20 inches, they are dark yellowish brown. In, e ,
S. Shrubs: American beautyberry, arrowwood,
the next part, to a depth of 55 inches, they are pale s berry, arrowwoo
sparkleberry, and wax-myrtle
brown grading to brown. In the lower part they are light sarkeberr, and wax-mrtle
gray to a depth of 80 inches. Herbaceous plants and vines: Aster, cat greenbrier,
gray to a depth of 80 inches.
y o a dh of 80 i common greenbrier, crossvine, partridgeberry,
Mapped areas of this unit are about 35 percent partridge pea, poison iv, ragee, artrid rr
Resota and similar soils, 33 percent Blanton and paie ea is, V
similar soils, and 25 percent Bigbee and similar soils. creeper, wild grape, yellow jessamine, dotted
horsemint, and blackberry
The components of this complex occur in a regularly Grases and ga la: ,
repeating pattern. The Resota soils are in low
positions in swales, the Blanton soils are on side switchgrass, and broomsedge
slopes, and the Bigbee soils are on terraces and This map unit is poorly suited to cultivated crops.
summits. The individual areas of Resota, Blanton, and Droughtiness and the.flooding are management
Bigbee soils are too small to separate at the scale concerns. Plant nutrients leach rapidly. Corn,
selected for mapping, peanuts, and watermelons can be grown on this soil







70 Soil Survey



but require intensive management, including such sand, sandy loam, sandy clay loam, sandy clay, and
conservation practices as a crop rotation system clay. The mixture is remnant material from spodic and
that includes cover crops, the return of crop residue argillic horizons. This material lacks any orderly
to the soil, and proper applications of fertilizer and sequence of horizons.
lime. Irrigation is needed during drought periods. Mapped areas are about 55 percent Arents and
Wind erosion is a severe hazard if the surface layer similar soils and 45 percent water.The components of
is unprotected. this complex occur in a regularly repeating pattern.
This map unit is suited to pasture and to hay The Arents are on convex landscapes. The areas of
crops. Deep-rooted plants, such as improved water are in concave positions between the areas of
bermudagrass and bahiagrass, can be grown if a Arents.
high level of management is applied, but yields are In 90 percent of the areas mapped as Arents-Water
reduced by periodic drought. Regular applications complex, the Arents, water, and soils that have
of fertilizer and lime are needed. Controlled grazing characteristics similar to those of the Arents make up
helps to maintain plant vigor and to obtain 90 to 99 percent of the unit. Dissimilar soils make up
maximum yields. the other 1 to 10 percent. Included in mapping are
This map unit is suited to the production of slash poorly drained areas.
pine and loblolly pine. Moderate equipment I p o
. Important properties of the Arents-
limitations, moderate to severe seedling mortality,
and moderate plant competition are management Depth to the seasonal high water table: More than 6
concerns. The sandy texture restricts the use of feet
wheeled equipment. This restriction can be Permeability:Very rapid
overcome by harvesting when the soil is moist. Available water capacity: Low
Seedling mortality caused by droughtiness can be Flooding: None
partly overcome by increasing the rate and depth of Arents do not have a native plant community. Most
tree planting and by mulching with the residual of the older areas are seeded to bahiagrass.
biomass that is left after harvesting. Plant .
biomass that is left after harvesting. Plant This map unit is unsuited to cultivated crops, pine
competition can be reduced by site preparation, development. Slope and the highly
trees, and urban development. Slope and the highly
such as chopping with a drum chopper. A logging variable soil properties are severe limitations.
system that leaves most of the biomass on the
system that leaves most of the biomass on the This map unit has not been assigned a capability
surface is preferred.
surface is preferred. ,subclass or a woodland suitability group.
This map unit is not suited to urban development.
The flooding and proximity to the river are severe
limitations.
The capability subclass is IVs in areas of the 64-Hydraquents, clayey
Resota and Bigbee soils and Ills in areas of the
Resota and Bigbee soils and Ills in areas of the This map unit consists of areas of slime (colloidal
Blanton soil. The woodland ordination symbol is 8S in clay) that has been pumped into holding ponds. This
areas of the Resota soil, 11S in areas of the Blanton material is a byproduct of phosphate mining and is too
soil, and 9S in areas of the Bigbee soil. weak to support grazing animals. Standing water is
also in the holding ponds. The ponds are built with a
63-Arents-Water complex 30 to 40 foot dike surrounding them. The thickness of
the clay is variable. Mapped areas are irregular in
This highly variable map unit consists of a series of shape and range from 20 to 600 acres in size.
pits containing water, paralleled by long, steep Typically, the soil material is about 85 percent clay,
mounds of soil materials that have been reworked by 10 percent silt, and 5 percent sand. It is dominantly
earthmoving equipment during phosphate mining, gray and light gray and has yellowish brown mottles in
Some areas have been seeded to grasses. Individual some pedons. Montmorillonite is the principal clay
areas vary in size from 100 to 500 acres. The mineral.
individual components of this complex occur as areas In 95 percent of the areas mapped as Hydraquents,
that are too intermingled and too small to separate at clayey, the Hydraquents and soils that have
the scale selected for mapping. characteristics similar to those of the Hydraquents
The Arents consist of white, light gray, brownish make up 90 to 99 percent of the unit. Dissimilar soils
yellow, very pale brown, yellowish brown, grayish make up the other 1 to 10 percent. Included in
brown, dark brown, and black fine sand, sand, loamy mapping are areas of Pits and Arents.






Hamilton County, Florida



Important properties of the Hydraquents- 67-Quartzipsamments, 1 to 5
Seasonal high water table: At or above the surface percent slopes
Permeability: Very slow
Available water capacity: Very high This very deep, excessively drained soil is on broad
Flooding: None uplands and low knolls. It formed in homogeneous
sandy material from phosphate mining operations.
Hydraquents, clayey, do not have a native plant Individual areas are irregular in shape. They range
community. Most settled areas support hyacinths, from 50 to 500 acres in size.
cattails, and willows. Typically, the surface layer is grayish brown fine
This map unit is unsuited to cultivated crops, sand about 3 inches thick. The underlying material to a
pasture, pine trees, and urban development. Wetness, depth of 80 inches or more is light gray sand mixed
very slow permeability, low strength, and the shrink- with brown sand. Some areas have coarse sand or
swell potential are severe limitations. fragments of rocks.
This map unit has not been assigned a capability fragments of rock
subclass or a woodland suitability group. In 90 percent of the areas mapped as
subclass or a woodland suitability group. Quartzipsamments, 1 to 5 percent slopes, the
Quartzipsamments and soils that have similar
65-Gypsum land characteristics make up 80 to 99 percent of the unit.
Dissimilar soils make up the other 1 to 20 percent.
This map unit consists of areas of gypsum. The Included in mapping are areas of Pits; Hydraquents,
gypsum is a byproduct of acid manufacturing and clayey; and Arents.
phosphate mining. It is formed along with phosphoric
acid by reacting sulfuric acid and rock phosphate. The Important properties of the Quartzipsamments-
gypsum is mounded 30 to 80 feet high. The mounds
gypsum is mounded 30 to 80 feet high. The mounds Depth to the seasonal high water table: More than 6
consist of a mass of white gypsum crystals mixed feet
with impurities of silica and organic matter. Permeability:Very rapid
Individual areas of Gypsum land range from 80 to Available water capacity Low
400 acres in size.
Gypsum land is typically barren. Acidity and Flooding: None
compaction inhibit the growth of most plants Quartzipsamments do not have a native plant
This map unit is not rated for cultivated crops, community. Most areas are seeded to bahiagrass or
pasture, woodland, or urban areas. The variability of planted to pine trees.
the soil properties is a severe limitation. This map unit is unsuited to most cultivated crops.
This map unit has not been assigned a capability Droughtiness and rapid leaching of nutrients are
subclass or a woodland suitability group. management concerns. A few drought-resistant
varieties can be grown if irrigation and proper soil
66-Urban land amendments are applied.
This map unit is poorly suited to improved pasture.
This map unit consists of areas that are more than Low fertility, droughtiness, and soil compaction are
85 percent covered by buildings, streets, industrial management concerns. Bahiagrass is the most
complexes, or pavement. Open areas include lawns, commonly grown adapted pasture grass. Controlled
gardens, and playgrounds. Most areas of this map unit grazing helps to maintain plant vigor.
are in the phosphate mining region. Urban land cannot This map unit is poorly suited to the production of
be recognized as natural soil because most areas pines. Droughtiness and low fertility are management
have been either filled or excavated. Individual areas concerns.
range from 5 to 80 acres in size. This map unit is poorly suited to urban
This map unit is not suited to cultivated crops, development. Seepage of sewage effluent is a
pasture, or woodland. It is not rated as a site for septic management concern. Lining the trenches of septic
tank absorption fields or dwellings without basements, tank absorption fields with loamy material helps to
Onsite evaluation is needed to determine suitability for overcome the seepage. Onsite evaluation is needed to
these uses. determine suitability for urban development.
This map unit has not been assigned a capability This map unit has not been assigned a capability
subclass or a woodland suitability group, subclass or a woodland suitability group.









73











Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of by the Natural Resources Conservation Service is
the soils in the county. It can be used to adjust land explained, and prime farmland is described.
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural Planners of management systems for individual
resources and the environment. Also, it can help to fields or farms should consider the detailed
prevent soil-related failures in land uses. information given in the description of each soil under
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, the heading "Detailed Soil Map Units." Specific
conservationists, engineers, and others collect information can be obtained from the local office of the
extensive field data about the nature and behavioral Natural Resources Conservation Service or the
characteristics of the soils. They collect data on Cooperative Extension Service.
erosion, droughtiness, flooding, and other factors that According to the Hamilton County Extension
affect various soil uses and management. Field Service and the USDA Farm Service Agency, in 1990
experience and collected data on soil properties and about 95,847 acres in Hamilton County was used for
performance are used as a basis in predicting soil crops and pasture. The acreage included improved
behavior. pasture; field crops, mainly corn, peanuts, tobacco,
Information in this section can be used to plan the sorghum, wheat, oats, peanuts, soybeans, peas, and
use and management of soils for crops and pasture; hay; and specialty crops, such as sweet corn, field
as rangeland and woodland; as sites for buildings, peas, grapes, and pecans.
sanitary facilities, highways and other transportation In Hamilton County, the potential of the soils for
systems, and parks and other recreational facilities; increased food production is fair. About 300 acres of
and for wildlife habitat. It can be used to identify the potentially good cropland is now woodland, and about
potentials and limitations of each soil for specific land 400 acres is pasture. These areas could be used as
uses and to help prevent construction failures caused cropland but would need intensive conservation
by unfavorable soil properties. measures to control soil blowing on sandy soils and to
Planners and others using soil survey information control the fluctuating water table. In addition to the
can evaluate the effect of specific land uses on reserve capacity represented by these areas, food
productivity and on the environment in all or part of the production could be increased considerably by
county. The survey can help planners to maintain or extending the latest technology to all of the cropland in
create a land use pattern in harmony with the natural the county.
soil. Soil erosion is a problem on about one-fourth of the
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources cropland and pasture in Hamilton County. In areas
of sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use where the slope is more than 2 percent, erosion is a
it to identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very hazard; especially in areas of the moderately well
firm soil layers can cause difficulty in excavation, drained Blanton, Eunola, Shadeville, and Otela soils
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and and the somewhat poorly drained Albany soils.
others may also find this survey useful. The survey Erosion can reduce productivity and can result in
can help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and pollution of streams. Productivity is reduced as the
locate sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, surface layer erodes and more of the subsoil is
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs. incorporated into the plow layer. Erosion on farmland
results in sediment entering streams. Controlling this
Crops and Pasture erosion minimizes the pollution of streams and
improves the quality of water for municipal uses, for
General management needed for crops and pasture recreational uses, and for fish and wildlife.
is suggested in this section. The estimated yields of Erosion-control practices provide a protective
the main crops and pasture plants are listed for each surface cover, increase the rate of water infiltration,
soil, the system of land capability classification used and help to control runoff. A cropping system that






73











Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of by the Natural Resources Conservation Service is
the soils in the county. It can be used to adjust land explained, and prime farmland is described.
uses to the limitations and potentials of natural Planners of management systems for individual
resources and the environment. Also, it can help to fields or farms should consider the detailed
prevent soil-related failures in land uses. information given in the description of each soil under
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, the heading "Detailed Soil Map Units." Specific
conservationists, engineers, and others collect information can be obtained from the local office of the
extensive field data about the nature and behavioral Natural Resources Conservation Service or the
characteristics of the soils. They collect data on Cooperative Extension Service.
erosion, droughtiness, flooding, and other factors that According to the Hamilton County Extension
affect various soil uses and management. Field Service and the USDA Farm Service Agency, in 1990
experience and collected data on soil properties and about 95,847 acres in Hamilton County was used for
performance are used as a basis in predicting soil crops and pasture. The acreage included improved
behavior. pasture; field crops, mainly corn, peanuts, tobacco,
Information in this section can be used to plan the sorghum, wheat, oats, peanuts, soybeans, peas, and
use and management of soils for crops and pasture; hay; and specialty crops, such as sweet corn, field
as rangeland and woodland; as sites for buildings, peas, grapes, and pecans.
sanitary facilities, highways and other transportation In Hamilton County, the potential of the soils for
systems, and parks and other recreational facilities; increased food production is fair. About 300 acres of
and for wildlife habitat. It can be used to identify the potentially good cropland is now woodland, and about
potentials and limitations of each soil for specific land 400 acres is pasture. These areas could be used as
uses and to help prevent construction failures caused cropland but would need intensive conservation
by unfavorable soil properties. measures to control soil blowing on sandy soils and to
Planners and others using soil survey information control the fluctuating water table. In addition to the
can evaluate the effect of specific land uses on reserve capacity represented by these areas, food
productivity and on the environment in all or part of the production could be increased considerably by
county. The survey can help planners to maintain or extending the latest technology to all of the cropland in
create a land use pattern in harmony with the natural the county.
soil. Soil erosion is a problem on about one-fourth of the
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources cropland and pasture in Hamilton County. In areas
of sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use where the slope is more than 2 percent, erosion is a
it to identify areas where bedrock, wetness, or very hazard; especially in areas of the moderately well
firm soil layers can cause difficulty in excavation, drained Blanton, Eunola, Shadeville, and Otela soils
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and and the somewhat poorly drained Albany soils.
others may also find this survey useful. The survey Erosion can reduce productivity and can result in
can help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and pollution of streams. Productivity is reduced as the
locate sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, surface layer erodes and more of the subsoil is
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs. incorporated into the plow layer. Erosion on farmland
results in sediment entering streams. Controlling this
Crops and Pasture erosion minimizes the pollution of streams and
improves the quality of water for municipal uses, for
General management needed for crops and pasture recreational uses, and for fish and wildlife.
is suggested in this section. The estimated yields of Erosion-control practices provide a protective
the main crops and pasture plants are listed for each surface cover, increase the rate of water infiltration,
soil, the system of land capability classification used and help to control runoff. A cropping system that






74 Soil Survey



keeps plant cover on the soil for extended periods can National Resources Conservation Service or the
hold soil losses to amounts that do not reduce the Cooperative Extension Service or from a nursery.
productive capacity of the soils. On livestock farms, Information regarding erosion-control practices for
which require pasture and hay, including grasses and each kind of soil is contained in "Erosion Control
legumes in the cropping system helps to control Handbook-Florida," which is available at local offices
erosion in the sloping areas and improves tilth for the of the Natural Resources Conservation Service.
crops that follow in the rotation. The legumes also Soil drainage is a major management concern
increase nitrogen levels in the soils, affecting about 10 percent of the acreage used for
Minimizing tillage and leaving crop residue on the crops and pasture in the county. The poorly drained
surface increase the rate of water infiltration and help Sapelo soils and the very poorly drained Pamlico,
to control runoff and erosion. Using a no-till method of Dorovan, and Surrency soils are naturally so wet that
planting corn and soybeans reduces the hazard of the production of the crops common to the area is
erosion in sloping areas and is suitable on most of the generally not practical.
soils in the county. Unless artificially drained, some of the somewhat
Contour tillage and terraces are not practical on poorly drained soils are wet enough in the root zone to
most of the soils in the county because of the sandy cause damage to most crops during most years. An
textures and the short, irregular slopes. Stripcropping example is the Albany soils.
and diversions help to control runoff and reduce the Also, unless artificially drained, some of the
hazard of erosion. They are most practical on deep, poorly drained Sapelo soils are wet enough to
well drained soils that have a uniform slope. Diversions cause some damage to pasture plants. These soils
and sod waterways can also help to control runoff and also have a low available water capacity and are
reduce the hazard of erosion. They can be used on drought during dry periods. Adequate production
many of the soils in the county, of pasture plants requires subsurface irrigation in
Wind erosion is a major hazard on the sandy soils areas of these soils.
in the county. Strong winds can damage soils and The very poorly drained Pamlico, Dorovan, and
tender crops in a few hours in open, unprotected areas Surrency soils are very wet during rainy periods and
where the soil is dry and bare. Maintaining a vegetative have water standing on the surface in most areas. The
cover and surface mulch minimize wind erosion. production of good quality pasture on these soils is not
Wind erosion is damaging for several reasons. It possible without artificial drainage. A combination of
reduces soil fertility by removing finer soil particles surface drainage and irrigation is needed for intensive
and organic matter; damages or destroys crops by pasture production on these soils.
sandblasting; spreads diseases, insects, and weed Information regarding drainage and irrigation for
seeds; and creates health hazards and cleaning each kind of soil is available at the local office of the
problems. Control of wind erosion minimizes dust Natural Resources Conservation Service.
storms and improves the quality of air, resulting in Fertility is naturally low on most soils in the county.
healthier living conditions. Most of the soils have a sandy surface layer and are
Field windbreaks of adapted trees and shrubs, such light colored. Many of the soils have a loamy subsoil.
as Carolina laurelcherry, sand pine, slash pine, Examples are Albany, Eunola, Otela, and Blanton soils.
southern redcedar, and Japanese privet, and strip Otela and Shadeville soils have an acid surface
crops of small grains help to minimize wind erosion layer and are underlain by calcareous limestone that is
and crop damage. Field windbreaks and strip crops slightly alkaline or moderately alkaline. Most of the
are narrow plantings made at right angles to the soils in the county have a surface layer that is strongly
prevailing wind. The interval depends on the erodibility acid or very strongly acid and require applications of
of the soil and the susceptibility of crops to damage ground limestone to raise the pH level sufficiently for
from sandblasting. good crop growth. Nitrogen, potassium, and available
Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen phosphorus levels are naturally low in most of these
houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The soils.
plants, mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely On all soils, applications of lime and fertilizer should
spaced: To ensure plant survival, a healthy planting be based on the results of soil tests, on the needs of
stock of suitable species should be planted properly on the crop, and on the expected level of yields. The
a well prepared site and maintained in good condition. Cooperative Extension Service can help in
Additional information on planting windbreaks and determining the kinds and amounts of fertilizer and
screens and on planting and caring for trees and lime to apply.
shrubs can be obtained from local office of the Tilth is an important factor affecting the germination






Hamilton County, Florida 75



of seeds and the infiltration of water into the soil. Soils Pasture in the county is used to produce forage for
that have good tilth are easily cultivated with common beef and dairy cattle. Bahiagrass and improved
tillage equipment and provide a good seedbed. bermudagrass are the major pasture plants grown in
Most of the soils in the county have a surface layer the county. Seeds can be harvested from bahiagrass
of sand or loamy fine sand that is light in color and that for improved pasture plantings and for commercial
has a low to moderate content of organic matter, purposes. Many cattle producers seed small grains on
Dorovan and Pamlico soils are exceptions. They are cropland and overseed rye in pastures in the fall for
organic soils. winter and spring grazing. In pastures of
Generally, the structure of the surface layer of most bermudagrass, excess grass is harvested as hay
soils in the county is weak. When soils that are dry during the summer for feeding during the winter. Also,
and that have a low content of organic matter receive hay is made from harvested peanuts during the fall for
intense rainfall, colloidal matter cements and forms a feeding during the winter.
slight crust, particularly if a plowpan is present. The The well drained and moderately well drained Otela,
crust is slightly hard when dry and is slightly Shadeville, Blanton, and Eunola soils are well suited to
impervious to water. Once the crust forms, it reduces bahiagrass and improved bermudagrass. If a good
infiltration and increases runoff. Regular additions of management system is applied, hairy indigo and alyce
crop residue, manure, and other organic material clover can be grown during the summer and the fall.
improve soil structure and reduce crust formation. The somewhat poorly drained Albany soils are well
Fall plowing is generally not advisable in Hamilton suited to bahiagrass and to improved bermudagrass if
County. Sloping soils, which make up about one-fourth legumes, such as sweetclover, are also grown and if
of the cropland in the county, are subject to erosion if adequate amounts of lime and fertilizer are applied.
plowed at this time. Gullies caused by erosion are If drained where needed, the Sapelo soils are well
common on unprotected soils. suited to bahiagrass. Subsurface irrigation increases
About three-fourths of the cropland in the county is the length of the growing season and the total
sandy and is subject to soil blowing. Tons of soils are production of forage. If adequate amounts of lime and
lost each year in the county as result of wind erosion fertilizer are applied, these soils are also well suited to
during the spring plowing season. legumes, such as white clover.
Field crops grown in the county include corn, Pastures in many parts of the county are greatly
soybeans, peanuts, and tobacco. The acreage of grain depleted by continuous excessive grazing. Pasture
sorghum could be increased if economic conditions yields can be increased by irrigation, by applications of
were favorable. Rye and wheat are the common close- fertilizer and lime, and by growing legumes.
growing crops. Oats can also be grown. Planners of management systems for individual
The major specialty crop grown commercially in the fields or farms should consider the detailed
county is watermelons. A small acreage is used for information given in the description of each soil under
squash, blueberries, grapes, pecans, and field peas. "Detailed Soil Map Units." Specific information can be
When economic conditions are favorable, the acreage obtained at the local offices of the Cooperative
of blueberries, nursery sod, cabbage, turnips, collards, Extension Service and the Natural Resources
and mustard greens can be increased. Conservation Service.
Deep soils that have good natural drainage are
especially well suited to many vegetables and small
fruits. If irrigated, about 11,938 acres of the Eunola, The average yields per acre that can be expected
Otela, Alpin, Shadeville, and Blanton soils that have a of the principal crops under a high level of
slope of less than 8 percent are very well suited to management are shown in table 4. In any given year,
vegetables and small fruits. Also, if adequately yields may be higher or lower than those indicated in
drained, Albany soils are very well suited to the table because of variations in rainfall and other
vegetables and small fruits. climatic factors. The land capability classification of
Information and suggestions about specialty crops each map unit is also shown in the table.
can be obtained from the local offices of the The yields are based mainly on the experience and
Cooperative Extension Service and the Natural records of farmers, conservationists, and extension
Resources Conservation Service. agents. Available yield data from nearby counties and
Differences in pasture yields are closely related to results of field trials and demonstrations are also
differences in soils. Management of pasture is based considered.
on the interrelationship of soils, plants, lime, fertilizer, The management needed to obtain the indicated
and moisture. yields of the various crops depends on the kind of soil






76 Soil Survey



and the crop. Management can include drainage, the choice of plants or that require moderate
erosion control, and protection from flooding; the conservation practices.
proper planting and seeding rates; suitable high- Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce
yielding crop varieties; appropriate and timely tillage; the choice of plants or that require special
control of weeds, plant diseases, and harmful insects; conservation practices, or both.
favorable soil reaction and optimum levels of nitrogen, Class IV soils have very severe limitations that
phosphorus, potassium, and trace elements for each reduce the choice of plants or that require very careful
crop; effective use of crop residue, barnyard manure, management, or both.
and green manure crops; and harvesting that ensures Class V soils are not likely to erode but have other
the smallest possible loss. limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their use.
For yields of irrigated crops, it is assumed that the Class VI soils have severe limitations that make
irrigation system is adapted to the soils and to the them generally unsuitable for cultivation.
crops grown, that good-quality irrigation water is Class VII soils have very severe limitations that
uniformly applied as needed, and that tillage is kept to make them unsuitable for cultivation.
a minimum. Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have
The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity limitations that nearly preclude their use for
of each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are commercial crop production.
likely to increase as new production technology is Capability subclasses are soil groups within one
developed. The productivity of a given soil compared class. They are designated by adding a small letter, e,
with that of other soils, however, is not likely to change, w, or s to the class numeral, for example, lie. The letter
Crops other than those shown in the table are e shows that the main hazard is the risk of erosion
grown in the county, but estimated yields are not listed unless close-growing plant cover is maintained; w
because the acreage of such crops is small. The local shows that water in or on the soil interferes with plant
office of the Natural Resources Conservation Service growth or cultivation (in some soils the wetness can be
or of the Cooperative Extension Service can provide partly corrected by artificial drainage); and s shows
information about the management and productivity of that the soil is limited mainly because it is shallow,
the soils for those crops. drought, or stony.
S. In class I there are no subclasses because the soils
Land Capability Classification of this class have few limitations. Class V contains only
Land capability classification shows, in a general the subclasses indicated by wor s because the soils
way, the suitability of soils for most kinds of field crops. in class V are subject to little or no erosion. They have
Crops that require special management are excluded, other limitations that restrict their use to pasture,
The soils are grouped according to their limitations for rangeland, woodland, wildlife habitat, or recreation.
field crops, the risk of damage if they are used forrime Farmland
crops, and the way they respond to management. The
criteria used in grouping the soils do not include major Prime farmland is one of several kinds of important
and generally expensive landforming that would farmland defined by the U.S. Department of
change slope, depth, or other characteristics of the Agriculture. It is of major importance in meeting the
soils, nor do they include possible but unlikely major Nation's short- and long-range needs for food and
reclamation projects. Capability classification is not a fiber. Because the supply of high-quality farmland is
substitute for interpretations designed to show suitability limited, the U.S. Department of Agriculture recognizes
and limitations of groups of soils for rangeland, for that responsible levels of government, as well as
woodland, and for engineering purposes. individuals, should encourage and facilitate the wise
In the capability system, soils are generally grouped use of our Nation's prime farmland.
at three levels-capability class, subclass, and unit. Prime farmland, as defined by the U.S. Department
Only class and subclass are used in this survey, of Agriculture, is land that has the best combination of
Capability classes, the broadest groups, are physical and chemical characteristics for producing
designated by numerals I through VIII. The numerals food, feed, forage, fiber, and oilseed crops and is
indicate progressively greater limitations and narrower available for these uses. It could be cultivated land,
choices for practical use. The classes are defined as pastureland, woodland, or other land, but it is not
follows: urban or built-up land or water areas. The soil qualities,
Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their growing season, and moisture supply are those
use. needed for the soil to economically produce sustained
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce high yields of crops when proper management,






Hamilton County, Florida 77



including water management, and acceptable farming the landscape, most of which are apparent to the
methods are applied. In general, prime farmland has casual observer after only a little training. Even without
an adequate and dependable supply of moisture from prior botanical training, an observer can quickly learn
precipitation or irrigation, a favorable temperature and to distinguish between pine flatwoods and pine-turkey
growing season, acceptable acidity or alkalinity, an oak sandhills, between hardwood hammocks and
acceptable salt and sodium content, and few or no cypress swamps, and between mangrove swamps and
rocks. It is permeable to water and air. It is not salt marsh. Once a community is recognized,
excessively erodible or saturated with water for long information can be found concerning the general
periods, and it either is not frequently flooded during characteristics of the soil on which it occurs and the
the growing season or is protected from flooding.The types of plants and animals it supports.
slope ranges mainly from 0 to 6 percent. More detailed Although some plants are found only within a very
information about the criteria for prime farmland is narrow range of conditions, many plants can survive
available at the local office of the Natural Resources throughout a wide range of conditions. Individual
Conservation Service. plants that have a wide tolerance level can occur in
About 1,441 acres, or 4 percent of the county, many different communities and on a variety of soils.
would meet the requirements for prime farmland if an When describing ecological communities, plant
adequate and dependable supply of irrigation water scientists study the patterns in which vegetation
were available. Scattered areas of this land are occurs. They study what species occur, the relative
throughout the county, but most are in the southern abundance of each species, the stage of plant
part, mainly in general soil map unit 1, which is succession, the dominance of species, the position of
described under the heading "General Soil Map Units." species on the landscape, and the soil or soils on
About 300 acres of this prime farmland is used for which the patterns occur. Recognizable patterns of
crops. The crops grown on this land, mainly corn and vegetation are usually found in a small group of soil
soybeans, account for a small amount of the county's types that have common characteristics. During many
total agricultural income each year. years of field observations while conducting soil
A recent trend in land use in some parts of the surveys, the Natural Resources Conservation Service
county has been the loss of some prime farmland to determined which vegetative communities commonly
industrial and urban uses. The loss of prime farmland occur on which soils throughout Florida. This
to other uses puts pressure on marginal lands, which information is summarized in a booklet called "26
generally are more erodible, drought, and less Ecological Communities of Florida" (USDA, 1989).
productive and cannot be easily cultivated. In the following paragraphs, the vegetative
The map unit in the county that is considered prime community occurring on individual map units during
farmland is listed at the end of this section. This listing the climax state of plant succession is described. The
does not constitute a recommendation for a particular community described is based on relatively natural
land use. The extent of the map unit is shown in table conditions. Human activities, such as commercial
3. The location is shown on the detailed soil maps at production of pine, agriculture, urbanization, and fire
the back of this publication. The soil qualities that suppression, can alter the community on a specific
affect use and management are described under the site and should be considered.
heading "Detailed Soil Map Units."
The map unit that meets the requirements for prime Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills
farmland is:
The Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills ecological
32 Norfolk loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes community is dominated by longleaf pine and by
turkey oak, bluejack oak, and sand post oak. Common
shrubs include Adam's needle, coontie, coralbean,
Ecological Communities shining sumac, and.yaupon. Pricklypear cactus,
partridge pea, blazingstar, elephantsfoot, wiregrass,
Gregory R. Brannon, soil data quality specialist, and John F. grassleafed goldaster, yellow Indiangrass, and
ance, Jr., biologist, Natural Resources Conservation Service, dropseed are common. The map units that support the
helped prepare this section. Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills ecological community
The ecological community concept is based on the in Hamilton County are:
knowledge that a soil type commonly supports a
specific vegetative community, which in turn provides 3 Alpin sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes
the habitat needed by specific wildlife species. 4 Alpin sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes
Vegetative communities form recognizable units on 9 Foxworth sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes






78 Soil Survey



18 Wadley sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes 11 Lowndes sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes
22 Alpin fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, 12 Lowndes and Norfolk soils, 8 to 12 percent
occasionally flooded slopes
49 Otela-Alpin complex, 0 to 5 percent slopes 15 Valdosta sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes
51 Bigbee fine sand, undulating, occasionally 16 Valdosta sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes
flooded 19 Valdosta-Lowndes complex, 12 to 20 percent
56 The Bigbee portion of Bibb-Bigbee complex, slopes
undulating, occasionally flooded 27 Kenansville loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes
29 Bonneau sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes
North Florida Flatwoods 32 Norfolk loamy fine sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes
35 Wahee fine sandy loam, 0 to 4 percent slopes,
The North Florida Flatwoods ecological community 35 ahee fine sanloam to 4 slopes
is normally dominated by slash pine and by live oak occasionally flooded
and sand live oak on the slightly higher ridges and an 37 Eunola loamyne sa pepes
occasionally flooded
understory of saw palmetto, gallberry, and grasses.
Scattered pond pine, water oak, laurel oak, sweetgum, Upland Hardwood Hammocks
wax-myrtle, and several species of blueberry are also The Upland Hardwood Hammock ecological
common. Chalky bluestem, broomsedge bluestem,
common. Chalky bluestem, broomsedge bluestem, community is normally dominated by black cherry,
lopsided Indiangrass, low panicums, switchgrass, and eastern hornbeam, flowerin ated by black cherry,
eastern hornbeam, flowering dogwood, hawthorns,
wiregrass are the common grasses. Other common
wiregrass iarheg common grasses. Other common laurel oak, laurelcherry, live oak, loblolly pine, longleaf
plants include grassleafed goldaster, blackberry, pine, slash pine, pignut hickory, southern magnolia,
brackenfern, deertongue, gayfeather, milkworts, and a pine, slash pine, p hckory, southern magnolia,
variety of seed producing legumes. The map units that sweetgumand water oak and an understory of
support the North Florida Flatwoods ecological American beautyberry, arrowwood, sparkleberry, and
support te ort loria latoo wax-myrtle. Low panicums, wood oats, bluestem, and
community in Hamilton County are: switchgrass are common grasses. Other common

13 Mascotte sand plants include aster, cat greenbrier, common
14 Pottsburg sand greenbrier, crossvine, partridge pea, poison ivy,
26 Mascotte and ummragweed, Spanish moss, Virginia creeper, wild grape,
26 Mascotte and Plummer soils, occasionally
flooded yellow jessamine, dotted horsemint, and blackberry.
58 Sapelo sand The map units that support the Upland Hardwood
Hammocks ecological community in Hamilton County
Mixed Hardwood and Pine are:
The Mixed Hardwood and Pine ecological 2 Albany fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes
community is readily identified by a mixed vegetation 5 Blanton sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes
of hardwoods and pines on well drained, nondroughty 6 Blanton sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes
soils. It is dominated by American beech, American 8 Chipley sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes
holly, eastern hophornbeam, flowering dogwood, 17 Wadley sand, 5 to 12 percent slopes
hawthorns, loblolly pine, mockernut hickory, pignut 23 Blanton loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes
hickory, southern red oak, southern magnolia, white 24 Ocilla loamy fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes
oak, water oak, shining sumac, and sparkleberry. 25 Wampee-Blanton complex, 8 to 12 percent
Broomsedge bluestem, longleaf uniola, low panicum, slopes
and spike uniola are common grasses. Other common 28 Wampee loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes
plants include aster, common ragweed, partridgeberry, 31 Wampee-Blanton complex, 12 to 20 percent
partridge pea, poison ivy, violet, Virginia creeper, and slopes
wild grape. Most of the prime farmland in Florida is in 36 Blanton fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes,
this ecological community. A few areas of hydric soils occasionally flooded
are also in this community. The map units that support 60 Alpin-Shadeville complex, karst
the Mixed Hardwood and Pine ecological community 62 Resota-Blanton-Bigbee complex, undulating,
in Hamilton County are: occasionally flooded
Wetland Hardwood Hammocks
7 Kenansville fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, Wetland Hardwood Hammocks
occasionally flooded The Wetland Hardwood Hammocks ecological
10 Lowndes sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes community is normally dominated by cabbage palm,






Hamilton County, Florida 79



hawthorns, laurel oak, live oak, water oak, redbay, red major forest products in the county. Markets for wood
maple, sweetbay, and magnolia and an understory of products are plentiful. Pulp and paper mills are the
wax-myrtle, witchhazel, and saw palmetto. Longleaf primary outlets.
uniola and low panicums are common grasses. Other In addition to the economic benefits derived from
common plants include cinnamon fern, crossvine, woodland, multiple-use benefits, such as recreation,
poison ivy, royal fern, Spanish moss, Virginia creeper, aesthetics, and soil protection, are of primary
wild grape, and yellow jessamine. The map units that importance.
support the Wetland Hardwood Hammocks ecological Timber management varies from intensive
community in Hamilton County are: clearcutting, site preparation, and planting to less
intensive, natural regeneration.
33 Pelham sand In recent years reforestation efforts have increased
34 Plummer sand considerably on cultivated private lands due in large
46 Stockade fine sandy loam part to government incentives to take highly erodible
47 Goldhead fine sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes lands out of farm production.
48 Bivans loamy sand, 8 to 12 percent slopes Table 5 can be used by woodland owners or forest
52 Pelham fine sand, occasionally flooded managers in planning the use of soils for wood crops.
56 The Bibb portion of Bibb-Bigbee complex, Only those soils suitable for wood crops are listed. The
undulating, occasionally flooded table lists the ordination symbol for each soil. Soils
57 Osier sand, occasionally flooded assigned the same ordination symbol require the
same general management and have about the same
Shrub Bogs-Bay Swamps potential productivity.
SS Bog-B S eolo The first part of the ordination symbol, a number,
The Shrub Bogs-Bay Swamps ecological
indicates the potential productivity of the soils for an
community is on hillsides, in depressions, in ravines, ind. te p s
indicator tree species. The number indicates the
and along poorly defined drainageways. The natural i t s T
volume, in cubic meters per hectare per year, which
vegetation in these areas is dominated by evergreen e i ic ees per hece per year, whic
the indicator species can produce in a pure stand
shrubs or trees and is extremely variable. It is normally under natural conditions.he number 1 indicates low
dominated by black titi or white titi. Other plantsal od it r
include gallberry, staggerbush, sweet pepper, white potential productivity; 2 or 3, moderate; 4 or 5,
moderately high; 6 to 8, high; 9 to 11, very high; and
cedar, blackgum, doghobble, fetterbush, myrtle-leaved moderately hgh 6 high; 9 to 11 very h;
holly, greenbriers, and sphagnum moss. Sweetbay, 12 to 39 extremely high. The second part of the
holly~,1 1 and s m oss. S sym bol, a letter, indicates the m ajor kind of soil
loblolly bay, redbay, scattered slash pine and pond symbol, letter, indicates te aor ind o soi
limitation. The letter Windicates excess water in or on
pine, and cypress are commonly present.
pine, and cypress are commonly present. the soil and S indicates sandy texture. The letter A

20 Pamlico muck, depressional indicates that limitations or restrictions are
20 Pamlico muck, depressional
21 Plummer and Surrency soils, depressional insignificant. If a soil has more than one limitation, the
59 Dorovan muck, depressional priority is W and then S.
59 Dorovan muck, depressional
In the table, slight, moderate, and severe indicate
the degree of the major soil limitations to be
Woodland Management and Productivity considered in management.
Erosion hazard is the probability that damage will
Silviculture is the primary agricultural activity in occur as a result of site preparation and cutting where
Hamilton County. Approximately 228,000 acres, or 68 the soil is exposed along roads, skid trails, and fire
percent of the county, is woodland. Of this total, about lanes and in log-handling areas. Forests that have
65 percent is owned or managed by the forest been burned or overgrazed are also subject to erosion.
industry, 34 percent is owned by private landowners, Ratings of the erosion hazard are based on the
and 1 percent is held by the county, State, or Federal percent of the slope. A rating of slight indicates that no
government. particular prevention measures are needed under
About 115,134 acres, or 50 percent of the woodland ordinary conditions. A rating of moderate indicates that
in the county, is longleaf-slash pine forest type. Slash erosion-control measures are needed in certain
pine is the dominant species. Loblolly pine and upland silvicultural activities. A rating of severe indicates that
hardwoods make up about 26 percent of the woodland special precautions are needed to control erosion in
in the county, and oak, gum, and cypress make up the most silvicultural activities.
remaining 24 percent. Equipment limitation reflects the characteristics and
Pulpwood, sawlogs, poles, and veneers are the conditions of the soil that restrict use of the equipment






80 Soil Survey



generally needed in woodland management or rating of slight indicates that competition from
harvesting. The chief characteristics and conditions undesirable plants is not likely to prevent natural
considered in the ratings are slope, stones on the regeneration or suppress the more desirable species.
surface, rock outcrops, soil wetness, and texture of the Planted seedlings can become established without
surface layer. A rating of slight indicates that under undue competition. A rating of moderate indicates that
normal conditions the kind of equipment and season competition may delay the establishment of desirable
of use are not significantly restricted by soil factors. species. Competition may hamper stand development,
Soil wetness can restrict equipment use, but the wet but it will not prevent the eventual development of fully
period does not exceed 1 month. A rating of moderate stocked stands. A rating of severe indicates that
indicates that equipment use is moderately restricted competition can be expected to prevent regeneration
because of one or more soil factors. If the soil is wet, unless precautionary measures are applied.
the wetness restricts equipment use for a period of 1 The potential productivity of merchantable or
to 3 months. A rating of severe indicates that common trees on a soil is expressed as a site index
equipment use is severely restricted either as to the and as a productivity class. The site index is the
kind of equipment that can be used or the season of average height, in feet, that dominant and codominant
use. If the soil is wet, the wetness restricts equipment trees of a given species attain in a specified number of
use for more than 3 months. years. The site index applies to fully stocked, even-
Seedling mortality refers to the death of naturally aged, unmanaged stands. Commonly grown trees are
occurring or planted tree seedlings, as influenced by those that woodland managers generally favor in
the kinds of soil, soil wetness, or topographic intermediate or improvement cuttings. They are
conditions. The factors used in rating the soils for selected on the basis of growth rate, quality, value,
seedling mortality are texture of the surface layer, and marketability.
depth to a seasonal high water table and the length of The productivity class, a number, is the yield likely
the period when the water table is high, rock to be produced by the most important trees. This
fragments in the surface layer, effective rooting depth, number, expressed as cubic meters per hectare per
and slope aspect. A rating of slight indicates that year, indicates the amount of fiber produced in a fully
seedling mortality is not likely to be a problem under stocked, even-aged, unmanaged stand.
normal conditions. Expected mortality is less than 25 The first species listed under common trees for a
percent. A rating of moderate indicates that some soil is the indicator species for that soil. It generally is
problems from seedling mortality can be expected. the most common species on the soil and is the one
Extra precautions are advisable. Expected mortality is that determines the ordination class.
25 to 50 percent. A rating of severe indicates that Trees to plant are those that are suitable for
seedling mortality is a serious problem. Extra commercial wood production.
precautions are important. Replanting may be
necessary. Expected mortality is more than 50 Recreation
percent.
Windthrow hazard is the likelihood that trees will be A wide variety of recreational opportunities are
uprooted by the wind because the soil is not deep available in Hamilton County. Many of these are
enough for adequate root anchorage. The main dependent on the wide-open spaces and favorable
restrictions that affect rooting are a seasonal high weather in the county.
water table and the depth to bedrock, a fragipan, or Blue Spring Park is the most popular recreational
other limiting layers. A rating of slight indicates that site in the county. A crystal clear spring that rises
under normal conditions no trees are blown down by within the park and flows southward attracts
the wind. Strong winds may damage trees, but they do thousands of swimmers, divers, canoeists, and other
not uproot them. A rating of moderate indicates that visitors each year.
some trees can be blown down during periods when Troy Spring County Park offers water activities on
the soil is wet and winds are moderate or strong. A the Suwannee River. Camping, hiking, picnicking,
rating of severe indicates that many trees can be and observing wildlife are popular activities at this
blown down during these periods, park.
Plant competition ratings indicate the degree to The rivers in the county provide opportunities for
which undesirable species are expected to invade and canoeing, kayaking, swimming, diving, and
grow when openings are made in the tree canopy. The sightseeing.
main factors that affect plant competition are depth to Recreational activities of a more organized nature
the water table and the available water capacity. A are available in or near Mayo, where facilities are







Hamilton County, Florida 81



available for outdoor games, baseball, tennis, shaping sites or of building access roads and parking
racquetball, and basketball. Civic clubs and church areas.
groups sponsor many of these activities. Playgrounds require soils that can withstand
The soils of the county are rated in table 6 intensive foot traffic. The best soils are almost level
according to limitations that affect their suitability for and are not wet or subject to flooding during the
recreation. The ratings are based on restrictive soil season of use. The surface is free of stones and
features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the boulders, is firm after rains, and is not dusty when dry.
surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered. If grading is needed, the depth of the soil over bedrock
Not considered in the ratings, but important in or a hardpan should be considered.
evaluating a site, are the location and accessibility of Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding
the area, the size and shape of the area and its scenic should require little or no cutting and filling. The best
quality, vegetation, access to water, potential water soils are not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty
impoundment sites, and access to public sewer lines, when dry, and are not subject to flooding more than
The capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent once a year during the period of use. They have
and the ability of the soil to support vegetation are also moderate slopes and few or no stones or boulders on
important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for the surface.
recreational uses by the duration and intensity of Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and
flooding and the season when flooding occurs. In some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be
planning recreational facilities, onsite assessment of required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are
the height, duration, intensity, and frequency of firm when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not
flooding is essential. subject to prolonged flooding during the period of use.
In the table, the degree of soil limitation is They have moderate slopes and no stones or boulders
expressed as slight, moderate, or severe. Slight on the surface. The suitability of the soil for tees or
means that soil properties are generally favorable and greens is not considered in rating the soils.
that limitations, if any, are minor and easily overcome.
Moderate means that limitations can be overcome or Wildlife Habitat
alleviated by planning, design, or special maintenance.
Severe means that soil properties are unfavorable and Wildlife is a valuable resource in Hamilton County.
that limitations can be offset by soil reclamation, Fishing and hunting are popular, year-round sports.
special design, intensive maintenance, limited use, or Large areas of wetlands and upland soils provide a
a combination of these measures. wide diversity of habitat.
The information in the table can be supplemented Primary species include white-tailed deer, squirrels,
by other information in this survey, for example, turkey, bobwhite quail, feral hogs, and waterfowl.
interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table Nongame species include raccoon, rabbit, armadillo,
9 and interpretations for dwellings without basements opossum, skunk, bobcat, gray fox, red fox, otter, and a
and for local roads and streets in table 8. variety of songbirds, wading birds, woodpeckers,
Camp areas require site preparation, such as predatory birds, reptiles, and amphibians. Because
shaping and leveling the tent and parking areas, almost all of the county is rural, the interspersed
stabilizing roads and intensively used areas, and farmland and woodland provide generally good wildlife
installing sanitary facilities and utility lines. Camp habitat throughout the county. Some of the more
areas are subject to heavy foot traffic and some important areas of habitat are the flood plains along
vehicular traffic. The best soils have mild slopes and the Suwannee River, which forms the eastern and
are not wet or subject to flooding during the period of southern boundaries of the county, and along the
use. The surface has few or no stones or boulders, Withlacoochee River, which forms the western
absorbs rainfall readily but remains firm, and is not boundary. The Cypress Creek Wildlife Management
dusty when dry. Strong slopes and stones or boulders Area and Big Shoals State Forest in the eastern part
can greatly increase the cost of constructing of the county and the Holton Wildlife Management
campsites. Area in the southern part of the county also provide
Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most valuable habitat.
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and The large phosphate mining operations in the
parking areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm southeastern part of the county greatly effect fish and
when wet, are not dusty when dry, are not subject to wildlife habitats. When an area is being actively mined,
flooding during the period of use, and do not have fish and wildlife habitat disappears temporarily;
slopes, stones, or boulders that increase the cost of however, the areas are reclaimed to a mixture of








82 Soil Survey



forests, ponds, and wetlands that provide quality Grain and seed crops are domestic grains and
habitat for a variety of species, seed-producing herbaceous plants. Soil properties
Several small lakes are in the county-most are and features that affect the growth of grain and seed
less than 30 acres in size. Lake Octahatchee, which is crops are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface
195 acres in size, is the only lake larger than 100 layer, available water capacity, wetness, slope, and
acres. Good fishing is found throughout the county. flooding. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also
Game and nongame species include largemouth bass, considerations. Examples of grain and seed crops are
channel catfish, bullhead catfish, bluegill, redear, corn, wheat, oats, and barley.
spotted sunfish, warmouth, black crappie, chain Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial
pickerel, gar, bowfin, and sucker, grasses and herbaceous legumes. Soil properties and
A number of endangered and threatened species features that affect the growth of grasses and legumes
are in Hamilton County. These range from the seldom are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface layer,
seen red-cockaded woodpecker to the more commonly available water capacity, wetness, flooding, and slope.
seen southeastern kestrel. A detailed list of these Soil temperature and soil moisture are also
species and information on range and habitat needs is considerations. Examples of grasses and legumes are
available from the district conservationist at the local fescue, lovegrass, brome, clover, and alfalfa.
office of the Natural Resources Conservation Service. Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally
Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that established grasses and forbs, including weeds. Soil
is available to wildlife as food and cover. They also properties and features that affect the growth of these
affect the construction of water impoundments. The plants are depth of the root zone, texture of the
kind and abundance of wildlife depend largely on the surface layer, available water capacity, wetness, and
amount and distribution of food, cover, and water. flooding. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also
Wildlife habitat can be created or improved by planting considerations. Examples of wild herbaceous plants
appropriate vegetation, by maintaining the existing are bluestem, goldenrod, beggarweed, wheatgrass,
plant cover, or by promoting the natural establishment and grama.
of desirable plants. Hardwood trees and woody understory produce
In table 7, the soils in the county are rated nuts or other fruit, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, and
according to their potential for providing habitat for foliage. Soil properties and features that affect the
various kinds of wildlife. This information can be used growth of hardwood trees and shrubs are depth of the
in planning parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas, root zone, available water capacity, and wetness.
and other developments for wildlife; in selecting soils Examples of these plants are oak, poplar, cherry,
that are suitable for establishing, improving, or sweetgum, apple, hawthorn, dogwood, hickory,
maintaining specific elements of wildlife habitat; and in blackberry, and blueberry. Examples of fruit-producing
determining the intensity of management needed for shrubs that are suitable for planting on soils rated
each element of the habitat. good are Russian-olive, autumn-olive, and crabapple.
The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or Coniferous plants furnish browse and seeds. Soil
very poor. A rating of good indicates that the element properties and features that affect the growth of
or kind of habitat is easily established, improved, or coniferous trees, shrubs, and ground cover are depth
maintained. Few or no limitations affect management, of the root zone, available water capacity, and
and satisfactory results can be expected. A rating of wetness. Examples of coniferous plants are pine and
fair indicates that the element or kind of habitat can be cedar.
established, improved, or maintained in most places. Shrubs are bushy woody plants that produce fruit,
Moderately intensive management is required for buds, twigs, bark, and foliage. Soil properties and
satisfactory results. A rating of poor indicates that features that affect the growth of shrubs are depth of
limitations are severe for the designated element or the root zone, available water capacity, salinity, and
kind of habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or soil moisture.
maintained in most places, but management is difficult Wetland plants are annual and perennial wild
and must be intensive. A rating of very poor indicates herbaceous plants that grow on moist or wet sites.
that restrictions for the element or kind of habitat are Submerged or floating aquatic plants are excluded.
very severe and that unsatisfactory results can be Soil properties and features affecting wetland plants
expected. Creating, improving, or maintaining habitat are texture of the surface layer, wetness, reaction,
is impractical or impossible, salinity, and slope. Examples of wetland plants are
The elements of wildlife habitat are described in the smartweed, wild millet, wildrice, saltgrass, cordgrass,
following paragraphs. rushes, sedges, and reeds.






Hamilton County, Florida 83



Shallow water areas have an average depth of less experienced in the design and construction of
than 5 feet. Some are naturally wet areas. Others are engineering works.
created by dams, levees, or other water-control Government ordinances and regulations that
structures. Soil properties and features affecting restrict certain land uses or impose specific design
shallow water areas are wetness, slope, and criteria were not considered in preparing the
permeability. Examples of shallow water areas are information in this section. Local ordinances and
marshes, waterfowl feeding areas, and ponds. regulations should be considered in planning, in site
The habitat for various kinds of wildlife is described selection, and in design.
in the following paragraphs. Soil properties, site features, and observed
Habitat for openland wildlife consists of cropland, performance were considered in determining the
pasture, meadows, and areas that are overgrown with ratings in this section. During the fieldwork for this soil
grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas survey, determinations were made about grain-size
produce grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes, distribution, liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction,
and wild herbaceous plants. Wildlife attracted to these depth to bedrock, soil wetness, depth to a seasonal
areas include bobwhite quail, meadowlark, field high water table, slope, likelihood of flooding, natural
sparrow, cottontail, and red fox. soil structure aggregation, and soil density. Data were
Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of collected about kinds of clay minerals, mineralogy of
deciduous plants or coniferous plants or both and the sand and silt fractions, and the kinds of adsorbed
associated grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous cations. Estimates were made for erodibility,
plants. Wildlife attracted to these areas include wild permeability, corrosivity, shrink-swell potential,
turkey, woodcock, thrushes, woodpeckers, squirrels, available water capacity, and other behavioral
gray fox, raccoon, deer, and bear. characteristics affecting engineering uses.
Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open, marshy This information can be used to evaluate the
or swampy shallow water areas. Some of the wildlife potential of areas for residential, commercial,
attracted to such areas are ducks, geese, herons, industrial, and recreational uses; make preliminary
shore birds, muskrat, mink, and beaver, estimates of construction conditions; evaluate
Habitat for rangeland wildlife consists of areas of alternative routes for roads, streets, highways,
shrubs and wild herbaceous plants. Wildlife attracted pipelines, and underground cables; evaluate
to rangeland include antelope, deer, sage grouse, alternative sites for sanitary landfills, septic tank
meadowlark, and lark bunting. absorption fields, and sewage lagoons; plan detailed
onsite investigations of soils and geology; locate
Engineering potential sources of gravel, sand, earthfill, and topsoil;
plan drainage systems, irrigation systems, ponds,
This section provides information for planning land terraces, and other structures for soil and water
uses related to urban development and to water conservation; and predict performance of proposed
management. Soils are rated for various uses, and the small structures and pavements by comparing the
most limiting features are identified. Ratings are given performance of existing similar structures on the same
for building site development, sanitary facilities, or similar soils.
construction materials, and water management. The The information in the tables, along with the soil
ratings are based on observed performance of the maps, the soil descriptions, and other data provided in
soils and on the estimated data and test data in the this survey, can be used to make additional
"Soil Properties" section. interpretations.
Information in this section is intended for land use Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a
planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for special meaning in soil science and are defined in the
planning site investigations prior to design and Glossary.
construction. The information, however, has limitations.
For example, estimates and other data generally apply Building Site Development
only to that part of the soil within a depth of 5 or 6 feet. Table 8 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations
Because of the map scale, small areas of different that affect shallow excavations, dwellings with and
soils may be included within the mapped areas of a without basements, small commercial buildings, local
specific soil. roads and streets, and lawns and landscaping. The
The information is not site specific and does not limitations are considered slight if soil properties and
eliminate the need for onsite investigation of the site features are generally favorable for the indicated
soils or for testing and analysis by personnel use and limitations, if any, are minor and easily






Hamilton County, Florida 83



Shallow water areas have an average depth of less experienced in the design and construction of
than 5 feet. Some are naturally wet areas. Others are engineering works.
created by dams, levees, or other water-control Government ordinances and regulations that
structures. Soil properties and features affecting restrict certain land uses or impose specific design
shallow water areas are wetness, slope, and criteria were not considered in preparing the
permeability. Examples of shallow water areas are information in this section. Local ordinances and
marshes, waterfowl feeding areas, and ponds. regulations should be considered in planning, in site
The habitat for various kinds of wildlife is described selection, and in design.
in the following paragraphs. Soil properties, site features, and observed
Habitat for openland wildlife consists of cropland, performance were considered in determining the
pasture, meadows, and areas that are overgrown with ratings in this section. During the fieldwork for this soil
grasses, herbs, shrubs, and vines. These areas survey, determinations were made about grain-size
produce grain and seed crops, grasses and legumes, distribution, liquid limit, plasticity index, soil reaction,
and wild herbaceous plants. Wildlife attracted to these depth to bedrock, soil wetness, depth to a seasonal
areas include bobwhite quail, meadowlark, field high water table, slope, likelihood of flooding, natural
sparrow, cottontail, and red fox. soil structure aggregation, and soil density. Data were
Habitat for woodland wildlife consists of areas of collected about kinds of clay minerals, mineralogy of
deciduous plants or coniferous plants or both and the sand and silt fractions, and the kinds of adsorbed
associated grasses, legumes, and wild herbaceous cations. Estimates were made for erodibility,
plants. Wildlife attracted to these areas include wild permeability, corrosivity, shrink-swell potential,
turkey, woodcock, thrushes, woodpeckers, squirrels, available water capacity, and other behavioral
gray fox, raccoon, deer, and bear. characteristics affecting engineering uses.
Habitat for wetland wildlife consists of open, marshy This information can be used to evaluate the
or swampy shallow water areas. Some of the wildlife potential of areas for residential, commercial,
attracted to such areas are ducks, geese, herons, industrial, and recreational uses; make preliminary
shore birds, muskrat, mink, and beaver, estimates of construction conditions; evaluate
Habitat for rangeland wildlife consists of areas of alternative routes for roads, streets, highways,
shrubs and wild herbaceous plants. Wildlife attracted pipelines, and underground cables; evaluate
to rangeland include antelope, deer, sage grouse, alternative sites for sanitary landfills, septic tank
meadowlark, and lark bunting. absorption fields, and sewage lagoons; plan detailed
onsite investigations of soils and geology; locate
Engineering potential sources of gravel, sand, earthfill, and topsoil;
plan drainage systems, irrigation systems, ponds,
This section provides information for planning land terraces, and other structures for soil and water
uses related to urban development and to water conservation; and predict performance of proposed
management. Soils are rated for various uses, and the small structures and pavements by comparing the
most limiting features are identified. Ratings are given performance of existing similar structures on the same
for building site development, sanitary facilities, or similar soils.
construction materials, and water management. The The information in the tables, along with the soil
ratings are based on observed performance of the maps, the soil descriptions, and other data provided in
soils and on the estimated data and test data in the this survey, can be used to make additional
"Soil Properties" section. interpretations.
Information in this section is intended for land use Some of the terms used in this soil survey have a
planning, for evaluating land use alternatives, and for special meaning in soil science and are defined in the
planning site investigations prior to design and Glossary.
construction. The information, however, has limitations.
For example, estimates and other data generally apply Building Site Development
only to that part of the soil within a depth of 5 or 6 feet. Table 8 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations
Because of the map scale, small areas of different that affect shallow excavations, dwellings with and
soils may be included within the mapped areas of a without basements, small commercial buildings, local
specific soil. roads and streets, and lawns and landscaping. The
The information is not site specific and does not limitations are considered slight if soil properties and
eliminate the need for onsite investigation of the site features are generally favorable for the indicated
soils or for testing and analysis by personnel use and limitations, if any, are minor and easily






84 Soil Survey



overcome; moderate if soil properties or site features growth. Flooding, wetness, slope, and the amount of
are somewhat restrictive for the indicated use and sand, clay, or organic matter in the surface layer affect
special planning, design, or maintenance is needed to trafficability after vegetation is established.
overcome or minimize the limitations; and severe if soil San y
properties or site features are so unfavorable to
overcome that special design, soil reclamation, and Table 9 shows the degree and kind of soil limitations
possibly increased maintenance are required. Special that affect septic tank absorption fields, sewage
feasibility studies may be required where the soil lagoons, and sanitary landfills. The limitations, if any,
limitations are severe. are considered slight if soil properties and site features
Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug to a are generally favorable for the indicated use and
maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet for basements, graves, limitations are minor and easily overcome; moderate if
utility lines, open ditches, and other purposes. The soil properties or site features are somewhat
ratings are based on soil properties, site features, and restrictive for the indicated use and special planning,
observed performance of the soils. The ease of design, or maintenance is needed to overcome or
digging, filling, and compacting is affected by a very minimize the limitations; and severe if one or more soil
firm dense layer, soil texture, and slope. The time of properties or site features are unfavorable for the use
the year that excavations can be made is affected by and overcoming the unfavorable properties requires
the depth to a seasonal high water table and the special design, extra maintenance, or alteration.
susceptibility of the soil to flooding. The resistance of The table also shows the suitability of the soils for
the excavation walls or banks to sloughing or caving is use as daily cover for landfill. A rating of good
affected by soil texture and depth to the water table. indicates that soil properties and site features are
Dwellings and small commercial buildings are favorable for the use and good performance and low
structures built on shallow foundations on undisturbed maintenance can be expected; fair indicates that soil
soil.The load limit is the same as that for single-family properties and site features are moderately favorable
dwellings no higher than three stories. Ratings are for the use and one or more soil properties or site
made for small commercial buildings without features make the soil less desirable than the soils
basements, for dwellings with basements, and for rated good; and poor indicates that one or more soil
dwellings without basements. The ratings are based properties or site features are unfavorable for the use
on soil properties, site features, and observed and overcoming the unfavorable properties requires
performance of the soils. A high water table, flooding, special design, extra maintenance, or costly alteration.
and organic layers can cause the movement of Septic tank absorption fields are areas in which
footings. A high water table, slope, and flooding affect effluent from a septic tank is distributed into the soil
the ease of excavation and construction. Landscaping through subsurface tiles or perforated pipe. Only that
and grading that require cuts and fills of more than 5 part of the soil between depths of 24 and 72 inches is
or 6 feet are not considered. evaluated. The ratings are based on soil properties,
Local roads and streets have an all-weather surface site features, and observed performance of the soils.
and carry automobile and light truck traffic all year. Permeability, a high water table, and flooding affect
They have a subgrade of cut or fill soil material; a base absorption of the effluent.
of gravel, crushed rock, or stabilized soil material; and Unsatisfactory performance of septic tank
a flexible or rigid surface. Cuts and fills are generally absorption fields, including excessively slow
limited to less than 6 feet. The ratings are based on absorption of effluent, surfacing of effluent, and hillside
soil properties, site features, and observed seepage, can affect public health. Ground water can
performance of the soils. A high water table, flooding, be polluted if highly permeable sand and gravel or
and slope affect the ease of excavating and grading. fractured bedrock is less than 4 feet below the base of
Soil strength (as inferred from the engineering the absorption field, if slope is excessive, or if the
classification of the soil) and depth to a high water water table is near the surface. There must be
table affect the traffic-supporting capacity, unsaturated soil material beneath the absorption field
Lawns and landscaping require soils on which turf to filter the effluent effectively. Many local ordinances
and ornamental trees and shrubs can be established require that this material be of a certain thickness.
and maintained. The ratings are based on soil Sewage lagoons are shallow ponds constructed to
properties, site features, and observed performance of hold sewage while aerobic bacteria decompose the
the soils. Soil reaction, a high water table, the available solid and liquid wastes. Lagoons should have a nearly
water capacity in the upper 40 inches, and the content level floor surrounded by cut slopes or embankments
of salts, sodium, and sulfidic materials affect plant of compacted soil. Lagoons generally are designed to




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