• TABLE OF CONTENTS
HIDE
 Title Page
 How to use this soil survey
 Front Matter
 Table of Contents
 Foreword
 General nature of the county
 General soil map units
 Detailed soil map units
 Use and management of the...
 Soil properties
 Classification of the soils
 Soil series and the morphology
 Formation of the soils
 References
 Glossary
 Tables
 General soil map
 Index to map
 Map






Title: Soil survey of Calhoun County, Florida.
CITATION PAGE IMAGE ZOOMABLE
Full Citation
STANDARD VIEW MARC VIEW
Permanent Link: http://ufdc.ufl.edu/UF00027415/00001
 Material Information
Title: Soil survey of Calhoun County, Florida.
Physical Description: Book
Creator: Allen, William J.
George, Walter G.
Leach, Darrell E.
Publisher: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service
Publication Date: 2004
 Notes
Funding: U.S. Department of Agriculture Soil Surveys
 Record Information
Bibliographic ID: UF00027415
Volume ID: VID00001
Source Institution: University of Florida
Holding Location: Government Documents Department, George A. Smathers Libraries, University of Florida
Rights Management: All rights reserved by the source institution and holding location.
Resource Identifier: oclc - 57717327

Table of Contents
    Title Page
        Title
    How to use this soil survey
        Page i
    Front Matter
        Page ii
    Table of Contents
        Page iii
        Page iv
        Page v
        Page vi
    Foreword
        Page vii
    General nature of the county
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        How this survey was made
            Page 4
            Page 5
            Page 6
    General soil map units
        Page 7
        Soils on sandy uplands
            Page 7
            Lakeland-Troup-Blanton
                Page 7
            Lakeland-Foxworth-Pottsburg
                Page 8
        Soils on uplands, on low knolls, and in areas of flatwoods
            Page 8
            Dothan-Orangeburg
                Page 8
            Blanton-Leefield-Alapaha
                Page 9
            Plummer-Albany-Blanton
                Page 10
            Dothan-Fuquay-Alapaha
                Page 11
        Soils in areas of low flatwoods on broad flats
            Page 11
            Pansey-Leefield-Florala
                Page 11
                Page 12
                Page 13
            Alapaha-Plummer
                Page 14
            Bladen-Dunbar-Kenansville
                Page 14
        Soils in depressions and on flood plains along rivers
            Page 15
            Croatan-Surrency-Rutlege
                Page 15
            Brickyard-Wahee-Ochlockonee
                Page 15
                Page 16
    Detailed soil map units
        Page 17
        Albany loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes
            Page 18
        Brickyard clay loam, frequently flooded
            Page 19
        Robertsdale fine sandy loam
            Page 20
        Bladen loam, rarely flooded
            Page 20
        Blanton sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes
            Page 21
        Blanton sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes
            Page 22
        Bonifay sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes
            Page 23
        Chipley sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes
            Page 24
        Chipola loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, very rarely flooded
            Page 25
        Florala loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes
            Page 26
        Florala loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes
            Page 27
        Dorovan-Pamlico-Rutlege association, depressional
            Page 28
        Dothan sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes
            Page 29
        Dothan sandy loam, 2 to 5 percent slopes
            Page 30
        Dothan sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes
            Page 31
        Dunbar fine sandy loam, rarely flooded
            Page 32
        Duplin very fine sandy loam, very rarely flooded
            Page 33
        Kenansville loamy sand, wet substratum, 0 to 5 percent slopes, rarely flooded
            Page 34
        Garcon loamy sand, rarely flooded rarely flooded
            Page 35
        Foxworth sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes
            Page 36
        Fuquay loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes
            Page 37
        Fuquay loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes
            Page 38
        Fuquay loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes
            Page 38
            Page 39
        Hurricane sand
            Page 40
        Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes
            Page 41
        Lakeland sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes
            Page 42
        Wahee-Ochlockonee complex, commonly flooded
            Page 43
        Leefield loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes
            Page 44
        Lucy loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes
            Page 45
        Lucy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes
            Page 46
        Lucy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes
            Page 47
        Orangeburg loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes
            Page 48
        Orangeburg loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes
            Page 48
        Orangeburg sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes
            Page 49
        Pansey sandy loam
            Page 50
        Plummer sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes
            Page 51
        Croatan,Surrency, and Pantego soils, depressional
            Page 51
        Pottsburg sand
            Page 52
        Stilson loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes
            Page 53
        Stilson loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes
            Page 54
        Croatan, Rutlege, and Surrency soils, depressional
            Page 55
        Troup sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes
            Page 56
        Troup sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes
            Page 57
        Pamlico, Bibb, and Rutlege soils, frequently flooded
            Page 57
        Lakeland and Troup soils, 8 to 12 percent slopes
            Page 58
        Alapaha loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes
            Page 59
        Croatan, Kinston, and Surrency soils, frequently flooded
            Page 60
        Leefield loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes
            Page 61
        Alapaha loamy sand, 2 to 8 percent slopes
            Page 62
        Dothan-Fuquay complex 8 to 12 percent slopes
            Page 62
            Page 63
        Pits
            Page 64
    Use and management of the soils
        Page 65
        Hydric souls
            Page 65
        Ecological communities
            Page 66
            Page 67
        Crops and pasture
            Page 68
            Page 69
            Page 70
            Page 71
        Woodland management and productivity
            Page 72
            Page 73
        Woodland understory vegetation
            Page 74
        Windbreaks and environmental plantings
            Page 74
        Wildlife habitat
            Page 75
        Engineering
            Page 76
            Building site development
                Page 76
            Sanitary facilities
                Page 77
            Construction materials
                Page 78
            Water management
                Page 79
                Page 80
                Page 81
                Page 82
    Soil properties
        Page 83
        Engineering index properties
            Page 83
        Physical and chemical properties
            Page 84
        Soil and water features
            Page 85
            Page 86
        Physical, chemical, and mineralogical analyses of selected soils
            Page 87
            Page 88
            Page 89
        Engineering index test data
            Page 90
    Classification of the soils
        Page 91
    Soil series and the morphology
        Page 91
        Alapaha series
            Page 91
        Albany series
            Page 92
        Bibb series
            Page 93
        Bladen series
            Page 94
        Blanton series
            Page 94
        Bonifay series
            Page 95
        Brickyard series
            Page 96
        Chipley series
            Page 96
        Chipola series
            Page 97
        Croatan series
            Page 98
        Dorovan series
            Page 98
        Dothan series
            Page 99
        Dunbar series
            Page 100
        Duplin series
            Page 100
        Florala series
            Page 101
        Foxworth series
            Page 102
        Fuquay series
            Page 103
        Garcon series
            Page 104
        Hurricane series
            Page 104
        Kenansville series
            Page 105
        Kinston series
            Page 106
        Lakeland series
            Page 106
        Leefield series
            Page 107
        Lucy series
            Page 108
        Ochlockonee series
            Page 108
            Page 109
            Page 110
            Page 111
            Page 112
        Orangeburg series
            Page 113
        Pamlico series
            Page 114
        Pansey series
            Page 114
        Pantego series
            Page 115
        Plummer series
            Page 116
        Pottsburg series
            Page 117
        Robertsdale series
            Page 117
        Rutlege series
            Page 118
        Stilson series
            Page 118
        Surrency series
            Page 119
        Troup series
            Page 120
            Page 121
            Page 122
    Formation of the soils
        Page 123
        Factors of soil formation
            Page 123
            Parent Material
                Page 123
            Climate
                Page 123
            Plants and animals
                Page 123
            Relief
                Page 123
            Time
                Page 124
        Processes of Horizon formation
            Page 124
        Geology
            Page 124
            Geomorphology
                Page 124
                Page 125
            Stratigraphy
                Page 126
                Page 127
                Page 128
            Ground water
                Page 129
            Mineral resources
                Page 130
    References
        Page 131
        Page 132
        Page 133
        Page 134
    Glossary
        Page 135
        Page 136
        Page 137
        Page 138
        Page 139
        Page 140
        Page 141
        Page 142
        Page 143
        Page 144
        Page 145
        Page 146
    Tables
        Page 147
        Page 148
        Page 149
        Page 150
        Page 151
        Page 152
        Page 153
        Page 154
        Page 155
        Page 156
        Page 157
        Page 158
        Page 159
        Page 160
        Page 161
        Page 162
        Page 163
        Page 164
        Page 165
        Page 166
        Page 167
        Page 168
        Page 169
        Page 170
        Page 171
        Page 172
        Page 173
        Page 174
        Page 175
        Page 176
        Page 177
        Page 178
        Page 179
        Page 180
        Page 181
        Page 182
        Page 183
        Page 184
        Page 185
        Page 186
        Page 187
        Page 188
        Page 189
        Page 190
        Page 191
        Page 192
        Page 193
        Page 194
        Page 195
        Page 196
        Page 197
        Page 198
        Page 199
        Page 200
        Page 201
        Page 202
        Page 203
        Page 204
        Page 205
        Page 206
        Page 207
        Page 208
        Page 209
        Page 210
        Page 211
        Page 212
        Page 213
        Page 214
        Page 215
        Page 216
        Page 217
        Page 218
        Page 219
        Page 220
        Page 221
        Page 222
    General soil map
        Page 223
    Index to map
        Page 224
        Page 225
    Map
        Page 1
        Page 2
        Page 3
        Page 4
        Page 5
        Page 6
        Page 7
        Page 8
        Page 9
        Page 10
        Page 11
        Page 12
        Page 13
        Page 14
        Page 15
        Page 16
        Page 17
        Page 18
        Page 19
        Page 20
        Page 21
        Page 22
        Page 23
        Page 24
        Page 25
        Page 26
        Page 27
        Page 28
        Page 29
        Page 30
        Page 31
        Page 32
        Page 33
        Page 34
Full Text

SUnited States In cooperation with
Department of the University of Florida, S oil S urvey of
Agriculture Institute of Food and
Agricultural Sciences,
Natural Agricultural Experiment C alhoun C county,
Resources Stations, and Soil and
Conservation Water Science Florida
Service Department; and the
Florida Department of
Agriculture and Consumer
Services














V%
L ,.

















How to Use This Soil Survey


General Soil Map

The general soil map, which is a color map, shows the survey area divided into groups of associated soils called
general soil map units. This map is useful in planning the use and management of large areas.

To find information about your area of interest, locate that area on the map, identify the name of the map unit in the
area on the color-coded map legend, then refer to the section General Soil Map Units for a general description of
the soils in your area.

Detailed Soil Maps

The detailed soil maps can be useful in planning the use and
management of small areas.

To find information about your area N
of interest, locate that area on the 2 4
Index to Map Sheets. Note the I "
number of the map sheet and turn i1 13 MAP SHEET
to that sheet. .
1 ..._ 17 .1.8- .. 14 [-
Locate your area of interest on INDEX TO MAP SHEETS
the map sheet. Note the map unit
symbols that are in that area. Turn
to the Contents, which lists the \ war
map units by symbol and name \Fa Ba
and shows the page where each i AsB
map unit is described. B c

The Contents shows which table AREA OF INTEREST
has data on a specific land use for NOTE: Map unit symbols in a soil
each detailed soil map unit. Also survey may consist only of numbers or
see the Contents for sections of letters, or they may be a combination
._._____________________of numbers and letters.
this publication that may address nu s ad
your specific needs. MAP SHEET







ti













This soil survey is a publication of the National Cooperative Soil Survey, a joint effort
of the United States Department of Agriculture and other Federal agencies, State
agencies including the Agricultural Experiment Stations, and local agencies. The
Natural Resources Conservation Service (formerly the Soil Conservation Service) has
leadership for the Federal part of the National Cooperative Soil Survey.
Major fieldwork for this soil survey was completed in 1990. Soil names and
descriptions were approved in 1990. Unless otherwise indicated, statements in this
publication refer to conditions in the survey area in 1990. This survey was made
cooperatively by the Natural Resources Conservation Service and the University of
Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural Experiment Stations,
and Soil and Water Science Department; the Florida Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services; and the Florida Department of Transportation. The survey is part
of the technical assistance furnished to the Chipola River Soil and Water Conservation
District. The Calhoun County Board of County Commissioners contributed office space
for the soil scientists.
Soil maps in this survey may be copied without permission. Enlargement of these
maps, however, could cause misunderstanding of the detail of mapping. If enlarged,
maps do not show the small areas of contrasting soils that could have been shown at a
larger scale.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) prohibits discrimination in all its
programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, religion, age,
disability, political beliefs, sexual orientation, or marital or family status. (Not all
prohibited bases apply to all programs.) Persons with disabilities who require alternative
means for communication of program information (Braille, large print, audiotape, etc.)
should contact USDA's TARGET Center at (202) 720-2600 (voice and TDD).
To file a complaint of discrimination write USDA, Director, Office of Civil Rights,
Room 326-W, Whitten Building, 1400 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, D.C.
20250-9410 or call (202) 720-5964 (voice and TDD). USDA is an equal opportunity
provider and employer.


Cover: The Chipola River flowing through an area of Croatan, Kinston, and Surrency soils,
frequently flooded.









Additional information about the Nation's natural resources is available online
from the Natural Resources Conservation Service at http://www.nrcs.usda.gov.

















Contents


How to Use This Soil Survey................................. i 24-Dunbar fine sandy loam, rarely flooded....... 32
Contents....................... ........................ iii 25-Duplin very fine sandy loam, very rarely
Forew ord ..................... ........................................ vii flooded ........................................................ 33
General Nature of the County ................................. 1 29-Kenansville loamy sand, wet substratum,
How This Survey Was Made................................. 4 0 to 5 percent slopes, rarely flooded ............ 34
General Soil Map Units ....................................... 7 30-Garcon loamy sand, rarely flooded ............. 35
.Soils on Sandy Uplands ..................................... 7 31-Foxworth sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ......... 36
1. Lakeland-Troup-Blanton............................. 7 32-Fuquay loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent
2. Lakeland-Foxworth-Pottsburg .................... 8 slopes ..................................................... 37
Soils on Uplands, on Low Knolls, and in Areas 33-Fuquay loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent
of Flatw oods ................................................ 8 slopes ............................. .......................... 38
3. Dothan-Orangeburg................................. 8 34-Fuquay loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent
4. Blanton-Leefield-Alapaha .......................... 9 slopes ........................................... ............ 38
5. Plummer-Albany-Blanton ....................... 10 35-Hurricane sand ......................................... 40
6. Dothan-Fuquay-Alapaha........................ 11 36-Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.......... 41
Soils in Areas of Low Flatwoods and on Broad 37-Lakeland sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes.......... 42
Flats ........................................................... 11 38-Wahee-Ochlockonee complex, commonly
7. Pansey-Leefield-Florala ........................... 11 flooded ...................................................... 43
8. Alapaha-Plummer .................................. 14 39-Leefield loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent
9. Bladen-Dunbar-Kenansville ................... 14 slopes ..................................... ............ 44
Soils in Depressions and on Flood Plains 41-Lucy loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes ...... 45
Along Rivers .............................................. 15 42-Lucy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes ................ 46
10. Croatan-Surrency-Rutlege ........................ 15 43-Lucy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes ................ 47
11. Brickyard-Wahee-Ochlockonee................ 15 44-Orangeburg loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent
Detailed Soil Map Units ........................................ 17 slopes ............................................ ............ 48
2-Albany loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes...... 18 45-Orangeburg loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent
4-Brickyard clay loam, frequently flooded......... 19 slopes .................................... ............. 48
5-Robertsdale fine sandy loam ...................... 20 46-Orangeburg sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent
6-Bladen loam, rarely flooded .......................... 20 slopes ........................................ ............ 49
7-Blanton sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ............. 21 48-Pansey sandy loam..................................... 50
8-Blanton sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes ............. 22 51-Plummer sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes.......... 51
10-Bonifay sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ........... 23 54-Croatan, Surrency, and Pantego soils,
12-Chipley sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ........... 24 depressional ........................................... 51
14-Chipola loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent 55-Pottsburg sand............................................ 52
slopes, very rarely flooded .......................... 25 57-Stilson loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes... 53
17-Florala loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes... 26 58-Stilson loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent
18-Florala loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes... 27 slopes ....................................................... 54
20-Dorovan-Pamlico-Rutlege association, 60-Croatan, Rutlege, and Surrency soils,
depressional ............................................. 28 depressional ............................................. 55
21-Dothan sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent 61-Troup sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes ............. 56
slopes ....................................................... 29 62-Troup sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes ............... 57
22-Dothan loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent 64-Pamlico, Bibb, and Rutlege soils,
slopes ....................................................... 30 frequently flooded ........................................ 57
23-Dothan loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent 66-Lakeland and Troup soils, 8 to 12 percent
slopes ........................................ ............ 31 slopes ................................. ....... ...... 58






iv













67-Alapaha loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent Dothan Series ............................................... 99
slopes ........................................................ 59 Dunbar Series ................................................ 100
68-Croatan, Kinston, and Surrency soils, Duplin Series.................................................. 100
frequently flooded ........................................ 60 Florala Series ................................................. 101
69-Leefield loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent Foxworth Series ............................................ 102
slopes ........................................................ 61 Fuquay Series ................................................ 103
70-Alapaha loamy sand, 2 to 8 percent Garcon Series ............................................. 104
slopes ........................................................ 62 Hurricane Series ............................................ 104
71-Dothan-Fuquay complex, 8 to 12 percent Kenansville Series.......................................... 105
slopes ........................................................ 62 Kinston Series ............................................... 106
72-Pits .......................................................... 64 Lakeland Series ............................................. 106
Use and Management of the Soils ...................... 65 Leefield Series ............................................... 107
Hydric Soils ................................................... 65 Lucy Series ................................................... 108
Ecological Communities ................................... 66 Ochlockonee Series ....................................... 108
Crops and Pasture ........................................... 68 Orangeburg Series ......................................... 113
Woodland Management arid Productivity ........... 72 Pamlico Series ............................................... 114
Woodland Understory Vegetation ....................... 74 Pansey Series ................................................ 114
Windbreaks and Environmental Plantings ..........74 Pantego Series........................ ...................... 115
Recreation .................... .......... ............ 74 Plummer Series.............................................. 116
Wildlife Habitat ................................................ 75 Pottsburg Series ............................................ 117
Engineering ...................................................... 76 Robertsdale Series....................................... 117
Building Site Development ............................. 76 Rutlege Series................................................ 118
Sanitary Facilities ......................................... 77 Stilson Series ................................................. 118
Construction Materials ................................... 78 Surrency Series.............................................. 119
Water Management ........................................ 79 Troup Series ................................................... 120
Soil Properties ................................................... 83 Wahee Series ................................................ 121
Engineering Index Properties ........................... 83 Formation of the Soils...................................... 123
Physical and Chemical Properties .................... 84 Factors of Soil Formation ............................... 123
Soil and Water Features ..................................... 85 Parent Material ......................................... 123
Physical, Chemical, and Mineralogical Climate....................................................... 123
Analyses of Selected Soils......................... 87 Plants and Animals .................................... 123
Engineering Index Test Data ............................... 90 Relief .......................................................... 123
Classification of the Soils .................................... 91 Time ........................................................... 124
Soil Series and Their Morphology ......................... 91 Processes of Horizon Formation .................... 124
Alapaha Series ...................................... 91 Geology .................................... .. 124
Albany Series ................................................ 92 Geomorphology ........................................... 124
Bibb Series .................................................. 93 Stratigraphy ............................................. 126
Bladen Series .................................................. 94 Ground Water............................................ 129
Blanton Series ...................... ....................... 94 Mineral Resources .................................... 130
Bonifay Series .................................................. 95 References ......................................... ........... 131
Brickyard Series ............................................. 96 Glossary ................................. .... ......... 135
Chipley Series .................... .............................. 96 Tables ...................................... ......... ........ 147
Chipola Series ................................. .......... 97 Table 1 .-Temperature and Precipitation .......... 148
Croatan Series ............................... ......... 98 Table 2.-Freeze Dates in Spring and Fall........ 149
Dorovan Series ............................................ 98 Table 3.-Growing Season .............................. 149






V














Table 4.-Acreage and Proportionate Extent Table 13.-Engineering Index Properties ......... 189
of the Soils ............................................ 150 Table 14.-Physical and Chemical Properties
Table 5.-Land Capability Classes and Yields of the Soils ............................................... 199
per Acre of Crops and Pasture................. 151 Table 15.-Soil and Water Features ............... 205
Table 6.-Woodland Management and Table 16.-Physical Analyses of Selected
Productivity .............................................. 154 Soils ......................................................... 209
Table 7.-Recreational Development ............... 161 Table 17.-Chemical Analyses Of Selected
Table 8.- W wildlife Habitat.................................. 166 Soils ........................................................ 213
Table 9.-Building Site Development............... 169 Table 18.-Clay Mineralogy of Selected
Table 10.- Sanitary Facilities .......................... 175 Soils ......................................................... 217
Table 11.-Construction Materials .................... 179 Table 19.-Engineering Index Test Data ........... 219
Table 12.-Water Management ...................... 183 Table 20.-Classification of the Soils.............. 222


Issued 2004









vii










Foreword


This soil survey contains information that affects land use planning in this survey
area. It contains predictions of soil behavior for selected land uses. The survey also
highlights soil limitations, improvements needed to overcome the limitations, and the
impact of selected land uses on the environment.
This soil survey is designed for many different users. Farmers, ranchers, foresters,
and agronomists can use it to evaluate the potential of the soil and the management
needed for maximum food and fiber production. Planners, community officials,
engineers, developers, builders, and home buyers can use the survey to plan land use,
select sites for construction, and identify special practices needed to ensure proper
performance. Conservationists, teachers, students, and specialists in recreation, wildlife
management, waste disposal, and pollution control can use the survey to help them
understand, protect, and enhance the environment.
Various land use regulations of Federal, State, and local governments may impose
special restrictions on land use or land treatment. The information in this report is
intended to identify soil properties that are used in making various land use or land
treatment decisions. Statements made in this report are intended to help the land users
identify and reduce the effects of soil limitations on various land uses. The landowner or
user is responsible for identifying and complying with existing laws and regulations.
Great differences in soil properties can occur within short distances. Some soils are
seasonally wet or subject to flooding. Some are shallow to bedrock. Some are too
unstable to be used as a foundation for buildings or roads. Clayey or wet soils are
poorly suited to use as septic tank absorption fields. A high water table makes a soil
poorly suited to basements or underground installations.
These and many other soil properties that affect land use are described in this soil
survey. Broad areas of soils are shown on the general soil map. The location of each
soil is shown on the detailed soil maps. Each soil in the survey area is described.
Information on specific uses is given for each soil. Help in using this publication and
additional information are available at the local office of the Natural Resources
Conservation Service or the Cooperative Extension Service.




T. Niles Glasgow /.
State Conservationist
Natural Resources Conservation Service














Soil Survey of


Calhoun County, Florida


By William Jeffrey Allen, Walter G. George, and Darrell E. Leach, Natural Resources
Conservation Service

Fieldwork by William Jeffrey Allen, Walter G. George, Steven W. Fischer, and Darrell E.
Leach, Natural Resources Conservation Service

United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service,
In cooperation with
the University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Agricultural
Experiment Stations, and Soil and Water Science Department; and the Florida
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services




Calhoun County is in the Florida panhandle about
50 miles west of Tallahassee (fig. 1).The county has a TALLAH
total area of 367,400 acres, or 568 square miles.
Calhoun County is bordered on the north by Jackson
County, on the west by Bay County, on the south by
Gulf County, and on the east by the Apalachicola River
and Liberty County. The two major river basins within
the county are those of the Apalachicola and Chipola
Rivers.
Calhoun County ranks 60th in population out of the
67 counties in Florida. In 1989, the estimated
population of the county was 11,268. There are two
incorporated communities in the county: Altha and
Blountstown. The county seat is Blountstown. In 1990,
the estimated population of Blountstown was 2,803.

General Nature of the County
SFigure 1.-Location of Calhoun County in Florida.
This section describes some of the environmental
and cultural features that affect the use and
management of soils in Calhoun County. These Mexico moderates maximum and minimum
features are climate, history and development, temperatures.
farming, recreation, and transportation. Table 1 gives data on temperature and precipitation
for the survey area as recorded at Fountain, Florida, in
Climate the period 1961 to 1989. Table 2 shows probable dates
of the first freeze in fall and the last freeze in spring.
Calhoun County has a moderate climate (USDC- Table 3 provides data on length of the growing season.
NOAA, 1990). Summers are long, warm, and humid. The Gulf breeze is largely,responsible for the mild,
Winters are short, cool, and mild. The Gulf of moist climate, but proximity to the North American






2 Soil Survey



land mass gives the county a slightly more continental thundershowers during the afternoon and evening
climate and greater temperature extremes than are when the air is moist and unstable. On the average,
encountered in peninsular Florida. The average these showers occur on 45 percent of the days of
temperature for the year is 66.3 degrees F. In winter, summer. The showers are widely scattered, are of
the average temperature is about 54 degrees F and short duration, and are often extreme. Sometimes 2 or
the average daily minimum temperature is about 40 3 inches of rain falls in 1 or 2 hours. Occasionally,
degrees F. In summer, the average daily maximum heavy rain and high winds accompany the passage of
temperature is about 91 degrees F. The average a tropical disturbance or hurricane. Also occasionally,
temperature in June, July, and August is about 79 hail falls during a thunderstorm. The hail is generally
degrees F. Temperatures of 90 degrees or higher small and seldom causes much damage.
occur in June, July, August, and September, but Snowfall is rare. Measurable snow occurs about
temperatures above 100 degrees occur only a few once every 10 years. For example, about 2 inches of
days in most years. Clouds and the associated snow fell on the night of December 22, 1989. The
thundershowers or showers moderate the warm and snow remained on the ground in protected places for 3
humid days. The Gulf of Mexico moderates most of the days. Precipitation data representative of the county
air masses; therefore, hot desiccating winds and very are shown in table 1.
high temperatures seldom occur. Warm, summery Ground fog generally occurs at night or early in the
weather lasts until early in October. morning in late fall, in winter, and in early spring. The
Although the county is punctuated with periodic sun dissipates the fog very quickly.
invasions of cold air masses from the north, the cold
periods only last 1 to 3 days. The coldest weather
generally occurs on the second night after the onset of History and Development
a cold front, after the ground's stored heat is lost
a cold front, after the ground's stored heat is lost By Bobby Mears, reference librarian, Calhoun County Public
through radiation. The average temperature in Library.
December, January, and February is 54.8 degrees F.
Temperatures range from the high forties to the low Calhoun County, Florida's 18th county, was created
seventies. Freezing temperatures occur on an average January 26, 1838. It was named in honor of John C.
of 20 days every winter. The average date of the first Calhoun, senator from South Carolina and fervent
killing frost is about November 9th. The average date supporter of States rights. Calhoun County was
of the last killing frost is about March 23rd. Frost has created from land in Jackson, Washington, and
occurred, however, as early as November 4th and as Franklin Counties.
late as March 28th. Freeze data representative of the The boundary of Calhoun County has changed
county are shown in table 2. several times. The original boundary formed an outline
Growing degree days are shown in table 1. They resembling a pan with a long handle. Starting from a
are equivalent to "heat units." During the month, narrow neck of land just below present day
growing degree days accumulate by the amount that Blountstown and continuing between the Chipola and
the average temperature each day exceeds a base Apalachicola Rivers, the boundary ran south to
temperature (40.0 degrees F.) The normal monthly Wetappo Creek, over to the east arm of St. Andrews
accumulation is used to schedule single or successive Bay, down the peninsula, and around the coast to what
plantings of a crop between the last freeze in spring is now the boundary of Franklin County.
and the first freeze in fall. Later, Calhoun nearly doubled in size while Jackson
The total annual precipitation is about 62.4 inches. and Washington Counties became smaller. The
Of this, 36.4 inches, or 58.3 percent, usually falls in boundary between Calhoun County and Jackson
April through September. The growing season for most County to the north followed the old Federal Road.
crops falls within this period. In 2 years out of 10, the Because many parts of the road had fallen into
rainfall in April through September is less than 21 disrepair, the boundary waffled back and forth. Around
inches. Thunderstorms occur most often in June, July, 1897, the boundary was fixed at Township 2 North,
and August. About 90 percent of the annual which is the present boundary.
precipitation occurs during the 10-month period On April 24, 1913, Bay County was created from
between late December and early October. About 46 parts of Calhoun and Washington Counties. The
percent of the annual total occurs during June, July, residents of the southern part of Calhoun County felt
August, and September. October, November, early isolated from the residents in the northern part. On
December, April, and May have the least rainfall. Most June 6, 1925, after a referendum voted to divide
rainfall in the summer occurs in the form of showers or Calhoun County, Gulf County was established.







Calhoun County, Florida 3



Wewahitchka was the county seat of the new Gulf large enough to have a post office: Abe Spring, Czar,
County. Between 1913 and 1925, Calhoun County lost Chipola, Lola, Marysville, West Wynnton, and
about 60 percent of its former area. Wewahitchka. Corn, oranges, and honey were
Peter W. Gautier, Jr., a businessman formerly from important agricultural products at the time. Timber was
Marianna, purchased the St. Joseph Telegram/Times also important. In 1910, Port St. Joe, lying near the old
(established March 10, 1836). He used the paper to site of St. Joseph, was incorporated. In 1949, Fuller
promote the new town of St. Joseph, which had its Warren, who was born in Blountstown, became
beginnings in 1835. In September 1836, Gautier, along governor of Florida.
with Robert Beveridge and George S. Hawkins, Today, Calhoun County is one of the least
established a railroad from Lake Wimico and St. populated and most rural counties in Florida.
Joseph. The railroad was built in hopes of diverting Agriculture and forestry are the main industries. The
river traffic from Apalachicola. The primary purpose of county is relatively unpolluted and has some of the
the businessmen was to destroy Apalachicola as a best fishing and hunting areas in the State.
trading port and then move the Franklin County seat to
St. Joseph. Lake Wimioo, however, proved to shallw arming
for river vessels, and in 1839 and 1840 the extension
of the railroad upstream to Lola proved too little too Calhoun County is mainly a general farming area.
late. The majority of the farming occurs around Altha. The
For a short time, St. Joseph proved to be a principal crops are cotton, soybeans, small grains, and
boomtown. In 1836 and 1837, the legislative council peanuts. Cattle are the main livestock. Some dairy and
tried to move the Franklin County seat to St. Joseph swine (hog) production also occurs.
from Apalachicola, but both times the move was About 51,000 acres, or 14 percent of the county,
vetoed. Because Gautier had been elected as a is used for crops and pasture. According to the
member of the legislative council in 1837, he 1992 Census of Agriculture, about 78 percent of
successfully convinced the council to form Calhoun this acreage is cropland and 22 percent is pasture
County with St. Joseph as its seat of government. (USDC, 1992). The grasses used for grazing and
St. Joseph's finest hour occurred when it hosted the hay are improved bahiagrass and improved
constitutional convention of 1838. In the summer of bermudagrass.
1841, however, a virulent epidemic of yellow fever hit Catfish ponds are being built in the eastern part of
St. Joseph and those who didn't succumb and die fled. the county. The University of Florida Institute of Food
St. Joseph was left a ghost town. In September of the and Agricultural Sciences operates an aquaculture
same year, a hurricane hit St. Joseph, devastating it so demonstration facility north of Blountstown.
much that the town was abandoned. Thus, after a wild
and booming beginning, St. Joseph disappeared from Recreation
the maps.
After the destruction of St. Joseph, the county seat A variety of recreational activities are available in
was moved to Abe Spring, situated on the Chipola Calhoun County, including fishing, swimming, hiking,
River. Around 1861, a blood feud broke out involving a boating, canoeing, and horseback riding. Public boat
large family named Durden. The feud was so bloody ramps allow access to the major rivers and lakes.
that the National Guard had to be called in to stop it. Picnic areas are adjacent to some of the boat ramps.
Abe Spring remained the county seat until about 1880, Several wildlife management areas provide hunting
at which time the county seat was moved to Old opportunities. Parks in Bluntstown provide picnic areas
Blountstown on the Apalachicola River. Blountstown and athletic fields.
was named in honor of Chief John Blount, tribal leader
of a small band of Apalachee Indians who were Transportation
granted a reservation on the flood plains along the
"Big River." Despite aiding Andrew Jackson in his war Three primary transportation arteries cross
against the Seminole Indians, Chief John Blount and Calhoun County. East-west travel is on Florida
his tribe lost their reservation and were removed to Highway 20, and north-south travel is on Florida
Oklahoma. Highways 71 and 73. Many small roads and highways
In 1885, a gazetteer listed West Wynnton as the are throughout the county. Barge traffic uses the port
county seat. West Wynnton was possibly an old of Blountstown on the Apalachicola River. An airstrip
subdivision of Blountstown. The population of the on the east side of Blountstown is available for private
county was 2,094. The following communities were airplanes. Regularly scheduled bus transportation is






4 Soil Survey



available in Bluntstown. The county hospital in survey area and relating their position to specific
Bluntstown has emergency helicopter service to segments of a landform, a soil scientist develops a
Tallahassee. concept or model of how they were formed. Thus,
during mapping, this model enables the soil scienti0 t
How This Survey Was Made to predict with a considerable degree of accuracy the
kind of soil or miscellaneous area at a specific location
The general procedures followed in making the on the landscape.
survey are described in the "National Soil Survey Commonly, individual soils on the landscape merge
Handbook" (USDA-SCS, 1993) and the "Soil Survey into one another as their characteristics gradually
Manual" (Soil Survey Division Staff, 1993) of the change. To construct an accurate soil map, however,
Natural Resources Conservation Service. soil scientists must determine the boundaries between
Soil Scientists studied United States Geological the soils. They can observe only a limited number of
Survey topographic maps to relate land and image soil profiles. Nevertheless, these observations,
features. Reconnaissance was made by vehicle supplemented by an understanding of the soil-
before the landscape was traversed on foot. vegetation-landscape relationship, are sufficient to
Traverses generally were made at intervals of about verify predictions of the kinds of soil in an area and to
1/4 mile. They were made at closer intervals in determine the boundaries.
complex areas of high variability and wider intervals Soil scientists recorded the characteristics of the
in less complex areas of low variability. The older soil profiles that they studied. They noted color,
black-and-white photographs show the natural texture, size and shape of soil aggregates, distribution
vegetation in many areas before they were cleared of plant roots, reaction, and other features that enable
and planted to pine, used for urban development, or them to identify soils. While a soil survey is in
both. Landforms in areas of natural vegetation are progress, samples of some of the soils in the area
easier to differentiate using these black-and-white generally are collected for laboratory analyses and for
photographs, and most soils can be correlated to engineering tests. Soil scientists interpret the data
certain landforms. Areas of hydric soil were more from these analyses and tests as well as the field-
easily recognized using the 1984 infrared observed characteristics and the soil properties to
photographs than using black-and-white determine the expected behavior of the soils under
photography. different uses.
This survey was made to provide information about After describing the soils in the survey area and
the soils and miscellaneous areas in the survey area. determining their properties, the soil scientists
The information includes a description of the soils and assigned the soils to taxonomic classes (units).
miscellaneous areas and their location and a Taxonomic classes are concepts. Each taxonomic
discussion of their suitability, limitations, and class has a set of soil characteristics with precisely
management for specified uses. Using the Soil Survey defined limits. The classes are used as a basis for
Manual (Soil Survey Division Staff, 1993) and the comparison to classify soils systematically. Soil
National Soil Survey Handbook (USDA-SCS, 1993) as taxonomy, the system of taxonomic classification used
guides, soil scientists observed the steepness, length, in the United States, is based mainly on the kind and
and shape of the slopes; the general pattern of character of soil properties and the arrangement of
drainage; the kinds of crops and native plants. They horizons within the profile. After the soil scientists
dug many holes to study the soil profile, which is the classified and named the soils in the survey area, they
sequence of natural layers, or horizons, in a soil. The compared the individual soils with similar soils in the
profile extends from the surface down into the same taxonomic class in other areas so that they
unconsolidated material in which the soil formed.The could confirm data and assemble additional data
unconsolidated material is devoid of roots and other based on experience and research.
living organisms and has not been changed by other Interpretations for all of the soils are field tested
biological activity, through observation of the soils in different uses
The soils and miscellaneous areas in the survey and under different levels of management. Some
area are in an orderly pattern that is related to the interpretations are modified to fit local conditions,
geology, landforms, relief, climate, and natural and some new interpretations are developed to
vegetation of the area. Each kind of soil and meet local needs. Data are assembled from other
miscellaneous area is associated with a particular kind sources, such as research information, production
of landform or with a segment of a landform. By records, and field experience of specialists. For
observing the soils and miscellaneous areas in the example, data on crop yields under defined levels of






Calhoun County, Florida 5



management are assembled from farm records and mapping or in the extent of the soils in the survey
from field or plot experiments on the same kinds of areas.
soil.
Predictions about soil behavior are based not only
on soil properties but also on such variables as Use of Ground-Penetrating Radar
climate and biological activity. Soil conditions are Eddie Cummings, GPR specialist, Natural Resources
predictable over long periods of time, but they are not Conservation Service, helped prepare this section.
predictable from year to year. For example, soil
scientists can predict with a fairly high degree of A ground-penetrating radar (GPR) system was
accuracy that a given soil will have a high water table used as one of several methods to determine the
within certain depths in most years, but they cannot variability of soils in the detailed soil map units
predict that a high water table will always be at a (Doolittle, 1982 & 1983). GPR graphic printouts
specific level in the soil on a specific date. presented a continuous two-dimensional image of the
After soil scientists located and identified the depth to subsurface features, such as contrasting
significant natural bodies of soil in the survey area, diagnostic horizons, abrupt textural changes, rock, and
they drew the boundaries of these bodies on aerial the water table.
photographs and identified each as a specific map The GPR system consisted of three main
unit. Aerial photographs show trees, buildings, fields, components: a control unit, an antenna, and a
roads, and rivers, all of which help in locating recorder. GPR operates by sending waves of
boundaries accurately. electromagnetic energy from the control unit into the
The descriptions, names, and delineations of the ground through the antenna. The waves of
soils in this survey area do not fully agree with those electromagnetic energy produce reflections within the
of the soils in adjacent survey areas. Differences are different earthen materials. The reflections are then
the result of a better knowledge of soils, modifications received by the antenna and recorded for
in series concepts, or variations in the intensity of interpretation.









7










General Soil Map Units


The general soil map in this publication shows vegetation includes longleaf pine, slash pine, mixed
broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of soils, hardwoods, and an understory of saw palmetto,
relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general soil honeysuckle, pineland threeawn, and running oak.
map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, it This map unit makes up 16,939 acres, or about 5
consists of one or more major soils or miscellaneous percent of the county. It is about 32 percent Lakeland
areas and some minor soils or miscellaneous areas. It soils, 24 percent Troup soils, 8 percent Blanton soils,
is named for the major soils or miscellaneous areas, and 36 percent soils of minor extent.
The components of one map unit can occur in another Typically, Lakeland soils have a surface layer of
but.in a different pattern, brown sand about 6 inches thick. The substratum is
The general soil map can be used to compare the sand. It is yellow to a depth of 37 inches, brownish
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas yellow to a depth of 58 inches, and very pale brown to
of suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise, a depth of 80 inches or more.
areas where the soils are not suitable can be Typically, Troup soils have a surface layer of dark
identified. grayish brown sand about 6 inches thick. The
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable subsurface layer is sand. It is yellowish brown to a
for planning the management of a farm or field or for depth of 25 inches and is brownish yellow to a depth
selecting a site for a road or building or other structure. of 46 inches. The subsoil is red sandy loam to a depth
The soils in any one map unit differ from place to place of 63 inches and is red sandy clay loam to a depth of
in slope, depth, drainage, and other characteristics 80 inches or more.
that affect management. Typically, Blanton soils have a surface layer of dark
grayish brown sand about 4 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is light yellowish brown sand to a
Soils on Sandy Uplands depth of 40 inches, pale yellow sand to a depth of 60
inches, and pale yellow loamy sand that has mottles in
The two general soil map units in this group consist inches, and pale yellow loamy sand that has mottles in
shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 68 inches.
of excessively drained to poorly drained, nearly level own sandy loam that has
The subsoil is yellowish brown sandy loam that has
to strongly sloping soils. These soils are predominantly m es i yellow, and red to a dpth
mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth
on summits, shoulders, and side slopes in the y
northwest quarter of the county, west of the Chipola 8 lines or more
Of minor extent in this map unit are the Albany,
River and along Cypress Creek. Most of the soils are Bonifay, hiple rth urrie an
Bonifay, Chipley, Foxworth, Hurricane, and Pottsburg
sandy throughout. Some are sandy to a depth of more
than 40 inches and have a loamy subsoil soils. These minor soils generally are in small areas
that are intermixed with areas of the major soils.
The soils of this map unit are poorly suited to
1. Lakeland-Troup-Blanton moderately suited for crops and pasture, have a very
low to moderately high potential productivity for slash
Nearly level to strongly sloping, excessively drained ow to moderate hih potential productivity for slash
soils that are sandy throughout and somewhat pine, and have slight to severe limitations affecting
soils that are sandy throughout and somewhat
excessively drained and moderately well drained soils recreational development, building site development,
that are sandy to a depth of more than 40 inches and and sanitary facilities. See the detailed map unit
have a loamy subsoil descriptions and the interpretative tables for more
have a loamy subsoil .
information.
This map unit is on summits, shoulders, and side Much of the acreage of this map unit has been
slopes in the uplands along Tenmile Creek north to planted to sand pines or supports native woodland.
Jackson County and along Cypress Creek. Natural The rest has been cleared for hay and pasture.






7










General Soil Map Units


The general soil map in this publication shows vegetation includes longleaf pine, slash pine, mixed
broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of soils, hardwoods, and an understory of saw palmetto,
relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general soil honeysuckle, pineland threeawn, and running oak.
map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, it This map unit makes up 16,939 acres, or about 5
consists of one or more major soils or miscellaneous percent of the county. It is about 32 percent Lakeland
areas and some minor soils or miscellaneous areas. It soils, 24 percent Troup soils, 8 percent Blanton soils,
is named for the major soils or miscellaneous areas, and 36 percent soils of minor extent.
The components of one map unit can occur in another Typically, Lakeland soils have a surface layer of
but.in a different pattern, brown sand about 6 inches thick. The substratum is
The general soil map can be used to compare the sand. It is yellow to a depth of 37 inches, brownish
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas yellow to a depth of 58 inches, and very pale brown to
of suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise, a depth of 80 inches or more.
areas where the soils are not suitable can be Typically, Troup soils have a surface layer of dark
identified. grayish brown sand about 6 inches thick. The
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable subsurface layer is sand. It is yellowish brown to a
for planning the management of a farm or field or for depth of 25 inches and is brownish yellow to a depth
selecting a site for a road or building or other structure. of 46 inches. The subsoil is red sandy loam to a depth
The soils in any one map unit differ from place to place of 63 inches and is red sandy clay loam to a depth of
in slope, depth, drainage, and other characteristics 80 inches or more.
that affect management. Typically, Blanton soils have a surface layer of dark
grayish brown sand about 4 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is light yellowish brown sand to a
Soils on Sandy Uplands depth of 40 inches, pale yellow sand to a depth of 60
inches, and pale yellow loamy sand that has mottles in
The two general soil map units in this group consist inches, and pale yellow loamy sand that has mottles in
shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 68 inches.
of excessively drained to poorly drained, nearly level own sandy loam that has
The subsoil is yellowish brown sandy loam that has
to strongly sloping soils. These soils are predominantly m es i yellow, and red to a dpth
mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth
on summits, shoulders, and side slopes in the y
northwest quarter of the county, west of the Chipola 8 lines or more
Of minor extent in this map unit are the Albany,
River and along Cypress Creek. Most of the soils are Bonifay, hiple rth urrie an
Bonifay, Chipley, Foxworth, Hurricane, and Pottsburg
sandy throughout. Some are sandy to a depth of more
than 40 inches and have a loamy subsoil soils. These minor soils generally are in small areas
that are intermixed with areas of the major soils.
The soils of this map unit are poorly suited to
1. Lakeland-Troup-Blanton moderately suited for crops and pasture, have a very
low to moderately high potential productivity for slash
Nearly level to strongly sloping, excessively drained ow to moderate hih potential productivity for slash
soils that are sandy throughout and somewhat pine, and have slight to severe limitations affecting
soils that are sandy throughout and somewhat
excessively drained and moderately well drained soils recreational development, building site development,
that are sandy to a depth of more than 40 inches and and sanitary facilities. See the detailed map unit
have a loamy subsoil descriptions and the interpretative tables for more
have a loamy subsoil .
information.
This map unit is on summits, shoulders, and side Much of the acreage of this map unit has been
slopes in the uplands along Tenmile Creek north to planted to sand pines or supports native woodland.
Jackson County and along Cypress Creek. Natural The rest has been cleared for hay and pasture.






7










General Soil Map Units


The general soil map in this publication shows vegetation includes longleaf pine, slash pine, mixed
broad areas that have a distinctive pattern of soils, hardwoods, and an understory of saw palmetto,
relief, and drainage. Each map unit on the general soil honeysuckle, pineland threeawn, and running oak.
map is a unique natural landscape. Typically, it This map unit makes up 16,939 acres, or about 5
consists of one or more major soils or miscellaneous percent of the county. It is about 32 percent Lakeland
areas and some minor soils or miscellaneous areas. It soils, 24 percent Troup soils, 8 percent Blanton soils,
is named for the major soils or miscellaneous areas, and 36 percent soils of minor extent.
The components of one map unit can occur in another Typically, Lakeland soils have a surface layer of
but.in a different pattern, brown sand about 6 inches thick. The substratum is
The general soil map can be used to compare the sand. It is yellow to a depth of 37 inches, brownish
suitability of large areas for general land uses. Areas yellow to a depth of 58 inches, and very pale brown to
of suitable soils can be identified on the map. Likewise, a depth of 80 inches or more.
areas where the soils are not suitable can be Typically, Troup soils have a surface layer of dark
identified. grayish brown sand about 6 inches thick. The
Because of its small scale, the map is not suitable subsurface layer is sand. It is yellowish brown to a
for planning the management of a farm or field or for depth of 25 inches and is brownish yellow to a depth
selecting a site for a road or building or other structure. of 46 inches. The subsoil is red sandy loam to a depth
The soils in any one map unit differ from place to place of 63 inches and is red sandy clay loam to a depth of
in slope, depth, drainage, and other characteristics 80 inches or more.
that affect management. Typically, Blanton soils have a surface layer of dark
grayish brown sand about 4 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is light yellowish brown sand to a
Soils on Sandy Uplands depth of 40 inches, pale yellow sand to a depth of 60
inches, and pale yellow loamy sand that has mottles in
The two general soil map units in this group consist inches, and pale yellow loamy sand that has mottles in
shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 68 inches.
of excessively drained to poorly drained, nearly level own sandy loam that has
The subsoil is yellowish brown sandy loam that has
to strongly sloping soils. These soils are predominantly m es i yellow, and red to a dpth
mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth
on summits, shoulders, and side slopes in the y
northwest quarter of the county, west of the Chipola 8 lines or more
Of minor extent in this map unit are the Albany,
River and along Cypress Creek. Most of the soils are Bonifay, hiple rth urrie an
Bonifay, Chipley, Foxworth, Hurricane, and Pottsburg
sandy throughout. Some are sandy to a depth of more
than 40 inches and have a loamy subsoil soils. These minor soils generally are in small areas
that are intermixed with areas of the major soils.
The soils of this map unit are poorly suited to
1. Lakeland-Troup-Blanton moderately suited for crops and pasture, have a very
low to moderately high potential productivity for slash
Nearly level to strongly sloping, excessively drained ow to moderate hih potential productivity for slash
soils that are sandy throughout and somewhat pine, and have slight to severe limitations affecting
soils that are sandy throughout and somewhat
excessively drained and moderately well drained soils recreational development, building site development,
that are sandy to a depth of more than 40 inches and and sanitary facilities. See the detailed map unit
have a loamy subsoil descriptions and the interpretative tables for more
have a loamy subsoil .
information.
This map unit is on summits, shoulders, and side Much of the acreage of this map unit has been
slopes in the uplands along Tenmile Creek north to planted to sand pines or supports native woodland.
Jackson County and along Cypress Creek. Natural The rest has been cleared for hay and pasture.






8 Soil Survey



2. Lakeland-Foxworth-Pottsburg Soils on Uplands, on Low Knolls,
and in Areas of Flatwoods
Nearly level to strongly sloping, excessively drained to an n Areas f Fat
moderately well drained, sandy soils and poorly
drained, sandy soils that have an organic-stained The four general soil map units in this group consist
subsoil of well drained to poorly drained, nearly level to
This map unit is on summits, shoulders, and side strongly sloping soils. The soils are on summits,
shoulders, and side slopes in the uplands and on
slopes in the uplands in the northwest quarter of the shoulders and side slopes in the uplands and on
county, beginning at Tenmile Creek and extending riseson knolls andin areas of flatwoods in the
south to an area south of Juniper Creek. Natural coastal lowlands. They are throughout the county,
vegetation includes longleaf pine, slash pine, mixed except in the northwest corner. They are sandy or
loamy and have a loamy subsoil within a depth of 20
hardwoods, and an understory of saw palmetto, inches, are sandy from a depth of 20 to 40 inches and
honeysuckle, pineland threeawn, and running oak. he are sandy a depth of
This map unit makes up 43,350 acres, or about 12 have a oamy subs or are sandy to a depth of 40
inches or more and have a loamy subsoil.
percent of the county. It is about 53 percent Lakeland
soils, 19 percent Foxworth soils, 15 percent Pottsburg
soils, and 13 percent soils of minor extent. 3. Dothan-Orangeburg
Typically, Lakeland soils have a surface layer of
brown sand about 6 inches thick. The substratum is Nearly level to moderately sloping, well drained soils
brown sand about 6 inches thick. The substratum is that have a loamy subsoil within a depth of 20 inches
sand. It is yellow to a depth of 37 inches, brownish
yellow to a depth of 58 inches, and very pale brown to This map unit is on summits, shoulders, and side
a depth of 80 inches or more. slopes in the uplands in the northern part of the
Typically, Foxworth soils have a surface layer of county near the community of Altha. Natural
brown sand about 6 inches thick. The substratum is vegetation includes slash pine, loblolly pine, and
sand. It is yellowish brown and has mottles in shades longleaf pine and mixed hardwoods, such as oak,
of gray to a depth of 43 inches; is yellowish brown and hickory, and dogwood. The understory consists of
has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth native grasses and shrubs, including bluestem,
of 67 inches; and is light gray and has mottles in shades greenbrier, and pineland threeawn.
of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 80 inches or more. This map unit makes up 5,778 acres, or about 2
Typically, Pottsburg soils have a surface layer of percent of the county. It is about 43 percent Dothan
sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is soils, 32 percent Orangeburg soils, and 25 percent
dark grayish brown sand to a depth of 14 inches; is soils of minor extent.
light gray sand that has mottles in shades of gray, Typically, Dothan soils have a surface layer of very
yellow, and red to a depth of 22 inches; is white sand dark grayish brown sandy loam about 6 inches thick.
that has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a The surface layer contains ironstone pebbles. The
depth of 52 inches; and is light brownish gray loamy subsoil is sandy clay loam. It has ironstone pebbles, is
sand to a depth of 58 inches. The subsoil is black, yellowish brown, and has mottled in shades of gray,
organic-stained sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. yellow, and red to a depth of 25 inches; is yellowish
Of minor extent in this map unit are the Alapaha, brown and has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and
Bibb, Blanton, Bonifay, Chipley, Chipola, Foxworth, red to a depth of 45 inches; is brownish yellow, has
Hurricane, Plummer, Rutlege, and Troup soils. These plinthite, and is mottled in shades of gray, yellow, and
minor soils generally are in small areas that are red to a depth of 65 inches; and is variegated in
intermixed with areas of the major soils. shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 80 inches
The soils of this map unit are very poorly suited to or more.
moderately suited for crops and pasture, have a very Typically, Orangeburg soils have a surface layer of
low to moderate potential productivity for slash pine, very dark grayish brown loamy sand about 9 inches
and have slight to severe limitations affecting thick. The subsoil is strong brown sandy loam to a
recreational development, building site development, depth of 16 inches, is red sandy clay loam to a depth
and sanitary facilities. See the detailed map unit of 50 inches, and is red sandy clay that has mottles in
descriptions and the interpretative tables for more shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 80 inches
information. or more.
Much of the acreage of this map unit has been Of minor extent in this map unit are the Chipola,
planted to sand pines or supports native woodland. Duplin, Florala, Fuquay, Leefield, Lucy, Robertsdale,
The rest has been cleared for hay and pasture. and Stilson soils. These minor soils generally are in






8 Soil Survey



2. Lakeland-Foxworth-Pottsburg Soils on Uplands, on Low Knolls,
and in Areas of Flatwoods
Nearly level to strongly sloping, excessively drained to an n Areas f Fat
moderately well drained, sandy soils and poorly
drained, sandy soils that have an organic-stained The four general soil map units in this group consist
subsoil of well drained to poorly drained, nearly level to
This map unit is on summits, shoulders, and side strongly sloping soils. The soils are on summits,
shoulders, and side slopes in the uplands and on
slopes in the uplands in the northwest quarter of the shoulders and side slopes in the uplands and on
county, beginning at Tenmile Creek and extending riseson knolls andin areas of flatwoods in the
south to an area south of Juniper Creek. Natural coastal lowlands. They are throughout the county,
vegetation includes longleaf pine, slash pine, mixed except in the northwest corner. They are sandy or
loamy and have a loamy subsoil within a depth of 20
hardwoods, and an understory of saw palmetto, inches, are sandy from a depth of 20 to 40 inches and
honeysuckle, pineland threeawn, and running oak. he are sandy a depth of
This map unit makes up 43,350 acres, or about 12 have a oamy subs or are sandy to a depth of 40
inches or more and have a loamy subsoil.
percent of the county. It is about 53 percent Lakeland
soils, 19 percent Foxworth soils, 15 percent Pottsburg
soils, and 13 percent soils of minor extent. 3. Dothan-Orangeburg
Typically, Lakeland soils have a surface layer of
brown sand about 6 inches thick. The substratum is Nearly level to moderately sloping, well drained soils
brown sand about 6 inches thick. The substratum is that have a loamy subsoil within a depth of 20 inches
sand. It is yellow to a depth of 37 inches, brownish
yellow to a depth of 58 inches, and very pale brown to This map unit is on summits, shoulders, and side
a depth of 80 inches or more. slopes in the uplands in the northern part of the
Typically, Foxworth soils have a surface layer of county near the community of Altha. Natural
brown sand about 6 inches thick. The substratum is vegetation includes slash pine, loblolly pine, and
sand. It is yellowish brown and has mottles in shades longleaf pine and mixed hardwoods, such as oak,
of gray to a depth of 43 inches; is yellowish brown and hickory, and dogwood. The understory consists of
has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth native grasses and shrubs, including bluestem,
of 67 inches; and is light gray and has mottles in shades greenbrier, and pineland threeawn.
of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 80 inches or more. This map unit makes up 5,778 acres, or about 2
Typically, Pottsburg soils have a surface layer of percent of the county. It is about 43 percent Dothan
sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is soils, 32 percent Orangeburg soils, and 25 percent
dark grayish brown sand to a depth of 14 inches; is soils of minor extent.
light gray sand that has mottles in shades of gray, Typically, Dothan soils have a surface layer of very
yellow, and red to a depth of 22 inches; is white sand dark grayish brown sandy loam about 6 inches thick.
that has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a The surface layer contains ironstone pebbles. The
depth of 52 inches; and is light brownish gray loamy subsoil is sandy clay loam. It has ironstone pebbles, is
sand to a depth of 58 inches. The subsoil is black, yellowish brown, and has mottled in shades of gray,
organic-stained sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. yellow, and red to a depth of 25 inches; is yellowish
Of minor extent in this map unit are the Alapaha, brown and has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and
Bibb, Blanton, Bonifay, Chipley, Chipola, Foxworth, red to a depth of 45 inches; is brownish yellow, has
Hurricane, Plummer, Rutlege, and Troup soils. These plinthite, and is mottled in shades of gray, yellow, and
minor soils generally are in small areas that are red to a depth of 65 inches; and is variegated in
intermixed with areas of the major soils. shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 80 inches
The soils of this map unit are very poorly suited to or more.
moderately suited for crops and pasture, have a very Typically, Orangeburg soils have a surface layer of
low to moderate potential productivity for slash pine, very dark grayish brown loamy sand about 9 inches
and have slight to severe limitations affecting thick. The subsoil is strong brown sandy loam to a
recreational development, building site development, depth of 16 inches, is red sandy clay loam to a depth
and sanitary facilities. See the detailed map unit of 50 inches, and is red sandy clay that has mottles in
descriptions and the interpretative tables for more shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 80 inches
information. or more.
Much of the acreage of this map unit has been Of minor extent in this map unit are the Chipola,
planted to sand pines or supports native woodland. Duplin, Florala, Fuquay, Leefield, Lucy, Robertsdale,
The rest has been cleared for hay and pasture. and Stilson soils. These minor soils generally are in






8 Soil Survey



2. Lakeland-Foxworth-Pottsburg Soils on Uplands, on Low Knolls,
and in Areas of Flatwoods
Nearly level to strongly sloping, excessively drained to an n Areas f Fat
moderately well drained, sandy soils and poorly
drained, sandy soils that have an organic-stained The four general soil map units in this group consist
subsoil of well drained to poorly drained, nearly level to
This map unit is on summits, shoulders, and side strongly sloping soils. The soils are on summits,
shoulders, and side slopes in the uplands and on
slopes in the uplands in the northwest quarter of the shoulders and side slopes in the uplands and on
county, beginning at Tenmile Creek and extending riseson knolls andin areas of flatwoods in the
south to an area south of Juniper Creek. Natural coastal lowlands. They are throughout the county,
vegetation includes longleaf pine, slash pine, mixed except in the northwest corner. They are sandy or
loamy and have a loamy subsoil within a depth of 20
hardwoods, and an understory of saw palmetto, inches, are sandy from a depth of 20 to 40 inches and
honeysuckle, pineland threeawn, and running oak. he are sandy a depth of
This map unit makes up 43,350 acres, or about 12 have a oamy subs or are sandy to a depth of 40
inches or more and have a loamy subsoil.
percent of the county. It is about 53 percent Lakeland
soils, 19 percent Foxworth soils, 15 percent Pottsburg
soils, and 13 percent soils of minor extent. 3. Dothan-Orangeburg
Typically, Lakeland soils have a surface layer of
brown sand about 6 inches thick. The substratum is Nearly level to moderately sloping, well drained soils
brown sand about 6 inches thick. The substratum is that have a loamy subsoil within a depth of 20 inches
sand. It is yellow to a depth of 37 inches, brownish
yellow to a depth of 58 inches, and very pale brown to This map unit is on summits, shoulders, and side
a depth of 80 inches or more. slopes in the uplands in the northern part of the
Typically, Foxworth soils have a surface layer of county near the community of Altha. Natural
brown sand about 6 inches thick. The substratum is vegetation includes slash pine, loblolly pine, and
sand. It is yellowish brown and has mottles in shades longleaf pine and mixed hardwoods, such as oak,
of gray to a depth of 43 inches; is yellowish brown and hickory, and dogwood. The understory consists of
has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth native grasses and shrubs, including bluestem,
of 67 inches; and is light gray and has mottles in shades greenbrier, and pineland threeawn.
of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 80 inches or more. This map unit makes up 5,778 acres, or about 2
Typically, Pottsburg soils have a surface layer of percent of the county. It is about 43 percent Dothan
sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is soils, 32 percent Orangeburg soils, and 25 percent
dark grayish brown sand to a depth of 14 inches; is soils of minor extent.
light gray sand that has mottles in shades of gray, Typically, Dothan soils have a surface layer of very
yellow, and red to a depth of 22 inches; is white sand dark grayish brown sandy loam about 6 inches thick.
that has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a The surface layer contains ironstone pebbles. The
depth of 52 inches; and is light brownish gray loamy subsoil is sandy clay loam. It has ironstone pebbles, is
sand to a depth of 58 inches. The subsoil is black, yellowish brown, and has mottled in shades of gray,
organic-stained sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. yellow, and red to a depth of 25 inches; is yellowish
Of minor extent in this map unit are the Alapaha, brown and has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and
Bibb, Blanton, Bonifay, Chipley, Chipola, Foxworth, red to a depth of 45 inches; is brownish yellow, has
Hurricane, Plummer, Rutlege, and Troup soils. These plinthite, and is mottled in shades of gray, yellow, and
minor soils generally are in small areas that are red to a depth of 65 inches; and is variegated in
intermixed with areas of the major soils. shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 80 inches
The soils of this map unit are very poorly suited to or more.
moderately suited for crops and pasture, have a very Typically, Orangeburg soils have a surface layer of
low to moderate potential productivity for slash pine, very dark grayish brown loamy sand about 9 inches
and have slight to severe limitations affecting thick. The subsoil is strong brown sandy loam to a
recreational development, building site development, depth of 16 inches, is red sandy clay loam to a depth
and sanitary facilities. See the detailed map unit of 50 inches, and is red sandy clay that has mottles in
descriptions and the interpretative tables for more shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 80 inches
information. or more.
Much of the acreage of this map unit has been Of minor extent in this map unit are the Chipola,
planted to sand pines or supports native woodland. Duplin, Florala, Fuquay, Leefield, Lucy, Robertsdale,
The rest has been cleared for hay and pasture. and Stilson soils. These minor soils generally are in






Calhoun County, Florida 9






























Figure 2.-An area of Dothan sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes, that produces grain for harvest and forage.


small areas that are intermixed with areas of the major at the confluence of creeks and streams in the
soils. northern and central parts of the county. There is also
The soils of this map unit are moderately well suited a large area by Cypress Creek in the south-central
to very well suited for crops and pasture, have a part of the county. Natural vegetation includes slash
moderately high or high potential productivity for slash pine, loblolly pine, and longleaf pine and mixed
pine, and have slight to severe limitations affecting hardwoods, such as oak, hickory, and dogwood. The
recreational development, building site development, understory consists of native grasses and shrubs,
and sanitary facilities. See the detailed map unit including gallberry, bluestem, greenbrier, and pineland
descriptions and the interpretative tables for more threeawn.
information. This map unit makes up 33,130 acres, or about 9
Most of the acreage of this map unit has been percent of the county. It is about 32 percent Blanton
cleared for hay, pasture, or cultivated crops (fig. 2). soils and the similar Troup and Albany soils, 13
The rest has been planted to pines or supports native percent Leefield soils and the similar Stilson soils, 12
woodland. percent Alapaha soils and the similar Pansey and
Plummer soils, and 43 percent soils of minor extent.
Typically, Blanton soils have a surface layer of dark
4. Blanton-Leefield-Alapaha grayish brown sand about 4 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is light yellowish brown sand to a
Nearly level to moderately sloping, moderately well subsurface layer is ght sh brown sand
drained soils that are sandy to a depth of more than depth of 40 inches, pale yellow sand to a depth of 60
40 inches and have a loamy subsoil and somewhat inches, and pale yellow loamy sand that has mottles in
poorly drained and poorly drained soils that are sandy shadesof gray, yellow,and red to a depth of 68 inches
The subsoil is yellowish brown sandy loam that has
to a depth of 20 to 40 inches and have a loamy subsoil The subsoil is yells o gra own sandy loa that has
mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth
This map unit is on summits, shoulders, and side 80 inches or more.
slopes in the uplands and on flats, rises, and knolls in Typically, Leefield soils have a surface layer of
the coastal lowlands throughout the county. It is mainly dark gray loamy sand about 12 inches thick. The






10 Soil Survey



subsurface layer is pale yellow loamy sand that has maple, and sweetgum. The understory consists of
mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth native grasses and shrubs, including wax-myrtle,
of 34 inches. The subsoil to a depth of 61 inches or greenbrier, and pineland threeawn.
more is light gray fine sandy loam that has plinthite This map unit makes up 14,357 acres, or about 4
and has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red. percent of the county. It is about 33 percent Plummer
Below this to a depth of 80 inches or more, the soils and the similar Alapaha soils, 24 percent Albany
subsoil is light gray sandy clay loam that has soils and the similar Leefield soils, 7 percent Blanton
plinthite and has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, soils and the similar Foxworth soils, and 36 percent
and red. soils of minor extent.
Typically, Alapaha soils have a surface layer of Typically, Plummer soils have a surface layer of
very dark gray loamy sand about 6 inches thick. The very dark gray sand about 8 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is loamy sand. It is dark gray to a subsurface layer is sand. It is grayish brown to a depth
depth of 16 inches and is gray and has mottles in of 16 inches and is light gray and has mottles in
shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 28 shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 68 inches.
inches. The subsoil is gray sandy loam that has The subsoil is light gray sandy loam that has mottles in
plinthite to a depth of 48 inches; is gray sandy loam shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 80 inches
that has plinthite and has mottles in shades of gray, or more.
yellow, and red to a depth of 62 inches; and is gray Typically, Albany soils have a surface layer of dark
sandy clay loam that has plinthite and has mottles grayish brown loamy sand about 8 inches thick. The
in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 80 subsurface layer is loamy sand. It is brown and has
inches or more. mottles in shades of gray to a depth of 14 inches; is
Of minor extent in this map unit are the Albany, very pale brown and has mottles in shades of gray to a
Bibb, Bladen, Bonifay, Chipley, Chipola, Croatan, depth of 29 inches; and is pale brown and has mottles
Dothan, Florala, Foxworth, Fuquay, Garcon, in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 46
Kinston, Lakeland, Lucy, Pansey, Pantego, inches. The transitional subsoil is light yellowish brown
Pottsburg, Robertsdale, Stilson, Surrency, Troup, loamy sand that has mottles in shades of gray, yellow,
and Wahee soils. These minor soils generally are in and red to a depth of 61 inches. The subsoil is
small areas that are intermixed with areas of the variegated sandy clay loam in shades of gray, yellow,
major soils. and red to a depth of 80 inches or more.
The soils of this map unit are well suited to not Typically, Blanton soils have a surface layer of dark
suited for crops and pasture, have a moderately grayish brown sand about 4 inches thick. The
high potential productivity for slash pine, and have subsurface layer is light yellowish brown sand to a
slight to severe limitations affecting recreational depth of 40 inches, pale yellow sand to a depth of 60
development, building site development, and inches, and pale yellow loamy sand that has mottles in
sanitary facilities. See the detailed map unit shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 68 inches.
descriptions and the interpretative tables for more The subsoil is yellowish brown sandy loam that has
information. mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth
Most of the acreage of this map unit is used for 80 inches or more.
planted pines or pasture. The rest is used for cultivated Of minor extent in this map unit are the Alapaha,
crops or supports native woodland. Bibb, Bonifay, Chipley, Chipola, Hurricane, Kinston,
Lakeland, Leefield, Lucy, Pamlico, Pansey, Pottsburg,
Rutlege, Stilson, Surrency, and Troup soils. These
5. Plummer-Albany-Blanton minor soils generally are in small areas that are
Nearly level to moderately sloping, poorly drained, intermixedwith areas of the major soils.
somewhat poorly drained, and moderately well drained The soils of this map unit are poorly suited to well
soils that are sandy to a depth of more than 40 inches suited for crops and pasture, have a mderately high
and have a loamy subsoil potential productivity for slash pine, and have slight to
severe limitations affecting recreational development,
This map unit is on flats, in areas of flatwoods, on building site development, and sanitary facilities. See
rises, and on knolls in the coastal lowlands throughout the detailed map unit descriptions and the
the county. It is mainly in the west-central part of the interpretative tables for more information.
county between Juniper Creek and Cypress Creek. Most of the acreage of this map unit has been
Natural vegetation includes slash pine, loblolly pine, planted to pines. The rest is used for pasture or
and longleaf pine and mixed hardwoods, such as oak, cultivated crops or supports native woodland.






Calhoun County, Florida 11



6. Dothan-Fuquay-Alapaha plinthite and has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and
red to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Nearly level to strongly sloping, well drained soils Of minor extent in this map unit are the Albany,
that have a loamy subsoil within a depth of 20 Bibb, Bladen, Blanton, Bonifay, Chipola, Croatan,
inches and well drained and poorly drained soils Dunbar, Duplin, Florala, Garcon, Kenansville, Kinston,
that are sandy to a depth of 20 to 40 inches and Leefield, Lucy, Orangeburg, Pansey, Pantego,
have a loamy subsoil Plummer, Pottsburg, Robertsdale, Stilson, Surrency,
s mp u i o s s and Wahee soils. These minor soils generally are in
hsles, and seps isn st upns s onfls side small areas that are intermixed with areas of the major
slopes, and seeps in the uplands and on flats in the .
coastal lowlands. It is in the central and eastern parts soi s.
the county. Natural vegetation includes slash pine, The soils of this map unit are very well suited to not
of the county. Natural vegetation includes slash pine, a moderately high
suited for crops and pasture, have a moderately high
loblolly pine, longleaf pine, southern magnolia, white prut have
oak, pignut hickory, and flowering dogwood. The or high potential productivity for slash pine, and have
oak, pignut hicko, and f ing do od.Thslight to severe limitations affecting recreational
understory consists of native grasses and shrubs,
nd consists o naie grasses an shrubs, development, building site development, and sanitary
including shining sumac, sparkleberry, bluestem, facilities. See the detailed map unit descriptions and
greenbrier, and pineland threeawn.
greenbrier, and pineland threeawn the interpretative tables for more information.
This map unit makes up 81,125 acres, or about 22 the erreae a mor e i information
Most of the acreage of this map unit has been
percent of the county. It is about 38 percent Dothan o
percent of the county. It is about 38 percent Dothan cleared for hay, pasture, or cultivated crops (fig. 3).
soils, 18 percent Fuquay soils, 13 percent Alapaha
soils, 18 percent Fuquay soils, 13 percent Alapaha The rest has been planted to pines or supports native
soils, and 31 percent soils of minor extent. woodland (fig. 4).
Typically, Dothan soils have a surface layer of very
dark grayish brown sandy loam that has ironstone
pebbles and is about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is Soils in Areas of Low Flatwoods
sandy clay loam. It is yellowish brown, has ironstone a o
pebbles, and has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, an n ra
and red to a depth of 25 inches; is yellowish brown, The three general soil map units in this group
The three general soil map units in this group
has plinthite, and has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, consist of very poorly drained to moderately well
consist of very poorly drained to moderately well
and red to a depth of 45 inches; is brownish yellow, drained, nearly level and gently sloping soils. These
has plinthite, and has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, soils are on flats, in areas of flatwoods, on knolls, and
and red to a depth of 65 inches; and is variegated in on rises in te oa on as as
on rises in the coastal lowlands and on terraces, flats,
shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 80 inches and footslopes in the uplands throughout the county,
and footslopes in the uplands throughout the county,
or more.
soils have a surface layer of dark except in the northwest quarter. They are sandy or
Typically, Fuquay loamy and have a loamy or clayey subsoil within a
grayish brown loamy sand about 11 inches thick. The loy ahe a y rcay ss wthn
subsurface layer is olive yellow loamy fine sand that dth of 20che are sandy to a depth of 20 to 40
inches and have a loamy subsoil, are sandy to a depth
has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a and have a loamy subs
of 40 inches or more and have a loamy subsoil, or are
depth of 32 inches. The subsoil is olive yellow fine sandy to a depth of 20 to 40 inches and have a thin
sandy loam that has plinthite and has mottles in
loamy subsoil that is underlain by sand within a depth
shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 42 of 60 inches,
inches; is yellowish'brown sandy loam that has
plinthite and has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and Pansey-
red to a depth of 58 inches; and is variegated sandy Pansey-Leefield-Flora
clay loam in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth Nearly level and gently sloping, poorly drained and
of 80 inches or more. Nearly level and gently sloping, poorly drained and
a surface layer of very very poorly drained soils that have a loamy subsoil
Typically, Alapaha soils haveout 6 iches tck e within a depth of 20 inches, somewhat poorly drained
soils that are sandy to a depth of 20 to 40 inches and
subsurface layer is loamy sand. It is dark gray to ahava a sus and soehat poo
have a loamy subsoil, and somewhat poorly drained
depth of 16 inches and is gray and has mottles in have aloamy subso wth
soils that have a loamy subsoil within a depth of 20
shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 28 inches. in
inches
The subsoil is gray sandy loam that has mottles in
shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 48 This map unit is on flats, knolls, and rises in the
inches; is gray sandy loam that has plinthite and has coastal lowlands throughout the county, except in the
mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of northwest corner. Natural vegetation includes slash
62 inches; and is gray sandy clay loam that has pine, loblolly pine, longleaf pine, water oak, sweetgum,






Calhoun County, Florida 11



6. Dothan-Fuquay-Alapaha plinthite and has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and
red to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Nearly level to strongly sloping, well drained soils Of minor extent in this map unit are the Albany,
that have a loamy subsoil within a depth of 20 Bibb, Bladen, Blanton, Bonifay, Chipola, Croatan,
inches and well drained and poorly drained soils Dunbar, Duplin, Florala, Garcon, Kenansville, Kinston,
that are sandy to a depth of 20 to 40 inches and Leefield, Lucy, Orangeburg, Pansey, Pantego,
have a loamy subsoil Plummer, Pottsburg, Robertsdale, Stilson, Surrency,
s mp u i o s s and Wahee soils. These minor soils generally are in
hsles, and seps isn st upns s onfls side small areas that are intermixed with areas of the major
slopes, and seeps in the uplands and on flats in the .
coastal lowlands. It is in the central and eastern parts soi s.
the county. Natural vegetation includes slash pine, The soils of this map unit are very well suited to not
of the county. Natural vegetation includes slash pine, a moderately high
suited for crops and pasture, have a moderately high
loblolly pine, longleaf pine, southern magnolia, white prut have
oak, pignut hickory, and flowering dogwood. The or high potential productivity for slash pine, and have
oak, pignut hicko, and f ing do od.Thslight to severe limitations affecting recreational
understory consists of native grasses and shrubs,
nd consists o naie grasses an shrubs, development, building site development, and sanitary
including shining sumac, sparkleberry, bluestem, facilities. See the detailed map unit descriptions and
greenbrier, and pineland threeawn.
greenbrier, and pineland threeawn the interpretative tables for more information.
This map unit makes up 81,125 acres, or about 22 the erreae a mor e i information
Most of the acreage of this map unit has been
percent of the county. It is about 38 percent Dothan o
percent of the county. It is about 38 percent Dothan cleared for hay, pasture, or cultivated crops (fig. 3).
soils, 18 percent Fuquay soils, 13 percent Alapaha
soils, 18 percent Fuquay soils, 13 percent Alapaha The rest has been planted to pines or supports native
soils, and 31 percent soils of minor extent. woodland (fig. 4).
Typically, Dothan soils have a surface layer of very
dark grayish brown sandy loam that has ironstone
pebbles and is about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is Soils in Areas of Low Flatwoods
sandy clay loam. It is yellowish brown, has ironstone a o
pebbles, and has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, an n ra
and red to a depth of 25 inches; is yellowish brown, The three general soil map units in this group
The three general soil map units in this group
has plinthite, and has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, consist of very poorly drained to moderately well
consist of very poorly drained to moderately well
and red to a depth of 45 inches; is brownish yellow, drained, nearly level and gently sloping soils. These
has plinthite, and has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, soils are on flats, in areas of flatwoods, on knolls, and
and red to a depth of 65 inches; and is variegated in on rises in te oa on as as
on rises in the coastal lowlands and on terraces, flats,
shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 80 inches and footslopes in the uplands throughout the county,
and footslopes in the uplands throughout the county,
or more.
soils have a surface layer of dark except in the northwest quarter. They are sandy or
Typically, Fuquay loamy and have a loamy or clayey subsoil within a
grayish brown loamy sand about 11 inches thick. The loy ahe a y rcay ss wthn
subsurface layer is olive yellow loamy fine sand that dth of 20che are sandy to a depth of 20 to 40
inches and have a loamy subsoil, are sandy to a depth
has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a and have a loamy subs
of 40 inches or more and have a loamy subsoil, or are
depth of 32 inches. The subsoil is olive yellow fine sandy to a depth of 20 to 40 inches and have a thin
sandy loam that has plinthite and has mottles in
loamy subsoil that is underlain by sand within a depth
shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 42 of 60 inches,
inches; is yellowish'brown sandy loam that has
plinthite and has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and Pansey-
red to a depth of 58 inches; and is variegated sandy Pansey-Leefield-Flora
clay loam in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth Nearly level and gently sloping, poorly drained and
of 80 inches or more. Nearly level and gently sloping, poorly drained and
a surface layer of very very poorly drained soils that have a loamy subsoil
Typically, Alapaha soils haveout 6 iches tck e within a depth of 20 inches, somewhat poorly drained
soils that are sandy to a depth of 20 to 40 inches and
subsurface layer is loamy sand. It is dark gray to ahava a sus and soehat poo
have a loamy subsoil, and somewhat poorly drained
depth of 16 inches and is gray and has mottles in have aloamy subso wth
soils that have a loamy subsoil within a depth of 20
shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 28 inches. in
inches
The subsoil is gray sandy loam that has mottles in
shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 48 This map unit is on flats, knolls, and rises in the
inches; is gray sandy loam that has plinthite and has coastal lowlands throughout the county, except in the
mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of northwest corner. Natural vegetation includes slash
62 inches; and is gray sandy clay loam that has pine, loblolly pine, longleaf pine, water oak, sweetgum,






Calhoun County, Florida 11



6. Dothan-Fuquay-Alapaha plinthite and has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and
red to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Nearly level to strongly sloping, well drained soils Of minor extent in this map unit are the Albany,
that have a loamy subsoil within a depth of 20 Bibb, Bladen, Blanton, Bonifay, Chipola, Croatan,
inches and well drained and poorly drained soils Dunbar, Duplin, Florala, Garcon, Kenansville, Kinston,
that are sandy to a depth of 20 to 40 inches and Leefield, Lucy, Orangeburg, Pansey, Pantego,
have a loamy subsoil Plummer, Pottsburg, Robertsdale, Stilson, Surrency,
s mp u i o s s and Wahee soils. These minor soils generally are in
hsles, and seps isn st upns s onfls side small areas that are intermixed with areas of the major
slopes, and seeps in the uplands and on flats in the .
coastal lowlands. It is in the central and eastern parts soi s.
the county. Natural vegetation includes slash pine, The soils of this map unit are very well suited to not
of the county. Natural vegetation includes slash pine, a moderately high
suited for crops and pasture, have a moderately high
loblolly pine, longleaf pine, southern magnolia, white prut have
oak, pignut hickory, and flowering dogwood. The or high potential productivity for slash pine, and have
oak, pignut hicko, and f ing do od.Thslight to severe limitations affecting recreational
understory consists of native grasses and shrubs,
nd consists o naie grasses an shrubs, development, building site development, and sanitary
including shining sumac, sparkleberry, bluestem, facilities. See the detailed map unit descriptions and
greenbrier, and pineland threeawn.
greenbrier, and pineland threeawn the interpretative tables for more information.
This map unit makes up 81,125 acres, or about 22 the erreae a mor e i information
Most of the acreage of this map unit has been
percent of the county. It is about 38 percent Dothan o
percent of the county. It is about 38 percent Dothan cleared for hay, pasture, or cultivated crops (fig. 3).
soils, 18 percent Fuquay soils, 13 percent Alapaha
soils, 18 percent Fuquay soils, 13 percent Alapaha The rest has been planted to pines or supports native
soils, and 31 percent soils of minor extent. woodland (fig. 4).
Typically, Dothan soils have a surface layer of very
dark grayish brown sandy loam that has ironstone
pebbles and is about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is Soils in Areas of Low Flatwoods
sandy clay loam. It is yellowish brown, has ironstone a o
pebbles, and has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, an n ra
and red to a depth of 25 inches; is yellowish brown, The three general soil map units in this group
The three general soil map units in this group
has plinthite, and has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, consist of very poorly drained to moderately well
consist of very poorly drained to moderately well
and red to a depth of 45 inches; is brownish yellow, drained, nearly level and gently sloping soils. These
has plinthite, and has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, soils are on flats, in areas of flatwoods, on knolls, and
and red to a depth of 65 inches; and is variegated in on rises in te oa on as as
on rises in the coastal lowlands and on terraces, flats,
shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 80 inches and footslopes in the uplands throughout the county,
and footslopes in the uplands throughout the county,
or more.
soils have a surface layer of dark except in the northwest quarter. They are sandy or
Typically, Fuquay loamy and have a loamy or clayey subsoil within a
grayish brown loamy sand about 11 inches thick. The loy ahe a y rcay ss wthn
subsurface layer is olive yellow loamy fine sand that dth of 20che are sandy to a depth of 20 to 40
inches and have a loamy subsoil, are sandy to a depth
has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a and have a loamy subs
of 40 inches or more and have a loamy subsoil, or are
depth of 32 inches. The subsoil is olive yellow fine sandy to a depth of 20 to 40 inches and have a thin
sandy loam that has plinthite and has mottles in
loamy subsoil that is underlain by sand within a depth
shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 42 of 60 inches,
inches; is yellowish'brown sandy loam that has
plinthite and has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and Pansey-
red to a depth of 58 inches; and is variegated sandy Pansey-Leefield-Flora
clay loam in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth Nearly level and gently sloping, poorly drained and
of 80 inches or more. Nearly level and gently sloping, poorly drained and
a surface layer of very very poorly drained soils that have a loamy subsoil
Typically, Alapaha soils haveout 6 iches tck e within a depth of 20 inches, somewhat poorly drained
soils that are sandy to a depth of 20 to 40 inches and
subsurface layer is loamy sand. It is dark gray to ahava a sus and soehat poo
have a loamy subsoil, and somewhat poorly drained
depth of 16 inches and is gray and has mottles in have aloamy subso wth
soils that have a loamy subsoil within a depth of 20
shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 28 inches. in
inches
The subsoil is gray sandy loam that has mottles in
shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 48 This map unit is on flats, knolls, and rises in the
inches; is gray sandy loam that has plinthite and has coastal lowlands throughout the county, except in the
mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of northwest corner. Natural vegetation includes slash
62 inches; and is gray sandy clay loam that has pine, loblolly pine, longleaf pine, water oak, sweetgum,






12 Soil Survey








































Figure 3.-Peanut production in an area of Dothan sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes.


and red maple. The understory consists of wax-myrtle, 50 inches; and is gray clay to a depth of 80 inches or
saw palmetto, inkberry, greenbrier, and pineland more.
threeawn. Typically, Leefield soils have a surface layer of
This map unit makes up 45,864 acres, or about 12 dark gray loamy sand about 12 inches thick. The
percent of the county. It is about 34 percent Pansey subsurface layer is pale yellow loamy sand that has
soils and the similar Alapaha soils, 29 percent Leefield mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth
soils and the similar Robertsdale soils, 18 percent of 34 inches. The subsoil is sandy loam. It is light
Florala soils and the similar Stilson soils, and 19 gray, has plinthite, and has mottles in shades of
percent soils of minor extent. gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 61 inches. It is
Typically, Pansey soils have a surface layer of very light gray, has plinthite, and has mottles in shades
dark gray loam about 8 inches thick. The subsoil is of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 80 inches or
light brownish gray sandy loam that has mottles in more.
shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 14 Typically, Florala soils have a surface layer of
inches; is light gray sandy clay loam that has mottles dark grayish brown loamy sand about 8 inches
in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 23 thick. The subsoil is brownish yellow fine sandy
inches; is variegated sandy clay loam that has plinthite loam that has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and
and is in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of red to a depth of 25 inches; is brownish yellow






Calhoun County, Florida 13



sandy loam that has plinthite and has mottles in Stilson, and Surrency soils. These minor soils
shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 43 generally are in small areas that are intermixed with
inches; is mixed light gray and yellowish brown areas of the major soils.
sandy clay loam that has plinthite and has mottles The soils of this map unit are poorly suited to
in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 67 well suited for crops and pasture, have a moderate
inches; and is variegated sandy clay loam in shades or moderately high potential productivity for slash
of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 80 inches or pine, and have slight to severe limitations affecting
more. recreational development, building site
Of minor extent in this map unit are the Alapaha, development, and sanitary facilities. See the
Albany, Bladen, Blanton, Bonifay, Croatan, Dothan, detailed map unit descriptions and the interpretative
Florala, Fuquay, Garcon, Kinston, Lucy, tables for more information.
Orangeburg, Pantego, Plummer, Robertsdale, Most of the acreage of this map unit has been




































i .


Figure 4.-Slash pine in an area of Fuquay loamy sand, to 2 percent ses.






14 Soil Survey



planted to pines. The rest is used for pasture or planted to pines. Some of the wettest areas support
cultivated crops or supports native woodland. native hardwoods.

8. Alapaha-Plummer 9. Bladen-Dunbar-Kenansville

Nearly level and gently sloping, poorly drained soils Nearly level and gently sloping, poorly drained and
that are sandy to a depth of 20 to 40 inches and have somewhat poorly drained soils that have a clayey
a loamy subsoil and poorly drained soils that are subsoil within a depth of 20 inches and moderately
sandy to a depth of more than 40 inches and have a well drained soils that are sandy to a depth of 20 to 40
loamy subsoil inches, have a loamy subsoil, and are underlain by
sand within a depth of 60 inches
This map unit is on flats in the coastal lowlands in sand within a depth of 60 inches
the southwest corner of the county. Natural vegetation This map unit is on broad flats and stream terraces
includes slash pine, loblolly pine, longleaf pine, along the Apalachicola and Chipola Rivers. Natural
sweetgum, and red maple. The understory consists of vegetation includes slash pine, loblolly pine, longleaf
wax-myrtle, saw palmetto, inkberry, greenbrier, and pine, water oak, sweetgum, red maple, dogwood,
pineland threeawn. American holly, sassafras, and persimmon. The
This map unit makes up 3,974 acres, or about 1 understory consists of wax-myrtle, inkberry, gallberry,
percent of the county. It is about 58 percent Alapaha greenbrier, and pineland threeawn.
soils, 21 percent Plummer soils, and 21 percent soils This map unit makes up 24,256 acres, or about 7
of minor extent. percent of the county. It is about 26 percent Bladen
Typically, Alapaha soils have a surface layer of very soils, 22 percent Dunbar soils and the similar Duplin
dark gray loamy sand about 6 inches thick. The soils, 18 percent Kenansville soils and the similar
subsurface layer is loamy sand. It is dark gray to a Chipola and Garcon soils, and 34 percent soils of
depth of 16 inches. It is gray and has mottles in minor extent.
shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 28 inches. Typically, Bladen soils have a surface layer of black
The subsoil is gray sandy loam that has mottles in loam about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray
shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 48 loam that has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and
inches; is gray sandy loam that has plinthite and has red to a depth of 14 inches. The subsoil is gray clay
mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of that has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a
62 inches; and is gray sandy clay loam that has depth of 80 inches or more.
plinthite and has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and Typically, Dunbar soils have a surface layer of black
red to a depth of 80 inches or more. fine sandy loam about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is
Typically, Plummer soils have a surface layer of light olive brown clay loam that has mottles in shades
very dark gray sand about 8 inches thick. The of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 14 inches; is light
subsurface layer is sand. It is grayish brown to a depth gray clay that has mottles in shades of gray, yellow,
of 16 inches. It is light gray and has mottles in shades and red to a depth of 36 inches; and is gray clay that
of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 68 inches. The has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a
subsoil is light gray sandy loam that has mottles in depth of 80 inches or more.
shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 80 inches Typically, Kenansville soils have a surface layer of
or more. dark grayish brown loamy sand about 7 inches thick.
Of minor extent in this map unit are the Albany, The subsurface layer is light yellowish brown loamy
Bibb, Bladen, Chipley, Croatan, Garcon, Kinston, sand to a depth of 22 inches. The subsoil is yellowish
Leefield, and Pansey soils. These minor soils generally brown sandy clay loam to a depth of 38 inches and is
are in small areas that are intermixed with areas of the brownish yellow sandy loam to a depth of 52 inches.
major soils. The substratum is very pale brown loamy sand that
The soils of this map unit are not suited for crops has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a
and pasture, have a moderately high potential depth of 80 inches or more.
productivity for slash pine, and have slight to severe Of minor extent in this map unit are the Alapaha,
limitations affecting recreational development, building Chipola, Duplin, Garcon, Fuquay, Pansey, Pantego,
site development, and sanitary facilities. See the Ochlockonee, Robertsdale, Stilson, Surrency, and
detailed map unit descriptions and the interpretative Wahee soils. These minor soils generally are in small
tables for more information. areas that are intermixed with areas of the major soils.
Most of the acreage of this map unit has been The soils of this map unit are not suited to well






14 Soil Survey



planted to pines. The rest is used for pasture or planted to pines. Some of the wettest areas support
cultivated crops or supports native woodland. native hardwoods.

8. Alapaha-Plummer 9. Bladen-Dunbar-Kenansville

Nearly level and gently sloping, poorly drained soils Nearly level and gently sloping, poorly drained and
that are sandy to a depth of 20 to 40 inches and have somewhat poorly drained soils that have a clayey
a loamy subsoil and poorly drained soils that are subsoil within a depth of 20 inches and moderately
sandy to a depth of more than 40 inches and have a well drained soils that are sandy to a depth of 20 to 40
loamy subsoil inches, have a loamy subsoil, and are underlain by
sand within a depth of 60 inches
This map unit is on flats in the coastal lowlands in sand within a depth of 60 inches
the southwest corner of the county. Natural vegetation This map unit is on broad flats and stream terraces
includes slash pine, loblolly pine, longleaf pine, along the Apalachicola and Chipola Rivers. Natural
sweetgum, and red maple. The understory consists of vegetation includes slash pine, loblolly pine, longleaf
wax-myrtle, saw palmetto, inkberry, greenbrier, and pine, water oak, sweetgum, red maple, dogwood,
pineland threeawn. American holly, sassafras, and persimmon. The
This map unit makes up 3,974 acres, or about 1 understory consists of wax-myrtle, inkberry, gallberry,
percent of the county. It is about 58 percent Alapaha greenbrier, and pineland threeawn.
soils, 21 percent Plummer soils, and 21 percent soils This map unit makes up 24,256 acres, or about 7
of minor extent. percent of the county. It is about 26 percent Bladen
Typically, Alapaha soils have a surface layer of very soils, 22 percent Dunbar soils and the similar Duplin
dark gray loamy sand about 6 inches thick. The soils, 18 percent Kenansville soils and the similar
subsurface layer is loamy sand. It is dark gray to a Chipola and Garcon soils, and 34 percent soils of
depth of 16 inches. It is gray and has mottles in minor extent.
shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 28 inches. Typically, Bladen soils have a surface layer of black
The subsoil is gray sandy loam that has mottles in loam about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray
shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 48 loam that has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and
inches; is gray sandy loam that has plinthite and has red to a depth of 14 inches. The subsoil is gray clay
mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of that has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a
62 inches; and is gray sandy clay loam that has depth of 80 inches or more.
plinthite and has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and Typically, Dunbar soils have a surface layer of black
red to a depth of 80 inches or more. fine sandy loam about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is
Typically, Plummer soils have a surface layer of light olive brown clay loam that has mottles in shades
very dark gray sand about 8 inches thick. The of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 14 inches; is light
subsurface layer is sand. It is grayish brown to a depth gray clay that has mottles in shades of gray, yellow,
of 16 inches. It is light gray and has mottles in shades and red to a depth of 36 inches; and is gray clay that
of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 68 inches. The has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a
subsoil is light gray sandy loam that has mottles in depth of 80 inches or more.
shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 80 inches Typically, Kenansville soils have a surface layer of
or more. dark grayish brown loamy sand about 7 inches thick.
Of minor extent in this map unit are the Albany, The subsurface layer is light yellowish brown loamy
Bibb, Bladen, Chipley, Croatan, Garcon, Kinston, sand to a depth of 22 inches. The subsoil is yellowish
Leefield, and Pansey soils. These minor soils generally brown sandy clay loam to a depth of 38 inches and is
are in small areas that are intermixed with areas of the brownish yellow sandy loam to a depth of 52 inches.
major soils. The substratum is very pale brown loamy sand that
The soils of this map unit are not suited for crops has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a
and pasture, have a moderately high potential depth of 80 inches or more.
productivity for slash pine, and have slight to severe Of minor extent in this map unit are the Alapaha,
limitations affecting recreational development, building Chipola, Duplin, Garcon, Fuquay, Pansey, Pantego,
site development, and sanitary facilities. See the Ochlockonee, Robertsdale, Stilson, Surrency, and
detailed map unit descriptions and the interpretative Wahee soils. These minor soils generally are in small
tables for more information. areas that are intermixed with areas of the major soils.
Most of the acreage of this map unit has been The soils of this map unit are not suited to well






Calhoun County, Florida 15



suited for crops and pasture, have a moderately high very dark grayish brown sand to a depth of 8 inches.
or high potential productivity for slash pine, and have The subsurface layer is grayish brown sand to a depth
slight to severe limitations affecting recreational of 35 inches. The subsoil is grayish brown sandy clay
development, building site development, and sanitary loam that has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and
facilities. See the detailed map unit descriptions and red to a depth of 80 inches or more.
the interpretative tables for more information. Typically, Rutlege soils have a surface layer of black
Most of the acreage of this map unit has been sand about 13 inches thick. The substratum is grayish
planted to pines or supports native woodland.The rest brown sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
is used for pasture or cultivated crops. Of minor extent in this map unit are the Alapaha,
Bibb, Brickyard, Dorovan, Garcon, Kinston, Pansey,
Pamlico, Pantego, Plummer, and Pottsburg soils.
Soils in Depressions and on Flood These minor soils generally are in small areas that are
Plains Along Rivers intermixed with areas of the major soils.
The soils of this map unit are not suited for crops,
The two general soil map units in this group consist pasture, or pine trees and have very severe limitations
of very poorly drained to moderately well drained, affecting recreational development, building site
nearly level soils. These soils are on flood plains, in development, and sanitary facilities (fig. 5). See the
depressions, and along the shoreline of Dead Lake. detailed map unit descriptions and the interpretative
Some of these soils are mucky from a depth of 16 to tables for more information.
51 inches and are underlain by loamy or sandy Most of the acreage of this map unit supports native
material; some have a loamy surface and a loamy woodland. The rest, which includes drained areas and
subsoil at a depth of 20 to 40 inches; some are minor soils, has been planted to pines.
stratified with loamy and clayey material being
predominantly clayey underlain by loamy material; 11. Brickyard-Wahee-Ochlockonee
some are sandy throughout; and others are
predominantly loamy and stratified with sandy Nearly level, very poorly drained clayey soils that are
material. underlain by loamy material, somewhat poorly drained
clayey soils that are underlain by loamy material, and
10. Croatan-Surrency-Rutlege moderately well drained soils that are predominantly
loamy and are stratified with sandy material
Nearly level, very poorly drained soils that are muck to This map unit is on the flood plains along the
a depth of 16 to 51 inches and are underlain by loamy Apalachicola River on the eastern side of the county.
Apalachicola River on the eastern side of the county.
or sandy material, sandy soils that have a loamy Natural vegetation includes swamp chestnut oak,
subsoil at a depth of 20 to 40 inches, and soils that are mercan scamor, rr r, m n
sand thAmerican sycamore, river birch, American hornbean,
ogeechee tupelo, sweetgum, cypress, hickory, and
This map unit is on flood plains and in depressions scattered areas of longleaf pine and loblolly pine. The
throughout the county and along the shoreline of Dead understory is crossvine, greenbriers, peppervine,
Lake. Natural vegetation includes bay, cypress, and poison ivy, trumpet creeper, and wild grape.
gum trees, scattered areas of longleaf pine, and This map unit makes up 26,943 acres, or about 7
greenbrier. percent of the county. It is about 57 percent Brickyard
This map unit makes up 71,684 acres, or about 19 soils, 21 percent Wahee soils, 7 percent Ochlockonee
percent of the county. It is about 38 percent Croatan soils, and 15 percent soils of minor extent.
soils and the similar Pamlico and Dorovan soils, 25 Typically, Brickyard soils have a surface layer of
percent Surrency soils and the similar Pantego and dark brown clay loam about 6 inches thick. The subsoil
Alapaha soils, 14 percent Rutlege soils and the similar is silty clay. It is grayish brown and has mottles in
Bibb soils, and 23 percent soils of minor extent. shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 15 inches.
Typically, Croatan soils have a surface layer of black It is light brownish gray and has mottles in shades of
muck about 19 inches thick. The substratum is very gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 28 inches. The
dark brown mucky sandy loam to a depth of 42 inches, substratum is gray silty clay that has mottles in shades
dark brown sandy loam to a depth of 47 inches, and of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 80 inches or
light brownish gray sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
more. Typically, Wahee soils have a surface layer of brown
Typically, Surrency soils have a surface layer that is loam about 4 inches thick. The subsoil is light
black mucky sand to a depth of about 5 inches and yellowish brown silty clay that has mottles in shades of






Calhoun County, Florida 15



suited for crops and pasture, have a moderately high very dark grayish brown sand to a depth of 8 inches.
or high potential productivity for slash pine, and have The subsurface layer is grayish brown sand to a depth
slight to severe limitations affecting recreational of 35 inches. The subsoil is grayish brown sandy clay
development, building site development, and sanitary loam that has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and
facilities. See the detailed map unit descriptions and red to a depth of 80 inches or more.
the interpretative tables for more information. Typically, Rutlege soils have a surface layer of black
Most of the acreage of this map unit has been sand about 13 inches thick. The substratum is grayish
planted to pines or supports native woodland.The rest brown sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
is used for pasture or cultivated crops. Of minor extent in this map unit are the Alapaha,
Bibb, Brickyard, Dorovan, Garcon, Kinston, Pansey,
Pamlico, Pantego, Plummer, and Pottsburg soils.
Soils in Depressions and on Flood These minor soils generally are in small areas that are
Plains Along Rivers intermixed with areas of the major soils.
The soils of this map unit are not suited for crops,
The two general soil map units in this group consist pasture, or pine trees and have very severe limitations
of very poorly drained to moderately well drained, affecting recreational development, building site
nearly level soils. These soils are on flood plains, in development, and sanitary facilities (fig. 5). See the
depressions, and along the shoreline of Dead Lake. detailed map unit descriptions and the interpretative
Some of these soils are mucky from a depth of 16 to tables for more information.
51 inches and are underlain by loamy or sandy Most of the acreage of this map unit supports native
material; some have a loamy surface and a loamy woodland. The rest, which includes drained areas and
subsoil at a depth of 20 to 40 inches; some are minor soils, has been planted to pines.
stratified with loamy and clayey material being
predominantly clayey underlain by loamy material; 11. Brickyard-Wahee-Ochlockonee
some are sandy throughout; and others are
predominantly loamy and stratified with sandy Nearly level, very poorly drained clayey soils that are
material. underlain by loamy material, somewhat poorly drained
clayey soils that are underlain by loamy material, and
10. Croatan-Surrency-Rutlege moderately well drained soils that are predominantly
loamy and are stratified with sandy material
Nearly level, very poorly drained soils that are muck to This map unit is on the flood plains along the
a depth of 16 to 51 inches and are underlain by loamy Apalachicola River on the eastern side of the county.
Apalachicola River on the eastern side of the county.
or sandy material, sandy soils that have a loamy Natural vegetation includes swamp chestnut oak,
subsoil at a depth of 20 to 40 inches, and soils that are mercan scamor, rr r, m n
sand thAmerican sycamore, river birch, American hornbean,
ogeechee tupelo, sweetgum, cypress, hickory, and
This map unit is on flood plains and in depressions scattered areas of longleaf pine and loblolly pine. The
throughout the county and along the shoreline of Dead understory is crossvine, greenbriers, peppervine,
Lake. Natural vegetation includes bay, cypress, and poison ivy, trumpet creeper, and wild grape.
gum trees, scattered areas of longleaf pine, and This map unit makes up 26,943 acres, or about 7
greenbrier. percent of the county. It is about 57 percent Brickyard
This map unit makes up 71,684 acres, or about 19 soils, 21 percent Wahee soils, 7 percent Ochlockonee
percent of the county. It is about 38 percent Croatan soils, and 15 percent soils of minor extent.
soils and the similar Pamlico and Dorovan soils, 25 Typically, Brickyard soils have a surface layer of
percent Surrency soils and the similar Pantego and dark brown clay loam about 6 inches thick. The subsoil
Alapaha soils, 14 percent Rutlege soils and the similar is silty clay. It is grayish brown and has mottles in
Bibb soils, and 23 percent soils of minor extent. shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 15 inches.
Typically, Croatan soils have a surface layer of black It is light brownish gray and has mottles in shades of
muck about 19 inches thick. The substratum is very gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 28 inches. The
dark brown mucky sandy loam to a depth of 42 inches, substratum is gray silty clay that has mottles in shades
dark brown sandy loam to a depth of 47 inches, and of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 80 inches or
light brownish gray sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
more. Typically, Wahee soils have a surface layer of brown
Typically, Surrency soils have a surface layer that is loam about 4 inches thick. The subsoil is light
black mucky sand to a depth of about 5 inches and yellowish brown silty clay that has mottles in shades of






Calhoun County, Florida 15



suited for crops and pasture, have a moderately high very dark grayish brown sand to a depth of 8 inches.
or high potential productivity for slash pine, and have The subsurface layer is grayish brown sand to a depth
slight to severe limitations affecting recreational of 35 inches. The subsoil is grayish brown sandy clay
development, building site development, and sanitary loam that has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and
facilities. See the detailed map unit descriptions and red to a depth of 80 inches or more.
the interpretative tables for more information. Typically, Rutlege soils have a surface layer of black
Most of the acreage of this map unit has been sand about 13 inches thick. The substratum is grayish
planted to pines or supports native woodland.The rest brown sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
is used for pasture or cultivated crops. Of minor extent in this map unit are the Alapaha,
Bibb, Brickyard, Dorovan, Garcon, Kinston, Pansey,
Pamlico, Pantego, Plummer, and Pottsburg soils.
Soils in Depressions and on Flood These minor soils generally are in small areas that are
Plains Along Rivers intermixed with areas of the major soils.
The soils of this map unit are not suited for crops,
The two general soil map units in this group consist pasture, or pine trees and have very severe limitations
of very poorly drained to moderately well drained, affecting recreational development, building site
nearly level soils. These soils are on flood plains, in development, and sanitary facilities (fig. 5). See the
depressions, and along the shoreline of Dead Lake. detailed map unit descriptions and the interpretative
Some of these soils are mucky from a depth of 16 to tables for more information.
51 inches and are underlain by loamy or sandy Most of the acreage of this map unit supports native
material; some have a loamy surface and a loamy woodland. The rest, which includes drained areas and
subsoil at a depth of 20 to 40 inches; some are minor soils, has been planted to pines.
stratified with loamy and clayey material being
predominantly clayey underlain by loamy material; 11. Brickyard-Wahee-Ochlockonee
some are sandy throughout; and others are
predominantly loamy and stratified with sandy Nearly level, very poorly drained clayey soils that are
material. underlain by loamy material, somewhat poorly drained
clayey soils that are underlain by loamy material, and
10. Croatan-Surrency-Rutlege moderately well drained soils that are predominantly
loamy and are stratified with sandy material
Nearly level, very poorly drained soils that are muck to This map unit is on the flood plains along the
a depth of 16 to 51 inches and are underlain by loamy Apalachicola River on the eastern side of the county.
Apalachicola River on the eastern side of the county.
or sandy material, sandy soils that have a loamy Natural vegetation includes swamp chestnut oak,
subsoil at a depth of 20 to 40 inches, and soils that are mercan scamor, rr r, m n
sand thAmerican sycamore, river birch, American hornbean,
ogeechee tupelo, sweetgum, cypress, hickory, and
This map unit is on flood plains and in depressions scattered areas of longleaf pine and loblolly pine. The
throughout the county and along the shoreline of Dead understory is crossvine, greenbriers, peppervine,
Lake. Natural vegetation includes bay, cypress, and poison ivy, trumpet creeper, and wild grape.
gum trees, scattered areas of longleaf pine, and This map unit makes up 26,943 acres, or about 7
greenbrier. percent of the county. It is about 57 percent Brickyard
This map unit makes up 71,684 acres, or about 19 soils, 21 percent Wahee soils, 7 percent Ochlockonee
percent of the county. It is about 38 percent Croatan soils, and 15 percent soils of minor extent.
soils and the similar Pamlico and Dorovan soils, 25 Typically, Brickyard soils have a surface layer of
percent Surrency soils and the similar Pantego and dark brown clay loam about 6 inches thick. The subsoil
Alapaha soils, 14 percent Rutlege soils and the similar is silty clay. It is grayish brown and has mottles in
Bibb soils, and 23 percent soils of minor extent. shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 15 inches.
Typically, Croatan soils have a surface layer of black It is light brownish gray and has mottles in shades of
muck about 19 inches thick. The substratum is very gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 28 inches. The
dark brown mucky sandy loam to a depth of 42 inches, substratum is gray silty clay that has mottles in shades
dark brown sandy loam to a depth of 47 inches, and of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 80 inches or
light brownish gray sand to a depth of 80 inches or more.
more. Typically, Wahee soils have a surface layer of brown
Typically, Surrency soils have a surface layer that is loam about 4 inches thick. The subsoil is light
black mucky sand to a depth of about 5 inches and yellowish brown silty clay that has mottles in shades of





16




gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 24 inches; is light Of minor extent in this map unit are the Bibb,
brownish gray silty clay that has mottles in shades of Bladen, Croatan, Dorovan, Dunbar, Duplin, Kinston,
gray, yellow, and red to a depth to 42 inches; and is Pamlico, Pantego, Surrency, and Rutlege soils. These
light gray clay that has mottles in shades of gray, minor soils generally are in small areas that are
yellow, and red to a depth of 80 inches or more. intermixed with areas of the major soils.
Typically, Ochlockonee soils have a surface layer of Most of the acreage of this map unit supports native
very dark grayish brown loam about 4 inches thick. woodland.The rest, which mainly includes minor soils,
The substratum is dark yellowish brown sandy loam has been planted to pines.
that has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a The soils of this map unit are not suited for crops,
depth of 31 inches; is dark yellowish brown loamy pasture, or pine trees and have very severe limitations
sand that has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and affecting recreational development, building site
red to a depth of 61 inches; and is dark brown loam development, and sanitary facilities. See the detailed
that has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a map unit descriptions and the interpretative tables for
depth of 80 inches or more. more information.










































Figure 5.-Flooding in an area of Croatan, Kinston, and Surrency soils, frequently flooded, adjacent to an area of Duplin very fine
sandy loam.






17










Detailed Soil Map Units


The map units delineated on the detailed maps at areas are mentioned in the map unit descriptions. A
the back of this survey represent the soils or few included areas may not have been observed, and
miscellaneous areas in the survey area. The map unit consequently they are not mentioned in the
descriptions in this section, along with the maps, can descriptions, especially where the pattern was so
be used to determine the suitability and potential of a complex that it was impractical to make enough
unit for specific uses. They also can be used to plan observations to identify all the soils and miscellaneous
the management needed for those uses. More areas on the landscape.
information about each map unit, including a The presence of included soils in a map unit in no
description of the ecological communities (USDA- way diminishes the usefulness or accuracy of the data.
SCS, 1985), is given under the heading "Use and The objective of mapping is not to delineate pure
Management of the Soils." taxonomic classes but rather to separate the
A map unit delineation on a map represents an landscape into landforms or landform segments that
area dominated by one or more major kinds of soil have similar use and management requirements. The
or miscellaneous areas. A map unit is identified and delineation of such segments on the map provides
named according to the taxonomic classification of sufficient information for the development of resource
the dominant soils or miscellaneous areas. Within a plans, but if intensive use of small areas is planned,
taxonomic class there are precisely defined limits onsite investigation is needed to define and locate the
for the properties of the soils. On the landscape, soils and miscellaneous areas.
however, the soils and miscellaneous areas are An identifying symbol precedes the map unit name
natural phenomena, and they have the in the map unit descriptions. Each description includes
characteristic variability of all natural phenomena, general facts about the unit and gives the principal
Thus, the range of some observed properties may hazards and limitations to be considered in planning
extend beyond the limits defined for a taxonomic for specific uses.
class. Areas of soils of a single taxonomic class Soils that have profiles that are almost alike make
rarely, if ever, can be mapped without including up a soil series. Except for differences in texture of the
areas of other taxonomic classes. Consequently, surface layer, all the soils of a series have major
every map unit is made up of the soils or horizons that are similar in composition, thickness,
miscellaneous areas for which it is named and and arrangement.
some "included" areas that belong to other Soils of one series can differ in texture of the
taxonomic classes. surface layer, slope, flooding, ponding, degree of
Most included soils have properties similar to those erosion, depth to a seasonal high water table, and
of the dominant soil or soils in the map unit, and thus other characteristics that affect their use. On the basis
they do not affect use and management. These are of such differences, a soil series is divided into soil
called noncontrasting, or similar, soils. They may or phases. Most of the areas shown on the detailed soil
may not be mentioned in the map unit description, maps are phases of soil series. The name of a soil
Other included soils and miscellaneous areas, phase commonly indicates a feature that affects use
however, have properties and behavioral or management. For example, Dothan loamy sand, 2
characteristics divergent enough to affect use or to to 5 percent slopes, is a phase of the Dothan series.
require different management. These are called Some map units are made up of two or more major
contrasting, or dissimilar, soils. They generally are in soils or miscellaneous areas. These map units are
small areas and could not be mapped separately complexes, associations, or undifferentiated groups.
because of the scale used. Some small areas of A complex consists of two or more soils or
strongly contrasting soils or miscellaneous areas are miscellaneous areas in such an intricate pattern or in
identified by a special symbol on the maps. The such small areas that they cannot be shown
included areas of contrasting soils or miscellaneous separately on the maps. The pattern and proportion of






18 Soil Survey



the soils or miscellaneous areas are somewhat similar is variegated in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a
in all areas. Dothan-Fuquay complex, 8 to 12 percent depth of 80 inches or more.
slopes, is an example. In 80 percent of the areas of this map unit, the
An association is made up of two or more Albany soil and similar soils make up 79 to 100
geographically associated soils or miscellaneous percent of the unit. Also included in mapping are small
areas that are shown as one unit on the maps. areas that have 5 percent or more plinthite in the
Because of present or anticipated uses of the map upper part of the subsoil.
units in the survey area, it was not considered Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 21 percent of the
practical or necessary to map the soils or mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include Blanton,
miscellaneous areas separately. The pattern and Chipley, Florala, Foxworth, and Plummer soils. Blanton
relative proportion of the soils or miscellaneous areas soils are moderately well drained, are in slightly higher
are somewhat similar. Dorovan-Pamlico-Rutlege positions than the Albany soil, and have mottles
association, depressional, is an example, related to wetness below a depth of 30 inches. Chipley
An undifferentiated group is made up of two or soils are somewhat poorly drained, are on landforms
more soils or miscellaneous areas that could be similar to those of the Albany soil, and have mottles
mapped individually but are mapped as one unit related to wetness at a depth of 18 to 42 inches.
because similar interpretations can be made for use Foxworth soils are moderately well drained, are in
and management.The pattern and proportion of the slightly higher positions than the Albany soil, are
soils or miscellaneous areas in a mapped area are not sandy throughout, and have mottles related to
uniform. An area can be made up of only one of the wetness below a depth of 42 inches. Florala soils are
major soils or miscellaneous areas, or it can be made somewhat poorly drained, have an argillic horizon
up of all of them. Croatan, Surrency, and Pantego within a depth of 20 inches, are on landforms similar to
soils, depressional, is an undifferentiated group in this those of the Albany soil, and have mottles related to
survey area. wetness within a depth of 30 inches. Plummer soils
This survey includes miscellaneous areas. Such are poorly drained, are on flats and in drainageways,
areas have little or no soil material and support little or and have mottles related to wetness at a depth of 6 to
no vegetation. Pits is an example. 12 inches.
Table 4 gives the acreage and proportionate extent The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 18 to
of each map unit. Other tables give properties of the 42 inches from December through March and from
soils and the limitations, capabilities, and potentials for June through September. The available water capacity
many uses. The Glossary defines many of the terms is very low in the surface and subsurface layers and
used in describing the soils or miscellaneous areas. moderate in the subsoil.
Typically, this map unit supports the Mixed
Hardwood and Pine ecological community, which has
2-Albany loamy sand, 0 to 5 several variations. In mature, natural stands, the
percent slopes hardwoods replace the pines. The natural climax
vegetation is thought to be a beech-magnolia-maple
This somewhat poorly drained soil is on low association. The trees that characterize this
uplands, such as rises and knolls, and on flats in community are loblolly pine, white oak, pignut hickory,
the coastal lowlands and in low upland areas that American beech, and flowering dogwood. The
are depressed relative to the surrounding upland herbaceous plants and vines include aster, partridge
landforms. Areas of this soil are irregular in shape pea, poison ivy, violet, Virginia creeper, and wild grape.
and range from 3 to 350 acres in size. Slopes are Grasses include broomsedge bluestem, longleaf
smooth to convex. uniola, low panicum, and spike uniola.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown This map unit is moderately suited to cultivated
loamy sand about 8 inches thick. Below this is brown crops. Periodic wetness or droughtiness in the root
loamy sand that has mottles in shades of gray to a zone, rapid leaching of plant nutrients, and the hazard
depth of 14 inches, very pale brown loamy sand that of erosion where slopes are more than 2 percent are
has mottles in shades of gray to a depth of 29 inches, management concerns. The number of crops that are
and pale brown loamy sand that has mottles in shades adapted to the local conditions is very limited unless
of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 46 inches. The intensive water-control measures are used. If
transitional subsoil is light yellowish brown loamy sand adequate water-control measures are used, such
that has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a crops as wheat, soybeans, and peanuts are
depth of 61 inches. The subsoil is sandy clay loam that moderately well adapted. Good management






Calhoun County, Florida 19



measures include planting close-growing, soil- Typically, the surface layer is dark brown clay loam
improving crops in rotation with row crops. Fertilizer about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is silty clay. It is
and lime are needed for best results. grayish brown and has mottles in shades of gray,
This map unit is moderately suited to pasture and yellow, and red to a depth of 15 inches and is light
hay. It requires good management for best yields. brownish gray and has mottles in shades of gray,
Improved bermudagrasses and improved yellow, and red to a depth of 28 inches. The
bahiagrasses are well adapted to the local conditions substratum is gray silty clay that has mottles in shades
and respond well to applications of fertilizer and lime. of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 80 inches or
Surface drainage is needed to remove excess water in more.
wet seasons. Controlled grazing is needed to maintain In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, the
vigorous plants and to obtain maximum yields. Brickyard soil and similar soils make up 90 to 100
The potential productivity of this map unit is percent of the unit. The similar soils include Pantego
moderately high for slash pine. The main and Surrency soils. Pantego soils have less clay in the
management concerns are equipment limitations subsoil than the Brickyard soil. Surrency soils have a
and plant competition caused by seasonal wetness subsoil at a depth of 20 to 40 inches.
and seedling mortality caused by low available Dissimilar soils within this map unit make up less
water capacity and low fertility. Site preparation than 10 percent of the mapped areas. The dissimilar
should include removing the larger debris to soils include very poorly drained Kinston soils that are
facilitate mechanical operations and chopping the loamy throughout and are on flood plains and
woody understory vegetation to help control moderately well drained Ochlockonee and somewhat
immediate plant competition. Limiting mechanical poorly drained Wahee soils that are in more elevated
operations to the drier periods can help to positions and have mottles related to drainage within a
overcome the equipment limitations and usually depth of 12 inches. Also included are small areas of
results in less soil compaction and less damage to soils that are sandy throughout.
roots during thinning operations. Prescribed burning The seasonal high water table is at or near the
in established stands can help to control the surface from December through March and from June
competing vegetation and help to maintain ease of through September. Flooding is likely to occur often
access. under usual weather conditions. The chance of
This map unit has severe limitations affecting septic flooding is more than a 50 percent in any year but is
tank absorption fields, sanitary landfills, sewage less than 50 percent in all months in any year. On the
lagoon areas, shallow excavations, dwellings with average, flooding occurs more than 50 times in 100
basements, small commercial buildings, lawns, and years. The average duration of the flooding ranges
landscaping. It has moderate limitations affecting from 7 to more than 30 days. The available water
dwellings without basements and local roads and capacity is moderate or high.
streets. Wetness is the main limitation. Tables 9 and 10 Typically, this map unit supports the Bottomland
contain additional information regarding factors that Hardwoods ecological community, which is extremely
can affect urban development, diverse. Understory growth is profuse where light
This map unit has severe limitations affecting camp enters through the openings in the canopy. Common
areas, playgrounds, and golf fairways. It has moderate trees include tupelo, cypress, sweetbay, red maple,
limitations affecting picnic areas, paths, and trails. The black willow, green ash, river birch, swamp chestnut
sandy surface and wetness are the main limitations, oak, sweetgum, American sycamore, water hickory,
Table 7 contains additional information regarding water oak, and willow oak. Common herbaceous vines
factors that can affect recreational development, include crossvine, greenbrier, peppervine, poison ivy,
The capability subclass is IIIw. trumpet creeper, and wild grape.
This map unit is not suited to cultivated crops, hay,
or pasture because of the flooding and excessive
4-Brickyard clay loam, frequently wetness.
flooded This map unit is not suited to the production of pine
trees because of the flooding and excessive wetness.
This very poorly drained soil is on flood plains along This soil is suited to hardwood production through
the Apalachicola River. Areas of this soil are elongated natural regeneration.
or irregular in shape and range to several thousand This map unit has severe limitations affecting urban
acres in size. Slopes are smooth and range from 0 to and recreational development. Flooding and wetness
2 percent, are the main limitations. Tables 7, 9, and 10 contain






20
20 Soil Survey



additional information regarding factors that can affect system is applied, this soil is suited to such crops as
urban and recreational development, corn and soybeans. Seedbed preparation should
The capability subclass is VIIw. include bedding the rows. Management should include
crop rotations that keep the soil in close-growing cover
crops at least two-thirds of the time. The cover crops
5-Robertsdale fine sandy loam and all other crop residue should be returned to the

This somewhat poorly drained soil is in flat areas soil. Maximum yields require good tilth and nutrient
that are slightly depressed relative to the surrounding management.
upland landforms. Areas of this soil are irregular in This map unit s moderately well suited to pasture
shape and range from 3 to 550 acres in size. Slopes and hay. Such grasses as improved bermudagrasses
are smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2 percent. and improved bahiagrasses are adapted to the local
Typically, the surface layer, to a depth of about 7 conditions. Nutrient management, surface drainage,
inches, is very dark gray fine sandy loam that has iron and controlled grazing are needed to maintain
concretions. The subsoil is sandy clay loam. It is vigorous plants and good cover and to obtain
brown, has iron concretions, and has mottles in maximum yields.
shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 13 The potental productivity of ths map unit is
inches; is yellowish brown, has plinthite, and has moderately high for slash pine. The main management
inches;concerns are equipment limitations, plant competitionbrown, has plinthite, and has
mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of concerns are equipment limitations, plant competition,
and windthrow hazard caused by wetness and a
32 inches; and has plinthite and is variegated in ad tho hazard aused
shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 80 inches shallow dept to horizons that have atexture of sandy
or more. clay loam. Site preparation should include chopping
In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, the the woody understory vegetation to help control the
Robertsdale soil and similar soils make up 100 immediate plant competition caused by wetness.
percent of the unit. The.similar soils include Florala Limiting mechanical operations to the drier periods
and Leefield soils that are in positions similar to those can help to overcome the equipment limitations and
of the Robertsdale soil. Florala soils have less than 18 usually results in less so compaction and less
percent clay in the upper 20 inches of the loamy damage to rotsduring thinning operations.
Prescribed burning in established stands can help to
subsoil. Leefield soils have a loamy subsoil at a depth Prescribed burning in established stands can help to
of 20 to 40 inches. Also included in mapping are soils control the competing vegetation and help to maintain
that are similar to the Robertsdale soil but have less ease of access. Windthrow hazard can be reduced by
intermittently leaving unharvested rows of mature
than 5 percent iron concretions or plinthite or that have intermittently leaving unharvested rows of mature
trees to act as windbreaks.
slopes of 2 to 5 percent. trees to act as windbreaks.
sl s o 5 percent This map unit has severe limitations affecting septic
Dissimilar soils make up less than 5 percent of theabsorption fields, sanitary landfills, shallow
-. tank absorption fields, sanitary landfills, shallow
mapped areas.The dissimilar soils include Dothan and
excavations, dwellings, and small commercial
Pansey soils. Dothan soils are well drained, are in excavations, d lings, and small com cia
higher positions than the Robertsdale soil, and have buildings. It has moderate limitations affecting local
higher positions than the Robertsdale soil, and have r .
roads, streets, lawns, and landscaping. It has slight
mottles related to wetness below a depth of 30 inches. ltatons aetn sew lagoon areas. Wetness
limitations affecting sewage lagoon areas. Wetness
Pansey soils are poorly drained, are in lower positions, percolation are the main limitations. Tables 9
and have mottles related to wetness within a depth of and 0 coan national formation regarding factors
and 10 contain additional information regarding factors
12 inches.
12 inches. that can affect urban development.
The seasonal high water table is perched at a depth a severe limitations affecting camp
of 12 to 18 inches from December through March and pa uns t ae limitations
areas and playgrounds. It has moderate limitations
from June through September. The available water
from June through Septemberhe available water affecting picnic areas, paths, trails, and golf fairways.
capacity is moderate in the surface layer and subsoil. Wetness and slow percolation are the main limitations.
Typically, this map unit supports the North Florida Table 7 contains additional information regarding
Flatwoods ecological community, which has only slight factors that can affect recreational development.
variations in composition. Slash pine and live oak are capability subclass is Iw.
the main trees. Herbaceous plants and shrubs include
blackberry, dogfennel, gallberry, greenbrier, saw
palmetto, and wax-myrtle. Grasses and grasslike 6-Bladen loam, rarely flooded
plants include chalky bluestem, yellow Indiangrass,
low panicum, pineland threeawn, and sedges. This poorly drained soil is on flats adjacent to the
This map unit is poorly suited to cultivated crops flood plains along large streams. Areas of this soil are
because of wetness. If a total water-management irregular or elongated in shape and range from 3 to






20
20 Soil Survey



additional information regarding factors that can affect system is applied, this soil is suited to such crops as
urban and recreational development, corn and soybeans. Seedbed preparation should
The capability subclass is VIIw. include bedding the rows. Management should include
crop rotations that keep the soil in close-growing cover
crops at least two-thirds of the time. The cover crops
5-Robertsdale fine sandy loam and all other crop residue should be returned to the

This somewhat poorly drained soil is in flat areas soil. Maximum yields require good tilth and nutrient
that are slightly depressed relative to the surrounding management.
upland landforms. Areas of this soil are irregular in This map unit s moderately well suited to pasture
shape and range from 3 to 550 acres in size. Slopes and hay. Such grasses as improved bermudagrasses
are smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2 percent. and improved bahiagrasses are adapted to the local
Typically, the surface layer, to a depth of about 7 conditions. Nutrient management, surface drainage,
inches, is very dark gray fine sandy loam that has iron and controlled grazing are needed to maintain
concretions. The subsoil is sandy clay loam. It is vigorous plants and good cover and to obtain
brown, has iron concretions, and has mottles in maximum yields.
shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 13 The potental productivity of ths map unit is
inches; is yellowish brown, has plinthite, and has moderately high for slash pine. The main management
inches;concerns are equipment limitations, plant competitionbrown, has plinthite, and has
mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of concerns are equipment limitations, plant competition,
and windthrow hazard caused by wetness and a
32 inches; and has plinthite and is variegated in ad tho hazard aused
shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 80 inches shallow dept to horizons that have atexture of sandy
or more. clay loam. Site preparation should include chopping
In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, the the woody understory vegetation to help control the
Robertsdale soil and similar soils make up 100 immediate plant competition caused by wetness.
percent of the unit. The.similar soils include Florala Limiting mechanical operations to the drier periods
and Leefield soils that are in positions similar to those can help to overcome the equipment limitations and
of the Robertsdale soil. Florala soils have less than 18 usually results in less so compaction and less
percent clay in the upper 20 inches of the loamy damage to rotsduring thinning operations.
Prescribed burning in established stands can help to
subsoil. Leefield soils have a loamy subsoil at a depth Prescribed burning in established stands can help to
of 20 to 40 inches. Also included in mapping are soils control the competing vegetation and help to maintain
that are similar to the Robertsdale soil but have less ease of access. Windthrow hazard can be reduced by
intermittently leaving unharvested rows of mature
than 5 percent iron concretions or plinthite or that have intermittently leaving unharvested rows of mature
trees to act as windbreaks.
slopes of 2 to 5 percent. trees to act as windbreaks.
sl s o 5 percent This map unit has severe limitations affecting septic
Dissimilar soils make up less than 5 percent of theabsorption fields, sanitary landfills, shallow
-. tank absorption fields, sanitary landfills, shallow
mapped areas.The dissimilar soils include Dothan and
excavations, dwellings, and small commercial
Pansey soils. Dothan soils are well drained, are in excavations, d lings, and small com cia
higher positions than the Robertsdale soil, and have buildings. It has moderate limitations affecting local
higher positions than the Robertsdale soil, and have r .
roads, streets, lawns, and landscaping. It has slight
mottles related to wetness below a depth of 30 inches. ltatons aetn sew lagoon areas. Wetness
limitations affecting sewage lagoon areas. Wetness
Pansey soils are poorly drained, are in lower positions, percolation are the main limitations. Tables 9
and have mottles related to wetness within a depth of and 0 coan national formation regarding factors
and 10 contain additional information regarding factors
12 inches.
12 inches. that can affect urban development.
The seasonal high water table is perched at a depth a severe limitations affecting camp
of 12 to 18 inches from December through March and pa uns t ae limitations
areas and playgrounds. It has moderate limitations
from June through September. The available water
from June through Septemberhe available water affecting picnic areas, paths, trails, and golf fairways.
capacity is moderate in the surface layer and subsoil. Wetness and slow percolation are the main limitations.
Typically, this map unit supports the North Florida Table 7 contains additional information regarding
Flatwoods ecological community, which has only slight factors that can affect recreational development.
variations in composition. Slash pine and live oak are capability subclass is Iw.
the main trees. Herbaceous plants and shrubs include
blackberry, dogfennel, gallberry, greenbrier, saw
palmetto, and wax-myrtle. Grasses and grasslike 6-Bladen loam, rarely flooded
plants include chalky bluestem, yellow Indiangrass,
low panicum, pineland threeawn, and sedges. This poorly drained soil is on flats adjacent to the
This map unit is poorly suited to cultivated crops flood plains along large streams. Areas of this soil are
because of wetness. If a total water-management irregular or elongated in shape and range from 3 to







Calhoun County, Florida 21



100 acres in size. Slopes are smooth to concave and chopping the woody understory vegetation to help
range from 0 to 2 percent. control immediate plant competition and bedding to
Typically, the surface layer is black loam about 7 minimize the seedling mortality caused by wetness.
inches thick. The subsurface layer is gray loam that The installation of shallow surface ditches to remove
has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a excess water during wet periods may also be
depth of 14 inches. The subsoil is gray clay that has necessary. Limiting mechanical operations to the drier
mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of periods can help to overcome the equipment
80 inches or more. limitations and usually results in less soil compaction
In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, the and less damage to roots during thinning operations.
Bladen soil and similar soils make up 100 percent of Prescribed burning in established stands can help to
the unit. The similar soils include Dunbar and Pansey control the competing vegetation and help to maintain
soils. Dunbar soils are better drained than the Bladen ease of access. Windthrow hazard can be reduced by
soil, are in higher positions, and have mottles related intermittently leaving unharvested rows of mature
to wetness within a depth of 1 foot. Pansey soils have trees to act as windbreaks. During harvesting, site
a loamy subsoil. preparation, and road building, care should be taken
Dissimilar soils make up less than 5 percent of the not to impede the flow of the creeks and drainageways
mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include Pantego that remove excess water from the area.
and Surrency soils that are very poorly drained and Excessive wetness and the flooding are severe
are in lower positions than the Bladen soil. These limitations affecting urban and recreational
dissimilar soils have a loamy subsoil, are very poorly development. Tables 7, 9, and 10 contain additional
drained, are on flood plains and in depressions, and information regarding factors that can affect urban and
are subject to ponding. Also, the Surrency soils are recreational development.
frequently flooded. The capability subclass is VIw.
The seasonal high water table is at or near the
surface from December through March and from June
through September. The available water capacity is 7-Blanton sand, 0 to 5 percent
moderate or high throughout. Flooding is unlikely but slopes
possible under unusual weather conditions. The
chance of flooding is 1 to 5 percent in any year. On the This moderately well drained soil is on summits and
average, flooding occurs 1 to 5 times in 100 years. The shoulders in the uplands. Areas of this soil are
average duration of the flooding ranges from 2 to 7 elongated or irregular in shape and range from 3 to
days. 275 acres in size. Slopes are smooth to convex.
Typically, this map unit supports the North Florida Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
Flatwoods ecological community, which has only slight sand about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light
variations in composition. The main trees when the yellowish brown sand to a depth of 40 inches, pale
community has climax vegetation are slash pine and yellow sand to a depth of 60 inches, and pale yellow
live oak. Herbaceous plants and shrubs include loamy sand that has mottles in shades of gray, yellow,
blackberry, dogfennel, gallberry, greenbrier, saw and red to a depth of 68 inches.The subsoil is
palmetto, and wax-myrtle. Grasses and grasslike yellowish brown sandy loam that has mottles in
plants include chalky bluestem, yellow Indiangrass, shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 80 inches
low panicum, pineland threeawn, and sedges. or more.
This map unit is not suited to cultivated crops In 80 percent of the areas of this map unit, the
because of excessive wetness. Blanton soil and similar soils make up 83 to 100
This map unit is moderately suited to pasture and percent of the unit.The similar soils include Albany,
hay. Wetness and a high clay content severely limit Bonifay, Stilson, and Troup soils. Albany soils are more
accessibility. Surface drainage and applications of poorly drained than the Blanton soil, are in lower
fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing should be positions, and have mottles related to wetness at a
controlled so that plants remain vigorous. depth of 12 to 30 inches. Bonifay and Stilson soils
The potential productivity of this map unit is have plinthite. Also, Bonifay soils are better drained
moderately high for slash pine. The main management than the Blanton soil and are in higher positions. Troup
concerns are equipment limitations, seedling mortality, soils are better drained than the Blanton soil, are in
plant competition, and windthrow hazard caused by higher positions, and have mottles related to wetness
wetness and a shallow depth to horizons that have a below a depth of 72 inches.
texture of clay. Site preparation should include Dissimilar soils make up as much as 17 percent of






22 Soil Survey



the mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include Chipley, sewage lagoons, sanitary landfills, shallow
Foxworth, Leefield, and Lakeland soils. Chipley, excavations, lawns, and landscaping. It has moderate
Foxworth, and Lakeland soils are sandy throughout. limitations affecting septic tank absorption fields and
Also, Chipley soils are in lower positions than the dwellings with basements. Wetness, the sandy
Blanton soil and Lakeland soils are in more elevated surface, and seepage are the main limitations. This
positions. Leefield soils have a subsoil within a depth map unit has slight limitations affecting dwellings
of 20 to 40 inches, are somewhat poorly drained, and without basements, small commercial buildings, and
are in lower positions than the Blanton soil. local roads and streets. Tables 9 and 10 contain
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 42 to additional information regarding factors that can affect
72 inches from January through March and from June urban development.
through September. The available water capacity is This map unit has severe limitations affecting
very low or low in the surface and subsurface layers recreational development. The sandy surface is the
and moderate in the subsoil. main limitation. Table 7 contains additional information
Typically, this map unit supports the Mixed regarding factors that can affect recreational
Hardwood and Pine ecological community, which has development.
several variations. In mature, natural stands, the The capability subclass is Ills.
hardwoods replace the pines. The natural climax
vegetation is thought to be a beech-magnolia-maple
association.The trees that characterize this 8-Blanton sand, 5 to 8 percent
community are loblolly pine, white oak, pignut hickory, slopes
American beech, and flowering dogwood. The
herbaceous plants and vines include aster, partridge This moderately well drained soil is on side slopes
pea, poison ivy, violet, Virginia creeper, and wild grape, in the uplands. Areas of this soil are elongated in
Grasses include broomsedge bluestem, longleaf shape and range from 3 to 80 acres in size. Slopes
uniola, low panicum, and spike uniola. are smooth to convex.
This map unit is moderately suited to most Typically, the surface layer is brown sand about 5
cultivated crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of inches thick. The subsurface layer is light yellowish
plant nutrients limit the choice of plants and reduce the brown sand to a depth of 75 inches. The subsoil is
potential yields of those crops that are adapted to the brownish yellow sandy loam that has mottles in
local conditions. Row crops need to be planted on the shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 80 inches
contour in alternating strips with close-growing cover or more.
crops. Crop rotations should include close-growing In 80 percent of the areas of this map unit, the
cover crops. Lime and fertilizer are needed. Irrigation Blanton soil and similar soils make up 80 to 100
of high-value crops is usually feasible where irrigation percent of the unit. The similar soils include Albany,
water is readily available. Bonifay, Stilson, and Troup soils. Albany soils are more
This map unit is moderately well suited to pasture poorly drained than the Blanton soil, are in lower
and hay. Deep-rooted, hybrid bermudagrasses and positions, and have mottles related to wetness at a
bahiagrasses are best adapted to the local conditions, depth of 12 to 30 inches. Bonifay and Stilson soils
but yields are reduced by periodic droughts. Nutrient have plinthite. Also, Bonifay soils are better drained
management and carefully controlled grazing are than the Blanton soil and are in higher positions. Troup
needed to maintain vigorous plants. Regular soils are better drained than the Blanton soil, are in
applications of fertilizer and lime are also needed, higher positions, and have mottles related to wetness
Grazing should be controlled to maintain plant vigor below a depth of 72 inches.
and a good ground cover. Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 20 percent of the
The potential productivity of this map unit is mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include Chipley,
moderately high for slash pine. The main management Foxworth, Leefield, and Lakeland soils. Chipley,
concerns are equipment limitations and seedling Foxworth, and Lakeland soils are sandy throughout.
mortality caused by the sandy surface and seasonal Also, Chipley soils are more poorly drained than the
droughtiness.To facilitate mechanical operations, site Blanton soil and are in lower positions and Lakeland
preparation should include the removal of the larger soils are better drained and are in higher positions.
debris. Planting trees that are adapted to the local Leefield soils have a loamy subsoil at a depth of 20 to
conditions and planting during the wetter months can 40 inches, are more poorly drained than the Blanton
reduce the seedling mortality rate. soil, and are in lower positions.
This map unit has severe limitations affecting The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 42 to






Calhoun County, Florida



72 inches from January through March and from June recreational development. The sandy surface is the
through September. The available water capacity is main limitation. Also, the slope is a limitation affecting
very low or low in the surface and subsurface layers playgrounds. Table 7 contains additional information
and moderate in the subsoil. regarding factors that can affect recreational
Typically, this map unit supports the Mixed development.
Hardwood and Pine ecological community, which has The capability subclass is IVs.
several variations. In mature, natural stands, the
hardwoods replace the pines. The natural climax
vegetation is thought to be a beech-magnolia-maple 10-Bonifay sand, 0 to 5 percent
association.The trees that characterize this slopes
community are loblolly pine, white oak, pignut hickory,
American beech, and flowering dogwood. The This well drained soil is on summits and shoulders
herbaceous plants and vines include aster, partridge in the uplands. Individual areas of this soil are irregular
pea, poison ivy, violet, Virginia creeper, and wild grape. in shape and range from 3 to 100 acres in size. Slopes
Grasses include broomsedge bluestem, longleaf are smooth to convex.
uniola, low panicum, and spike uniola. Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
This map unit is poorly suited to most cultivated brown sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer
crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant is yellowish brown sand to a depth of 52 inches and is
nutrients limit the choice of plants and reduce the yellow loamy sand that has mottles in shades of gray,
potential yields of those crops that are adapted to the yellow, and red to a depth of 64 inches. The subsoil is
local conditions. The control of erosion is also a strong brown sandy loam that has plinthite nodules
management concern. Row crops need to be planted and has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a
on the contour in alternating strips with close-growing depth of 80 inches or more.
cover crops. Crop rotations should include close- In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, the
growing cover crops. Nutrient management helps to Bonifay soil and similar soils make up 100 percent of
maximize yields. Irrigation of high-value crops is the unit. The similar soils include Albany, Blanton,
usually feasible where water is readily available. Fuquay, and Troup soils. Albany and Blanton soils are
This map unit is moderately suited to pasture and more poorly drained than the Bonifay soil and are in
hay. Improved bermudagrasses and improved lower positions. Fuquay soils have a loamy subsoil at a
bahiagrasses are well adapted to the local conditions, depth of 20 to 40 inches and are in positions similar to
but yields are reduced by periodic droughts. Regular those of Bonifay soil. Troup soils do not have plinthite
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. Grazing and have a redder subsoil than that of the Bonifay soil.
should be controlled to maintain plant vigor and a Dissimilar soils make up less than 5 percent of the
good ground cover, mapped areas.
The potential productivity of this map unit is The seasonal high water table is perched at a depth
moderately high for slash pine. The main management of 48 to 72 inches from January through March and
concerns are equipment limitations and seedling from June through September. The available water
mortality caused by the sandy surface and seasonal capacity is very low or low in the surface and
droughtiness. To facilitate mechanical operations, site subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil.
preparation should include the removal of the larger Typically, this map unit supports the Longleaf Pine-
debris. Planting trees that are adapted to the local Turkey Oak Hills ecological community, which has
conditions and planting during the wetter months can several variations. Scattered longleaf pine are the
reduce the seedling mortality rate. overstory in mature, natural stands of trees. Areas
This map unit has severe limitations affecting from which pines have been removed are dominated
sewage lagoon areas, sanitary landfills, shallow by oaks. The trees that characterize this community
excavations, lawns, and landscaping. It has moderate are longleaf pine, turkey oak, blackjack oak, and post
limitations affecting septic tank absorption fields, small oak. Herbaceous plants and vines include aster,
commercial buildings, and dwellings with basements. It blazingstar, brackenfern, butterfly pea, elephantsfoot,
has slight limitations affecting dwellings without grassleaf goldaster, partridge pea, pineland
basements and local roads and streets. Wetness and beggarweed, sandhill milkweed, showy crotalaria, and
the sandy surface are the main limitations. Tables 9 wild indigo. Grasses and grasslike plants include
and 10 contain additional information regarding factors Curtis' dropseed, hairy panicum, yellow Indiangrass,
that can affect urban development, low panicum, and pineywoods dropseed.
This map unit has severe limitations affecting This map unit is poorly suited to cultivated crops.






24 Soil Survey



Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients limit range from 3 to 140 acres in size. Slopes are smooth
the choice of plants and reduce the potential yields of to concave.
those crops that are adapted to the local conditions. Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
Row crops need to be planted on the contour in sand about 7 inches thick. The substratum is sand.
alternating strips with close-growing cover crops. Lime It is brown and has mottles in shades of gray,
and fertilizer are needed. Irrigation of high-value crops yellow, and red to a depth of 21 inches; is brownish
is generally feasible where irrigation water is readily yellow and has mottles in shades of gray, yellow,
available, and red to a depth of 47 inches; is very pale brown
This map unit is moderately suited to pasture and and has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red
hay. Deep-rooted plants, such as improved to a depth of 50 inches; and is white to a depth of
bermudagrasses and improved bahiagrasses, are well 80 inches or more.
adapted to the local conditions. They grow well and In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, the
produce good ground cover if lime and fertilizer are Chipley soil and similar soils make up 100 percent of
applied. Controlled grazing is needed to maintain the unit. The similar soils include Albany and
vigorous plants and to obtain maximum yields. Yields Hurricane soils, which are in positions similar to those
are occasionally reduced by extended, severe of the Chipley soil and have similar drainage. Albany
droughts. soils have a loamy subsoil below a depth of 40 inches.
The potential productivity of this map unit is Hurricane soils have an organic-stained subsoil below
moderately high for slash pine. The main a depth of 50 inches.
management concerns are equipment limitations, Dissimilar soils make up less than 5 percent of the
seedling mortality, and plant competition caused by mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include Foxworth
the sandy surface, low available water capacity, and soils, which are better drained than the Chipley soil,
seasonal wetness. Site preparation should included are in higher positions, and have mottles below a
removing the larger debris to facilitate mechanical depth of 42 inches.
operations and chopping the woody understory The seasonal high water table is within a depth of
vegetation to help control immediate plant 18 to 42 inches from December through March and
competition. Planting trees that are adapted to the from June through September. The available water
local conditions and planting during the wetter capacity is low in the surface layer and low or very low
months can reduce the seedling mortality rate. in the substratum.
The sandy surface, seepage, and cutbanks caving Typically, this map unit supports the Longleaf
are severe limitations affecting sewage lagoons, Pine-Turkey Oak Hills ecological community, which
sanitary landfills, shallow excavations, lawns, and has several variations. Scattered longleaf pine are
landscaping.Wetness and moderate percolation in the the overstory in mature, natural stands of trees.
subsoil are moderate limitations affecting septic tank Areas from which pines have been removed are
absorption fields and dwellings with basements. This dominated by oaks. The trees that characterize this
map unit has slight limitations affecting dwellings community are longleaf pine, turkey oak, blackjack
without basements, small commercial buildings, and oak, and post oak. Herbaceous plants and vines
local roads and streets. Tables 9 and 10 contain include aster, blazingstar, brackenfern, butterfly
additional information regarding factors that can affect pea, elephantsfoot, grassleaf goldaster, partridge
urban development, pea, pineland beggarweed, sandhill milkweed,
The sandy surface layer is a severe limitation showy crotalaria, and wild indigo. Grasses and
affecting recreational development. Table 7 contains grasslike plants include Curtis' dropseed, hairy
additional information regarding factors that can affect panicum, yellow Indiangrass, low panicum, and
recreational development, pineywoods dropseed.
The capability subclass is Ills. This map unit is moderately well suited to
cultivated crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of
plant nutrients limit the choice of plants and reduce
12-Chipley sand, 0 to 5 percent the potential yields of those crops that are adapted
slopes to the local conditions. The seasonal high water
table increases the availability of water in the root
This somewhat poorly drained soil is in flat areas zone by providing water through capillary rise,
that are depressed relative to the surrounding upland helping to offset the very low available water
landforms and on rises and knolls in the coastal capacity. In very dry seasons, the water table drops
lowlands. Areas of this soil are irregular in shape and well below the root zone and little capillary water is






Calhoun County, Florida 25



available to plants. Row crops should be planted on 14-Chipola loamy sand, 0 to 5
the contour in alternating strips with close-growing prnt sp v rar
cover crops. Lime and fertilizer should be applied to percent slopes, very rarely
all crops. Soil-improving cover crops and crop flooded
residues should be left on the land. Irrigation of
high-value crops is usually feasible where irrigation This well drained soil is on broad stream terraces in
water is readily available. Tile or other kinds of the uplands. Areas of this soil are elongated or
drains are needed for some crops that are damaged irregular in shape and range from 10 to 250 acres in
by a high water table during the growing season, size. Slopes are smooth to convex.
Intensive management of soil fertility and water is Typically, the surface layer is yellowish brown loamy
required for maximum crop production. sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is light
This map unit is moderately well suited to pasture yellowish brown loamy sand to a depth of 22 inches.
and hay. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of nutrients The subsoil is yellowish red sandy loam to a depth of
are the major management concerns. Intensive 34 inches, yellowish red sandy clay loam to a depth of
management of soil fertility and water is required to 41 inches, and yellowish red sandy loam to a depth of
fully utilize this soil for pasture and hay. Such plants as 58 inches. The substratum is yellowish red sand to a
improved bermudagrasses and improved depth of 80 inches or more.
bahiagrasses are well adapted to the local conditions. In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, the
They require applications of fertilizer and lime. Chipola soil and similar soils make up 100 percent of
Controlled grazing is needed to maintain vigorous the unit. The similar soils include Kenansville, Lucy,
plants and to obtain maximum yields, and Troup soils. Kenansville soils have a yellow
The potential productivity of this map unit is subsoil. Lucy and Troup soils have a loamy subsoil to a
moderately high for slash pine. The main depth of 60 inches or more. The loamy subsoil in the
management concerns are equipment limitations, Troup soils begins below a depth of 40 inches. Also
seedling mortality, and plant competition caused by included in mapping are soils that are similar to the
the sandy surface, low available water capacity, and Chipola soil but have A and E horizons with a
seasonal wetness. Site preparation should include combined thickness of less than 20 inches. A few
removing the larger debris to facilitate mechanical areas have slopes of 5 to 8 percent.
operations and chopping the woody understory Dissimilar soils make up less than 5 percent of the
vegetation to help control immediate plant mapped areas.
competition. Planting trees that are adapted to the This map unit does not have a seasonal high water
local conditions and planting during the wetter table within a depth of 72 inches. The available water
months can reduce the seedling mortality rate. capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers,
Prescribed burning in established stands can help moderate in the subsoil, and very low in the substratum.
to control the competing vegetation and help to Flooding is very unlikely but possible under extremely
maintain ease of access. unusual weather conditions. The chance of flooding is
This map unit has severe limitations affecting less than 1 percent in any year. On the average,
septic tank absorption fields, sanitary landfills, flooding occurs less than 1 time in 100 years but more
sewage lagoon areas, shallow excavations, than 1 time in 500 years. The average duration of the
dwellings with basements, lawns, and landscaping. flooding ranges from 2 to 7 days.
Wetness and seepage are the main limitations Typically, this map unit supports the Mixed
affecting these uses. This map unit has moderate Hardwood and Pine ecological community, which has
limitations affecting dwellings without basements, several variations. In mature, natural stands, the
small commercial buildings, and local roads and hardwoods replace the pines. The natural climax
streets. Wetness is the main limitation affecting vegetation is thought to be a beech-magnolia-maple
these uses. Tables 9 and 10 contain additional association. The trees that characterize this
information regarding factors that can affect urban community are loblolly pine, white oak, pignut hickory,
development. American beech, and flowering dogwood. The
This map unit has severe limitations affecting herbaceous plants and vines include aster, partridge
recreational development. The sandy surface is the pea, poison ivy, violet, Virginia creeper, and wild grape.
main limitation. Table 7 contains additional information Grasses include broomsedge bluestem, longleaf
regarding factors that can affect recreational uniola, low panicum, and spike uniola.
development. This map unit is well suited to cultivated crops. It
The capability subclass is Ills. can be cultivated using ordinary, good farming






26 Soil Survey



methods. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
nutrients, however, limit the choice of crops and the loamy sand about 8 inches thick. The subsoil is
potential yields. If good management is used, such brownish yellow fine sandy loam that has mottles in
crops as corn, soybeans, peanuts, and cotton can be shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 25
grown. Nutrient management helps to maximize yields. inches; is brownish yellow sandy loam that has
Row crops should be planted on the contour in plinthite and has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and
alternating strips with cover crops. Where water is red to a depth of 43 inches; is mixed light gray and
readily available, irrigation of some high-value crops is yellowish brown sandy clay loam that has plinthite and
usually feasible. has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a
This map unit is well suited to pasture and hay. depth of 67 inches; and is sandy clay that is
Deep-rooted plants, such as improved variegated in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a
bermudagrasses and improved bahiagrasses, grow depth of 80 inches or more.
well.Yields are good if fertilizer and lime are applied. In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, the
Controlled grazing is essential to maintain vigorous Florala soil and similar soils make up 100 percent of
plants and good cover and to obtain maximum yields. the unit. The similar soils include Leefield and
The potential productivity of this map unit is Robertsdale soils. Leefield soils have a loamy subsoil
moderate for slash pine. The main management at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. Robertsdale soils have
concerns are equipment limitations, seedling mortality, more than 18 percent clay in the loamy subsoil. Also
and plant competition caused by the sandy surface, included in mapping are soils that are similar to the
low available water capacity, and seasonal wetness. Florala soil but have 18 to 35 percent clay in the
Site preparation should include removing the larger argillic horizon, do not contain plinthite, or both.
debris to facilitate mechanical operations and Dissimilar soils make up less than 5 percent of the
chopping the woody understory vegetation to help mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include Alapaha,
control immediate plant competition. Planting trees Dothan, Fuquay, Pansey, and Stilson soils. Alapaha
that are adapted to the local conditions and planting and Pansey soils are more poorly drained than the
during the wetter months can reduce the seedling Florala soil, are in lower positions, and have mottles
mortality rate. Prescribed burning in established related to wetness within a depth of 1 foot. Dothan
stands can help to control the competing vegetation soils are better drained than the Florala soil, are in
and help to maintain ease of access. higher positions, and have mottles related to wetness
This map unit has severe limitations affecting septic below a depth of 30 inches. Fuquay and Stilson soils
tank absorption fields, sewage lagoons, sanitary have a subsoil at depth of 20 to 40 inches and are in
landfills, shallow excavations, and dwellings. The main positions that are similar to those of Florala soil or
limitations are seepage and flooding. The flooding and higher.
droughtiness are moderate limitations affecting local The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 18 to
roads and streets, lawns, and landscaping. Tables 9 30 inches from December through March and from
and 10 contain additional information regarding factors June through September. The available water capacity
that can affect urban development, is low in the surface layer and moderate or high in the
This map unit has severe limitations affecting camp subsoil.
areas. The flooding is the main limitation. The sandy Typically, this map unit supports the Mixed
surface, the slope, and droughtiness are moderate Hardwood and Pine ecological community, which has
limitations affecting picnic areas, playgrounds, paths, several variations. In mature, natural stands, the
trails, and golf fairways. Table 7 contains additional hardwoods replace the pines. The natural climax
information regarding factors that can affect vegetation is thought to be a beech-magnolia-maple
recreational development, association. The trees that characterize this
The capability subclass is Ils. community are loblolly pine, white oak, pignut hickory,
American beech, and flowering dogwood. The
herbaceous plants and vines include aster, partridge
17-Florala loamy sand, 0 to 2 pea, poison ivy, violet, Virginia creeper, and wild grape.
percent slopes Grasses include broomsedge bluestem, longleaf
uniola, low panicum, and spike uniola.
This somewhat poorly drained soil is on toeslopes This map unit is moderately well suited to cultivated
in the uplands. Areas of this soil are irregular in shape crops (fig. 6).The variety of crops that are adapted to
and range from 3 to 60 acres in size. Slopes are the local conditions is somewhat limited because of
smooth to concave, the occasional wetness. Simple ditching to remove






Calhoun County, Florida 27





























Figure 6.-Cotton production in an area of Florala loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes. An inclusion of wetter soils is in the
background. The included soils are ponded briefly after periods of heavy rain.


excess surface water during rains is needed for most dwellings without basements, small commercial
crops. Crop rotations need to include cover crops. buildings, local roads and streets, lawns, and
Crop residue and the cover crops need to be left on landscaping. Wetness is the main limitation. Tables 9
the land to help control erosion. Conservation tillage and 10 contain additional information regarding factors
helps conserve moisture and control erosion. Good that can affect urban development.
seedbed preparation and applications of fertilizer and This map unit has moderate limitations affecting
lime are needed for maximum yields. recreational development. Wetness and slow
This map unit is well suited to pasture and hay. percolation are the main limitations affecting this use.
Clovers, tall fescue, improved bermudagrasses, and Table 7 contains additional information regarding
improved bahiagrasses are well adapted to the local factors that can affect recreational development.
conditions and grow well if properly managed. The capability subclass is Ilw.
Applications of fertilizer and lime and controlled
grazing are needed to maintain vigorous plants and to
obtain highest yields. 18-Florala loamy sand, 2 to 5
The potential productivity of this map unit is percent slopes
moderately high for slash pine. The main management
concern is plant competition causes by seasonal This somewhat poorly drained soil is on
wetness. Site preparation should include chopping the shoulders in the uplands. Areas of this soil are
woody understory vegetation to help control irregular in shape and range from 3 to 45 acres in
immediate plant competition. Prescribed burning in size. Slopes are mostly smooth to convex but are
established stands can help to control the competing concave in places.
vegetation and help to maintain ease of access. Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray
This map unit has severe limitations affecting septic loamy sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface
tank absorption fields, sanitary landfills, shallow layer is brown loamy sand to a depth of 11 inches.
excavations, and dwellings with basements. It has The subsoil is sandy loam. It is brownish yellow and
moderate limitations affecting sewage lagoon areas, has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a






28 Soil Survey



depth of 25 inches; is light yellowish brown, has row crops with cover crops, leaving crop residues and
plinthite, and has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, soil-improving cover crops on the ground, and using
and red to a depth of 45 inches; and is variegated in conservation tillage help to conserve moisture and
shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 80 control erosion. Good seedbed preparation and
inches or more. applications of fertilizer and lime are needed for
In 90 percent of the areas of this map unit, the maximum yields.
Florala soil and similar soils make up 75 to 100 This map unit is well suited to pasture and hay.
percent of the unit. The similar soils include Leefield Clovers, tall fescue, improved bermudagrasses, and
and Robertsdale soils. Leefield soils have a loamy improved bahiagrasses are well adapted to the local
subsoil at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. Robertsdale soils conditions and grow well if properly managed.
have more than 18 percent clay in the loamy subsoil. Applications of fertilizer and lime and controlled
Also included in mapping are soils that are similar to grazing are needed to maintain vigorous plants and a
the Florala soil but have 18 to 35 percent clay in the good ground cover and to obtain highest yields.
argillic horizon, do not contain plinthite, or have slopes The potential productivity of this map unit is
of 5 to 8 percent, moderately high for slash pine. The main management
Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 25 percent of the concern is plant competition caused by seasonal
mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include Alapaha, wetness. Site preparation should include chopping the
Dothan, Fuquay, Pansey, and Stilson soils. Alapaha woody understory vegetation to help control
and Pansey soils are poorly drained, are in lower immediate plant competition. Prescribed burning in
positions than the Florala soil, and have mottles established stands can help to control the competing
Related to wetness within a depth of 1 foot. Dothan vegetation and help to maintain ease of access.
soils are better drained than the Florala soil, are in This map unit has severe limitations affecting
higher positions, and have mottles related to septic tank absorption fields, sanitary landfills,
wetness below a depth of 30 inches. Fuquay and shallow excavations, and dwellings with basements.
Stilson soils have a subsoil at depth of 20 to 40 It has moderate limitations affecting dwellings
inches or are in higher positions than the Florala without basements, local roads and streets, lawns,
soil. Fuquay soils have mottles related to wetness landscaping, sewage lagoons areas, and small
below a depth of 40 inches. Stilson soils have commercial buildings. Wetness is the main
mottles related to wetness at a depth of 30 to 40 limitation. Tables 9 and 10 contain additional
inches, at 5 to 14 inches below the top of the loamy information regarding factors that can affect urban
subsoil, or both. development.
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 18 to This map unit has moderate limitations affecting
30 inches from December through March and from recreational development. Wetness and slow
June through September. The available water capacity percolation are the main limitations. Table 7 contains
is low in the surface layer and moderate or high in the additional information regarding factors that can affect
subsoil. recreational development.
Typically, this map unit supports the Mixed The capability subclass is lie.
Hardwood and Pine ecological community, which has
several variations. In mature, natural stands, the
hardwoods replace the pines. The natural climax 20-Dorovan-Pamlico-Rutlege
vegetation is thought to be a beech-magnolia-maple association, depressional
association. The trees that characterize this
community are loblolly pine, white oak, pignut hickory, These very poorly drained soils are in depressions.
American beech, and flowering dogwood. The Dorovan and Pamlico soils are moderately permeable,
herbaceous plants and vines include aster, partridge organic, and underlain by sandy sediments. Rutlege
pea, poison ivy, violet, Virginia creeper, and wild grape. soils are rapidly permeable and are sandy throughout.
Grasses include broomsedge bluestem, longleaf Areas of this map unit are irregular in shape and range
uniola, low panicum, and spike uniola. from 5 to 850 acres in size. Slopes are less than 2
This map unit is moderately well suited to cultivated percent.
crops. The hazard of erosion is the main management In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, the
concern.The variety of crops that are adapted to the Dorovan, Pamlico, Rutlege, and similar soils make
local conditions is somewhat limited because of up 100 percent of the unit. Each of the soils is not
wetness. Installing terraces that have stabilized necessarily present in every mapped area, and the
outlets, planting on the contour, alternating strips of relative proportion of each soil varies. Although the






Calhoun County, Florida 29



areas of each individual soil are generally large 21-Dothan sandy loam, 0 to 2
enough to be mapped separately, they were percent slopes
mapped as one unit because of present and perc t
predicted use.
Dissimilar soils make up less than 5 percent of the This well drained soil is on summits in the
mapped areas. uplands. Areas of this soil are irregular in shape
Typically, the Dorovan soil is black muck to a depth and range from 3 to 850 acres in size. Slopes are
of 80 inches or more. smooth to concave.
In areas of the Dorovan soil, the seasonal high Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish
water table is at or above the surface during most of brown sandy loam that has ironstone pebbles and is
the year. The available water capacity is very high. about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is sandy clay loam. It
Typically, the surface layer of the Pamlico soil is is yellowish brown, has ironstone pebbles, and has
dark reddish brown and black muck about 31 inches mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of
thick. The substratum is light brownish gray sand to a 25 inches; is yellowish brown, has plinthite, and has
depth of 80 inches or more. mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of
In areas of the Pamlico soil, the seasonal high 45 inches; is brownish yellow, has plinthite, and has
water table is at or above the surface during most of mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of
the year. The available water capacity is very high. 65 inches; and is variegated in shades of gray, yellow,
Typically, the surface layer of the Rutlege soil is and red to a depth of 80 inches.
black sand about 13 inches thick. The substratum is In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, the
grayish brown sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. Dothan soil and similar soils make up 100 percent of
In areas of the Rutlege soil, the seasonal high water the unit. The similar soils include Fuquay and
table is at or above the surface from December Orangeburg soils. Fuquay soils have a loamy subsoil
through March and from June through September. The at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. Orangeburg soils have a
available water capacity is low. redder subsoil than that of the Dothan soil. Also
Included in mapping are Surrency soils and small included are small areas of soils that have 5 percent or
areas of very poorly drained soils that have a dark, more plinthite above a depth of 24 inches or that have
sandy surface layer that is more than 24 inches thick, less than 18 percent clay in the upper part of the
have an organic surface layer that is less than 16 argillic horizon.
inches thick, or are stratified. Also included in mapping Dissimilar soils make up less than 5 percent of the
are small areas of the poorly drained Plummer and mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include Florala
Pottsburg soils. soils that are more poorly drained than the Dothan
Typically, this map unit supports the Shrub Bogs- soil, are in lower positions, and have mottles related to
Bay Swamps ecological community. The natural wetness within a depth of 30 inches.
vegetation of this community is dominated by The seasonal high water table is perched at a depth
evergreen shrubs and trees, including buckwheat of 30 to 60 inches from December through March and
tree, loblolly bay, redbay, sweetbay, swamp cyrilla from June through September.The available water
(titi), and large gallberry. Scattered slash pine, pond capacity is low or moderate in the surface layer and
pine, and cypress form a very open canopy over the moderate in the subsoil.
shrub bogs. Typically, this map unit supports the Mixed
This map unit is not suited to cultivated crops, Hardwood and Pine ecological community, which has
pasture, or hay because of excessive wetness and several variations. In mature, natural stands, the
ponding. hardwoods replace the pines. The natural climax
This map unit is not suited to the production of pine vegetation is thought to be a beech-magnolia-maple
trees because of excessive wetness and ponding. It is association. The trees that characterize this
suited to hardwood production through natural community are loblolly pine, white oak, pignut hickory,
regeneration. Hardwoods, cypress, and Atlantic white American beech, and flowering dogwood. The
cedar grow well. herbaceous plants and vines include aster, partridge
Excessive wetness, ponding, and subsidence are pea, poison ivy, violet, Virginia creeper, and wild grape.
severe limitations affecting urban and recreational Grasses include broomsedge bluestem, longleaf
development. Tables 7, 9, and 10 contain additional uniola, low panicum, and spike uniola.
information regarding factors that can affect urban and This map unit is very well suited to cultivated crops.
recreational development. The variety of well adapted crops, however, is limited
The capability subclass is Vllw. because of a slightly restricted root zone and slight






30 Soil Survey



wetness. Good management practices include crop red to a depth of 48 inches; and is yellowish brown,
rotations that provide cover crops at least half the time. has plinthite, and has mottles in shades of gray, yellow,
Crop residues and soil-improving cover crops should and red to a depth of 80 inches or more.
be left on the land. Good seedbed preparation and In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, the
applications of fertilizer and lime are needed for Dothan soil and similar soils make up 100 percent of
maximum yields. the unit. The similar soils include Fuquay and
This map unit is well suited to pasture and hay. Tall Orangeburg soils. Fuquay soils have a loamy subsoil
fescue, clovers, improved bermudagrasses, and at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. Orangeburg soils have a
improved bahiagrasses are well adapted to the local redder subsoil than that of the Dothan soil. Also
conditions. They grow well if properly managed, and included in mapping are small areas that have 5
they respond well to applications of fertilizer and lime. percent or more plinthite above a depth of 24 inches,
Grazing should be controlled to maintain vigorous that have less than 18 percent clay in the upper part of
plants and a good ground cover, the argillic horizon, or that have an eroded surface.
The potential productivity of this map unit is Dissimilar soils make up less than 5 percent of the
moderately high for slash pine. The main management mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include Florala
concern is plant competition caused by seasonal soils that are more poorly drained than the Dothan
wetness. Site preparation should include chopping the soil, are in lower positions, and have mottles related to
woody understory vegetation to help control wetness within a depth of 30 inches.
immediate plant competition. Prescribed burning in The seasonal high water table is perched at a depth
established stands can help to control the competing 30 to 60 inches from December through March and
vegetation and help to maintain ease of access. from June through September.The available water
This map unit has severe limitations affecting septic capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers
tank absorption fields. It has moderate limitations and moderate in the subsoil.
affecting trench sanitary landfills, sewage lagoons, Typically, this map unit supports the Mixed
shallow excavations, dwellings with basements, lawns, Hardwood and Pine ecological community, which has
and landscaping. Wetness and slow percolation are several variations. In mature, natural stands, the
the main limitations affecting these uses. This map unit hardwoods replace the pines. The natural climax
has slight limitations affecting area sanitary landfills, vegetation is thought to be a beech-magnolia-maple
dwellings without basements, small commercial association. The trees that characterize this
buildings, and local roads and streets. Tables 9 and 10 community are loblolly pine, white oak, pignut hickory,
contain additional information regarding factors that American beech, and flowering dogwood. The
can affect urban development. herbaceous plants and vines include aster, partridge
This map unit has slight limitations affecting paths, pea, poison ivy, violet, Virginia creeper, and wild grape.
trails, and golf fairways. It has moderate limitations Grasses include broomsedge bluestem, longleaf
affecting camp areas, picnic areas, and playgrounds.- uniola, low panicum, and spike uniola.
Table 7 contains additional information regarding This map unit is well suited to cultivated crops. The
factors that can affect these uses. hazard of erosion is the main management concern.
The capability subclass is I. The variety of crops that are well adapted to the local
conditions is limited because of a slightly restricted
root zone and slight wetness. Good management
22-Dothan loamy sand, 2 to 5 practices include installing terraces that have
percent slopes stabilized outlets, planting on the contour, alternating
row crops with strips of cover crops, including cover
This well drained soil is on summits and shoulders crops in the rotation, and leaving crop residue and
in the uplands. Areas of this soil are irregular in shape soil-improving cover crops on the soil. Good seedbed
and range from 3 to 50 acres in size. Slopes are preparation and applications of fertilizer and lime are
smooth to convex, needed for maximum yields.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown This map unit is well suited to pasture and hay. Tall
loamy sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer fescue, clovers, improved bermudagrasses, and
is brown loamy sand to a depth of 11 inches. The improved bahiagrasses are well adapted to the local
subsoil is sandy clay loam. It is yellowish brown and conditions.These plants grow well if properly
has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a managed, and they respond well to applications of
depth of 42 inches; is yellowish brown and brownish fertilizer and lime. Grazing should be controlled to
yellow and has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and maintain vigorous plants and a good ground cover.






Calhoun County, Florida 31



The potential productivity of this map unit is mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include Lucy,
moderately high for slash pine. The main management Robertsdale, and Stilson soils. Lucy and Stilson soils
concern is plant competition caused by seasonal have a subsoil at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. Also, the
wetness. Site preparation should include chopping the Stilson soils are more poorly drained than the Dothan
woody understory vegetation to help control soil, are in lower positions, and have mottles related to
immediate plant competition. Prescribed burning in wetness at a depth of 30 to 40 inches and/or at 5 to 14
established stands can help to control the competing inches below the top of the loamy subsoil. Robertsdale
vegetation and help to maintain ease of access. soils are somewhat poorly drained, are in lower
This map unit has severe limitations affecting septic positions than the Dothan soil, and have mottles
tank absorption fields. It has moderate limitations related to wetness below a depth of 30 inches.
affecting sewage lagoons areas, trench sanitary The seasonal high water table is perched at a depth
landfills, shallow excavations, dwellings with of 30 to 60 inches from December through March and
basements, lawns, and landscaping. Wetness and from June through September. The available water
slow percolation are the main limitations. This map unit capacity is low in the surface layer and moderate or
has slight limitations affecting area sanitary landfills, low in the subsoil.
dwellings without basements, small commercial Typically, this map unit supports the Mixed
buildings, and local roads and streets. Tables 9 and 10 Hardwood and Pine ecological community, which has
contain additional information regarding factors that several variations. In mature, natural stands, the
can affect urban development, hardwoods replace the pines. The natural climax
Slow percolation and droughtiness are moderate vegetation is thought to be a beech-magnolia-maple
limitations affecting camp areas, picnic areas, association.The trees that characterize this
playgrounds, and golf fairways.This map unit has community are loblolly pine, white oak, pignut hickory,
slight limitations affecting paths and trails.Table 7 American beech, and flowering dogwood. The
contains additional information regarding factors that herbaceous plants and vines include aster, partridge
can affect recreational development, pea, poison ivy, violet, Virginia creeper, and wild grape.
The capability subclass is lie. Grasses include broomsedge bluestem, longleaf
uniola, low panicum, and spike uniola.
This map unit is moderately well suited to cultivated
23-Dothan loamy sand, 5 to 8 crops. The hazard of erosion is a management
percent slopes concern. The variety of crops that are adapted to the
local conditions is somewhat limited because of
This well drained soil is on side slopes in the occasional wetness. Intensive erosion-control
uplands. Areas of this soil are irregular or elongated in measures are needed. Such measures include
shape and range from 3 to 25 acres in size. Slopes installing carefully designed terraces that have
are smooth to convex. stabilized outlets, planting on the contour, growing row
Typically, the surface layer is brown loamy sand crops in alternating strips with close-growing cover
about 5 inches thick. The subsoil is yellowish brown crops, and including close-growing cover crops in the
sandy loam to a depth of 12 inches; is yellowish brown rotation. All crop residues should be left on the land.
sandy clay loam that has mottles in shades of gray, Tile drains or open drains are needed to intercept
yellow, and red to a depth of 35 inches; and is sandy seepage water from high areas. Good seedbed
clay loam that has plinthite and is variegated in shades preparation and applications of fertilizer and lime are
of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 80 inches or needed for maximum yields.
more. This map unit is moderately well suited to pasture
In 80 percent of the areas of this map unit, the and hay. The main management concerns are the
Dothan soil and similar soils make up 83 to 100 establishment of the pasture and the hazard of
percent of the unit. The similar soils include Fuquay erosion. Improved bermudagrasses and improved
and Orangeburg soils. Fuquay soils have a loamy bahiagrasses are well adapted to the local conditions.
subsoil at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. Orangeburg soils These grasses produce moderate yields if fertilizer
have a redder subsoil than that of the Dothan soil. Also and lime are applied. Grazing should be controlled to
included in mapping are small areas of soils that have maintain vigorous plants and a good ground cover. An
5 percent or more plinthite above a depth of 24 inches, established and well-maintained pasture or the
that have less than 18 percent clay in the upper part of production of hay are excellent uses for this soil.
the argillic horizon, or that have an eroded surface. The potential productivity of this map unit is
Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 17 percent of the moderately high for slash pine. The main management






32 Soil Survey



concern is plant competition caused by seasonal indicators within a depth of 12 inches. Duplin soils are
wetness. Site preparation should include chopping the better drained than the Dunbar soil, are in higher
woody understory vegetation to help control positions, and have mottles related to wetness at a
immediate plant competition. Prescribed burning in depth of 18 to 36 inches.
established stands can help to control the competing The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 12 to
vegetation and help to maintain ease of access. 18 inches from December through March and from
This map unit has severe limitations affecting septic June through September. The available water capacity
tank absorption fields. It has moderate limitations is moderate in the surface layer and high in the
affecting trench sanitary landfills, sewage lagoons subsoil. Flooding is unlikely but possible under unusual
areas, small commercial buildings, shallow weather conditions. The chance of flooding is 1 to 5
excavations, dwellings with basements, lawns, and percent in any year. On the average, flooding occurs 1
landscaping. Wetness, slow percolation, and the slope to 5 times in 100 years. The average duration of the
are the main limitations. This map unit has slight flooding ranges from 2 to 7 days.
limitations affecting area sanitary landfills, dwellings Typically, this map unit supports the Mixed
without basements, and local roads and streets. Tables Hardwood and Pine ecological community, which has
9 and 10 contain additional information regarding several variations. In mature, natural stands, the
factors that can affect urban development, hardwoods replace the pines. The natural climax
The slope is a severe limitation affecting vegetation is thought to be a beech-magnolia-maple
playgrounds. This map unit has slight limitations association.The trees that characterize this
affecting camp areas, picnic areas, paths, and trails. community are loblolly pine, white oak, pignut hickory,
Table 7 contains additional information regarding American beech, and flowering dogwood. The
factors that can affect recreational development. herbaceous plants and vines include aster, partridge
The capability subclass is Ille. pea, poison ivy, violet, Virginia creeper, and wild grape.
Grasses include broomsedge bluestem, longleaf
uniola, low panicum, and spike uniola.
24-Dunbar fine sandy loam, rarely These soils are moderately well suited to cultivated
flooded crops. The main management concern is wetness.
These soils are well suited to some cultivated crops.
This somewhat poorly drained soil is on flats in The variety of crops, however, is limited by the
interstream divides adjacent to flood plains along large presence of a water table near the surface. Simple
streams and flood plains in the uplands. Areas of this ditching to remove excess surface water is needed for
soil are irregular or elongated in shape and range from most crops. Including a close-growing crop in the
3 to 100 acres in size. Slopes are smooth to convex rotation is a good management practice. Good
and range from 0 to 2 percent. seedbed preparation, bedded rows, and applications
Typically, the surface layer is black fine sandy loam of fertilizer and lime are needed for high yields.
about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is light olive brown This map unit is well suited to pasture and hay.
clay loam that has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, Such grasses as improved bermudagrasses and
and red to a depth of 14 inches; is light gray clay that improved bahiagrasses are adapted to the local
has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a conditions. White clover and other legumes are
depth of depth of 36 inches; and is gray clay that has moderately well adapted. Applications of fertilizer and
mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of lime at regular intervals and carefully controlled
80 inches or more. grazing are needed to maintain vigorous plants and
In 80 percent of the areas of this map unit, the good cover and to obtain maximum yields.
Dunbar soil and similar soils make up 85 to 100 The potential productivity of this map unit is
percent of the unit. The similar soils include moderately high for slash pine. The main management
Robertsdale soils that have less clay in the subsoil concerns are equipment limitations, seedling mortality,
than the Dunbar soil. Also included are soils that have and plant competition caused by the shallow depth to
a thinner subsoil than the Dunbar soil, are more than heavy textured material and by seasonal wetness.
30 percent silt, or have slopes of 2 to 5 percent. Limiting mechanical operations to the drier periods
Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 15 percent of the can help to overcome the equipment limitations and
mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include Bladen, usually results in less soil compaction and less
Duplin, Pantego, and Surrency soils. Bladen, Pantego, damage to roots during thinning operations. Site
and Surrency soils are more poorly drained than the preparation should include bedding to reduce the
Dunbar soil, are in lower positions, and have wetness seedling mortality rate and chopping the woody






Calhoun County, Florida 33



understory vegetation to help control immediate plant unlikely but possible under extremely unusual weather
competition. Planting trees that are adapted to the conditions. The chance of flooding is less than 1
local conditions, such as loblolly pine, can also reduce percent in any year. On the average, flooding occurs
the seedling mortality rate. Prescribed burning in less than 1 time in 100 years but more than 1 time in
established stands can help to control the competing 500 years. The average duration of the flooding ranges
vegetation and help to maintain ease of access. from 2 to 7 days.
This map unit has severe limitations affecting urban Typically, this map unit supports the Mixed
development. Wetness, slow percolation, low strength, Hardwood and Pine ecological community, which has
and the rare flooding are the main limitations. Tables 9 several variations. In mature, natural stands, the
and 10 contain additional information regarding factors hardwoods replace the pines. The natural climax
that can affect urban development, vegetation is thought to be a beech-magnolia-maple
This map unit has severe limitations affecting camp association. The trees that characterize this
areas and playgrounds. It has moderate limitations community are loblolly pine, white oak, pignut hickory,
affecting picnic areas, paths, trails, and golf fairways. American beech, and flowering dogwood. The
Wetness, slow percolation, and the rare flooding are herbaceous plants and vines include aster, partridge
the main limitations. Table 7 contains additional pea, poison ivy, violet, Virginia creeper, and wild grape.
information regarding factors that can affect Grasses include broomsedge bluestem, longleaf
recreational development. uniola, low panicum, and spike uniola.
The capability subclass is llw. This map unit is moderately well suited to cultivated
crops. The variety of crops that are adapted to the
local conditions is somewhat limited because of
25-Duplin very fine sandy loam, occasional wetness. This map unit is well suited to
very rarely flooded some cultivated crops, but a carefully designed
system of tile drains or open drains is needed to
This moderately well drained soil is on rises and remove excess water rapidly after heavy rains. Crop
knolls of terraces adjacent to flood plains along large rotations need to include cover crops. Crop residue
streams. Areas of this soil are irregular or elongated in and the cover crops need to be left on the land to help
shape and range from 10 to 140 acres in size. Slopes control erosion. Good seedbed preparation, bedded
are smooth to convex and range from 0 to 2 percent, rows, and applications of fertilizer and lime are needed
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown for high yields.
very fine sandy loam about 6 inches thick. The subsoil This map unit is well suited to pasture and hay.
is yellowish brown clay loam that has mottles in Such grasses as improved bermudagrasses and
shades of yellow and red to a depth of 12 inches; is improved bahiagrasses are adapted to the local
strong brown clay that has mottles in shades of gray, conditions. White clover and other legumes are
yellow, and red to a depth of 50 inches; and is clay that moderately well adapted. Applications of fertilizer and
is variegated in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a lime at regular intervals and carefully controlled
depth of 80 inches or more. grazing are needed to maintain vigorous plants and
In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, the good cover and to obtain maximum yields.
Duplin soil and similar soils make up 100 percent of The potential productivity of this map unit is
the unit. The similar soils include Dothan and Dunbar moderately high for slash pine. The main
soils. Dothan soils are better drained than the Duplin management concerns are equipment limitations,
soil, are in higher positions, and have less clay in the seedling mortality, and plant competition caused by
subsoil. Dunbar soils are more poorly drained than the the shallow depth to clayey material and seasonal
Duplin soil, are in lower positions, and have mottles wetness. Limiting mechanical operations to the drier
related to wetness at a depth of 12 to 18 inches. Also periods can help to overcome the equipment
included are soils that have a thinner subsoil than that limitations and usually results in less soil
of the Duplin soil, have gray mottles below a depth of compaction and less damage to roots during
30 inches, or have slopes of 2 to 5 percent. thinning operations. Site preparation should include
Dissimilar soils make up less than 5 percent of the ripping the subsoil to reduce the seedling mortality
mapped areas. rate and chopping the woody understory vegetation
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 24 to to help control immediate plant competition.
36 inches from December through April. The available Planting trees that are adapted to the local
water capacity is moderate in the surface layer and conditions, such as loblolly pine, can also reduce
moderate or high in the subsoil. Flooding is very the seedling mortality rate. Prescribed burning in






34 Soil Survey



established stands can help to control the Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 17 percent of the
competing vegetation and help to maintain ease of mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include Bladen,
access. Dunbar, Duplin, and Surrency soils. Bladen, Dunbar,
This map unit has severe limitations affecting septic and Duplin soils have an argillic horizon within a depth
tank absorption fields, sewage lagoon areas, sanitary of 20 inches, have a solum that is more than 60 inches
landfills, shallow excavations, dwellings with basements, thick, and are in the uplands. Surrency soils are more
and local roads and streets. It has moderate limitations poorly drained than the Kenansville soil, are subject to
affecting dwellings without basements and small flooding, and are on flood plains.
commercial buildings. Wetness and slow percolation The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 48 to
are the main limitations. This map unit has slight 72 inches from December through March and from
limitations affecting lawns and landscaping.Tables 9 June through September. The available water capacity
and 10 contain additional information regarding factors is low in the surface and subsurface layers and
that can affect urban development, moderate in the subsoil. Flooding is very unlikely but
This map unit has moderate limitations affecting possible under extremely unusual weather conditions.
camp areas, picnic areas, and playgrounds. Wetness The chance of flooding is less than 1 percent in any
and slow percolation are the main limitations. This map year. On the average, flooding occurs less than 1 time
unit has slight limitations affecting paths, trails, and in 100 years but more than 1 time in 500 years. The
golf fairways. Table 7 contains additional information average duration of the flooding ranges from 2 to 7
regarding factors that can affect recreational days.
development. Typically, this map unit supports the Mixed
The capability subclass is Ilw. Hardwood and Pine ecological community, which has
several variations. In mature, natural stands, the
hardwoods replace the pines. The natural climax
29-Kenansville loamy sand, wet vegetation is thought to be a beech-magnolia-maple
substratum, 0 to 5 percent association.The trees that characterize this
slopes, rarely flooded community are loblolly pine, white oak, pignut hickory,
American beech, and flowering dogwood. The
This moderately well drained soil is on stream herbaceous plants and vines include aster, partridge
terraces in the uplands adjacent to flood plains along pea, poison ivy, violet, Virginia creeper, and wild grape.
large streams. Areas of this soil are irregular in shape Grasses include broomsedge bluestem, longleaf
and range from 5 to 120 acres in size. Slopes are uniola, low panicum, and spike uniola.
smooth to convex. This map unit is well suited to cultivated crops. The
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown main management concerns are droughtiness during
loamy sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer dry seasons and wetness during wet seasons. This
is light yellowish brown loamy sand to a depth of 22 map unit can be cultivated using ordinary, good
inches. The subsoil is yellowish brown sandy clay loam farming methods. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of
to a depth of 38 inches and is brownish yellow sandy plant nutrients, however, limit the choice of crops and
loam to a depth 52 inches. The substratum is very pale the potential yields of those crops that are adapted to
brown loamy sand that has mottles in shades of gray, the local conditions. Row crops need to be planted on
yellow, and red to a depth of 80 inches or more. the contour, and crop rotations need to include cover
In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, the crops to help control erosion. Good seedbed
Kenansville soil and similar soils make up 83 to 100 preparation and regular applications of fertilizer and
percent of the unit. The similar soils include Chipola, lime are needed for maximum yields. Irrigation of high-
Fuquay, Garcon, and Stilson soils. Chipola soils have value crops is usually feasible where irrigation water is
a redder subsoil than that of the Kenansville soil. readily available.
Fuquay and Stilson soils have plinthite and have a This map unit is well suited to pasture and hay.
loamy subsoil that extends below a depth of 60 inches. Improved bermudagrasses and improved
Garcon soils are more poorly drained than the bahiagrasses are well adapted to the local conditions.
Kenansville soil, are in lower positions, and have a These plants produce well if fertilizer and lime are
yellow subsoil that has mottles related to wetness at a applied. Controlled grazing is important to maintain
depth of 18 to 36 inches. Also included in mapping are vigorous plants and good cover and to obtain
areas of soils that have a subsoil to a depth of 60 to 70 maximum yields.
inches or that have surface and subsurface layers with The potential productivity of this map unit is high for
a combined thickness of less than 20 inches, slash pine.The main management concerns are







Calhoun County, Florida 35



equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant upper 20 inches of the argillic horizon, have a solum
competition caused by the sandy surface, low that is less than 45 inches thick, or have slopes of
available water capacity, and seasonal wetness. Site more than 2 percent.
preparation should include removing the larger debris Dissimilar soils make up less than 5 percent of the
to facilitate mechanical operations and chopping the mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include Leefield
woody understory vegetation to help control and Stilson soils, which have plinthite in the loamy
immediate plant competition. Planting trees that are subsoil, extend to a depth of 60 inches or more, and
adapted to the local conditions and planting during the are in higher positions than the Garcon soil.
wetter months can reduce the seedling mortality rate. The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 18 to
Prescribed burning in established stands can help to 36 inches from December through March and from
control the competing vegetation and help to maintain June through September. The available water capacity
ease of access. is low or moderate in the surface and subsurface
The flooding and wetness are severe limitations layers, moderate in the subsoil, and low in the
affecting most urban development and moderate substratum. Flooding is unlikely but possible under
limitations affecting septic tank absorption field. unusual weather conditions. The chance of flooding is
Droughtiness is also a moderate limitations affecting 1 to 5 percent in any year. On the average, flooding
lawns and landscaping. Tables 9 and 10 contain occurs 1 to 5 times in 100 years. The average duration
additional information regarding factors that can affect of the flooding ranges from 2 to 7 days.
urban development. Typically, this map unit supports the Mixed
The flooding is a severe limitation affecting camp Hardwood and Pine ecological community, which has
areas. The sandy texture is a moderate limitation several variations. In mature, natural stands, the
affecting other recreational development. Table 7 hardwoods replace the pines. The natural climax
contains additional information regarding factors that vegetation is thought to be a beech-magnolia-maple
can affect recreational development, association. The trees that characterize this
The capability subclass is Ils. community are loblolly pine, white oak, pignut hickory,
American beech, and flowering dogwood. The
herbaceous plants and vines include aster, partridge
30-Garcon loamy sand, rarely pea, poison ivy, violet, Virginia creeper, and wild grape.
flooded Grasses include broomsedge bluestem, longleaf
uniola, low panicum, and spike uniola.
This somewhat poorly drained soil is on stream This map unit is moderately well suited to cultivated
terraces in the coastal lowlands adjacent to the flood crops. The variety of crops that are adapted to the
plains along large streams. Areas of this soil are local conditions is somewhat limited because the
irregular in shape and range from 5 to 50 acres in size. water table is near the surface much of the time. Tile
Slopes are smooth to concave and range from 0 to 2 drains or open ditches are needed to protect crops
percent. from wetness. Crop residue and cover crops need to
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown be left on the land to help control erosion. Good
loamy sand about 5 inches thick. The subsurface layer seedbed preparation and applications of fertilizer and
is brown loamy sand to a depth of 21 inches. The lime are needed for maximum yields.
subsoil is light yellowish brown sandy loam to a depth This map unit is well suited to pasture and hay.
of 28 inches, brown sandy clay loam that has mottles Pasture plants, such as improved bermudagrasses
in shades of gray to a depth of 34 inches, and gray and improved bahiagrasses, grow well if properly
sandy clay loam that has mottles in shades of gray, managed. White clovers and other legumes are
yellow, and red to a depth of 47 inches. The moderately adapted to the local conditions.
substratum is light gray sand that has mottles in Applications of fertilizer and lime are needed to obtain
shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 80 inches maximum yields, and controlled grazing is needed to
or more. maintain vigorous plants.
In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, the The potential productivity of this map unit is
Garcon soil and similar soils make up 100 percent of moderate for slash pine. The main management
the unit. The similar soils include Kenansville soils that concerns are seedling mortality and plant competition
are better drained than the Garcon soil, are in higher caused by low available water capacity and seasonal
positions, and have mottles related to wetness below a wetness. Site preparation should include chopping the
depth of 48 inches. Also included in mapping are small woody understory vegetation to help control
areas of soils that have 18 to 30 percent clay in the immediate plant competition. Planting trees that are






36 Soil Survey



adapted to the local conditions and planting during the Typically, this map unit supports the Longleaf Pine-
wetter months can reduce the seedling mortality rate. Turkey Oak Hills ecological community, which has
Prescribed burning in established stands can help to several variations. Scattered longleaf pine are the
control the competing vegetation and help to maintain overstory in mature, natural stands of trees. Areas
ease of access. from which pines have been removed are dominated
This map unit has severe limitations affecting by oaks. The trees that characterize this community
most urban development. It has moderate are longleaf pine, turkey oak, blackjack oak, and post
limitations affecting local roads and streets, oak. Herbaceous plants and vines include aster,
Wetness and rare flooding are the main limitations blazingstar, brackenfern, butterfly pea, elephantsfoot,
affecting these uses. Tables 9 and 10 contain grassleaf goldaster, partridge pea, pineland
additional information regarding factors that can beggarweed, sandhill milkweed, showy crotalaria, and
affect urban development, wild indigo. Grasses and grasslike plants include
This map unit has moderate or severe limitations Curtis' dropseed, hairy panicum, yellow Indiangrass,
affecting camp areas. It has moderate limitations low panicum, and pineywoods dropseed.
affecting picnic areas, playgrounds, paths, trails, and This map unit is poorly suited to cultivated crops.
golf fairways. Wetness, the sandy texture, and rare Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients limit
flooding are the main limitations. Table 7 contains the choice of plants and reduce the potential yields of
additional information regarding factors that can affect those crops that are adapted to the local conditions. In
recreational development. very dry seasons, the water table drops well below the
The capability subclass is IIw. root zone and little capillary water is available to
plants. Row crops should be planted on the contour in
alternating strips with close-growing cover crops. Lime
31-Foxworth sand, 0 to 5 percent and fertilizer should be applied to all crops. Soil-
slopes improving cover crops and crop residues should be
left on the land. Irrigation of high-value crops is usually
This moderately well drained soil is on summits and feasible where irrigation water is readily available.
shoulders in the uplands. Areas of this soil are Intensive management of soil fertility and water is
irregular in shape and range from 5 to 500 acres in required for maximum crop production.
size. Slopes are mostly smooth to concave but are This map unit is moderately suited to pasture and
convex in places, hay. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of nutrients are
Typically, the surface layer is brown sand about 6 the major management concerns. Intensive
inches thick. The substratum is sand. It is yellowish management of soil fertility and water is required to
brown and has mottles in shades of gray to a depth of fully utilize this soil for pasture and hay. Such plants as
43 inches; is yellowish brown and has mottles in improved bermudagrasses and bahiagrasses are well
shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 67 adapted to the local conditions. Applications of
inches; and is light gray and has mottles in shades of fertilizer and lime and controlled grazing are needed to
yellow and red to a depth of 80 inches or more. maintain vigorous plants and to obtain maximum
In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, the yields.
Foxworth soil and similar soils make up 100 percent of The potential productivity of this map unit is
the unit. The similar soils include soils that have a moderate for slash pine. The main management
dark, organic-stained layer in the lower part of the concerns are equipment limitations and seedling
subsoil. mortality caused by the sandy surface and the low
Dissimilar soils make up less than 5 percent of the available water capacity. To facilitate mechanical
mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include Chipley operations, site preparation should include the removal
and Lakeland soils. Chipley are more poorly drained of the larger debris. Planting trees that are adapted to
than the Foxworth soil, are in lower positions, and the local conditions and planting during the wetter
have mottles related to wetness at a depth of 18 to 42 months can reduce the seedling mortality rate.
inches. Lakeland soils are better drained than the This map unit has severe limitations affecting
Foxworth soil, are in higher positions, and have landfills and shallow excavations. It has moderate
mottles related to wetness below a depth of 72 inches. limitations affecting septic tank absorption fields,
The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 42 to dwelling with basements, lawns, and landscaping.
72 inches from December through March and from Wetness, seepage, the sandy texture, and
June through September. The available water capacity droughtiness are the main limitations.This map unit
is very low. has slight limitations affecting dwellings without






Calhoun County, Florida 37



basements, small commercial buildings, and local vegetation is thought to be a beech-magnolia-maple
roads and streets. Tables 9 and 10 contain additional association. The trees that characterize this
information regarding factors that can affect urban community are loblolly pine, white oak, pignut
development, hickory, American beech, and flowering dogwood.
This map unit has severe limitations affecting The herbaceous plants and vines include aster,
recreational development. The sandy surface is the partridge pea, poison ivy, violet, Virginia creeper,
main limitation.Table 7 contains additional information and wild grape. Grasses include broomsedge
regarding factors that can affect recreational bluestem, longleaf uniola, low panicum, and spike
development, uniola.
The capability subclass is Ills. This map unit is well suited to cultivated crops. It
can be cultivated using ordinary, good farming
methods. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant
32-Fuquay loamy sand, 0 to 2 nutrients, however, limit the choice of crops and the
percent slopes potential yields of those crops that are adapted to the
local conditions. Good seedbed preparation and
This well drained soil is on summits in the applications of fertilizer and lime are needed for
uplands. Areas of this soil are irregular in shape maximum yields.
and range from 5 to 750 acres in size. Slopes are This map unit is well suited to pasture and hay.
smooth to concave. Improved bermudagrasses and improved
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown bahiagrasses are well adapted to the local conditions.
loamy sand about 11 inches thick. The subsurface This soil responds well to applications of fertilizer and
layer is olive yellow loamy fine sand that has lime. Controlled grazing is needed to maintain
plinthite and has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, vigorous plants and good cover and to obtain
and red to a depth of 32 inches. The subsoil is olive maximum yields.
yellow fine sandy loam that has plinthite and has The potential productivity of this map unit is high for
mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth slash pine. The main management concerns are
of 42 inches; is yellowish brown sandy loam that equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant
has plinthite and has mottles in shades of gray, competition caused by the sandy surface, low
yellow, and red to a depth of 58 inches; and is available water capacity, and seasonal wetness. Site
sandy clay loam that is variegated in shades of preparation should include the removal of the larger
gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 80 inches or debris to facilitate mechanical operations and
more. chopping the woody understory vegetation to help
In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, the control immediate plant competition. Planting trees
Fuquay soil and similar soils make up 100 percent of that are adapted to the local conditions and planting
the unit. The similar soils include Dothan soils, which during the wetter months can reduce the seedling
have a loamy subsoil within a depth of 20 inches. mortality rate. Prescribed burning in established
Dissimilar soils make up less than 5 percent of the stands can help to control the competing vegetation
mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include Bonifay and help to maintain ease of access.
and Stilson soils. Bonifay soils have a loamy subsoil This map unit has severe limitations affecting septic
below a depth of 40 inches and have mottles related to tank absorption fields, sewage lagoons, and area
wetness at a depth of 48 to 72 inches. Stilson soils are sanitary landfills. It has moderate limitations affecting
more poorly drained than the Fuquay soil, are in lower trench sanitary landfills, dwellings with basements,
positions, and have wetness indicators at a depth of lawns, and landscaping. Wetness and slow percolation
30 to 42 inches and/or at 5 to 14 inches below the top are the main limitations.This map unit has slight
of the loamy subsoil. limitations affecting shallow excavations, dwelling
The seasonal high water table is perched at a depth without basements, small commercial buildings, and
of 42 to 72 inches from December through March and local roads and streets. Tables 9 and 10 contain
from June through September. The available water additional information regarding factors that can affect
capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers urban development.
and moderate in the subsoil. The sandy surface is a moderate limitation affecting
Typically, this map unit supports the Mixed recreational development.Table 7 contains additional
Hardwood and Pine ecological community, which information regarding factors that can affect
has several variations. In mature, natural stands, recreational development.
the hardwoods replace the pines. The natural climax The capability subclass is Ils.






38 Soil Survey




33-Fuquay loamy sand, 2 to 5 alternating strips with cover crops to help control
percent slopes erosion. Good seedbed preparation and applications
pecen of fertilizer and lime are needed for maximum yields.
This well drained soil is on shoulders in the This map unit is well suited to pasture and hay.
uplands. Areas of this soil are irregular in shape Improved bermudagrasses and improved
and range from 5 to 120 acres in size. Slopes are bahiagrasses are well adapted to the local conditions.
smooth to convex. This soil responds well to applications of fertilizer and
lime. Controlled grazing is needed to maintain
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown vioos lnt s and good cover and to tain
loamy sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer v u ad c an t a
is yellowish brown loamy sand that has mottles in
shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 30 inches. The potential productivity of this map unit is high for
shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 30 inches.
The subsoil is sandy clay loam. It is brownish yellow, slash pine (i. 7) The main management concerns
has common plinthite nodules, and has mottles in are equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant
has common plinthite nodules, and has mottles in
competition caused by the sandy surface, low
shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 38 competition caused by the sandy surface low
available water capacity, and seasonal wetness. Site
inches; and it is variegated in shades of gray, yellow, preparation should include removing the larger debris
and red to a depth of 80 inches or more.
to facilitate mechanical operations and chopping the
In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, the to fc mechanical operations and chopping the
Fuquay soil and similar soils make up 100 percent of woody understory vegetation to help control
the unit. The similar soils include Dothan soils that immediate plant competition. Planting trees that are
tuiadapted to the local conditions and planting during the
have a loamy subsoil within a depth of 20 inches and p o he ca ndns nd pl g uring
wetter months can reduce the seedling mortality rate.
are in positions similar to those of the Fuquay soil. Prescribed burning in established stands can help to
Dissimilar soils make up less than 5 percent of the
mapd a Te issimilar soils ae up le an 5 ecen of e control the competing vegetation and help to maintain
mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include Bonifay
ease of access.
and Stilson soils. Bonifay soils have a loamy subsoil eeae s a see a ae se
o a dh o 4 i s hv ml r Seepage is a severe limitation affecting septic tank
below a depth of 40 inches, have mottles related to a f s
absorption fields, sewage lagoons, and area sanitary
wetness at a depth of 48 to 72 inches, and are in
Sa a d o 4 t 7 i a a landfills. Wetness and slow percolation are moderate
positions similar to those of the Fuquay soil. Stilson li s a g t h s y l ,
limitations affecting trench sanitary landfills, dwellings
soils are more poorly drained than the Fuquay soil, are with basements, lawns, and landscaping. This map
... with basements, lawns, and landscaping. This map
in lower positions, and have wetness indicators at a .
in lower positions, and have wetness indicators at a unit has slight limitations affecting shallow excavations,
depth of 30 to 42 inches and/or at 5 to 14 inches
St of theloam i dwelling without basements, small commercial
below the top of the loamy subsoil. buildings, and local roads and streets. Tables 9 and 10
The seasonal high water table is perched at a depth contain additional information regarding factors that
contain additional information regarding factors that
of 42 to 72 inches from December through March and
can affect urban development.
from June through September. The available water Te an sura an t s a a
The sandy surface and the slope are moderate
capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers limitations affecting recreational development. Table 7
and moderate in the subsoil.
and moderate in the subsoil, contains additional information regarding factors that
Typically, this map unit supports the Mixed
can affect recreational development.
Hardwood and Pine ecological community, which has T
several variations. In mature, natural stands, the
hardwoods replace the pines. The natural climax
vegetation is thought to be a beech-magnolia-maple 34-Fuquay loamy sand, 5 to 8
association. The trees that characterize this
community are loblolly pine, white oak, pignut hickory, percent slopes
American beech, and flowering dogwood. The
herbaceous plants and vines include aster, partridge This well drained soil is on side slopes in the
pea, poison ivy, violet, Virginia creeper, and wild grape. uplands. Areas of this soil are irregular in shape and
Grasses include broomsedge bluestem, longleaf range from 3 to 40 acres in size. Slopes are smooth to
uniola, low panicum, and spike uniola. convex.
This map unit is well suited to cultivated crops. It Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
can be cultivated using ordinary, good farming loamy sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer
methods. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant is yellowish brown loamy sand that has mottles in
nutrients, however, limit the choice and potential yields shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 26 inches.
of those crops that are adapted to the local conditions. The subsoil is yellowish brown sandy loam that has
Row crops should be planted on the contour in mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of






38 Soil Survey




33-Fuquay loamy sand, 2 to 5 alternating strips with cover crops to help control
percent slopes erosion. Good seedbed preparation and applications
pecen of fertilizer and lime are needed for maximum yields.
This well drained soil is on shoulders in the This map unit is well suited to pasture and hay.
uplands. Areas of this soil are irregular in shape Improved bermudagrasses and improved
and range from 5 to 120 acres in size. Slopes are bahiagrasses are well adapted to the local conditions.
smooth to convex. This soil responds well to applications of fertilizer and
lime. Controlled grazing is needed to maintain
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown vioos lnt s and good cover and to tain
loamy sand about 7 inches thick. The subsurface layer v u ad c an t a
is yellowish brown loamy sand that has mottles in
shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 30 inches. The potential productivity of this map unit is high for
shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 30 inches.
The subsoil is sandy clay loam. It is brownish yellow, slash pine (i. 7) The main management concerns
has common plinthite nodules, and has mottles in are equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant
has common plinthite nodules, and has mottles in
competition caused by the sandy surface, low
shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 38 competition caused by the sandy surface low
available water capacity, and seasonal wetness. Site
inches; and it is variegated in shades of gray, yellow, preparation should include removing the larger debris
and red to a depth of 80 inches or more.
to facilitate mechanical operations and chopping the
In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, the to fc mechanical operations and chopping the
Fuquay soil and similar soils make up 100 percent of woody understory vegetation to help control
the unit. The similar soils include Dothan soils that immediate plant competition. Planting trees that are
tuiadapted to the local conditions and planting during the
have a loamy subsoil within a depth of 20 inches and p o he ca ndns nd pl g uring
wetter months can reduce the seedling mortality rate.
are in positions similar to those of the Fuquay soil. Prescribed burning in established stands can help to
Dissimilar soils make up less than 5 percent of the
mapd a Te issimilar soils ae up le an 5 ecen of e control the competing vegetation and help to maintain
mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include Bonifay
ease of access.
and Stilson soils. Bonifay soils have a loamy subsoil eeae s a see a ae se
o a dh o 4 i s hv ml r Seepage is a severe limitation affecting septic tank
below a depth of 40 inches, have mottles related to a f s
absorption fields, sewage lagoons, and area sanitary
wetness at a depth of 48 to 72 inches, and are in
Sa a d o 4 t 7 i a a landfills. Wetness and slow percolation are moderate
positions similar to those of the Fuquay soil. Stilson li s a g t h s y l ,
limitations affecting trench sanitary landfills, dwellings
soils are more poorly drained than the Fuquay soil, are with basements, lawns, and landscaping. This map
... with basements, lawns, and landscaping. This map
in lower positions, and have wetness indicators at a .
in lower positions, and have wetness indicators at a unit has slight limitations affecting shallow excavations,
depth of 30 to 42 inches and/or at 5 to 14 inches
St of theloam i dwelling without basements, small commercial
below the top of the loamy subsoil. buildings, and local roads and streets. Tables 9 and 10
The seasonal high water table is perched at a depth contain additional information regarding factors that
contain additional information regarding factors that
of 42 to 72 inches from December through March and
can affect urban development.
from June through September. The available water Te an sura an t s a a
The sandy surface and the slope are moderate
capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers limitations affecting recreational development. Table 7
and moderate in the subsoil.
and moderate in the subsoil, contains additional information regarding factors that
Typically, this map unit supports the Mixed
can affect recreational development.
Hardwood and Pine ecological community, which has T
several variations. In mature, natural stands, the
hardwoods replace the pines. The natural climax
vegetation is thought to be a beech-magnolia-maple 34-Fuquay loamy sand, 5 to 8
association. The trees that characterize this
community are loblolly pine, white oak, pignut hickory, percent slopes
American beech, and flowering dogwood. The
herbaceous plants and vines include aster, partridge This well drained soil is on side slopes in the
pea, poison ivy, violet, Virginia creeper, and wild grape. uplands. Areas of this soil are irregular in shape and
Grasses include broomsedge bluestem, longleaf range from 3 to 40 acres in size. Slopes are smooth to
uniola, low panicum, and spike uniola. convex.
This map unit is well suited to cultivated crops. It Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
can be cultivated using ordinary, good farming loamy sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer
methods. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant is yellowish brown loamy sand that has mottles in
nutrients, however, limit the choice and potential yields shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 26 inches.
of those crops that are adapted to the local conditions. The subsoil is yellowish brown sandy loam that has
Row crops should be planted on the contour in mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of






Calhoun County, Florida 39








































Figure 7.-An area of Fuquay loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes, that was recently converted from cropland to woodland.


35 inches; is yellowish brown sandy clay loam that has in lower positions, and have wetness indicators at a
plinthite and has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and depth of 30 to 42 inches and/or at 5 to 14 inches
red to a depth of 50 inches; and is sandy clay loam below the top of the loamy subsoil.
that is variegated in shades of gray, yellow, and red to The seasonal high water table perched is at a depth
a depth of 80 inches or more. of 42 to 72 inches from December through March and
In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, the from June through September. The available water
Fuquay soil and similar soils make up 100 percent of capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers
the unit. The similar soils include Dothan soils that and moderate in the subsoil.
have a loamy subsoil within a depth of 20 inches and Typically, this map unit supports the Mixed
are in positions similar to those of the Fuquay soil. Hardwood and Pine ecological community, which has
Dissimilar soils make up less than 5 percent of the several variations. In mature, natural stands, the
mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include Bonifay hardwoods replace the pines. The natural climax
and Stilson soils. Bonifay soils have a loamy subsoil vegetation is thought to be a beech-magnolia-maple
below a depth of 40 inches, have mottles related to association. The trees that characterize this
wetness at a depth of 48 to 72 inches, and are in community are loblolly pine, white oak, pignut hickory,
positions similar to those of the Fuquay soil. Stilson American beech, and flowering dogwood. The
soils are more poorly drained than the Fuquay soil, are herbaceous plants and vines include aster, partridge






40 Soil Survey



pea, poison ivy, violet, Virginia creeper, and wild grape. 35-Hurricane sand
Grasses include broomsedge bluestem, longleaf
uniola, low panicum, and spike uniola. This somewhat poorly drained soil is on rises and
This map unit is moderately well suited to cultivated knolls in the coastal lowlands and on toeslopes in the
crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant uplands. Areas of this soil are irregular or elongated in
nutrients are management concerns. The slope is a shape and range from 3 to 70 acres in size. Slopes
management concern and increases the hazard of are smooth to slightly concave or convex and range
erosion. Proper management includes planting cover from 0 to 3 percent.
crops, planting on the contour, alternating strips of row Typically, the surface layer is mixed dark gray and
crops with cover crops, and leaving crop residues on light gray sand to a depth of 6 inches. The subsurface
the soil. Nutrient management helps to maximize layer is sand. It is gray and has white splotches to a
yields. depth of 23 inches; is grayish brown and has mottles
This map unit is moderately well suited to in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 37
pasture and hay. Improved bermudagrasses and inches; and is white to a depth of 72 inches. The
improved bahiagrasses are well adapted to the local subsoil is very dark gray sand that has mottles in
conditions. The slope increases the hazard of shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 80 inches
erosion and reduces the potential yields. This soil or more.
responds well to applications of fertilizer and lime. In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, the
Controlled grazing is needed to maintain vigorous Hurricane soil and similar soils make up 85 to 100
plants and good cover, to obtain maximum yields, percent of the unit. The similar soils include Albany
and to prevent erosion. and Pottsburg soils. Albany soils have a loamy subsoil
The potential productivity of this map unit is high below a depth of 40 inches. Pottsburg soils are more
for slash pine. The main management concerns are poorly drained than the Hurricane soil, are in lower
equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant positions, and have mottles related to wetness below a
competition caused by the sandy surface, low depth of 18 inches.
available water capacity, and seasonal wetness. Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 15 percent of the
Site preparation should include removing the larger mapped areas.The dissimilar soils include Foxworth
debris to facilitate mechanical operations and and Chipley soils, which do not have an organic-
chopping the woody understory vegetation to help stained subsoil within a depth of 80 inches. Also
control immediate plant competition. Planting trees included are soils that have dark, organic-stained
that are adapted to the local conditions and planting layers and are better drained than the Hurricane soil
during the wetter months can reduce the seedling and soils that have slopes of 2 to 5 percent.
mortality rate. Prescribed burning in established The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 18 to
stands can help to control the competing vegetation 42 inches from December through March and from
and help to maintain ease of access. June through September. The available water capacity
Slow percolation and seepage are severe is very low in the surface and subsurface layers and is
limitations affecting septic tank absorption fields, low or moderate in the subsoil.
sewage lagoons, and area sanitary landfills. Typically, this map unit supports the Longleaf
Wetness, the sandy texture, and the slope are Pine-Turkey Oak Hills ecological community, which
moderate limitations affecting trench sanitary has several variations. Scattered longleaf pine are
landfills, dwellings with basements, small the overstory in mature, natural stands of trees.
commercial buildings, lawns, and landscaping. This Areas from which pines have been removed are
map unit has slight limitations affecting shallow dominated by oaks. The trees that characterize this
excavations, dwelling without basements, and local community are longleaf pine, turkey oak, blackjack
roads and streets. Tables 9 and 10 contain oak, and post oak. Herbaceous plants and vines
additional information regarding factors that can include aster, blazingstar, brackenfern, butterfly
affect urban development. pea, elephantsfoot, grassleaf goldaster, partridge
The slope and the sandy surface are severe pea, pineland beggarweed, sandhill milkweed,
limitations affecting playgrounds and moderate showy crotalaria, and wild indigo. Grasses and
limitations affecting camp areas, picnic areas, paths, grasslike plants include Curtis' dropseed, hairy
trails, and golf fairways. Table 7 contains additional panicum, yellow Indiangrass, low panicum, and
information regarding factors that can affect pineywoods dropseed.
recreational development. This map unit is moderately suited to cultivated
The capability subclass is Ills. crops. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant






Calhoun County, Florida 41



nutrients limit the choice of plants and reduce 36-Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 percent
potential yields for those crops that are adapted to sl
the local conditions. The seasonal high water table slopes
increases the availability of water in the root zone
by providing water through capillary rise. Row crops This excessively drained soil is on summits and
should be planted on the contour in alternating shoulders in the uplands. Individual areas of this
strips with close-growing cover crops. Soil- soil are irregular in shape and range from 20 to
improving cover crops and crop residues should be 2,000 acres in size. Slopes are mostly smooth to
left on the land. Irrigation of high-value crops is convex.
usually feasible where irrigation water is readily Typically, the surface layer is brown sand about 6
available. Tile drains or other kinds of drains are inches thick. The substratum is sand. It is yellow to a
needed for some crops that are damaged by a high depth of 37 inches, brownish yellow to a depth of 58
water table during the growing season. Intensive inches, and very pale brown to a depth of 80 inches or
management of soil fertility and water is required for more.
maximum crop production. In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, the
The map unit is moderately well suited to pasture Lakeland soil and similar soils make up 100 percent of
and hay. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant the unit. The similar soils include soils that have thin
nutrients are major management concerns. Intensive bands of loamy material.
management of soil fertility and water is required to Dissimilar soils make up less than 5 percent of the
fully utilize this soil for pasture and hay. Such plants as mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include Foxworth
improved bermudagrasses and improved and Troup soils. Foxworth soils are more poorly
bahiagrasses are well adapted to the local conditions. drained than the Lakeland soil, are in lower positions,
Applications of fertilizer and lime and controlled and have mottles related to wetness below a depth of
grazing are needed to maintain vigorous plants and to 42 inches. Troup soils have a reddish, loamy subsoil
obtain maximum yields, below a depth of 40 inches.
The potential productivity of this map unit is This map unit does not have a seasonal high water
moderately high for slash pine. The main management table within a depth of 72 inches. The available water
concerns are equipment limitations, seedling mortality, capacity is low in the surface layer and very low or low
and plant competition because of the sandy surface, in the substratum.
low available water capacity, and seasonal wetness. Typically, this map unit supports the Longleaf Pine-
Site preparation should include removing the larger Turkey Oak Hills ecological community, which has
debris to facilitate mechanical operations and several variations. Scattered longleaf pine are the
chopping the woody understory vegetation to help overstory in mature, natural stands of trees. Areas
control immediate plant competition. Planting trees from which pines have been removed are dominated
that are adapted to the local conditions and planting by oaks. The trees that characterize this community
during the wetter months can reduce the seedling are longleaf pine, turkey oak, blackjack oak, and post
mortality rate. Prescribed burning in established oak. Herbaceous plants and vines include aster,
stands can help to control the competing vegetation blazingstar, brackenfern, butterfly pea, elephantsfoot,
and help to maintain ease of access. grassleaf goldaster, partridge pea, pineland
This map unit has severe limitations affecting septic beggarweed, sandhill milkweed, showy crotalaria, and
tank absorption fields, sewage lagoons, sanitary wild indigo. Grasses and grasslike plants include
landfills, shallow excavations, dwellings with Curtis' dropseed, hairy panicum, yellow Indiangrass,
basements, lawns, and landscaping. It has moderate low panicum, and pineywoods dropseed.
limitations affecting dwellings without basements, This map unit is poorly suited to cultivated crops
small commercial buildings, and local roads and because of droughtiness and the rapid leaching of
streets. Wetness and seepage are the main limitations, plant nutrients, which is caused by the sandy texture
Tables 9 and 10 contain additional information of the soil. These factors also limit the choice of plants
regarding factors that can affect urban development, and reduce the potential yields of those crops that are
This map unit has severe limitations affecting adapted to the local conditions. If cultivated, this soil
recreational development. The sandy surface is the requires intensive management practices. Row crops
main limitation.Table 7 contains additional information should be planted on the contour in alternating strips
regarding factors that can affect recreational with close-growing cover crops. Crop rotations should
development, include close-growing crops on the land at least two-
The capability subclass is IIIw. thirds of the time. Irrigation and nutrient management






42 Soil Survey



are necessary for acceptable yields. Soil-improving percent of the unit. The similar soils include soils that
cover crops and all crop residues should be left on the have thin bands of loamy material. Also included are
land. soils that have slopes of more than 8 percent.
This map unit is moderately suited to pasture and Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 25 percent of the
hay. Deep-rooted plants, such as improved mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include Blanton,
bermudagrasses and improved bahiagrasses, are well Foxworth, and Troup soils. Blanton soils are more
adapted to the local conditions, but yields are reduced poorly drained than the Lakeland soil, are in lower
by periodic droughts. Regular applications of fertilizer positions, have a loamy subsoil below depth of 40
and lime are needed. Intensive management of soil inches, and have mottles related to wetness below a
fertility and water is required to fully utilize this soil for depth of 30 inches. Foxworth soils are more poorly
pasture and hay. Controlled grazing is needed to drained than the Lakeland soil, are in lower positions,
maintain vigorous plants and to obtain maximum and have mottles related to wetness below a depth of
yields. 42 inches. Troup soils have a reddish, loamy subsoil
The potential productivity of this map unit is very below a depth of 40 inches. Also included in mapping
low for slash pine. A better rotation is sand pine are small areas of poorly drained soils at seepage
followed by longleaf pine.The main management spots.
concerns are equipment limitations and seedling This map unit does not have a seasonal high water
mortality caused by the sandy surface and very low table within a depth of 72 inches. The available water
available water capacity. To facilitate mechanical capacity is low in the surface layer and very low or low
operations, site preparation should include the removal in the substratum.
of the larger debris. Planting trees that are adapted to Typically, this map unit supports the Longleaf Pine-
the local conditions and planting during the wetter Turkey Oak Hills ecological community, which has
months can reduce the seedling mortality rate. several variations. Scattered longleaf pine are the
Seepage and the sandy surface are severe overstory in mature, natural stands of trees. Areas
limitations affecting sewage lagoons, sanitary landfills, from which pines have been removed are dominated
and shallow excavations. This map unit has slight by oaks. The trees that characterize this community
limitations affecting septic tank absorption fields, are longleaf pine, turkey oak, blackjack oak, and post
dwellings, small commercial buildings, lawns, and oak. Herbaceous plants and vines include aster,
landscaping. Tables 9 and 10 contain additional blazingstar, brackenfern, butterfly pea, elephantsfoot,
information regarding factors that can affect urban grassleaf goldaster, partridge pea, pineland
development. beggarweed, sandhill milkweed, showy crotalaria, and
This map unit has severe limitations affecting most wild indigo. Grasses and grasslike plants include
recreational development. The sandy surface is the Curtis' dropseed, hairy panicum, yellow Indiangrass,
main limitation. Table 7 contains additional information low panicum, and pineywoods dropseed.
regarding factors that can affect recreational This map unit is very poorly suited to cultivated
development, crops because of droughtiness, slope, and the hazard
The capability subclass is IVs. of erosion.
This map unit is moderately suited to pasture and
hay. Deep-rooted plants, such as improved
37-Lakeland sand, 5 to 8 percent bermudagrasses and improved bahiagrasses, are well
slopes adapted to the local conditions, but yields are reduced
by periodic droughts. Regular applications of fertilizer
This excessively drained soil is on side slopes in and lime are needed. Intensive management of soil
the uplands. Individual areas of this soil are elongated fertility and water is required to fully utilize this soil for
in shape and range from 3 to 160 acres in size. Slopes pasture and hay. Controlled grazing is needed to
are mostly smooth to convex but are concave in maintain vigorous plants and to obtain maximum
places, yields.
Typically, the surface layer is brown sand about 6 The potential productivity of this map unit is very
inches thick. The substratum is sand. It is light low for slash pine. A better rotation is sand pine
yellowish brown to a depth of 45 inches, very pale followed by longleaf pine. The main management
brown to a depth of 74 inches, and brownish yellow to concerns are equipment limitations and seedling
a depth of 80 inches or more. mortality caused by the sandy surface and low
In 90 percent of the areas of this map unit, the available water capacity. To facilitate mechanical
Lakeland soil and similar soils make up 75 to 100 operations, site preparation should include the removal






Calhoun County, Florida 43





























Figure 8.-The Apalachicola River flowing through an area of Wahee-Ochlockonee complex, commonly flooded.


of the larger debris. Planting trees that are adapted to tributaries. The Wahee soils are generally farther away
the local conditions and planting during the wetter from the river in the lower, wetter areas on the flood
months can reduce the seedling mortality rate. plains. The soils in this map unit are so intermingled
Seepage and the sandy surface are severe that it was not practical to separate them at the scale
limitations affecting sewage lagoons, sanitary landfills, selected for mapping. The proportions and patterns of
and shallow excavations. The slope is a moderate the Wahee, Ochlockonee, and similar soils, however,
limitation affecting small commercial buildings. This are relatively consistent in most areas. Individual
map unit has slight limitations affecting septic tank areas of each soil range from 3 to 1,700 acres in size.
absorption fields, dwellings, and local roads and Mapped areas of this complex range from 5 to 2,000
streets. Tables 9 and 10 contain additional information acres in size. Slopes are less than 2 percent.
regarding factors that can affect urban development. Wahee and similar soils make up 55 to 65 percent
This map unit has severe limitations affecting most of the complex. Typically, the surface layer of the
recreational development.The sandy surface and the Wahee soil is brown clay loam about 4 inches thick.
slope are the main limitations. Table 7 contains The subsoil is light yellowish brown silty clay that has
additional information regarding factors that can affect mottles in shades of gray to a depth of 24 inches; is
recreational development. light brownish gray silty clay that has mottles in
The capability subclass is Vis. shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 42
inches; and is light gray clay that has mottles in
shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 80 inches
38-Wahee-Ochlockonee complex, or more.
commonly flooded In areas of the Wahee soil, the seasonal high water
table is at a depth of 18 to 30 inches from December
This map unit consists of somewhat poorly drained through March and from June through September. The
Wahee soils and well drained Ochlockonee soils on available water capacity is moderate or high. Frequent
the flood plains along the Apalachicola River (fig. 8). flooding is likely to occur often under usual weather
The Ochlockonee soils are in the higher areas conditions. The chance of flooding is more than a 50
adjacent to the river's edge and its many meandering percent in any year but less than 50 percent in all






44 Soil Survey



months in any year. On the average, flooding occurs because of seedling mortality, plant competition, and
more than 50 times in 100 years. The average duration equipment limitations caused by wetness and the
of the flooding ranges from 7 to 30 days. flooding. This soil is better suited to hardwood
Ochlockonee and similar soils make up 20 to 25 production through natural regeneration.
percent of the complex. Typically, the surface layer of The wetness and flooding are severe limitations
the Ochlockonee soil is very dark grayish brown loam affecting urban development and most recreational
about 4 inches thick. The substratum is dark yellowish development. Tables 7, 9, and 10 contain additional
brown sandy loam that has mottles in shades of gray, information regarding factors that can affect urban and
yellow, and red to a depth of 31 inches; is dark recreational development.
yellowish brown loamy sand that has mottles in The capability subclass is Vlw in areas of the
shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 61 Wahee soil and Ilw in areas of the Ochlockonee soil.
inches; and is dark brown loam that has mottles in
shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 80 inches
or more. 39-Leefield loamy sand, 0 to 5
In areas of the Ochlockonee soil, the seasonal high percent slopes
water table is at a depth of 30 to 60 inches from
December through March and from June through This somewhat poorly drained soil is on summits
September. The available water capacity is moderate and shoulders in the uplands. Areas of this soil are
or high in the upper part and low or moderate in the irregular in shape and range from 3 to 100 acres in
lower part. Occasional flooding is likely to occur size. Slopes are mostly smooth to concave but are
infrequently under usual weather conditions. The convex in places.
chance of flooding is 5 to 50 percent in any year. On Typically, the surface layer is dark gray loamy sand
the average, flooding occurs 5 to 50 times in 100 about 12 inches thick. The subsurface layer is pale
years. The average duration of the flooding ranges yellow loamy sand that has mottles in shades of gray,
from 2 to 7 days. yellow, and red to a depth of 34 inches. The subsoil is
Dissimilar soils make up 10 to 25 percent of the light gray fine sandy loam that has plinthite and has
map unit. The dissimilar soils include Bibb, Bladen, mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of
Brickyard, Dunbar, Duplin, and Kinston soils. Bibb, about 61 inches. It is light gray sandy clay loam that
Bladen, Brickyard, and Kinston soils are more poorly has plinthite and has mottles in shades of gray, yellow,
drained than the Wahee and Ochlockonee soils. and red to a depth of 80 inches or more.
Bladen soils are on flats. Bibb, Brickyard, and Kinston In 80 percent of the areas of this map unit, the
soils are on flood plains. Dunbar and Duplin soils are Leefield soil and similar soils make up 86 to 100
on terraces and have a clayey subsoil. Included in percent of the unit. The similar soils include Florala
mapping are areas of sandy materials deposited on and Robertsdale soils, which have a loamy subsoil
the riverbank during dredging operations. Also within a depth of 20 inches. Also included in mapping
included are small areas of somewhat poorly.drained are small areas that have less than 15 percent clay in
and moderately well drained soils that are loamy to a the upper 20 inches of the argillic horizon.
depth of 60 inches or less and that are sandy below or Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 14 percent of the
that are stratified and are 18 to 35 percent clay in the mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include Alapaha,
control section. They are in positions similar to those Plummer, and Stilson soils. Alapaha and Plummer
of the Wahee and Ochlockonee soils. soils are more poorly drained than the Leefield soil,
Typically, this map unit supports the Bottomland are in lower positions, and have a loamy subsoil below
Hardwoods ecological community, which is extremely a depth of 40 inches. Stilson soils are better drained
diverse. Understory growth is profuse where light than the Leefield soil, are in higher positions, and have
enters through the openings in the canopy. Common mottles related to wetness at a depth of 30 to 40
trees include black willow, green ash, river birch, inches and/or at 5 to 14 inches below the top of the
swamp chestnut oak, sweetgum, American sycamore, loamy subsoil.
water hickory, water oak, and willow oak. Common The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 18 to
herbaceous vines include crossvine, greenbrier, 30 inches from December through March and from
peppervine, poison ivy, trumpet creeper, and wild June through September. The available water capacity
grape. is low in the surface and subsurface layers and
This map unit is not suited to cultivated crops, moderate or low in the subsoil.
pasture, or hay because of wetness and the flooding. Typically, this map unit supports the Mixed
This map unit is not normally planted to pine trees Hardwood and Pine ecological community, which has






Calhoun County, Florida 45



several variations. In mature, natural stands, the additional information regarding factors that can affect
hardwoods replace the pines. The natural climax recreational development.
vegetation is thought to be a beech-magnolia-maple The capability subclass is llw.
association. The trees that characterize this
community are loblolly pine, white oak, pignut hickory,
American beech, and flowering dogwood. The 41-Lucy loamy sand, 0 to 2
herbaceous plants and vines include aster, partridge percent slopes
pea, poison ivy, violet, Virginia creeper, and wild grape.
Grasses include broomsedge bluestem, longleaf This well drained soil is on summits in the
uniola, low panicum, and spike uniola. uplands. Areas of this soil are irregular in shape
This map unit is moderately well suited to cultivated and range from 5 to 100 acres in size. Slopes are
crops. The variety of crops that are adapted to the smooth to concave.
local conditions is somewhat limited because the Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown
water table is near the surface much of the time. Tile loamy sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer
drains or open ditches are needed to protect crops is reddish yellow and strong brown loamy sand to a
from wetness. Crop residue and the cover crops need depth of 34 inches. The subsoil is red sandy loam to a
to be left on the land to help control erosion. Good depth of 52 inches, red sandy clay loam to a depth of
seedbed preparation and applications of fertilizer and 57 inches, and red sandy clay loam that has mottles in
lime are needed for maximum yields. shades of pink to a depth of 80 inches or more.
This map unit is well suited to pasture and hay. In 80 percent of the areas of this map unit, the Lucy
Pasture plants, such as improved bermudagrasses soil and similar soils make up 80 to 100 percent of the
and improved bahiagrasses, grow well if properly unit. The similar soils include Chipola soils.
managed. White clovers and other legumes are Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 20 percent of the
moderately adapted to the local conditions. mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include Bonifay,
Applications of fertilizer and lime are needed to obtain Lakeland, Orangeburg, and Troup soils, all of which
maximum yields, and controlled grazing is needed to are in positions similar to those of the Lucy soil.
maintain vigorous plants. Bonifay and Troup soils have a loamy subsoil at a
The potential productivity of this map unit is depth of more than 40 inches. Orangeburg soils have
moderately high for slash pine. The main management a loamy subsoil within a depth of 20 inches. Lakeland
concerns are equipment limitations, seedling mortality, soils are sandy throughout.
and plant competition because of the sandy surface, This map unit does not have a seasonal high water
low available water capacity, and seasonal wetness, table within a depth of 72 inches. The available water
Site preparation should include removing the larger capacity is low or moderate in the surface and
debris to facilitate mechanical operations and subsurface layers and moderate in the subsoil.
chopping the woody understory vegetation to help Typically, this map unit supports the Mixed
control immediate plant competition. Planting trees Hardwood and Pine ecological community, which has
that are adapted to the local conditions and planting several variations. In mature, natural stands, the
during the wetter months can reduce the seedling hardwoods replace the pines. The natural climax
mortality rate. Prescribed burning in established vegetation is thought to be a beech-magnolia-maple
stands can help to control the competing vegetation association.The trees that characterize this
and help to maintain ease of access. community are loblolly pine, white oak, pignut hickory,
Wetness and slow percolation are severe limitations American beech, and flowering dogwood. The
affecting septic tank absorption fields, sewage herbaceous plants and vines include aster, partridge
lagoons, sanitary landfills, shallow excavations, and pea, poison ivy, violet, Virginia creeper, and wild grape.
dwellings with basements. This map unit has moderate Grasses include broomsedge bluestem, longleaf
limitations affecting dwellings without basements, uniola, low panicum, and spike uniola.
small commercial buildings, local roads and streets, This map unit is well suited to cultivated crops. It
lawns, and landscaping. Wetness is the main can be cultivated using ordinary, good farming
limitation.Tables 9 and 10 contain additional methods. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant
information regarding factors that can affect urban nutrients, however, limit the choice of crops and the
development. potential yields. Good seedbed preparation and
This map unit has moderate limitations affecting applications of fertilizer and lime are needed for
recreational development. Wetness and the sandy maximum yields. Where water is readily available,
surface are the main limitations. Table 7 contains irrigation of some high-value crops is usually feasible.






46 Soil Survey



The map unit is well suited to pasture and hay. Lakeland, Orangeburg, and Troup soils, all of which
Deep-rooted plants, such as improved are in positions similar to those of the Lucy soil.
bermudagrasses and improved bahiagrasses, grow Bonifay and Troup soils have a loamy subsoil at a
well. Applications of fertilizer and lime and controlled depth of more than 40 inches. Orangeburg soils have
grazing are needed to maintain vigorous plants and a loamy subsoil within a depth of 20 inches. Lakeland
good cover and to obtain maximum yields. soils are sandy throughout.
The potential productivity of this map unit is This map unit does not have a seasonal high water
moderately high for slash pine. The main management table within a depth of 72 inches. The available water
concerns are equipment limitations, seedling mortality, capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers
and plant competition caused by the sandy surface, and moderate in the subsoil.
low available water capacity, and seasonal wetness. Typically, this map unit supports the Mixed
Site preparation should include removing the larger Hardwood and Pine ecological community, which has
debris to facilitate mechanical operations and several variations. In mature, natural stands, the
chopping the woody understory vegetation to help hardwoods replace the pines. The natural climax
control immediate plant competition. Planting trees vegetation is thought to be a beech-magnolia-maple
that are adapted to the local conditions and planting association.The trees that characterize this
during the wetter months can reduce the seedling community are loblolly pine, white oak, pignut hickory,
mortality rate. Prescribed burning in established American beech, and flowering dogwood. The
stands can help to control the competing vegetation herbaceous plants and vines include aster, partridge
and help to maintain ease of access. pea, poison ivy, violet, Virginia creeper, and wild grape.
Seepage is a severe limitation affecting area Grasses include broomsedge bluestem, longleaf
sanitary landfills and sewage lagoons. Cutbanks uniola, low panicum, and spike uniola.
caving and droughtiness are moderate limitations This map unit is well suited to cultivated crops. It
affecting shallow excavations, lawns, and landscaping, can be cultivated using ordinary, good farming
This map unit has slight limitations affecting septic methods. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant
tank absorption fields, trench sanitary landfill, nutrients, however, limit the choice of crops and the
dwellings, small commercial buildings, and local roads potential yields. If good management is applied, such
and streets. Tables 9 and 10 contain additional crops as corn, soybeans, peanuts, and cotton can be
information regarding factors thatcan affect urban grown. Nutrient management helps to maximize yields.
development. Row crops should be planted on the contour in
The sandy surface is a slight to moderate limitation alternating strips with cover crops. Where water is
affecting recreational development. Table 7 contains readily available, irrigation of some high-value crops is
additional information regarding factors that can affect usually feasible.
recreational development. The map unit is well suited to pasture and hay.
The capability subclass is Ils. Deep-rooted plants, such as improved
bermudagrasses and improved bahiagrasses, grow
well. Applications of fertilizer and lime are needed to
42-Lucy sand, 2 to 5 percent obtain maximum yields. Controlled grazing is essential
slopes to maintain vigorous plants and good cover and to
obtain maximum yields.
This well drained soil is on shoulders in the The potential productivity of this map unit is
uplands. Areas of this soil are irregular in shape moderately high for slash pine. The main management
and range from 3 to 140 acres in size. Slopes are concerns are equipment limitations, seedling mortality,
smooth to convex. and plant competition caused by the sandy surface,
Typically, the surface layer is yellowish brown sand low available water capacity, and seasonal wetness.
about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is brownish Site preparation should include removing the larger
yellow and yellowish brown sand to a depth of 27 debris to facilitate mechanical operations and
inches. The subsoil is red sandy clay loam to a depth chopping the woody understory vegetation to help
of 80 inches or more. control immediate plant competition. Planting trees
In 80 percent of the areas of this map unit, the Lucy that are adapted to the local conditions and planting
soil and similar soils make up 86 to 100 percent of the during the wetter months can reduce the seedling
unit. The similar soils include Chipola soils, mortality rate. Prescribed burning in established
Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 14 percent of the stands can help to control the competing vegetation
mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include Bonifay, and help to maintain ease of access.






Calhoun County, Florida 47



Seepage is a severe limitation affecting area partridge pea, poison ivy, violet, Virginia creeper,
sanitary landfills and sewage lagoons. Cutbanks and wild grape. Grasses include broomsedge
caving and droughtiness are moderate limitations bluestem, longleaf uniola, low panicum, and spike
affecting shallow excavations, lawns, and landscaping. uniola.
This map unit has slight limitations affecting septic This map unit is moderately well suited to cultivated
tank absorption fields, trench sanitary landfills, crops. It can be cultivated using ordinary, good farming
dwellings, small commercial buildings, and local roads methods. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant
and streets.Tables 9 and 10 contain additional nutrients, however, limit the choice of crops and the
information regarding factors that can affect urban potential yields. The slope further limits the suitability
development. of crops by making cultivation more difficult and by
The sandy surface and the slope are slight to increasing the hazard of erosion. Row crops should be
moderate limitations affecting recreational planted on the contour in alternating strips with cover
development. Table 7 contains additional crops. The cover crops and all crop residue should be
information regarding factors that can affect left on the land to help control erosion. Good seedbed
recreational development, preparation and applications of fertilizer and lime are
The capability subclass is Ils. needed for maximum yields.
This map unit is moderately well suited to pasture
and hay. Deep-rooted plants, such as improved
43-Lucy sand, 5 to 8 percent bermudagrasses and bahiagrasses, grow well. The
slopes slope increases the hazard of erosion, which reduces
potential yields. Good stands of grass can be
This well drained soil is on side slopes in the produced by applying fertilizer and lime. Controlled
uplands. Areas of this soil are irregular or elongated in grazing is essential to maintain vigorous plants and
shape and range from 3 to 40 acres in size. Slopes good cover and to obtain maximum yields.
are smooth to convex. The potential productivity of this map unit is
Typically, the surface layer is brown sand about 5 moderately high for slash pine. The main management
inches thick. The subsurface layer is strong brown and concerns are equipment limitations, seedling mortality,
yellowish red sand to a depth of 34 inches. The subsoil and plant competition caused by the sandy surface,
is red sandy clay loam to a depth of 80 inches or low available water capacity, and seasonal wetness.
more. Site preparation should include removing the larger
In 80 percent of the areas of this map unit, the Lucy debris to facilitate mechanical operations and
soil and similar soils make up 75 to 100 percent of the chopping the woody understory vegetation to help
unit. control immediate plant competition. Planting trees
Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 25 percent of the that are adapted to the local conditions and planting
mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include Bonifay, during the wetter months can reduce the seedling
Lakeland, Orangeburg, and Troup soils, all of which mortality rate. Prescribed burning in established
are in positions similar to those of the Lucy soil. stands can help to control the competing vegetation
Bonifay and Troup soils have a loamy subsoil at a and help to maintain ease of access.
depth of more than 40 inches. Orangeburg soils have Seepage is a severe limitation affecting area
a loamy subsoil within a depth of 20 inches. Lakeland sanitary landfills and sewage lagoons. Cutbanks
soils are sandy throughout. caving, the sandy texture, droughtiness, and the slope
This map unit does not have a seasonal high water are moderate limitations affecting shallow excavations,
table within a depth of 72 inches. The available water lawns, landscaping, and small commercial buildings.
capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers This map unit has slight limitations affecting septic
and moderate in the subsoil. tank absorption fields, trench sanitary landfills, and
Typically, this map unit supports the Mixed dwellings.Tables 9 and 10 contain additional
Hardwood and Pine ecological community, which information regarding factors that can affect urban
has several variations. In mature, natural stands, development.
the hardwoods replace the pines. The natural climax The slope and the sandy surface are slight to
vegetation is thought to be a beech-magnolia-maple moderate limitations affecting recreational
association. The trees that characterize this development. Table 7 contains additional information
community are loblolly pine, white oak, pignut regarding factors that can affect recreational
hickory, American beech, and flowering dogwood. development.
The herbaceous plants and vines include aster, The capability subclass is Ills.






48 Soil Survey




44-Orangeburg loamy sand, 0 to 2 The potential productivity of this map unit is
percent slopes moderately high for slash pine. No serious limitations
percent affect woodland management.

This well drained soil is on summits in the This map unit has slight limitations affecting most
uplands. Areas of this soil are irregular in shape urban and recreational development. Seepage is a
and range from 5 to 900 acres in size. Slopes are moderate limitation affecting sewage lagoons. Tables
smooth to concave. 7, 9, and 10 contain additional information regarding
factors that can affect urban and recreational
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish factors that can affect urban and rational
brown loamy sand about 9 inches thick. The subsoil is development.
strong brown fine sandy loam to a depth of 16 inches, The capability class is
red sandy clay loam to a depth of 50 inches, and red
sandy clay loam that has mottles in shades of gray, 45-Orangeburg loamy sand, 2 to 5
yellow, and red to a depth of 80 inches or more.
In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, the percent slopes
Orangeburg soil and similar soils make up 100 percent
of the unit. The similar soils include Dothan soils, This well drained soil is on shoulders in the
which have a yellow subsoil and contain plinthite. Also uplands. Areas of this soil are irregular in shape
included in mapping are soils that have yellow mottles and range from 5 to 20 acres in size. Slopes are
in the lower part of the subsoil. smooth to convex.
Dissimilar soils make up less than 5 percent of the Typically, the surface layer is brown loamy sand
mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include Lucy soils, about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is reddish yellow
which have a loamy subsoil at a depth of 20 to 40 sandy loam to a depth of 12 inches and red sandy clay
inches, loam to a depth of 80 inches or more.
This map unit does not have a seasonal high water In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, the
table within a depth of 72 inches. The available water Orangeburg soil and similar soils make up 100 percent
capacity is low in the surface layer and moderate in of the unit. The similar soils include Dothan soils,
the subsoil. which have a yellow subsoil and contain plinthite. Also
Typically, this map unit supports the Mixed included in mapping are soils that have yellow mottles
Hardwood and Pine ecological community, which has in the lower part of the subsoil.
several variations. In mature, natural stands, the Dissimilar soils make up less than 5 percent of the
hardwoods replace the pines. The natural climax mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include Lucy soils,
vegetation is thought to be a beech-magnolia-maple which have a loamy subsoil at depth of 20 to 40
association. The trees that characterize this inches.
community are loblolly pine, white oak, pignut hickory, This map unit does not have a seasonal high water
American beech, and flowering dogwood. The table within a depth of 72 inches. The available water
herbaceous plants and vines include aster, partridge capacity is low in the surface layer and moderate in
pea, poison ivy, violet, Virginia creeper, and wild grape. the subsoil.
Grasses include broomsedge bluestem, longleaf Typically, this map unit supports the Mixed
uniola, low panicum, and spike uniola. Hardwood and Pine ecological community, which has
This map unit is well suited to a wide variety of several variations. In mature, natural stands, the
cultivated crops (fig. 9). Such crops as corn, soybeans, hardwoods replace the pines. The natural climax
peanuts, and cotton grow well without special erosion- vegetation is thought to be a beech-magnolia-maple
control or water-control measures. Such practices as association. The trees that characterize this
good seedbed preparation, nutrient management, and community are loblolly pine, white oak, pignut hickory,
crop rotation are all that are needed to keep the soil in American beech, and flowering dogwood. The
good condition. Cover crops should be alternated with herbaceous plants and vines include aster, partridge
row crops. All crop residues should be returned to the pea, poison ivy, violet, Virginia creeper, and wild grape.
soil. Grasses include broomsedge bluestem, longleaf
This map unit is well suited to pasture and hay. uniola, low panicum, and spike uniola.
Improved bahiagrasses and improved This map unit is well suited to a variety of cultivated
bermudagrasses grow well if properly managed, crops. It is highly productive for a wide variety of crops
Applications of lime and fertilizer and controlled if good management is applied. Erosion can be
grazing are needed to maintain vigorous plants and controlled by contour cultivation, terraces, and
adequate cover, stabilized waterways. A cropping sequence that






48 Soil Survey




44-Orangeburg loamy sand, 0 to 2 The potential productivity of this map unit is
percent slopes moderately high for slash pine. No serious limitations
percent affect woodland management.

This well drained soil is on summits in the This map unit has slight limitations affecting most
uplands. Areas of this soil are irregular in shape urban and recreational development. Seepage is a
and range from 5 to 900 acres in size. Slopes are moderate limitation affecting sewage lagoons. Tables
smooth to concave. 7, 9, and 10 contain additional information regarding
factors that can affect urban and recreational
Typically, the surface layer is very dark grayish factors that can affect urban and rational
brown loamy sand about 9 inches thick. The subsoil is development.
strong brown fine sandy loam to a depth of 16 inches, The capability class is
red sandy clay loam to a depth of 50 inches, and red
sandy clay loam that has mottles in shades of gray, 45-Orangeburg loamy sand, 2 to 5
yellow, and red to a depth of 80 inches or more.
In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, the percent slopes
Orangeburg soil and similar soils make up 100 percent
of the unit. The similar soils include Dothan soils, This well drained soil is on shoulders in the
which have a yellow subsoil and contain plinthite. Also uplands. Areas of this soil are irregular in shape
included in mapping are soils that have yellow mottles and range from 5 to 20 acres in size. Slopes are
in the lower part of the subsoil. smooth to convex.
Dissimilar soils make up less than 5 percent of the Typically, the surface layer is brown loamy sand
mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include Lucy soils, about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is reddish yellow
which have a loamy subsoil at a depth of 20 to 40 sandy loam to a depth of 12 inches and red sandy clay
inches, loam to a depth of 80 inches or more.
This map unit does not have a seasonal high water In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, the
table within a depth of 72 inches. The available water Orangeburg soil and similar soils make up 100 percent
capacity is low in the surface layer and moderate in of the unit. The similar soils include Dothan soils,
the subsoil. which have a yellow subsoil and contain plinthite. Also
Typically, this map unit supports the Mixed included in mapping are soils that have yellow mottles
Hardwood and Pine ecological community, which has in the lower part of the subsoil.
several variations. In mature, natural stands, the Dissimilar soils make up less than 5 percent of the
hardwoods replace the pines. The natural climax mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include Lucy soils,
vegetation is thought to be a beech-magnolia-maple which have a loamy subsoil at depth of 20 to 40
association. The trees that characterize this inches.
community are loblolly pine, white oak, pignut hickory, This map unit does not have a seasonal high water
American beech, and flowering dogwood. The table within a depth of 72 inches. The available water
herbaceous plants and vines include aster, partridge capacity is low in the surface layer and moderate in
pea, poison ivy, violet, Virginia creeper, and wild grape. the subsoil.
Grasses include broomsedge bluestem, longleaf Typically, this map unit supports the Mixed
uniola, low panicum, and spike uniola. Hardwood and Pine ecological community, which has
This map unit is well suited to a wide variety of several variations. In mature, natural stands, the
cultivated crops (fig. 9). Such crops as corn, soybeans, hardwoods replace the pines. The natural climax
peanuts, and cotton grow well without special erosion- vegetation is thought to be a beech-magnolia-maple
control or water-control measures. Such practices as association. The trees that characterize this
good seedbed preparation, nutrient management, and community are loblolly pine, white oak, pignut hickory,
crop rotation are all that are needed to keep the soil in American beech, and flowering dogwood. The
good condition. Cover crops should be alternated with herbaceous plants and vines include aster, partridge
row crops. All crop residues should be returned to the pea, poison ivy, violet, Virginia creeper, and wild grape.
soil. Grasses include broomsedge bluestem, longleaf
This map unit is well suited to pasture and hay. uniola, low panicum, and spike uniola.
Improved bahiagrasses and improved This map unit is well suited to a variety of cultivated
bermudagrasses grow well if properly managed, crops. It is highly productive for a wide variety of crops
Applications of lime and fertilizer and controlled if good management is applied. Erosion can be
grazing are needed to maintain vigorous plants and controlled by contour cultivation, terraces, and
adequate cover, stabilized waterways. A cropping sequence that







Calhoun County, Florida 49







































Figure 9.-Sorghum growing in a field of Orangeburg loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes.


includes close-growing crops and winter cover crops lagoon areas and playgrounds. Tables 7, 9, and 10
helps to help control erosion. Good seedbed contain additional information regarding factors that
preparation and applications of fertilizer and lime are can affect urban and recreational development.
needed for maximum yields. The capability subclass is lie.
This map unit is well suited to pasture and hay.
Improved bahiagrasses and improved
bermudagrasses grow well if properly managed. 46-Orangeburg sandy loam, 5 to 8
Clovers and other legumes are also adapted to the percent slopes
local conditions. Applications of lime and fertilizer and
controlled grazing are needed to maintain vigorous This well drained soil is on side slopes in the
plants and adequate cover, uplands. Areas of this soil are irregular in shape and
The potential productivity of this map unit is range from 5 to 20 acres in size. Slopes are smooth to
moderately high for slash pine. No serious limitations convex.
affect woodland management. Typically, the surface layer is brown sandy loam
This map unit has slight limitations affecting most about 5 inches thick. The subsoil is red sandy clay
urban and recreational development. The slope and loam to a depth of 80 inches or more.
seepage are moderate limitations affecting sewage In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, the







50 Soil Survey



Orangeburg soil and similar soils make up 100 percent playgrounds. Table 7 contains additional information
of the unit. The similar soils include Dothan soils, regarding factors that can affect recreational
which have a yellow subsoil and contain plinthite. Also development.
included in mapping are soils that have yellow mottles The capability subclass is Ille.
in the lower part of the subsoil.
Dissimilar soils make up less than 5 percent of the
mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include Lucy soils, 48-Pansey sandy loam
which have a loamy subsoil at depth of 20 to 40
inches. This poorly drained soil is on flats and in
This map unit does not have a seasonal high water depressions in interstream divides in the uplands.
table within a depth of 72 inches. The available water Areas of this soil are irregular in shape and range from
capacity is low in the surface layer and moderate in 3 to 225 acres in size. Slopes are smooth to concave
the subsoil. and range from 0 to 2 percent.
Typically, this map unit supports the Mixed Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sandy
Hardwood and Pine ecological community, which has loam about 8 inches thick. The subsoil is light brownish
several variations. In mature, natural stands, the gray sandy loam that has mottles in shades of gray,
hardwoods replace the pines. The natural climax yellow, and red to a depth of 14 inches; is light gray
vegetation is thought to be a beech-magnolia-maple sandy clay loam that has mottles in shades of gray,
association. The trees that characterize this yellow, and red to a depth of 23 inches; is sandy clay
community are loblolly pine, white oak, pignut hickory, loam that has plinthite and is variegated in shades of
American beech, and flowering dogwood. The gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 50 inches; and is
herbaceous plants and vines include aster, partridge gray clay to a depth of 80 inches or more.
pea, poison ivy, violet, Virginia creeper, and wild grape. In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, the
Grasses include broomsedge bluestem, longleaf Pansey soil and similar soils make up 100 percent of
uniola, low panicum, and spike uniola. the unit. The similar soils include Bladen and Pantego
This map unit is well suited to cultivated crops. soils, which have a loamy subsoil. Also included are
Because of the hazard of erosion, however, intensive soils that have less than 5 percent plinthite, are 20 to
erosion-control measures are needed. Measures 30 percent silt, or are clay in the lower part of the
include installing a system of terraces that have argillic horizon.
stabilized outlets and alternating row crops in strips Dissimilar soils make up less than 5 percent of the
with cover crops. Soil-improving cover crops and all mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include Alapaha
residue should be left on ground. Good seedbed and Robertsdale soils. Alapaha soils have a loamy
preparation and applications of fertilizer and lime are subsoil and have plinthite at a depth of 20 to 40
needed for maximum yields. inches. Robertsdale soils are better drained than the
This map unit is well suited to pasture and hay. Tall Pansey soil, are in higher positions, have a loamy
fescue, improved bermudagrasses, improved subsoil, and have mottles related to wetness at a
bahiagrasses, and clovers are well adapted to the depth of 12 to 18 inches.
local conditions. Yields are good if the pasture is well The seasonal high water table is at or near the
managed. Applications of fertilizer and lime and surface from December through March and from June
controlled grazing are needed to maintain vigorous through September. The available water capacity is
plants and good cover and to obtain maximum yields. moderate in the surface layer and the upper part of the
The potential productivity of this map unit is subsoil and very high in the lower part of the subsoil.
moderately high for slash pine. No serious concerns Typically, this map unit supports the North Florida
affect woodland management. Flatwoods ecological community, which has only slight
This map unit has slight limitations affecting most variations in composition. Slash pine and water oak
urban and recreational development. The slope, are the main trees. Herbaceous plants and shrubs
however, is a severe limitation affecting playgrounds, include blackberry, dogfennel, gallberry, greenbrier,
and the slope and seepage are moderate limitations saw palmetto, and wax-myrtle. Grasses and grasslike
affecting sewage lagoon areas and small commercial plants include chalky bluestem, yellow Indiangrass,
buildings. This map unit has slight limitations affecting low panicum, pineland threeawn, and sedges.
other urban development. Tables 9 and 10 contain This map unit is not suited to cultivated crops,
additional information regarding factors that can affect pasture, or hay because of excessive wetness.
urban development. The potential productivity of this map unit is
The slope is a severe limitations affecting moderately high for slash pine. The main management






Calhoun County, Florida 51



concerns are equipment limitations, seedling mortality, within a depth of 20 to 40 inches. Pansey soils have a
windthrow hazard, and plant competition because of subsoil within a depth of 20 inches and are in positions
excessive wetness. Site preparation should include similar to those of the Plummer soil.
bedding to reduce the seedling mortality rate and This map unit has a seasonal high water at or near
chopping the woody understory vegetation to help the surface from December through March and from
control immediate plant competition.The installation of June through September. The available water capacity
shallow surface ditches may also be necessary to is very low or low in the surface and subsurface layers
remove excess water during wet periods. Limiting and low or moderate in the subsoil.
mechanical operations to the drier periods can help to Typically, this map unit supports the North
overcome the equipment limitations. Windthrow hazard Florida Flatwoods ecological community, which has
can be reduced by intermittently leaving unharvested only slight variations in composition. Slash pine and
rows of mature trees to act as windbreaks. Prescribed water oak are the main trees. Herbaceous plants
burning in established stands can help to control the and shrubs include blackberry, dogfennel, gallberry,
competing vegetation and help to maintain ease of greenbrier, saw palmetto, and wax-myrtle. Grasses
access. During harvesting, site preparation, and road and grasslike plants include chalky bluestem, yellow
building, care should be taken not to impede the flow Indiangrass, low panicum, pineland threeawn, and
of the creeks and drainageways that remove excess sedges.
water from the area. This map unit is not suited to cultivated crops,
This map unit has severe limitations affecting urban pasture, or hay because of excessive wetness.
and recreational development. Wetness and slow The potential productivity of this map unit is
percolation are the main limitations. Tables 7, 9, and moderately high for slash pine. The main management
10 contain additional information regarding factors that concerns are equipment limitations, seedling mortality,
can affect urban and recreational development, and plant competition because of the sandy surface
The capability subclass is IVw. and wetness. Site preparation should include removing
the larger debris to facilitate mechanical operations,
bedding to reduce the seedling mortality rate, and
51-Plummer sand, 0 to 5 percent chopping the woody understory vegetation to help
slopes control immediate plant competition. Limiting
mechanical operations to the drier periods can help to
This poorly drained soil is on flats and in poorly overcome the equipment limitations. Prescribed
defined drainageways in the Coastal Plain uplands. burning in established stands can help to control the
Areas of this soil are elongated or irregular in shape competing vegetation and help to maintain ease of
and range from 3 to 1,000 acres in size. Slopes are access.
mostly smooth to concave but are convex in places. This map unit has severe limitations affecting urban
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand and recreational development. Wetness is the main
about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand. It is limitation. Tables 7, 9, and 10 contain additional
grayish brown to a depth of 16 inches and is light gray information regarding factors that can affect urban and
and has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a recreational development.
depth of 68 inches. The subsoil is light gray sandy The capability subclass is IVw.
loam that has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and
red to a depth of 80 inches or more.
In 80 percent of the areas of this map unit, the 54-Croatan, Surrency, and Pantego
Plummer soil and similar soils make up 75 to 95 soils, depressional
percent of the unit. The similar soils include Alapaha,
Pottsburg, Rutlege, and Surrency soils. Alapaha and These very poorly drained soils are in depressions
Surrency soils have a loamy subsoil at a depth of 20 to in the uplands. Areas of this map unit are irregular in
40 inches. Pottsburg and Rutlege soils do not have a shape and range from 3 to 750 acres in size. Slopes
loamy subsoil, are less than 2 percent.
Dissimilar soils make up 10 to 25 percent of the In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, Croatan,
mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include Albany, Surrency, Pantego, and similar soils make up 100
Chipley, Leefield, and Pansey soils. Albany, Chipley, percent of the unit. Each of the soils is not necessarily
and Leefield soils are better drained than the Plummer present in every mapped area, and the relative
soil and are in higher positions. Also, Chipley soils are proportion of each soil varies. Although the areas of
sandy throughout and Leefield soils have a subsoil each individual soil are generally large enough to be






Calhoun County, Florida 51



concerns are equipment limitations, seedling mortality, within a depth of 20 to 40 inches. Pansey soils have a
windthrow hazard, and plant competition because of subsoil within a depth of 20 inches and are in positions
excessive wetness. Site preparation should include similar to those of the Plummer soil.
bedding to reduce the seedling mortality rate and This map unit has a seasonal high water at or near
chopping the woody understory vegetation to help the surface from December through March and from
control immediate plant competition.The installation of June through September. The available water capacity
shallow surface ditches may also be necessary to is very low or low in the surface and subsurface layers
remove excess water during wet periods. Limiting and low or moderate in the subsoil.
mechanical operations to the drier periods can help to Typically, this map unit supports the North
overcome the equipment limitations. Windthrow hazard Florida Flatwoods ecological community, which has
can be reduced by intermittently leaving unharvested only slight variations in composition. Slash pine and
rows of mature trees to act as windbreaks. Prescribed water oak are the main trees. Herbaceous plants
burning in established stands can help to control the and shrubs include blackberry, dogfennel, gallberry,
competing vegetation and help to maintain ease of greenbrier, saw palmetto, and wax-myrtle. Grasses
access. During harvesting, site preparation, and road and grasslike plants include chalky bluestem, yellow
building, care should be taken not to impede the flow Indiangrass, low panicum, pineland threeawn, and
of the creeks and drainageways that remove excess sedges.
water from the area. This map unit is not suited to cultivated crops,
This map unit has severe limitations affecting urban pasture, or hay because of excessive wetness.
and recreational development. Wetness and slow The potential productivity of this map unit is
percolation are the main limitations. Tables 7, 9, and moderately high for slash pine. The main management
10 contain additional information regarding factors that concerns are equipment limitations, seedling mortality,
can affect urban and recreational development, and plant competition because of the sandy surface
The capability subclass is IVw. and wetness. Site preparation should include removing
the larger debris to facilitate mechanical operations,
bedding to reduce the seedling mortality rate, and
51-Plummer sand, 0 to 5 percent chopping the woody understory vegetation to help
slopes control immediate plant competition. Limiting
mechanical operations to the drier periods can help to
This poorly drained soil is on flats and in poorly overcome the equipment limitations. Prescribed
defined drainageways in the Coastal Plain uplands. burning in established stands can help to control the
Areas of this soil are elongated or irregular in shape competing vegetation and help to maintain ease of
and range from 3 to 1,000 acres in size. Slopes are access.
mostly smooth to concave but are convex in places. This map unit has severe limitations affecting urban
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray sand and recreational development. Wetness is the main
about 8 inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand. It is limitation. Tables 7, 9, and 10 contain additional
grayish brown to a depth of 16 inches and is light gray information regarding factors that can affect urban and
and has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a recreational development.
depth of 68 inches. The subsoil is light gray sandy The capability subclass is IVw.
loam that has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and
red to a depth of 80 inches or more.
In 80 percent of the areas of this map unit, the 54-Croatan, Surrency, and Pantego
Plummer soil and similar soils make up 75 to 95 soils, depressional
percent of the unit. The similar soils include Alapaha,
Pottsburg, Rutlege, and Surrency soils. Alapaha and These very poorly drained soils are in depressions
Surrency soils have a loamy subsoil at a depth of 20 to in the uplands. Areas of this map unit are irregular in
40 inches. Pottsburg and Rutlege soils do not have a shape and range from 3 to 750 acres in size. Slopes
loamy subsoil, are less than 2 percent.
Dissimilar soils make up 10 to 25 percent of the In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, Croatan,
mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include Albany, Surrency, Pantego, and similar soils make up 100
Chipley, Leefield, and Pansey soils. Albany, Chipley, percent of the unit. Each of the soils is not necessarily
and Leefield soils are better drained than the Plummer present in every mapped area, and the relative
soil and are in higher positions. Also, Chipley soils are proportion of each soil varies. Although the areas of
sandy throughout and Leefield soils have a subsoil each individual soil are generally large enough to be






52 Soil Survey



mapped separately, they were mapped as one unit buttonbush and dahoon holly. Herbaceous plants
because of present and predicted use. and vines are cinnamon fern, lizard's tail, royal fern,
Typically, the surface layer of the Croatan soil is and wild pine.
black muck about 19 inches thick. The substratum is This map unit is not suited to cultivated crops,
very dark brown mucky sandy loam to a depth of 42 pasture, or hay because of excessive wetness and
inches, dark brown sandy loam to a depth of 47 ponding.
inches, and light brownish gray sandy clay loam to a This map unit is not suited to pine production
depth of 80 inches or more. because of seedling mortality and equipment
In areas of the Croatan soil, the seasonal high limitations caused by excessive wetness and
water table is either above the surface or near the ponding.
surface during most of the year. The available water This map unit is not suited to urban and
capacity is very high in the surface layer. recreational development because of excessive
Typically, the surface layer of the Surrency soil is wetness, ponding, and subsidence. Tables 7, 9, and 10
black mucky sand to a depth of 5 inches and very dark contain additional information regarding factors that
grayish brown sand to a depth of 8 inches. The can affect urban and recreational development.
subsurface layer is grayish brown sand to a depth of The capability subclass is Vllw.
35 inches. The subsoil is grayish brown sandy loam
that has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a
depth of 80 inches or more. 55-Pottsburg sand
In areas of the Surrency soil, the seasonal high
water table is either at or above the surface during This poorly drained soil is on flats in areas of
most of the year. The available water capacity is high flatwoods, on rises, and on knolls in the coastal
or very high in the surface layer and low in the lowlands. Areas of this soil are irregular in shape and
subsurface layer and subsoil. range from 3 to 250 acres in size. Slopes range from 0
Typically, the surface layer of the Pantego soil is to 2 percent.
black mucky fine sandy loam about 14 inches thick. Typically, the surface layer is gray sand about 7
The subsoil is sandy clay loam. It is very dark gray to a inches thick. The subsurface layer is dark grayish
depth of 39 inches and gray to a depth of 80 inches or brown sand to a depth of 14 inches; is light gray sand
more. that has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a
In areas of the Pantego soil, the seasonal high depth of 22 inches; is white sand that has mottles in
water table is either at or above the surface for most of shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 52
the year. The available water capacity is moderate or inches; and is light brownish gray loamy sand to a
high throughout. depth of 58 inches. The subsoil is black sand to a
Dissimilar soils make up less than 5 percent of the depth of 80 inches or more.
mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include Alapaha, In 80 percent of the areas of this map unit, the
Bladen, Dorovan, Pansey, Plummer, and Rutlege soils. Pottsburg soil and similar soils make up 86 to 100
Alapaha, Bladen, Pansey, and Plummer soils are percent of the unit. The similar soils include Leon soils,
poorly drained and are in higher positions than those which have an organic-stained subsoil within a depth
of the Croatan, Surrency, and Pantego soils. Dorovan of 30 inches.
soils are organic to a depth of more than 51 inches. Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 14 percent of the
Rutlege soils do not have a loamy subsoil. Also mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include Hurricane
included are small areas of very poorly drained soils soils that are better drained than the Pottsburg soil,
that have a dark, sandy surface layer that is more than are in higher positions, and have mottles related to
24 inches thick, have a subsoil that is more than 35 wetness at a depth of 18 to 42 inches. Also included
percent clay, and/or are stratified and are in positions are soils that have a sandy profile, do not have a
similar to those of the Croatan, Surrency, and Pantego black, organic-stained subsoil of sand within a depth of
soils. 80 inches, and are in positions similar to those of the
Typically, this map unit supports the Swamp Pottsburg soil.
Hardwoods ecological community. Many areas may The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 6 to
have been dominated by cypress, but when the 18 inches from December through March and from
large cypress were cut down, the hardwoods June through September. The available water capacity
became dominant. Trees that commonly are is low or moderate in the surface layer, very low or low
dominant include red maple, blackgum, water in the subsurface layer, and moderate to very high in
tupelo, and cypress. Common shrubs are the subsoil.






Calhoun County, Florida 53



Typically, this map unit supports the North Florida 57-Stilson loamy sand, 0 to 2
Flatwoods ecological community, which has only slight percent slopes
variations in composition. Slash pine, water oak, and percent lopes
live oak are the main trees. Herbaceous plants and
shrubs include blackberry, dogfennel, gallberry, This moderately well drained soil is on summits
greenbrier, saw palmetto, and wax-myrtle. Grasses in the uplands. Areas of this soil are irregular in
and grasslike plants include chalky bluestem, yellow shape and range from 3 to 90 acres in size. Slopes
Indiangrass, low panicum, pineland threeawn, and are smooth to concave.
sedges. Typically, the surface layer is dark gray loamy sand
This map unit is poorly suited to cultivated crops to a depth of 6 inches. The subsurface layer is loamy
because of wetness. A good water-control system is sand. It is light yellowish brown to a depth of 11 inches
needed before the soil can be made suitable for most and is olive yellow and has mottles in shades of gray,
crops. The system should be designed to remove yellow, and red to a depth of 26 inches. The subsoil is
excess surface water during heavy rains as well as to brownish yellow sandy loam that has mottles in
remove excess subsurface water. Seedbed shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 34
preparation should include bedding the rows. inches; is brownish yellow sandy clay loam that has
Fertilizing, liming, and using a close-growing, soil- mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of
improving crop are critical. 62 inches; and is sandy clay loam that has plinthite
This map unit is moderately suited to pasture and and is variegated in shades of gray, yellow, and red to
hay. A seasonal high water table and rapid leaching of a depth of 80 inches or more.
plant nutrients limit the choice of plants and reduce the In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, the
potential yields of those crops that are adapted to the Stilson soil and similar soils make up 88 to 91 percent
local conditions. Intensive management of soil fertility of the unit. The similar soils include Leefield and
and water is required to fully utilize this soil for pasture Florala soils. Leefield soils have mottles related to
and hay. wetness in the upper 5 inches of the loamy subsoil.
The potential productivity of this map unit is Florala soils have a loamy subsoil within a depth of 20
moderate for slash pine. The main management inches. Also included in mapping are soils that have
concerns are equipment limitations, seedling less than 5 percent, by volume, plinthite within a depth
mortality, windthrow hazard, and plant competition of 60 inches.
because of the sandy surface and wetness. Site Dissimilar soils make up 9 to 12 percent of the
preparation should include removing the larger mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include Albany,
debris to facilitate mechanical operations, bedding Blanton, Dothan, and Robertsdale soils. Albany and
to reduce the seedling mortality rate, and chopping Blanton have a loamy subsoil below a depth of 40
the woody understory vegetation to help control inches. Dothan and Robertsdale soils have a subsoil
immediate plant competition. The installation of within a depth of 20 inches. Also, Dothan soils are in
shallow surface ditches may also be necessary to more elevated positions than the Stilson soil.
remove excess water during wet periods. Limiting The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 30 to
mechanical operations to the drier periods can help 42 inches from December through March and from
to overcome the equipment limitations. Windthrow June through September. The available water capacity
hazard can be reduced by intermittently leaving is low in the surface and subsurface layers and
unharvested rows of mature trees to act as moderate or low in the subsoil.
windbreaks. Prescribed burning in established Typically, this map unit supports the Mixed
stands can help to control the competing vegetation Hardwood and Pine ecological community, which has
and help to maintain ease of access. During several variations. In mature, natural stands, the
harvesting, site preparation, and road building, care hardwoods replace the pines. The natural climax
should be taken not to impede the flow of the vegetation is thought to be a beech-magnolia-maple
creeks and drainageways that remove excess water association. The trees that characterize this
from the area. community are loblolly pine, white oak, pignut hickory,
This map unit has severe limitations affecting urban American beech, and flowering dogwood. The
and recreational development. Wetness is the main herbaceous plants and vines include aster, partridge
limitation. Tables 7, 9, and 10 contain additional pea, poison ivy, violet, Virginia creeper, and wild grape.
information regarding factors that can affect urban and Grasses include broomsedge bluestem, longleaf
recreational development. uniola, low panicum, and spike uniola.
The capability subclass is IVw. This map unit is well suited to cultivated crops. The






54 Soil Survey



variety of crops that are adapted to the local are mostly smooth to convex but are concave in
conditions is somewhat limited because the water places.
table is in the lower root zone much of the time. Tile Typically, the surface layer is dark gray loamy
drains are needed to protect nonadapted crops from sand to a depth of 10 inches. The subsurface layer
wetness. Crop residue and cover crops need to be left is brownish yellow loamy sand that has mottles in
on the land to help control erosion. Good seedbed shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 24
preparation and applications of fertilizer and lime are inches. The subsoil is sandy clay loam. It is
needed for maximum yields. brownish yellow and has mottles in shades of gray,
This map unit is well suited to pasture and hay. yellow, and red to a depth of 57 inches and has
Pasture plants, such as improved bermudagrasses plinthite and is variegated in shades of gray, yellow,
and improved bahiagrasses, are well adapted to the and red to a depth of 80 inches.
local conditions. They grow well if the pasture is In 80 percent of the areas of this map unit, the
properly managed. Applications of fertilizer and lime Stilson soil and similar soils make up 86 to 100
are needed. Controlled grazing is needed to maintain percent of the unit. The similar soils include Leefield
vigorous plants and to obtain maximum yields, and Florala soils. Leefield soils have mottles related to
The potential productivity of this map unit is high for wetness in the upper 5 inches of the loamy subsoil.
slash pine. The main management concerns are Florala soils have a loamy subsoil within a depth of 20
equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant inches. Also included in mapping are soils that have
competition caused by the sandy surface, low less than 5 percent, by volume, plinthite within a depth
available water capacity, and seasonal wetness. Site of 60 inches.
preparation should include removing the larger debris Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 14 percent of the
to facilitate mechanical operations and chopping the mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include Albany,
woody understory vegetation to help control Blanton, Dothan, and Robertsdale soils. Albany and
immediate plant competition. Planting trees that are Blanton have a loamy subsoil below a depth of 40
adapted to the local conditions and planting during the inches. Dothan and Robertsdale soils have a subsoil
wetter months can reduce the seedling mortality rate. within a depth of 20 inches. Also, Dothan soils are in
Prescribed burning in established stands can help to more elevated positions than the Stilson soil.
control the competing vegetation and help to maintain The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 30 to
ease of access. 42 inches from December through March and from
Wetness, slow percolation, seepage, and cutbanks June through September. The available water capacity
caving are severe limitations affecting septic tank is low in the surface and subsurface layers and
absorption fields, area sanitary landfills, sewage moderate or low in the subsoil.
lagoons, and shallow excavations. Wetness and Typically, this map unit supports the Mixed
droughtiness are moderate limitations affecting Hardwood and Pine ecological community, which has
dwellings with basements, trench type sanitary several variations. In mature, natural stands, the
landfills, lawns, and landscaping. The map unit has hardwoods replace the pines. The natural climax
slight limitations affecting dwellings without vegetation is thought to be a beech-magnolia-maple
basements, small commercial buildings, and local association. The trees that characterize this
roads and streets. Tables 9 and 10 contain additional community are loblolly pine, white oak, pignut hickory,
information regarding factors that can effect urban American beech, and flowering dogwood. The
development, herbaceous plants and vines include aster, partridge
The sandy surface and droughtiness are moderate pea, poison ivy, violet, Virginia creeper, and wild grape.
limitations affecting most recreational development. Grasses include broomsedge bluestem, longleaf
Table 7 contains additional information regarding uniola, low panicum, and spike uniola.
factors that can affect recreational development. This map unit is well suited to cultivated crops.
The capability subclass is l1w. Wetness and the hazard of erosion are the main
management concerns. The variety of crops that
are adapted to the local conditions is somewhat
58-Stilson loamy sand, 2 to 5 limited because the water table is in the lower root
percent slopes zone much of the time. Tile drains are needed to
protect nonadapted crops from wetness. Row crops
This moderately well drained soil is on shoulders should be planted on the contour in alternating
in the uplands. Areas of this soil are irregular in strips with cover crops. Nutrient management helps
shape and range from 3 to 25 acres in size. Slopes to maximize yields.






Calhoun County, Florida 55



This map unit is well suited to pasture and hay. enough to be mapped separately, they were mapped
Pasture plants, such as improved bermudagrasses as one unit because of present and predicted use. The
and improved bahiagrasses, are well adapted to the similar soils include Dorovan soils, which are organic
local conditions. They grow well if the pasture is to a depth of 51 inches or more. Also included are
properly managed. Applications of fertilizer and lime small areas of very poorly drained soils that have a
are needed. Controlled grazing is needed to dark, sandy surface layer that is more than 24 inches
maintain vigorous plants and to obtain maximum thick, have a subsoil that is more than 35 percent clay,
yields. or are stratified.
The potential productivity of this map unit is high Dissimilar soils make up less than 5 percent of the
for slash pine. The main management concerns are mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include small areas
equipment limitations, seedling mortality, and plant of hydric Alapaha, Pansey, Plummer, and Pottsburg
competition caused by the sandy surface, low soils on flats. All of these included soils are better
available water capacity, and seasonal wetness. drained than the Croatan, Rutlege, and Surrency soils
Site preparation should include removing the larger and are in higher positions.
debris to facilitate mechanical operations and Typically, the surface layer of the Croatan soil is
chopping the woody understory vegetation to help black muck about 19 inches thick. The substratum is
control immediate plant competition. Planting trees very dark brown mucky sandy loam to a depth of 42
that are adapted to the local conditions and planting inches, dark brown sandy loam to a depth of 47
during the wetter months can reduce the seedling inches, and light brownish gray sandy clay loam to a
mortality rate. Prescribed burning in established depth of 80 inches or more.
stands can help to control the competing vegetation In areas of the Croatan soil, the seasonal high
and help to maintain ease of access, water table is at or above the surface during most of
Wetness, slow percolation, seepage, and cutbanks the year. The available water capacity is very high in
caving are severe limitations affecting septic tank the surface layer and moderate or high in the
absorption fields, area sanitary landfills, sewage subsurface layers and substratum.
lagoons, and shallow excavations. This map unit has Typically, the surface layer of the Rutlege soil is
moderate limitations affecting dwellings with black mucky sand about 17 inches thick. The
basements, trench sanitary landfills, lawns, and substratum is grayish brown loamy sand to a depth of
landscaping. It has slight limitations affecting dwellings 80 inches or more.
without basements, small commercial buildings, and In areas of the Rutlege soil, the seasonal high water
local roads and streets. Tables 9 and 10 contain table is at or above the surface during most of the
additional information regarding factors that can effect year. The available water capacity is very high in the
urban development, surface layer and very low or low in the substratum.
The sandy surface, slope, and droughtiness are Typically, the surface layer of the Surrency soil is
moderate limitations affecting most recreational black mucky sand to a depth of about 5 inches and
development. Table 7 contains additional information very dark grayish brown sand to a depth of 8 inches.
regarding factors that can affect recreational The subsurface layer is grayish brown loamy sand to a
development, depth of 35 inches. The subsoil is grayish brown sandy
The capability subclass is IIs. clay loam that has mottles in shades of gray, yellow,
and red to a depth of 80 inches or more.
In areas of the Surrency soil, the seasonal high
60-Croatan, Rutlege, and Surrency water table is either above the surface or within a
soils, depressional depth of 6 inches during most of the year. The
available water capacity is moderate.
These very poorly drained soils are in depressions Typically, this map unit supports the Swamp
in the uplands. Areas of this map unit are irregular in Hardwoods ecological community. Many areas may
shape and range from 3 to 500 acres in size. Slopes have been dominated by cypress, but when the large
are less than 2 percent. cypress were cut down, the hardwoods became
In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, the dominant. Trees that commonly are dominant include
Croatan, Rutlege, Surrency, and similar soils make up red maple, blackgum, water tupelo, and cypress.
100 percent of the unit. Each of the soils is not Common shrubs are buttonbush and dahoon holly.
necessarily present in every mapped area, and the Herbaceous plants and vines are cinnamon fern,
relative proportion of each soil varies. Although the lizard's tail, royal fern, and wild pine.
areas of each individual soil are generally large This map unit is not suited to cultivated crops,






56 Soil Survey



pasture, or hay because of excessive wetness and Areas from which pines have been removed are
ponding. dominated by oaks. The trees that characterize this
This map unit is not suited to the production of pine community are longleaf pine, turkey oak, blackjack
trees because of seedling mortality and equipment oak, and post oak. Herbaceous plants and vines
limitations caused by excessive wetness and ponding. include aster, blazingstar, brackenfern, butterfly
This map unit is suited to hardwood production pea, elephantsfoot, grassleaf goldaster, partridge
through natural regeneration. pea, pineland beggarweed, sandhill milkweed,
This map unit is not suited to urban and showy crotalaria, and wild indigo. Grasses and
recreational development because of excessive grasslike plants include Curtis' dropseed, hairy
wetness and subsidence. Tables 7, 9, and 10 contain panicum, yellow Indiangrass, low panicum, and
additional information regarding factors that can affect pineywoods dropseed.
urban and recreational development. This map unit is poorly suited to cultivated crops.
The capability subclass is Vllw. Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients
limit the choice of plants and reduce the potential
yields of those crops that are adapted to the local
61-Troup sand, 0 to 5 percent conditions. Soil management should include row
slopes crops planted on the contour in alternating strips
with close-growing, soil-improving crops. The cover
This somewhat excessively drained soil is on crops and crop residue left on the soil help control
summits and shoulders in the uplands. Areas of this erosion. Applications of lime and fertilizer are
soil are irregular in shape and range from 20 to 1,200 needed. Irrigation of high-value crops, such as
acres in size. Slopes are mostly smooth to convex but watermelons, is usually feasible where water is
are concave in places. readily available.
Typically, the surface layer is dark grayish brown This map unit is moderately suited to pasture and
sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is hay. Deep-rooted plants, such as improved
sand. It is yellowish brown to a depth of 25 inches and bermudagrasses and improved bahiagrasses, are well
brownish yellow to a depth of 46 inches. The subsoil is adapted to the local conditions. These plants grow well
red sandy loam to a depth of 63 inches and is red and produce good ground cover if lime and fertilizer
sandy clay loam to a depth of 80 inches or more. are applied. Controlled grazing is needed to maintain
In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, the vigorous plants and to obtain maximum yields.Yields
Troup soil and similar soils make up 75 to 100 percent are occasionally reduced by extended, severe
of the unit. The similar soils include Bonifay and Lucy droughts.
soils. Bonifay soils have a yellow subsoil that contains The potential productivity of this map unit is
plinthite. Lucy soils have a loamy, reddish subsoil at a moderate for slash pine. The main management
depth of 20 to 40 inches. concerns are equipment limitations and seedling
Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 25 percent of the mortality caused by the sandy surface and low
mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include Blanton, available water capacity. Site preparation should
Foxworth, Lakeland, and Orangeburg soils. Blanton include removing the larger debris to facilitate
soils are more poorly drained than the Troup soil, are mechanical operations. Planting trees that are adapted
in lower positions, and have a yellow subsoil. Foxworth to the local conditions and planting during the wetter
and Lakeland soils are sandy throughout. Foxworth months can reduce the seedling mortality rate.
soils are in lower positions than the Troup soil. Seepage and the sandy surface are severe
Lakeland soils are in positions similar to those of the limitations affecting sewage lagoons, sanitary landfills,
Troup soil. Orangeburg soils have a subsoil within a and shallow excavations. Droughtiness is a moderate
depth of 20 inches and are in positions similar to those limitation affecting lawns and landscaping. Tables 9
of the Troup soil. and 10 contain additional information regarding factors
This map unit does not have a seasonal high water that can affect urban development.
table within a depth of 72 inches.The available water This map unit has severe limitations affecting most
capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers recreational development because of the sandy
and moderate in the subsoil. surface. It has moderate limitations affecting lawns and
Typically, this map unit supports the Longleaf landscaping because of droughtiness. Table 7 contains
Pine-Turkey Oak Hills ecological community, which additional information regarding factors that can affect
has several variations. Scattered longleaf pine are recreational development.
the overstory in mature, natural stands of trees. The capability subclass is Ills.






Calhoun County, Florida 57




62-Troup sand, 5 to 8 percent cover crops and crop residues left on the soil help to
control erosion. Applications of lime and fertilizer are
slopes needed.
This map unit is moderately suited to pasture and
This somewhat excessively drained soil is on side hay. Deep-rooted plants, such as improved
slopes in the uplands. Individual areas of this soil are bermudagrasses and improved bahiagrasses, are well
irregular or elongated in shape and range from 5 to adapted to the local conditions. These plants grow well
120 acres in size. Slopes are smooth to convex. and produce good ground cover if lime and fertilizer
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown sand and produce good ground cover if lime and fertilizer
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown sand are applied. Controlled grazing is needed to maintain
about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand. It is vigorous plants and to obtain maximum yields. Yields
brownish yellow to a depth of 36 inches and light are occasionally greatly reduced by extended, severe
yellowish brown to a depth of 60 inches. The subsoil is droughts
red sandy loam to a depth of 80 inches or more.uctivity of this map unit is
In 90 percent of the areas of this map unit, the maunt
moderate for slash pine. The main management
Troup soil and similar soils make up 75 to 100 percent oer ae equipment limitations and seedling
of the unit. The similar soils include Bonifay and Lucy mortait cause t and low
mortality caused by the sandy surface and low
soils. Bonifay soils have a yellow subsoil that contains available water capacity. To facilitate mechanical
plinthite. Lucy soils have a loamy, reddish subsoil at a operations, site preparation should include the removal
depth of 20 to 40 inches, of the larger debris. Planting trees that are adapted to
Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 10 percent of the the local conditions and planting during the wetter
mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include Blanton,
Foxworth, Lakeland, and Orangeburg soils. Blanton h an dce the sedlng mtalty rat
The sandy surface and cutbanks caving are severe
soils are more poorly drained than the Troup soil, are latns affecting saniy ands and sa
in lower positions, and have a yellow subsoil. Foxworth excavations. Droughtiness is a moderate limitation
and Lakeland soils are sandy throughout. Foxworth affecting ns landscaping. Tables 9 and 10
soils are in lower positions than the Troup soil.
s are in er positions than the Troup contain additional information regarding factors that
Lakeland soils are in higher positions than the Troup
soil. Orangeburg soils have a subsoil at a depth of less cn a u
The sandy surface is a severe limitation affecting
than 20 inches and are in positions similar to those of m recreational development, and droughtiness is a
most recreational development, and droughtiness is a
Troup soi. moderate limitations affecting lawns and landscaping.
This map unit does not have a seasonal high water Table 7 contains additional information regarding
table within a depth of 72 inches. The available water a a can affct recreational development
capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers h caaility sclas i
and moderate in the subsoil.
Typically, this map unit supports the Longleaf Pine-
Turkey Oak Hills ecological community, which has 64-Pamlico, Bibb, and Rutlege
several variations. Scattered longleaf pine are the
overstory in mature, natural stands of trees. Areas soils, frequently flooded
from which pines have been removed are dominated
by oaks. The trees that characterize this community This map unit consists of very poorly drained
are longleaf pine, turkey oak, blackjack oak, and post Pamlico and Rutlege soils and poorly drained Bibb
oak. Herbaceous plants and vines include aster, soils. It is on flood plains along creeks and streams.
blazingstar, brackenfern, butterfly pea, elephantsfoot, Areas are elongated in shape and range from 5 to 900
grassleaf goldaster, partridge pea, pineland acres in size. Slopes are less than 2 percent.
beggarweed, sandhill milkweed, showy crotalaria, and In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, Pamlico,
wild indigo. Grasses and grasslike plants include Bibb, Rutlege, and similar soils make up 100 percent
Curtis' dropseed, hairy panicum, yellow Indiangrass, of the unit. Each of the soils is not necessarily present
low panicum, and pineywoods dropseed. in every mapped area, and the relative proportion of
This map unit is poorly suited to cultivated crops. each soil varies. Although the areas of each individual
Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients limit soil are generally large enough to be mapped
the choice of crops and reduce the potential yields of separately, they were mapped as one unit because of
those crops that are adapted to the local conditions. present and predicted use. The similar soils include
Erosion is also a management concern. Row crops small areas of Dorovan and Surrency soils. Dorovan
should be planted on the contour in alternating strips soils are organic to a depth of 51 inches or more.
with close-growing, soil-improving cover crops. The Surrency soils have a loamy subsoil at depth of 20 to






Calhoun County, Florida 57




62-Troup sand, 5 to 8 percent cover crops and crop residues left on the soil help to
control erosion. Applications of lime and fertilizer are
slopes needed.
This map unit is moderately suited to pasture and
This somewhat excessively drained soil is on side hay. Deep-rooted plants, such as improved
slopes in the uplands. Individual areas of this soil are bermudagrasses and improved bahiagrasses, are well
irregular or elongated in shape and range from 5 to adapted to the local conditions. These plants grow well
120 acres in size. Slopes are smooth to convex. and produce good ground cover if lime and fertilizer
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown sand and produce good ground cover if lime and fertilizer
Typically, the surface layer is dark brown sand are applied. Controlled grazing is needed to maintain
about 4 inches thick. The subsurface layer is sand. It is vigorous plants and to obtain maximum yields. Yields
brownish yellow to a depth of 36 inches and light are occasionally greatly reduced by extended, severe
yellowish brown to a depth of 60 inches. The subsoil is droughts
red sandy loam to a depth of 80 inches or more.uctivity of this map unit is
In 90 percent of the areas of this map unit, the maunt
moderate for slash pine. The main management
Troup soil and similar soils make up 75 to 100 percent oer ae equipment limitations and seedling
of the unit. The similar soils include Bonifay and Lucy mortait cause t and low
mortality caused by the sandy surface and low
soils. Bonifay soils have a yellow subsoil that contains available water capacity. To facilitate mechanical
plinthite. Lucy soils have a loamy, reddish subsoil at a operations, site preparation should include the removal
depth of 20 to 40 inches, of the larger debris. Planting trees that are adapted to
Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 10 percent of the the local conditions and planting during the wetter
mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include Blanton,
Foxworth, Lakeland, and Orangeburg soils. Blanton h an dce the sedlng mtalty rat
The sandy surface and cutbanks caving are severe
soils are more poorly drained than the Troup soil, are latns affecting saniy ands and sa
in lower positions, and have a yellow subsoil. Foxworth excavations. Droughtiness is a moderate limitation
and Lakeland soils are sandy throughout. Foxworth affecting ns landscaping. Tables 9 and 10
soils are in lower positions than the Troup soil.
s are in er positions than the Troup contain additional information regarding factors that
Lakeland soils are in higher positions than the Troup
soil. Orangeburg soils have a subsoil at a depth of less cn a u
The sandy surface is a severe limitation affecting
than 20 inches and are in positions similar to those of m recreational development, and droughtiness is a
most recreational development, and droughtiness is a
Troup soi. moderate limitations affecting lawns and landscaping.
This map unit does not have a seasonal high water Table 7 contains additional information regarding
table within a depth of 72 inches. The available water a a can affct recreational development
capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers h caaility sclas i
and moderate in the subsoil.
Typically, this map unit supports the Longleaf Pine-
Turkey Oak Hills ecological community, which has 64-Pamlico, Bibb, and Rutlege
several variations. Scattered longleaf pine are the
overstory in mature, natural stands of trees. Areas soils, frequently flooded
from which pines have been removed are dominated
by oaks. The trees that characterize this community This map unit consists of very poorly drained
are longleaf pine, turkey oak, blackjack oak, and post Pamlico and Rutlege soils and poorly drained Bibb
oak. Herbaceous plants and vines include aster, soils. It is on flood plains along creeks and streams.
blazingstar, brackenfern, butterfly pea, elephantsfoot, Areas are elongated in shape and range from 5 to 900
grassleaf goldaster, partridge pea, pineland acres in size. Slopes are less than 2 percent.
beggarweed, sandhill milkweed, showy crotalaria, and In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, Pamlico,
wild indigo. Grasses and grasslike plants include Bibb, Rutlege, and similar soils make up 100 percent
Curtis' dropseed, hairy panicum, yellow Indiangrass, of the unit. Each of the soils is not necessarily present
low panicum, and pineywoods dropseed. in every mapped area, and the relative proportion of
This map unit is poorly suited to cultivated crops. each soil varies. Although the areas of each individual
Droughtiness and rapid leaching of plant nutrients limit soil are generally large enough to be mapped
the choice of crops and reduce the potential yields of separately, they were mapped as one unit because of
those crops that are adapted to the local conditions. present and predicted use. The similar soils include
Erosion is also a management concern. Row crops small areas of Dorovan and Surrency soils. Dorovan
should be planted on the contour in alternating strips soils are organic to a depth of 51 inches or more.
with close-growing, soil-improving cover crops. The Surrency soils have a loamy subsoil at depth of 20 to






58 Soil Survey



40 inches. Also included are small areas of very poorly and vines are cinnamon fern, lizard's tail, royal fern,
drained soils that have a dark, sandy surface layer that and wild pine.
is more than 24 inches thick, have a subsoil that is This map unit is not suited to cultivated crops,
more than 35 percent clay, or are stratified, pasture, or hay because of excessive wetness and the
Dissimilar soils make up less than 5 percent of the flooding.
mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include small areas This map unit is not suited to pine trees because of
of the poorly drained Alapaha, Kinston, Pansey, seedling mortality and equipment limitations caused
Plummer, and Pottsburg soils on flats, by excessive wetness and flooding.
Typically, the surface layer of the Pamlico soil is This map unit is not suited to urban and
very dark brown mucky peat to a depth of 7 inches recreational development because of excessive
and black muck to a depth of 31 inches. The wetness, subsidence, and flooding.Tables 7, 9, and 10
substratum is light brownish gray loamy sand to a contain additional information regarding factors that
depth of 80 inches or more. can affect urban and recreational development.
In areas of the Pamlico soil, the seasonal high The capability subclass is Vllw in areas of the
water table is at or above the surface during most of Pamlico soil and Vw in areas of the Bibb and Rutlege
the year. The available water capacity is very high in soils.
the surface layer and medium to high in the
substratum.
Typically, the surface layer of the Bibb soil is very 66-Lakeland and Troup soils, 8 to
dark gray sandy loam to a depth of 8 inches and dark 12 percent slopes
gray sandy loam to a depth of 12 inches. The
substratum is gray sandy loam that has thin strata of This map unit consists of strongly sloping,
sand and loamy sand to a depth of 64 inches and is excessively drained Lakeland soils and somewhat
light gray loamy sand that has thin strata of sand and excessively drained Troup soils on side slopes in the
sandy loam to a depth of 80 inches or more. uplands. Areas of this map unit are elongated or
In areas of the Bibb soil, the seasonal high water irregular in shape and range from 5 to 400 acres in
table is at the surface to a depth of 6 inches during size. Areas of each individual soil range from 3 to 100
most of the year. The available water capacity is acres in size. Slopes are smooth to convex.
moderate or high. The Lakeland or Troup soil or both make up about
Typically, the surface layer of the Rutlege soil is 60 to 80 percent of each mapped area. Each of the
black sand about 13 inches thick. The substratum is soils is not necessarily present in every mapped area,
grayish brown sand to a depth of 80 inches or more. and the relative proportion of each soil varies.
In areas of the Rutlege soil, the seasonal high water Although the areas of each individual soil are generally
table is at the surface to a depth of 6 inches during large enough to be mapped separately, they were
most of the year. The available water capacity is low. mapped as one unit because of present and predicted
In this map unit, flooding is likely to occur often use.
under usual weather conditions. The chance of The Bonifay and Lucy soils are similar to the
flooding is more than 50 percent in any year but less Lakeland and Troup soils and are included in some
than 50 percent in all months in any year. On the mapped areas. Bonifay soils, however, have a yellow
average, flooding occurs more than 50 times in 100 subsoil that contains plinthite. Lucy soils have a loamy,
years. The average duration of the flooding ranges reddish subsoil at a depth of 20 to 40 inches. Bonifay
from 7 to 30 days in areas of the Pamlico soil and from and Lucy soils are in positions similar to those of the
2 to 7 days in areas of the Bibb and Rutlege soils. Lakeland and Troup soils. Also included are soils that
Meandering stream channels isolate many areas. have slopes of more than 12 percent and small
Excess water ponds in low-lying areas for very long seepage spots.
periods after heavy rains. Dissimilar soils make up 10 to 25 percent of the
Typically, this map unit supports the Swamp mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include Blanton,
Hardwoods ecological community. Many areas may Foxworth, Fuquay, and Stilson soils, which are more
have been dominated by cypress, but when the poorly drained than the Lakeland and Troup soils and
large cypress were cut down, the hardwoods are in lower positions.
became dominant. Trees that commonly are This map unit does not have a seasonal high water
dominant include red maple, blackgum, water table within a depth of 72 inches. In areas of the
tupelo, and cypress. Common shrubs are Lakeland soil, the available water capacity is low in the
buttonbush and dahoon holly. Herbaceous plants surface layer and very low or low in the substratum. In






Calhoun County, Florida 59



areas of the Troup soil, the available water capacity is septic tank absorption fields, dwellings with
low in the surface and subsurface layers and moderate basements, local roads and streets, lawns, and
in the subsoil. landscaping.The slope, the sandy surface, seepage,
Typically, the surface layer of the Lakeland soil is and droughtiness are the main limitations.Tables 9
very dark grayish brown sand about 5 inches thick. and 10 contain additional information regarding factors
The substratum is sand. It is dark yellowish brown to a that can affect urban development.
depth of 40 inches, yellowish brown to a depth of 65 The slope and the sandy surface are severe
inches, and brownish yellow to a depth of 80 inches or limitations affecting recreational development. Table 7
more. contains additional information regarding factors that
Typically, the surface layer of the Troup soil is dark can affect recreational development.
grayish brown sand about 6 inches thick. The The capability subclass is VIs.
subsurface layer is sand. It is yellowish brown to a
depth of 25 inches and brownish yellow to a depth of
46 inches. The subsoil is red sandy loam to a depth of 67-Alapaha loamy sand, 0 to 2
60 inches and is red sandy clay loam to a depth of 80 percent slopes
inches or more.
Typically, this map unit supports the Longleaf Pine- This poorly drained soil is on flats, on footslopes,
Turkey Oak Hills ecological community, which has and in poorly defined drainageways in the Coastal
several variations. Scattered longleaf pine are the Plain uplands. Areas of this soil are irregular in shape
overstory in mature, natural stands of trees. Areas and range from 3 to 400 acres in size. Slopes are
from which pines have been removed are dominated smooth to concave.
by oaks. The trees that characterize this community Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray loamy
are longleaf pine, turkey oak, blackjack oak, and post sand about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is
oak. Herbaceous plants and vines include aster, loamy sand. It is dark gray to a depth of 16 inches and
blazingstar, brackenfern, butterfly pea, elephantsfoot, is gray and has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and
grassleaf goldaster, partridge pea, pineland red to a depth of 28 inches. The subsoil is gray sandy
beggarweed, sandhill milkweed, showy crotalaria, and loam to a depth of 48 inches; is gray sandy loam that
wild indigo. Grasses and grasslike plants include has plinthite and has mottles in shades of gray, yellow,
Curtis' dropseed, hairy panicum, yellow Indiangrass, and red to a depth of 62 inches; and is gray sandy clay
low panicum, and pineywoods dropseed. loam that has plinthite and has mottles in shades of
This map unit is not suited to cultivated crops gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 80 inches or more.
because of poor soil quality, the slope, and the hazard In 90 percent of the areas of this map unit, the
of gully erosion. Alapaha soil and similar soils make up 85 to 100
This map unit is moderately suited to pasture and percent of the unit. The similar soils include Bladen
hay. Deep-rooted plants, such as improved and Pansey soils, neither of which contains plinthite.
bermudagrasses and improved bahiagrasses, are well Also included are soils that have less than 10 percent
adapted to the local conditions, but yields are reduced plinthite or that are sandy clay in the lower part of the
by periodic droughts. The slope increases the hazard loamy subsoil.
of erosion and reduces potential yields. Applications of Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 15 percent of the
fertilizer and lime and controlled grazing are needed to mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include Albany,
maintain vigorous plants and adequate ground cover. Croatan, Leefield, Pantego, Plummer, Robertsdale,
The potential productivity of this map unit for and Surrency soils. Albany, Leefield, and Robertsdale
longleaf pine is moderately high in areas of the Troup soils are better drained than the Alapaha soil and are
soil and very low in areas of the Lakeland soil.The in higher positions. Also, Albany soils have a loamy
main management concerns are equipment limitations subsoil below a depth of 40 inches, Leefield soils have
and seedling mortality caused by the sandy surface plinthite, and Robertsdale soils have a loamy subsoil
and low available water capacity. Site preparation within a depth of 20 inches. Croatan, Pantego, and
should included the removal of the larger debris to Surrency soils are more poorly drained than the
facilitate mechanical operations. Planting trees that are Alapaha soil and are in lower positions. Plummer soils
adapted to the local conditions and planting during the have a loamy subsoil below a depth of 40 inches and
wetter months can reduce the seedling mortality rate. do not have plinthite.
This map unit has severe limitations affecting The seasonal high water table is at the surface to a
sewage lagoons, sanitary landfills, and shallow depth of 7 inches from December through March and
excavations. It has moderate limitations affecting from June through September. The available water






60 Soil Survey



capacity is low in the surface and subsurface layers, relative proportion of each soil varies. Although the
moderate in the upper part of the subsoil, and low in areas of each individual soil are generally large
the lower part of the subsoil. enough to be mapped separately, they were mapped
Typically, this map unit supports the North Florida as one unit because of present and predicted use. The
Flatwoods ecological community, which has only slight similar soils include small areas of Dorovan, Pantego,
variations in composition. Slash pine and water oak and Rutlege soils. Dorovan soils are organic to a depth
are the main trees. Herbaceous plants and shrubs of 51 inches or more. Pantego soils have a loamy
include blackberry, dogfennel, gallberry, greenbrier, subsoil within a depth of 20 inches. Rutlege soils are
saw palmetto, and wax-myrtle. Grasses and grasslike sandy throughout. Also included are small areas of
plants include chalky bluestem, yellow Indiangrass, very poorly drained soils that have a dark, sandy
low panicum, pineland threeawn, and sedges. surface layer that is more than 24 inches thick, have a
This map unit is not suited to cultivated crops, subsoil that is more than 35 percent clay, or are
pasture, or hay because of excessive wetness. stratified and are in positions similar to those of the
The potential productivity of this map unit is Croatan, Kinston, and Surrency soils.
moderately high for slash pine. The main management Dissimilar soils make up less than 5 percent of the
concerns are equipment limitations, seedling mortality, mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include Alapaha,
and plant competition caused by wetness. Site Bladen, Pansey, Plummer, and Pottsburg soils. All of
preparation should include chopping the woody these soils are poorly drained, are on flats, and have
understory vegetation to help control immediate plant mottles related to wetness within a depth of 12 inches.
competition and bedding to minimize the seedling Typically, the surface layer of the Croatan soil is
mortality caused by wetness. The installation of black muck to a depth of 28 inches. The substratum is
shallow surface ditches may also be necessary to gray sandy loam to a depth of 40 inches and is gray
remove excess water during wet periods. Limiting sandy clay loam to a depth of 80 inches or more.
mechanical operations to the drier periods can help to In areas of the Croatan soil, the seasonal high
overcome the equipment limitations and usually water table is at or near the surface during most of the
results in less soil compaction and less damage to year. The available water capacity is very high in the
roots during thinning operations. Prescribed burning in surface layer and moderate or high in the layers below.
established stands can help to control the competing Typically, the surface layer of the Kinston soil is very
vegetation and help to maintain ease of access, dark gray fine sandy loam about 6 inches thick. The
During harvesting, site preparation, and road building, substratum is light brownish gray sandy clay loam to a
care should be taken not to impede the flow of the depth of 27 inches, gray sandy clay loam to a depth of
creeks and drainageways that remove excess water 47 inches, and light gray loamy sand to a depth of 80
from the area. inches or more.
This map unit is not suited to urban and In areas of the Kinston soil, the seasonal high water
recreational development. Excessive wetness is the table is at or near the surface during most of the year.
main limitation. Tables 7, 9, and 10 contain additional The available water capacity is moderate or high
information regarding factors that can affect urban and throughout.
recreational development. Typically, the surface layer of the Surrency soil is
The capability subclass is Vw. very dark gray mucky sand about 6 inches thick. The
subsurface layer is grayish brown loamy sand to a
depth of 22 inches. The subsoil is light gray sandy
68-Croatan, Kinston, and Surrency loam to a depth 31 inches and is gray sandy clay loam
soils, frequently flooded that has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a
depth of 80 inches or more.
This map unit consists of very poorly drained In areas of the Surrency soil, the seasonal high
Croatan and Surrency soils and poorly drained water table is at or near the surface during most of the
Kinston soils on flood plains along creeks and year. The available water capacity is low throughout.
streams. Areas of this map unit are elongated in shape In this map unit, flooding is likely to occur often
and range from 5 to 900 acres in size. Slopes are less under usual weather conditions. On the average,
than 2 percent. flooding occurs more than 50 times in 100 years. The
In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, the chance of flooding is more than a 50 percent in any
Croatan, Kinston, Surrency, and similar soils make up year but is less than 50 percent in all months in any
100 percent of the unit. Each of the soils is not year. The average duration of the flooding ranges from
necessarily present in every mapped area, and the 7 to 30 days in areas of the Croatan soil, from 2 to 30






Calhoun County, Florida 61



days in areas of the Kinston soil, and is more than 30 wetness at 5 to 14 inches below the top of the loamy
days in areas of the Surrency soil. Many areas are subsoil. Also included in mapping are small areas of
isolated by meandering stream channels. Excess soils that have slopes of less than 5 percent or contain
water ponds in low-lying areas for very long periods less than 5 percent plinthite.
after heavy rains. Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 25 percent of the
Typically, this map unit supports the Bottomland mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include Alapaha,
Hardwoods ecological community, which is extremely Blanton, Chipley, Florala, Fuquay, Garcon, and
diverse. Understory growth is profuse where light Robertsdale soils. Alapaha soils are poorly drained
enters through the openings in the canopy. Common and have a loamy subsoil within a depth of 20 inches.
trees include black willow, green ash, river birch, Blanton soils are moderately well drained. Fuquay
swamp chestnut oak, sweetgum, American sycamore, soils are well drained. Chipley soils are sandy
water hickory, water oak, and willow oak. Common throughout. Florala soils have an argillic horizon within
herbaceous vines include crossvine, greenbrier, a depth of 20 inches. Garcon soils do not have
peppervine, poison ivy, trumpet creeper, and wild plinthite and are sandy within a depth of 60 inches.
grape. Robertsdale soils have a loamy subsoil within a depth
This map unit is not suited to cultivated crops, of 20 inches. Also included in mapping are small areas
pasture, or hay because of excessive wetness and the of soils that are poorly drained or very poorly drained,
flooding. have slopes of more than 8 percent, or are stratified.
This map unit is not suited to pine production The seasonal high water table is at a depth of 18 to
because of seedling mortality and equipment 30 inches from December through March and from
limitations caused by excessive wetness and flooding. June through September. The available water capacity
This map unit is not suited to urban and is low in the surface and subsurface layers and low or
recreational development because of excessive moderate in the subsoil.
wetness, subsidence, and flooding.Tables 7, 9, and 10 Typically, this map unit supports the Mixed
contain additional information regarding factors that Hardwood and Pine ecological community, which has
can affect urban and recreational development, several variations. In mature, natural stands, the
The capability subclass is Vllw in areas of Croatan hardwoods replace the pines. The natural climax
soil and VIw in areas of the Kinston and Surrency vegetation is thought to be a beech-magnolia-maple
soils. association. The trees that characterize this
community are loblolly pine, white oak, pignut hickory,
American beech, and flowering dogwood. The
69-Leefield loamy sand, 5 to 8 herbaceous plants and vines include aster, partridge
percent slopes pea, poison ivy, violet, Virginia creeper, and wild grape.
Grasses include broomsedge bluestem, longleaf
This somewhat poorly drained soil is on side slopes uniola, low panicum, and spike uniola.
in the uplands. Areas of this soil are irregular or This map unit is poorly suited to cultivated crops
elongated in shape and range from 3 to 45 acres in because of poor soil quality, droughtiness, and the
size. Slopes are smooth to concave, hazard of erosion. The slopes further limits the
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray loamy suitability by making cultivation more difficult and
sand about 12 inches thick. The subsurface layer is increasing the hazard of erosion. Droughtiness during
pale yellow loamy sand that has mottles in shades of periods of low rainfall, wetness in wet seasons, and
gray, yellow, and red to 34 inches. The subsoil is light the rapid leaching of plant nutrients limit the choice of
gray fine sandy loam that has mottles in shades of plants and reduce the potential yields of those crops
gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 61 inches and is that are adapted to the local conditions. Erosion-
brownish yellow sandy clay loam that has plinthite and control measures are needed. Nutrient management
has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a helps to maximize yields.
depth of 80 inches or more. This map unit is moderately suited to pasture and
In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, the hay. Pasture plants, such as improved
Leefield soil and similar soils make up 75 to 100 bermudagrasses and improved bahiagrasses, grow
percent of the unit. The similar soils include Albany well if the pasture is properly managed. White clovers
and Stilson soils. Albany soils have a loamy subsoil and other legumes are moderately adapted to the
below a depth of 40 inches and do not have plinthite. local conditions. Applications of fertilizer and lime are
Stilson soils are better drained than the Leefield soil, needed to obtain maximum yields, and controlled
are in similar positions, and have mottles related to grazing is needed to maintain vigorous plants.






62 Soil Survey



The potential productivity of this map unit is Plummer soils have a loamy subsoil below a depth of
moderately high for slash pine. The main management 40 inches and do not have plinthite. Also included are
concerns are equipment limitations, seedling mortality, small areas of soils that have slopes of less than 2
and plant competition because of the sandy surface, percent, contain less than 5 percent plinthite, are very
low available water capacity, and seasonal wetness. poorly drained, or are stratified.
Site preparation should include removing the larger Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 18 percent of the
debris to facilitate mechanical operations and mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include Leefield
chopping the woody understory vegetation to help and Robertsdale soils, which are better drained than
control immediate plant competition. Planting trees the Alapaha soil and are in more elevated positions.
that are adapted to the local conditions and planting Also, Leefield soils have a loamy subsoil at a depth of
during the wetter months can reduce the seedling 20 to 40 inches. Also included are soils that are sandy
mortality rate. Prescribed burning in established throughout, have a surface layer of muck, are
stands can help to control the competing vegetation somewhat poorly drained, or have strata that are more
and help to maintain ease of access. than 35 percent clay.
This map unit has severe limitations affecting most Because of seepage, the seasonal high water table
urban development. It has moderate limitations is at or near the surface during most of the year. The
affecting dwelling without basements, small available water capacity is low in the surface and
commercial buildings, lawns, and landscaping. subsurface layers, moderate in the upper part of the
Wetness, slow percolation, and the slope are the main subsoil, and low in the lower part of the subsoil.
limitations. Tables 9 and 10 contain additional Typically, this map unit supports the Pitcher Plant
information regarding factors that can affect urban Bogs ecological community. This community is
development, maintained by fire and supports low-growing grasses,
This map unit has moderate limitations affecting such as blue maidencane, Florida threeawn, pineland
camp areas, picnic areas, paths, and trails. Wetness, threeawn, toothache grass, and warty panicum.
the slope, and the sandy surface are the main Herbaceous plants include pitcher plants, hat pin
limitations affecting these uses. Where slopes are sedge, rush featherling, and sundews. Trees and
more than 6 percent, this soil has severe limitations shrubs are scattered and include slash pine, wax-
affecting playgrounds. Table 7 contains additional myrtle, and myrtle-leafed holly. Where fire is eliminated
information regarding factors that can affect for a long period, succession to shrub bogs occurs.
recreational development. The Shrub Bogs-Bay Swamps ecological community
The capability subclass is Ille. is dominated by buckwheat trees, sweetbay, titi, large
gallberry, and myrtle-leafed holly.
This map unit is not suited to cultivated crops,
70-Alapaha loamy sand, 2 to 8 pasture, or hay because of excessive wetness and the
percent slopes slope.
This map unit is not suited to the production of
This poorly drained soil is on footslopes and side pines because of the slope and excessive wetness.
slopes in the uplands. Areas of this soil are irregular or This map unit is not suited to urban and
elongated in shape and range from 3 to 20 acres in recreational development. Excessive wetness, slow
size. Slopes are smooth to concave, percolation, and the slope are the main limitations
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray loamy affecting these uses. Tables 7, 9, and 10 contain
sand about 12 inches thick. The subsurface layer is additional information regarding factors that can affect
gray loamy sand that has mottles in shades of gray, urban and recreational development.
yellow, and red to a depth of 36 inches. The subsoil is The capability subclass is Vw.
light brownish gray sandy loam that has mottles in
shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 46 inches
and is light brownish gray sandy clay loam that has 71-Dothan-Fuquay complex, 8 to
plinthite nodules and has mottles in shades of gray, 12 percent slopes
yellow, and red to a depth of 80 inches or more.
In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, the These well drained soils are on side slopes in the
Alapaha soil and similar soils make up 82 to 100 uplands. Areas of this map unit are elongated or
percent of the unit. The similar soils include Pansey irregular in shape and range from 3 to 200 acres in
and Plummer soils. Pansey soils have a clayey subsoil size. Individual areas of the soils range from less than
within a depth of 20 inches and do not have plinthite. 1 acre to 5 acres in size. Slopes are smooth to convex.






62 Soil Survey



The potential productivity of this map unit is Plummer soils have a loamy subsoil below a depth of
moderately high for slash pine. The main management 40 inches and do not have plinthite. Also included are
concerns are equipment limitations, seedling mortality, small areas of soils that have slopes of less than 2
and plant competition because of the sandy surface, percent, contain less than 5 percent plinthite, are very
low available water capacity, and seasonal wetness. poorly drained, or are stratified.
Site preparation should include removing the larger Dissimilar soils make up 0 to 18 percent of the
debris to facilitate mechanical operations and mapped areas. The dissimilar soils include Leefield
chopping the woody understory vegetation to help and Robertsdale soils, which are better drained than
control immediate plant competition. Planting trees the Alapaha soil and are in more elevated positions.
that are adapted to the local conditions and planting Also, Leefield soils have a loamy subsoil at a depth of
during the wetter months can reduce the seedling 20 to 40 inches. Also included are soils that are sandy
mortality rate. Prescribed burning in established throughout, have a surface layer of muck, are
stands can help to control the competing vegetation somewhat poorly drained, or have strata that are more
and help to maintain ease of access. than 35 percent clay.
This map unit has severe limitations affecting most Because of seepage, the seasonal high water table
urban development. It has moderate limitations is at or near the surface during most of the year. The
affecting dwelling without basements, small available water capacity is low in the surface and
commercial buildings, lawns, and landscaping. subsurface layers, moderate in the upper part of the
Wetness, slow percolation, and the slope are the main subsoil, and low in the lower part of the subsoil.
limitations. Tables 9 and 10 contain additional Typically, this map unit supports the Pitcher Plant
information regarding factors that can affect urban Bogs ecological community. This community is
development, maintained by fire and supports low-growing grasses,
This map unit has moderate limitations affecting such as blue maidencane, Florida threeawn, pineland
camp areas, picnic areas, paths, and trails. Wetness, threeawn, toothache grass, and warty panicum.
the slope, and the sandy surface are the main Herbaceous plants include pitcher plants, hat pin
limitations affecting these uses. Where slopes are sedge, rush featherling, and sundews. Trees and
more than 6 percent, this soil has severe limitations shrubs are scattered and include slash pine, wax-
affecting playgrounds. Table 7 contains additional myrtle, and myrtle-leafed holly. Where fire is eliminated
information regarding factors that can affect for a long period, succession to shrub bogs occurs.
recreational development. The Shrub Bogs-Bay Swamps ecological community
The capability subclass is Ille. is dominated by buckwheat trees, sweetbay, titi, large
gallberry, and myrtle-leafed holly.
This map unit is not suited to cultivated crops,
70-Alapaha loamy sand, 2 to 8 pasture, or hay because of excessive wetness and the
percent slopes slope.
This map unit is not suited to the production of
This poorly drained soil is on footslopes and side pines because of the slope and excessive wetness.
slopes in the uplands. Areas of this soil are irregular or This map unit is not suited to urban and
elongated in shape and range from 3 to 20 acres in recreational development. Excessive wetness, slow
size. Slopes are smooth to concave, percolation, and the slope are the main limitations
Typically, the surface layer is very dark gray loamy affecting these uses. Tables 7, 9, and 10 contain
sand about 12 inches thick. The subsurface layer is additional information regarding factors that can affect
gray loamy sand that has mottles in shades of gray, urban and recreational development.
yellow, and red to a depth of 36 inches. The subsoil is The capability subclass is Vw.
light brownish gray sandy loam that has mottles in
shades of gray, yellow, and red to a depth of 46 inches
and is light brownish gray sandy clay loam that has 71-Dothan-Fuquay complex, 8 to
plinthite nodules and has mottles in shades of gray, 12 percent slopes
yellow, and red to a depth of 80 inches or more.
In 95 percent of the areas of this map unit, the These well drained soils are on side slopes in the
Alapaha soil and similar soils make up 82 to 100 uplands. Areas of this map unit are elongated or
percent of the unit. The similar soils include Pansey irregular in shape and range from 3 to 200 acres in
and Plummer soils. Pansey soils have a clayey subsoil size. Individual areas of the soils range from less than
within a depth of 20 inches and do not have plinthite. 1 acre to 5 acres in size. Slopes are smooth to convex.






Calhoun County, Florida 63



The soils in this map unit are so intermingled that poorly drained than the Dothan and Fuquay soils and
mapping them separately was not possible at the are in lower positions. Also included in a few mapped
scale used. In a few areas, either Dothan or Fuquay areas are small seepage spots.
soils are not present. Included soils make up 10 to 15 Typically, this map unit supports the Mixed
percent of any one mapped area. Hardwood and Pine ecological community, which has
Dothan and similar soils make up about 45 to 55 several variations. In mature, natural stands, the
percent of the map unit. Typically, the surface layer of hardwoods replace the pines. The natural climax
the Dothan soil is very dark grayish brown loamy sand vegetation is thought to be a beech-magnolia-maple
about 6 inches thick. The subsoil is brown sandy loam association. The trees that characterize this
to a depth of 12 inches; is yellowish brown sandy loam community are loblolly pine, white oak, pignut hickory,
to a depth of 18 inches; is strong brown sandy clay American beech, and flowering dogwood. The
loam that has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and herbaceous plants and vines include aster, partridge
red to a depth of 36 inches; and is sandy clay loam pea, poison ivy, violet, Virginia creeper, and wild grape.
that has nodules and is variegated in shades of gray, Grasses include broomsedge bluestem, longleaf
yellow, and red to a depth of 80 inches or more. uniola, low panicum, and spike uniola.
In areas of the Dothan soil, the seasonal high water This map unit is poorly suited to cultivated crops
table is perched at a depth of 30 to 60 inches from because of the hazard of erosion and the slope.
December through March and from June through Applications of fertilizer and lime are needed. Crop
September. The available water capacity is low in the residue should be left on the land to help control
surface layer, moderate in the upper part of the erosion.
subsoil, and low or moderate in the lower part of the This map unit is moderately suited to pasture.
subsoil. Improved bermudagrasses and improved
Fuquay and similar soils make up about 30 to 35 bahiagrasses are well adapted to the local conditions.
percent of the map unit. Typically, the surface layer of The slope increases the hazard of erosion and
the Fuquay soil is dark grayish brown loamy sand reduces potential yields. Applications of fertilizer and
about 6 inches thick. The subsurface layer is brownish lime and controlled grazing are needed to obtain
yellow loamy sand to a depth of 34 inches. The subsoil maximum yields and to maintain a plant cover that is
is reddish yellow sandy clay loam that has plinthite adequate to prevent severe erosion.
and has mottles in shades of gray, yellow, and red to a The potential productivity of this map unit is high for
depth of 80 inches or more. slash pine. The main management concern is plant
In areas of the Fuquay soil, the seasonal high water competition caused seasonal wetness. Site
table is perched at a depth of 42 to 72 inches from preparation should include chopping the woody
December through March and from June through understory vegetation to help control immediate plant
September. The available water capacity is low in the competition. Prescribed burning in established stands
surface and subsurface layers and moderate in the can help to control the competing vegetation and help
subsoil. to maintain ease of access. In areas of the Fuquay
Florala, Robertsdale, and Stilson soils are similar to soil, equipment limitations and seedling mortality
the Dothan and Fuquay soils and are included in caused by the sandy surface and low available water
mapping. These included soils are more poorly capacity are also management concerns. Site
drained than the Dothan and Fuquay soils and are in preparation should included the removal of the larger
lower positions. Also, Florala soils have mottles related debris to facilitate mechanical operations. Planting
to wetness at a depth of 12 to 30 inches, Robertsdale trees that are adapted to the local conditions and
soils have mottles related to wetness at a depth of 12 planting during the wetter months can reduce the
to 18 inches, and Stilson soils have mottles related to seedling mortality rate.
wetness at a depth of 30 to 40 inches and/or at 5 to 14 This map unit has severe limitations affecting septic
inches below the top of the loamy subsoil. Also tank absorption fields, sewage lagoons, and small
included in mapping are areas of soils that are similar commercial buildings and has moderate limitations
to Dothan and Fuquay soils but that have less than 5 affecting shallow excavations, sanitary landfills,
percent plinthite, have more than 5 percent plinthite dwellings, local roads and streets, lawns, and
above a depth of 24 inches, have a subsoil of sandy landscaping because of wetness, slow permeability,
clay or clay, or have slopes or more than 8 percent. seepage, and the slope. Tables 9 and 10 contain
Dissimilar soils included in mapping are Blanton, additional information regarding factors that can affect
Lucy, and Orangeburg soils. These dissimilar soils do urban development.
not contain plinthite. Also, Blanton soils are more This map unit has severe limitations affecting






64



playgrounds. It has moderate limitations affecting identification of individual soils is not possible. Areas of
camp areas, picnic areas, and golf fairways. Table 7 this map unit are irregular to square in shape and
contains additional information regarding factors that range from 1 to 50 acres in size. Slopes range from 0
can affect recreational development, to 30 percent.
The capability subclass is IVe in area of the Dothan Pits occur throughout the county but have a small
soil and Ills in areas of the Fuquay soil. total acreage. Most areas are barren because the
natural vegetation has not had sufficient time to
reestablish. Some areas have been replanted to slash
72-Pits pine. A few areas are subject to ponding during
periods of high rainfall.
This map unit consists of open excavations from This map unit is not suited to cultivated crops,
which sand and loamy material have been removed, pasture, or hay.
The excavations vary from 2 feet to more than 10 feet This map unit is highly variable. Individual areas
in depth. The material from these excavations is used may or may not be suited to the production of planted
mainly in the construction and repair of roads and as pine trees.
fill material for foundations. In some areas, mixtures of This map unit is not suited to urban or recreational
sandy, loamy, and clayey material are piled or development.
scattered around the edges of the excavations. This This map unit has not been assigned a capability
material has been mixed to such an extent that subclass.






65










Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of hydrology (Cowardin and others, 1979; Environmental
the soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust Laboratory, 1987; National Research Council, 1995;
land uses to the limitations and potentials of natural Tiner, 1985). Criteria for each of the characteristics
resources and the environment. Also, it can help to must be met for areas to be identified as wetlands.
prevent soil-related failures in land uses. Undrained hydric soils that have natural vegetation
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, should support a dominant population of ecological
conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive wetland plant species. Hydric soils that have been
field data about the nature and behavioral converted to other uses should be capable of being
characteristics of the soils.They collect data on erosion, restored to wetlands.
droughtiness, flooding, and other factors that affect Hydric soils are defined by the National Technical
various soil uses and management. Field experience Committee for Hydric Soils (NTCHS) as soils that
and collected data on soil properties and performance formed under conditions of saturation, flooding, or
are used as a basis in predicting soil behavior. ponding long enough during the growing season to
Information in this section can be used to plan the develop anaerobic conditions in the upper part (Hurt,
use and management of soils for crops and pasture; Whited, and Pringle, 1996). These soils are either
as woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary facilities, saturated or inundated long enough during the
highways and other transportation systems, and parks growing season to support the growth and
and other recreational facilities; and for wildlife habitat. reproduction of hydrophytic vegetation.
It can be used to identify the potentials and limitations The NTCHS definition identifies general soil
of each soil for specific land uses and to help prevent properties that are associated with wetness. In order
construction failures caused by unfavorable soil to determine whether a specific soil is a hydric soil or
properties. nonhydric soil, however, more specific information,
Planners and others using soil survey information can such as information about the depth and duration of
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity the high water table, is needed. Thus, criteria that
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area. identify those estimated soil properties unique to
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a hydric soils have been established (Hurt, Whited, and
land use pattern in harmony with the natural soil. Pringle, 1996).These criteria are used to identify a
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources phase of a soil series that normally is associated with
of sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use wetlands. The criteria used are selected estimated soil
it to identify areas where wetness or discontinuous properties that are described in "Soil Taxonomy"
ironstone layers can cause difficulty in excavation. (USDA-SCS, 1975), "Keys to Soil Taxonomy" (Soil
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and Survey Staff, 1998), "Soil Survey Manual" (Soil Survey
others may also find this survey useful. The survey Division Staff, 1993), and "Classification of Wetlands
can help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and and Deep-Water Habitats of the United States"
locate sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, (Cowardin and others, 1979).
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs. If soils are wet enough for a long enough period to
be considered hydric, they should exhibit certain
Hydric Soils properties that can be easily observed in the field.
These visible properties are indicators of hydric soils.
In this section, hydric soils are defined and The indicators used to make onsite determinations of
described. The map units thatmeet the definition of hydric soils in this survey area are specified in "Field
hydric soils and the map units that include hydric soils Indicators of Hydric Soils in the United States" (Hurt,
are listed. Whited, and Pringle, 1996).
The three essential characteristics of wetlands are Hydric soils are identified by examining and
hydrophytic vegetation, hydric soils, and wetland describing the soil to a depth of about 20 inches. This






65










Use and Management of the Soils


This soil survey is an inventory and evaluation of hydrology (Cowardin and others, 1979; Environmental
the soils in the survey area. It can be used to adjust Laboratory, 1987; National Research Council, 1995;
land uses to the limitations and potentials of natural Tiner, 1985). Criteria for each of the characteristics
resources and the environment. Also, it can help to must be met for areas to be identified as wetlands.
prevent soil-related failures in land uses. Undrained hydric soils that have natural vegetation
In preparing a soil survey, soil scientists, should support a dominant population of ecological
conservationists, engineers, and others collect extensive wetland plant species. Hydric soils that have been
field data about the nature and behavioral converted to other uses should be capable of being
characteristics of the soils.They collect data on erosion, restored to wetlands.
droughtiness, flooding, and other factors that affect Hydric soils are defined by the National Technical
various soil uses and management. Field experience Committee for Hydric Soils (NTCHS) as soils that
and collected data on soil properties and performance formed under conditions of saturation, flooding, or
are used as a basis in predicting soil behavior. ponding long enough during the growing season to
Information in this section can be used to plan the develop anaerobic conditions in the upper part (Hurt,
use and management of soils for crops and pasture; Whited, and Pringle, 1996). These soils are either
as woodland; as sites for buildings, sanitary facilities, saturated or inundated long enough during the
highways and other transportation systems, and parks growing season to support the growth and
and other recreational facilities; and for wildlife habitat. reproduction of hydrophytic vegetation.
It can be used to identify the potentials and limitations The NTCHS definition identifies general soil
of each soil for specific land uses and to help prevent properties that are associated with wetness. In order
construction failures caused by unfavorable soil to determine whether a specific soil is a hydric soil or
properties. nonhydric soil, however, more specific information,
Planners and others using soil survey information can such as information about the depth and duration of
evaluate the effect of specific land uses on productivity the high water table, is needed. Thus, criteria that
and on the environment in all or part of the survey area. identify those estimated soil properties unique to
The survey can help planners to maintain or create a hydric soils have been established (Hurt, Whited, and
land use pattern in harmony with the natural soil. Pringle, 1996).These criteria are used to identify a
Contractors can use this survey to locate sources phase of a soil series that normally is associated with
of sand and gravel, roadfill, and topsoil. They can use wetlands. The criteria used are selected estimated soil
it to identify areas where wetness or discontinuous properties that are described in "Soil Taxonomy"
ironstone layers can cause difficulty in excavation. (USDA-SCS, 1975), "Keys to Soil Taxonomy" (Soil
Health officials, highway officials, engineers, and Survey Staff, 1998), "Soil Survey Manual" (Soil Survey
others may also find this survey useful. The survey Division Staff, 1993), and "Classification of Wetlands
can help them plan the safe disposal of wastes and and Deep-Water Habitats of the United States"
locate sites for pavements, sidewalks, campgrounds, (Cowardin and others, 1979).
playgrounds, lawns, and trees and shrubs. If soils are wet enough for a long enough period to
be considered hydric, they should exhibit certain
Hydric Soils properties that can be easily observed in the field.
These visible properties are indicators of hydric soils.
In this section, hydric soils are defined and The indicators used to make onsite determinations of
described. The map units thatmeet the definition of hydric soils in this survey area are specified in "Field
hydric soils and the map units that include hydric soils Indicators of Hydric Soils in the United States" (Hurt,
are listed. Whited, and Pringle, 1996).
The three essential characteristics of wetlands are Hydric soils are identified by examining and
hydrophytic vegetation, hydric soils, and wetland describing the soil to a depth of about 20 inches. This






66 Soil Survey



depth may be greater if determination of an Ecological Communities
appropriate indicator so requires. It is always
recommended that soils be excavated and described John F. Vance, Jr., biologist, Natural Resources Conservation
to the depth necessary for an understanding of the Service, helped prepare this section.
redoximorphic processes. Then, using the completed T e
soil descriptions, soil scientists can compare the soil T l com ity conpt s s
features required by each indicator and specify which knowledge that a soil type commonly supports a
indicators have been matched with the conditions specific vegetative community, which in turn provides
the habitat needed by specific wildlife species.
observed in the soil. The soil can be identified as a the habitat needed by specific wildlife species.
hydric soil if at least one of the approved indicators is These vegetative communities form recognizable
present. units on the landscape, most of which are apparent to
The following map units meet the definition of hydric the casual observer after only a little training. Even
without prior botanical training, an observer can
soils and, in addition, have at least one of the hydric quickly lear n to distinguish betwen observer
soil indicators. This list can help in planning land uses; y earn s t n the Me
however, onsite investigation is recommended to Hardwood and Pine community and the Longleaf Pine
Turkey Oak Hills, between the Bottomland Hardwoods
determine the hydric soils on a specific site (National Turkey Oak Hil between the Bottomland Hardwoods
and the Swamp Hardwoods, and between the Pitcher
Research Council, 1995; Hurt, Whited, and Pringle, an wa H woods ad twetche
1996) Plant Bogs and the North Florida Flatwoods. Once a
community is recognized, information can be found
4 Brickyard clay loam, frequently flooded concerning the general characteristics of the soil on
6 Bladen loam, rarely flooded which it occurs and the types of plants and animals it
20 Dorovan-Pamlico-Rutlege association, supports.
depressional Although some plants are found only within a very
48 Pansey sandy loam narrow range of conditions, many plants can survive
51 Plummer sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes throughout a wide range. Individual plants that have a
54 Coatan, Sen, ad ant soils, wide tolerance level can occur in many different
54 Croatan, Surrency, and Pantego soils,
Sde ressonal communities and on a variety of soils. When
60 ron een rrdescribing ecological communities, plant scientists
SCroan ee, study the patterns in which vegetation occurs. They
icoieesoisreestudy what species occur, the relative abundance of
64 Pamlico, Bibb, and Rutlege soils, frequently each species, the stage of plant succession, the
flooded each species, the stage of plant succession, the
S l lo dominance of species, the position of species on the
68 Croatan, Kton, and 0 t 2 peren soils, landscape, and the soil or soils on which the patterns
SCrtn, ntn nd S occur. Recognizable patterns of vegetation are usually
frently foded found in a small group of soil types that have common
70 Alapaha loamy sand, 2 to 8 percent slopes characteristics. During many years of field observation
Map units that are made up of hydric soils may while conducting soil surveys, the Natural Resources
have small areas, or inclusions, of nonhydric soils in Conservation Service determined which vegetative
the higher positions on the landform, and map units communities commonly occur on which soils
made up of nonhydric soils may have inclusions of throughout Florida. This information is summarized in
hydric soils in the lower positions on the landform. the booklet "26 Ecological Communities of Florida"
The following map units, in general, do not meet the (USDA-SCS, 1985a).
definition of hydric soils because they do not have one In the following paragraphs, the vegetative
of the hydric soil indicators. A portion of these map community occurring on individual map units during
units, however, may include hydric soils. Onsite the climax state of plant succession is described. The
investigation is recommended to determine whether community described is based on relatively natural
hydric soils actually occur and, if so, the location of the conditions. Human activities, such as commercial
included hydric soils, production of pine, agriculture, urbanization, and fire
suppression, can alter the community on specific site
5 Robertsdale fine sandy loam and should be considered.The miscellaneous map
24 Dunbar fine sandy loam, rarely flooded unit Pits is not assigned an ecological community.
38 Wahee-Ochlockonee complex, commonly Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills
flooded
55 Pottsburg sand The Longleaf Pine-Turkey Oak Hills ecological
72 Pits community is dominated by longleaf pine and by






Calhoun County, Florida 67



turkey oak, bluejack oak, and sand post oak. Common 39 Leefield loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes
shrubs include Adam's needle, coontie, coralbean, 41 Lucy loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes
shining sumac, and yaupon. Pricklypear cactus, 42 Lucy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes
partridge pea, blazingstar, elephantsfoot, wiregrass, 43 Lucy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes
grassleaf goldaster, yellow Indiangrass, and dropseed 44 Orangeburg loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes
are common.The map units that support the Longleaf 45 Orangeburg loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes
Pine-Turkey Oak Hills ecological community in 46 Orangeburg sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes
Calhoun County are: 57 Stilson loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes
58 Stilson loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes
10 Bonifay sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes 69 Leefield loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes
12 Chipley sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes 71 Dothan-Fuquay complex, 8 to 12 percent
31 Foxworth sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes slopes
35 Hurricane sand
North Florida Flatwoods
36 Lakeland sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes
37 Lakeland sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes The North Florida Flatwoods ecological community
61 Troup sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes is normally dominated by slash pine, live oak, and
62 Troup sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes sand live oak and an understory of saw palmetto,
66 Lakeland and Troup soils, 8 to 12 percent gallberry, and grasses. Scattered pond pine, water
slopes oak, laurel oak, sweetgum, wax-myrtle, and several
Mixed Hardwood and Pine species of blueberry are also common. In Calhoun
County, longleaf pine is also found. Chalky bluestem,
The Mixed Hardwood and Pine ecological broomsedge bluestem, lopsided Indiangrass, low
community is normally dominated by eastern panicums, switchgrass, and wiregrass are the
hophornbeam, flowering dogwood, hawthorns, common grasses. Other common plants include
loblolly pine, mockernut hickory, pignut hickory, grassleafed goldenaster, blackberry, brackenfern,
southern red oak, southern magnolia, sweetgum, deertongue, gayfeather, milkworts, and a variety of
white oak, and water oak and an understory of seed producing legumes. The map units that support
shining sumac and sparkleberry. Broomsedge the North Florida Flatwoods ecological community in
bluestem, longleaf uniola, low panicum, and spike Calhoun County are:
uniola are the common grasses. Other common
plants are aster, common ragweed, partridgeberry, 5 Robertsdale fine sandy loam
partridge pea, poison ivy, violet, Virginia creeper, 6 Bladen loam, rarely flooded
and wild grape. The map units that support the 48 Pansey sandy loam
Mixed Hardwood and Pine ecological community in 51 Plummer sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes
Calhoun County are: 55 Pottsburg sand
67 Alapaha loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes
2 Albany loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes Bottomand Hardwoods
7 Blanton sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes
8 Blanton sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes The Bottomland Hardwoods ecological community
14 Chipola loamy sand, 0 to 5 percent slopes, very is dominated by American elm, American hornbean,
rarely flooded black willow, green ash, overcup oak, river birch,
17 Florala loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes swamp chestnut oak, Shumard's oak, sweetgum,
18 Florala loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes American sycamore, water hickory, water oak, and
21 Dothan sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes willow oak and an understory of crossvine,
22 Dothan loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes greenbriers, peppervine, poison ivy, trumpet creeper,
23 Dothan loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes and wild grape. The map units that support the
24 Dunbar fine sandy loam, rarely flooded Bottomland Hardwoods ecological community in
25 Duplin very fine sandy loam, very rarely flooded Calhoun County are:
29 Kenansville loamy sand, wet substratum, 0 to 5
percent slopes, rarely flooded 4 Brickyard clay loam, frequently flooded
30 Garcon loamy sand, rarely flooded 38 Wahee-Ochlockonee complex, commonly
32 Fuquay loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes flooded
33 Fuquay loamy sand,,2 to 5 percent slopes 68 Croatan, Kinston, and Surrency soils,
34 Fuquay loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes frequently flooded






68 Soil Survey



Swamp Hardwoods The following map unit is a miscellaneous map unit
The Swamp Hardwoods ecological community is and is not assigned an Ecological Community.
dominated by blackgum, red maple, Ogeechee lime, 72 Pits
cypress, and bay trees. Common shrubs include
fetterbush, Virginia willow, buttonbush, and wax-myrtle.
Common herbaceous plants and vines include wild Crops and Pasture
grape, greenbriers, and poison ivy. Maidencane grass,
cinnamon fern, and sphagnum moss are also common. General management needed for crops and pasture
The map units that support the Swamp Hardwoods is suggested in this section. The system of land
ecological community in Calhoun County are: capability classification used by the Natural Resources
Conservation Service is explained, and prime
54 Croatan, Surrency, and Pantego soils, farmland is described. The estimated yields of the
depressional main crops and pasture plants are listed for each soil
60 Croatan, Rutlege, and Surrency soils, in table 5.
depressional Planners of management systems for individual
64 Pamlico, Bibb, and Rutlege soils, frequently fields or farms should consider the detailed
flooded information given in the description of each soil under
Shrub Bogs-Bay Swamps the heading "Detailed Soil Map Units." Specific
information can be obtained from the local office of the
The Shrub Bogs-Bay Swamps ecological Natural Resources Conservation Service or the
community is dominated by gallberry, fetterbush Cooperative Extension Service.
lyonia, myrtleleaved holly, swamp cyrilla, greenbriers, Federal and State regulations require that any area
sweetpepperbush, and sweetbay. Scattered cypress, designated as wetlands cannot be altered without prior
slash pine, and pond pine are present. Cinnamon fern, approval as described in the Food Security Manual
maidencane, and spaghnum moss commonly grow in (USDA-SCS, 1985b). Contact the local office of the
open areas. Shrub bogs are predominantly dense Natural Resources Conservation Service for
masses of evergreen shrubs that seldom exceed 25 identification of hydric soils and potential wetlands.
feet in height. Bay swamps are forested wetlands In 1992, about 33,200 acres in Calhoun County
dominated by one or two species of evergreen trees. was used for crops and pasture (USDC, 1992). Of this,
The bay swamps are climax communities that have about 2,700 acres was pasture and 30,500 acres was
mature trees; the shrub bogs are in the earlier stages cropland. The acreage used for crops and pasture has
of plant succession. Some areas remain in the shrub declined since the early 1980s because of a poor
bog, or subclimax, stage because of periodic fire. The economic climate affecting the agricultural community.
shrubs have many stems and thick foliage and From 1986 to 1990, the Conservation Reserve
commonly appear impenetrable. The map units that Program (CRP) assisted the conversion of cropland
support the Shrub Bogs-Bay Swamps ecological and pasture to woodland.
community in Calhoun County are: The potential of the soils in Calhoun County to
support increased food production is good. In 1987,
20 Dorovan-Pamlico-Rutlege association, about one-third of the approximately 50,000 acres of
depressional prime farmland was used for cropland. Most of the rest
70 Alapaha loamy sand, 2 to 8 percent slopes was used as pasture or woodland.This land could be
Pitcher Plant Bogs converted to cropland, but intensive conservation
measures would be needed to control erosion during
The Pitcher Plant Bogs ecological community is the conversion. In addition to the reserve capacity
dominated by slash pine. Common shrubs include represented by soils now used as woodland and
wax-myrtle and myrtleleaved holly. Herbaceous plants pasture, extending the latest crop production
and vines include hat pin sedge, pitcher plants, rush technology to all of the cropland in the county could
feathering, and sundews. Common grasses are blue increase food production.This soil survey can help in
maidencane, Florida threeawn, pineland threeawn, the application of such technology.
toothache grass, and warty panicum. The map unit Erosion caused by water is a problem on an
that supports the Pitcher Plant Bogs ecological estimated three-fifths of the cropland in the county.
community in Calhoun County is: Where the slope is more than 2 percent, erosion is a
hazard in areas of the well drained Dothan and
70 Alapaha loamy sand, 2 to 8 percent slopes Orangeburg soils and the moderately well drained






Calhoun County, Florida 69



Florala soils. It is also a hazard where the slope is Field windbreaks of adapted trees and shrubs, such
more than 5 percent in areas of the well drained and as Carolina laurelcherry, slash pine, southern
moderately well drained Blanton, Fuquay, Lucy, and redcedar, and Japanese privet, and strip crops of
Troup soils, small grains help to minimize wind erosion and crop
Erosion can reduce productivity and can result in damage. Field windbreaks and strip crops are narrow
pollution of streams. Productivity is reduced as the plantings made at right angles to the prevailing wind.
surface layer erodes and more of the subsoil is The specific intervals depend on the erodibility of the
incorporated into the plow layer. Erosion on farmland soil and the susceptibility of the crop to damage from
results in sediment entering streams. Controlling this sandblasting.
erosion minimizes the pollution of streams and Information regarding the design of erosion-control
improves the quality of water for municipal uses, for practices for each kind of soil is contained in "Water
recreational uses, and for fish and wildlife, and Wind Erosion Control Handbook-Florida," which
Erosion-control practices provide a protective is available at the local office of the Natural Resources
surface cover, increase the rate of water infiltration, Conservation Service.
and help to control runoff. A cropping system that Drainage is not a major management concern on
eep3 plant cover on the soil for extended periods can the creage currently used for crops and pasture in
hold soil losses to amounts that do not reduce the Calhoun County. Soils that are poorly drained or very
productive capacity of the soils. poorly drained are not normally used for crops and
Minimizing tillage and leaving crop residue on the pasture.
surface increase the rate of water infiltration and help Fertility is naturally low in most of the soils in the
to control runoff and erosion. Using a no-till system county. Most of the soils have a surface layer of sand
helps to control erosion in sloping areas. These or loamy sand. Many of the soils have a loamy subsoil.
practices can be adapted to most of the soils in the Examples are the Albany, Blanton, Bonifay, Chipola,
survey area. Dothan, Florala, Fuquay, Garcon, Kenansville,
Terraces, diversions, and stripcropping help to Leefield, Lucy, Orangeburg, Stilson, and Troup soils.
control runoff and erosion by reducing the length of The Chipley, Foxworth, and Lakeland soils have sandy
slope. These practices are most practical on deep, well material to a depth of 80 inches or more. The
drained soils that have a regular slope. Diversions and Hurricane and Pottsburg soils have an organic-stained
sod waterways, which also help to control runoff and subsoil.The Dunbar and Duplin soils have a surface
erosion, can be used on most of the soils in the layer of sandy loam and have a clayey subsoil.
county. Contour farming also helps to control erosion. Most of the soils in the county have a surface layer
It is most suited to soils that have smooth, uniform that is strongly acid or very strongly acid and require
slopes, applications of lime to raise the pH level sufficiently for
Erosion caused by wind is currently not a good crop growth. Nitrogen, potash, and available
significant problem in Calhoun County. The cropland phosphorus levels are naturally low in most of these
in the county is intermixed with woodland areas. soils.
This mix of cropland and woodland precludes the On all soils, applications of lime and fertilizer should
large, unsheltered distances that are associated be based on the results of soil tests, on the needs of
with wind erosion. Wind erosion can be a hazard crops, and on the expected level of yields. The
where unsheltered distances leave the soils Cooperative Extension Service can help in
exposed and the soils have a sandy surface layer or determining the kinds and amounts of fertilizer and
a surface layer of loamy sand. Strong winds can lime to apply.
damage soils and tender crops in a few hours in Tilth is an important factor in the germination of
open, unprotected areas where the surface is dry seeds and the infiltration of water into the soil. Soils
and bare. Maintaining a plant cover and surface that have good tilth are granular and porous.
mulch minimize wind erosion. Most of the soils that are used for crops and
Wind erosion is damaging for several reasons. It pasture in the county have a low to moderate
reduces soil fertility by removing finer soil particles content of organic matter. Generally, the structure of
and organic matter; damages or destroys crops by the surface layer of these soils is weak. Soils that
sandblasting; spreads diseases, insects, and weed have a low content of organic matter form a slight
seeds; and creates health hazards and cleaning crust following intense rainfall. The crust is slightly
problems. Control of wind erosion minimizes dust hard when dry and is impervious to water. Once the
storms and improves air quality, resulting in healthier crust forms, it reduces infiltration and increases
living conditions. runoff. The increased runoff causes erosion.






70 Soil Survey



Regular additions of crop residue, manure, and yields can be increased by properly applying
other organic material improve soil structure and lime and fertilizer, growing legumes, installing
minimize crust formation. drainage, irrigating, and using other management
Field crops grown in the county include cotton, practices.
pea6i'nu, soPbean, c6?ri, heat, 5 ats, wasghum, Diffewewes iA pasture yields are r9? l 8188ly t8
and forage. Oats, ryegrass, rye, and wheat are the differences in soils. Proper management of pasture is
common close-growing crops that are sown for winter based on the interrelationship of soils, pasture plants,
grazing. lime, fertilizer, and moisture.
Commercially grown specialty crops in the county
are gladioli, nursery plants, and watermelons. Nursery Yields per cre
production is container grown. The average yields per acre that can be expected
Deep soils that have good natural drainage are of the principal crops under a high level of
especially well suited to many vegetables and small management are shown in table 5. In any given year,
fruits. Areas of the Chipola, Dothan, Fuquay, Lucy, yields may be higher or lower than those indicated in
Orangeburg, and Stilson soils that have slopes of less the table because of variations in rainfall and other
than 8 percent are examples. If irrigated, areas of the climatic factors. The land capability classification of
Blanton, Bonifay, Foxworth, Lakeland, and Troup soils each map unit also is shown in the table (USDA-SCS,
that have slopes of less than 8 percent also are well 1961).
suited to vegetables and small fruits. Also, where The yields are based mainly on the experience and
adequately drained, the Albany, Chipley, Florala, records of farmers, conservationists, and extension
Hurricane, Leefield, and Robertsdale soils are well agents. Available yield data from nearby counties and
suited. results of field trials and demonstrations are also
Most of the well drained and moderately well considered.
drained soils in the county are suited to orchards and The management needed to obtain the indicated
nursery plants. In low areas that have poor air yields of the various crops depends on the kind of
drainage and frequent frost pockets, however, these soil and the crop. Management can include
soils are not as well suited to early vegetables, small drainage, erosion control, and protection from
fruits, and orchards, flooding; the proper planting and seeding rates;
Pastures in the county are used to produce forage suitable high-yielding crop varieties; appropriate
for beef and dairy cattle. Beef cattle cow-calf and timely tillage; control of weeds, plant diseases,
operations are the major cattle systems. Bahiagrass and harmful insects; favorable soil reaction and
and coastal bermudagrass are the major pasture optimum levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium,
plants. Seeds can be harvested from bahiagrass for and trace elements for each crop; effective use of
improved pasture plantings and for commercial crop residue, barnyard manure, and green manure
purposes. Many cattle producers seed small grain on crops; and harvesting that ensures the smallest
cropland and overseed ryegrass in pastures in the fall possible loss.
for winter and spring grazing. In pastures of improved For yields of irrigated crops, it is assumed that the
bermudagrasses and improved bahiagrasses, excess irrigation system is adapted to the soils and to the
grass is harvested as hay during the summer for crops grown, that good-quality irrigation water is
feeding during the winter, uniformly applied as needed, and that tillage is kept to
The well drained and moderately well drained a minimum.
Chipola, Dothan, Florala, Fuquay, Kenansville, Lucy, The estimated yields reflect the productive capacity
Orangeburg, and Stilson soils are well suited to of each soil for each of the principal crops. Yields are
bahiagrass, alfalfa, and improved bahiagrass. The likely to increase as new production technology is
somewhat poorly drained Albany, Chipley, Garcon, developed. The productivity of a given soil compared
Hurricane, and Leefield soils are well suited to with that of other soils, however, is not likely to
bahiagrass and improved bermudagrass if legumes, change.
such as white, crimson, and arrowleaf clover, are also Crops other than those shown in the table are
grown and if adequate amounts of lime and fertilizer grown in the survey area, but estimated yields are not
are applied. Where irrigation is needed and used in listed because the acreage of such crops is small. The
areas of these soils, the total forage production local office of the Natural Resources Conservation
increases. Service or of the Cooperative Extension Service can
Pastures in many parts of the county are greatly provide information about the management and
depleted by continuous excessive grazing. Pasture productivity of the soils for those crops.






Calhoun County, Florida 71



Land Capability Classification artificial drainage); s shows that the soil is limited
mainly because it is shallow, drought, or stony; and
Land capability classification shows, in a general c, used in only some parts of the United States,
way, the suitability of soils for most kinds of field crops shows that the chief limitation is climate that is very
(USDA-SCS, 1961). Crops that require special cold or very dry.
management are excluded. The soils are grouped In class I there are no subclasses because the
according to their limitations for field crops, the risk of soils of this class have few limitations. Class V
damage if they are used for crops, and the way they contains only the subclasses indicated by w, s, or c
respond to management. The criteria used in grouping because the soils in class V are subject to little or
the soils do not include major and generally expensive no erosion. They have other limitations that restrict
landforming that would change slope, depth, or other their use to pasture, woodland, wildlife habitat, or
characteristics of the soils, nor do they include rrat
possible but unlikely major reclamation projects. Capability units are soil groups within a subclass.
Capability classification is not a substitute for C
The soils in a capability unit are enough alike to be
interpretations designed to show suitability and
suited to the same crops and pasture plants, to require
limitations of groups of soils for woodland and for
similar management, and to have similar productivity.
engineering purposes. Capability units are generally designated by adding an
In the capability system, soils are generally
In the capability system, soils are generally Arabic numeral to the subclass symbol, for example,
grouped at three levels-capability class, subclass, lie-4 and Ille-6.
and unit. Only class and subclass are used in this c o e
The capability classification of each map unit is
survey. c given in the section "Detailed Soil Map Units" and in
Capability classes, the broadest groups, are
designated by numerals I through VIII. The numerals the yields table.
indicate progressively greater limitations and narrower Prime Farmland
Prime Farmland
choices for practical use. The classes are defined as
follows: Prime farmland is one of several kinds of
Class I soils have few limitations that restrict their important farmland defined by the U.S. Department
use. of Agriculture. It is of major importance in meeting
Class II soils have moderate limitations that reduce the Nation's short- and long-range needs for food
the choice of plants or that require moderate and fiber. Because the supply of high-quality
conservation practices. farmland is limited, the U.S. Department of
Class III soils have severe limitations that reduce Agriculture recognizes that responsible levels of
the choice of plants or that require special government, as well as individuals, should
conservation practices, or both. encourage and facilitate the wise use of our
Class IV soils have very severe limitations that Nation's prime farmland.
reduce the choice of plants or that require very careful Prime farmland, as defined by the U.S.
management, or both. Department of Agriculture, is land that has the best
Class V soils are not likely to erode but have other combination of physical and chemical
limitations, impractical to remove, that limit their use. characteristics for producing food, feed, forage,
Class VI soils have severe limitations that make fiber, and oilseed crops and is available for these
them generally unsuitable for cultivation, uses. The criteria for defining prime farmland are
Class VII soils have very severe limitations that described in the National Soil Survey Handbook
make them unsuitable for cultivation. (USDA-SCS, 1993). Prime farmland could be
Class VIII soils and miscellaneous areas have cultivated land, pastureland, forest land, or other
limitations that nearly preclude their use for land, but it is not urban or built-up land or water
commercial crop production. areas. The soil qualities, growing season, and
Capability subclasses are soil groups within one moisture supply are those needed for the soil to
class. They are designated by adding a small letter, economically produce sustained high yields of
e, w, s, or c, to the class numeral, for example, lie. crops when proper management, including water
The letter e shows that the main hazard is the risk management, and acceptable farming methods are
of erosion unless close-growing plant cover is applied. In general, prime farmland has an
maintained; shows that water in or on the soil adequate and dependable supply of moisture from
interferes with plant growth or cultivation (in some precipitation or irrigation, a favorable temperature
soils the wetness can be partly corrected by and growing season, acceptable acidity or alkalinity,






72 Soil Survey



an acceptable salt and sodium content, and few or Woodland Management and Productivity
no rocks. It is permeable to water and air. It is not
excessively erodible or saturated with water for long The management of woodland is an extremely
periods, and it either is not frequently flooded important agricultural activity in Calhoun County.
during the growing season or is protected from About 302,000 acres, or 83 percent of the county, is
flooding. The slope ranges mainly from 0 to 8 woodland (USDA-FS, 1987). Of this total, 101,864
percent. More detailed information about the criteria acres is privately owned and 200,136 acres is
for prime farmland is available at the local office of owned by large, wood using industries. The soils
the Natural Resources Conservation Service. and climate are ideally suited to timber production,
About 50,000 acres in the survey area, or nearly 14 resulting in higher yields and faster growth in well
percent of the total acreage, meets the soil managed stands. The eastern half of the county
requirements for prime farmland. Scattered areas of primarily produces quality slash pine, loblolly pine,
this land are throughout the county, but most are in the and bottomland hardwoods. The southwestern
southern part, mainly in general soil map units 3, 6, quarter primarily produces slash pine. The
and 9. About one-third of this prime farmland is used northwestern quarter primarily produces slash pine
for crops. The crops grown on this land, mainly corn, and sand pine.
wheat, cotton, peanuts, oats, and soybeans, account Slash pine, longleaf pine, loblolly pine, and sand
for an estimated two-thirds of the county's total pine are the main species grown in the county.
agricultural income each year. Because the deep root system of sand pine and
A recent trend in land use in some parts of the longleaf pine can collect water in dry sites, these
survey area has been the loss of some prime species dominate areas of the Lakeland, Foxworth,
farmland to industrial and urban uses. The loss of and Troup soils. Sand pine has been planted
prime farmland to other uses puts pressure on extensively in areas of Lakeland soils on rises and
marginal lands, which generally are more erodible, knolls in the northwestern part of the county. Slash
drought, and less productive and cannot be easily pine has been planted extensively throughout the
cultivated. county on poorly drained to moderately well drained
The map units in the survey area that are soils and on well drained soils that have an argillic
considered prime farmland are listed below. This list horizon within a depth of 2 to 5 feet. Examples are
does not constitute a recommendation for a the Alapaha, Albany, Bladen, Blanton, Chipley,
particular land use. On some soils included in the Chipola, Dothan, Dunbar, Duplin, Florala, Fuquay,
list, measures that overcome a hazard or limitation, Garcon, Hurricane, Kenansville, Leefield, Lucy,
such as flooding, wetness, and droughtiness, are Orangeburg, Pansey, Plummer, Pottsburg,
needed. Onsite evaluation is needed to determine Robertsdale, and Stilson soils and some areas of
whether or not the hazard or limitation has been the Bonifay, Foxworth, and Troup soils. Loblolly pine
overcome by corrective measures. The extent of is planted on soils that have a subsoil that is close
each listed map unit is shown in table 4. The to the surface and that have a high content of clay.
location is shown on the detailed soil maps at the The Dunbar, Duplin, Dothan, Florala, Garcon,
back of this publication.The soil qualities that affect Orangeburg, and Robertsdale soils are examples.
use and management are described under the Longleaf pine can be planted on most soils.
heading "Detailed Soil Map Units." Live oak, laurel oak, water oak, turkey oak, and
The map units that meet the requirements for prime blackjack oak are on rises and knolls in areas of the
farmland are: Albany, Blanton, Bonifay, Chipley, Foxworth, Hurricane,
and Lakeland soils. These hardwoods have little
17 Florala loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes commercial value but are valuable for wildlife. The river
(where drained) bottom along the Apalachicola River contains large-
18 Florala loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes growth stands of bottomland hardwoods in areas of
(where drained) the Brickyard, Ocklockonee, and Wahee soils. The
21 Dothan sandy loam, 0 to 2 percent slopes bottomland hardwoods that are harvested include
22 Dothan loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes various oaks, hickory, sycamore, tupelo, sweetgum,
23 Dothan loamy sand, 5 to 8 percent slopes and cypress.
25 Duplin very fine sandy loam, very rarely flooded Timber management varies from intensive thinning,
44 Orangeburg loamy sand, 0 to 2 percent slopes clearcutting, site preparation, and planting on
45 Orangeburg loamy sand, 2 to 5 percent slopes corporate land to less intensive, selective cutting and
46 Orangeburg sandy loam, 5 to 8 percent slopes harvesting on private land. Prescribed burning is






Calhoun County, Florida 73



important for removing unwanted vegetation and for be used or the season of use. If the soil is wet, the
exposing mineral soils as a seedbed for natural wetness restricts equipment use for more than 3
reproduction. Prescribed burning also improves months.
conditions for grasses and forbs, which help support Seedling mortality refers to the death of naturally
various wildlife, such as deer, turkey, dove, and quail. occurring or planted tree seedlings, as influenced by
Markets for wood crops are available in the area the kinds of soil, soil wetness, or topographic
even though only one major wood-using industry is in conditions. The factors used in rating the soils for
the county. Two pulp and paper mills are the major seedling mortality are texture of the surface layer,
outlets for timber. They are located in Port St. Joe and depth to a seasonal high water table and the length of
Panama City. Several sawmills in adjacent counties the period when the water table is high, effective
produce lumber, poles, and veneers. There are also rooting depth, and slope aspect. A rating of slight
some small sawmills in the county that do not indicates that seedling mortality is not likely to be a
significantly impact the economy. problem under normal conditions. Expected mortality
More detailed information on woodland and is less than 25 percent. A rating of moderate indicates
woodland management can be obtained from local that some problems from seedling mortality can be
consulting foresters, the Florida Division of Forestry, expected. Extra precautions are advisable. Expected
and the Natural Resources Conservation Service. mortality is 25 to 50 percent. A rating of severe
Table 6 can be used by woodland owners or forest indicates that seedling mortality is a serious problem.
managers in planning the use of soils for wood crops. Extra precautions are important. Replanting may be
Only those soils suitable for wood crops are listed, necessary. Expected mortality is more than 50
In the table, slight, moderate, and severe indicate percent.
the degree of the major soil limitations to be Windthrow hazard is the likelihood that trees will be
considered in management. Additional information is uprooted by the wind because the soil is not deep
available in the National Forestry Manual (USDA-SCS, enough for adequate root anchorage.The main
1980). restrictions that affect rooting are a seasonal high
Erosion hazard is the probability that damage will water table and the depth to a fragipan or other limiting
occur as a result of site preparation and cutting where layers. A rating of slight indicates that under normal
the soil is exposed along roads, skid trails, and fire conditions no trees are blown down by the wind.
lanes and in log-handling areas. Forests that have Strong winds may damage trees, but they do not
been burned or overgrazed are also subject to erosion. uproot them. A rating of moderate indicates that some
Ratings of the erosion hazard are based on the trees can be blown down during periods when the soil
percent of the slope. A rating of slight indicates that no is wet and winds are moderate or strong. A rating of
particular prevention measures are needed under severe indicates that many trees can be blown down
ordinary conditions. A rating of moderate indicates that during these periods.
erosion-control measures are needed in certain Plant competition ratings indicate the degree to
silvicultural activities. A rating of severe indicates that which undesirable species are expected to invade and
special precautions are needed to control erosion in grow when openings are made in the tree canopy. The
most silvicultural activities, main factors that affect plant competition are depth to
Equipment limitation reflects the characteristics and the water table and the available water capacity. A
conditions of the soil that restrict use of the equipment rating of slight indicates that competition from
generally needed in woodland management or undesirable plants is not likely to prevent natural
harvesting. The chief characteristics and conditions regeneration or suppress the more desirable species.
considered in the ratings are slope, soil wetness, and Planted seedlings can become established without
texture of the surface layer. A rating of slight indicates undue competition. A rating of moderate indicates that
that under normal conditions the kind of equipment competition may delay the establishment of desirable
and season of use are not significantly restricted by species. Competition may hamper stand development,
soil factors. Soil wetness can restrict equipment use, but it will not prevent the eventual development of fully
but the wet period does not exceed 1 month. A rating stocked stands. A rating of severe indicatesthat
of moderate indicates that equipment use is competition can be expected to prevent regeneration
moderately restricted because of one or more soil unless precautionary measures are applied.
factors. If the soil is wet, the wetness restricts The potential productivity of merchantable or
equipment use for a period of 1 to 3 months. A rating common trees on a soil is expressed as a site index
of severe indicates that equipment use is severely and as a productivity class (USDA-FS, 1976; USDA-
restricted either as to the kind of equipment that can SCS, 1980; Schumaker and Coile, 1960). The site






74 Soil Survey



index is the average height, in feet, that dominant and Additional information on planning windbreaks and
codominant trees of a given species attain in a screens and planting and caring for trees and shrubs
specified number of years. The site index applies to can be obtained from the local office of the Natural
fully stocked, even-aged, unmanaged stands. Resources Conservation Service or of the
Commonly grown trees are those that woodland Cooperative Extension Service or from a commercial
managers generally favor in intermediate or nursery.
improvement cuttings. They are selected on the basis
of growth rate, quality, value, and marketability. Recreation
The productivity class, is the yield likely to be
produced by the most important trees. This number, The soils of the survey area are rated in table 7
expressed as cubic meters per hectare per year, according to limitations that affect their suitability for
indicates the amount of fiber produced in a fully recreation.The ratings are based on restrictive soil
stocked, even-aged, unmanaged stand. features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
The first species listed under common trees for a surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered.
soil is the indicator species for that soil. It generally is Not considered in the ratings, but important in
the most common species on the soil. evaluating a site, are the location and accessibility of
Trees to plant are those that are suitable for the area, the size and shape of the area and its scenic
commercial wood production, quality, vegetation, access to water, potential water
impoundment sites, and access to public sewer lines.
Woodland Understory Vegetation The capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent
and the ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
Understory vegetation consists of grasses, forbs, important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for
shrubs, and other plants. If well managed, some recreational uses by the duration and intensity of
woodland can produce enough understory vegetation flooding and the season when flooding occurs. In
to support grazing of livestock or wildlife, or both, planning recreational facilities, onsite assessment of
without damage to the trees, the height, duration, intensity, and frequency of
The quantity and quality of understory vegetation flooding is essential.
vary with the kind of soil, the age and kind of trees in In the table, the degree of soil limitation is
the canopy, the density of the canopy, and the depth expressed as slight, moderate, or severe. Slight
and condition of the litter. The density of the canopy means that soil properties are generally favorable
determines the amount of light that understory plants and that limitations, if any, are minor and easily
receive. overcome. Moderate means that limitations can be
overcome or alleviated by planning, design, or
Windbreaks and Environmental Plantings special maintenance. Severe means that soil
properties are unfavorable and that limitations can
Windbreaks protect livestock, buildings, and yards be offset only by costly soil reclamation, special
from wind and snow. They also protect fruit trees and design, intensive maintenance, limited use, or a
gardens, and they furnish habitat for wildlife. Several combination of these measures.
rows of low- and high-growing broadleaf and The information in the table can be supplemented
coniferous trees and shrubs provide the most by other information in this survey, for example,
protection. interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table
Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right 10 and interpretations for dwellings without basements
angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals and for local roads and streets in table 9.
across the field.The interval depends on the erodibility Camp areas require site preparation, such as
of the soil. Field windbreaks protect cropland and shaping and leveling the tent and parking areas,
crops from wind and provide food and cover for stabilizing roads and intensively used areas, and
wildlife. installing sanitary facilities and utility lines. Camp
Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen areas are subject to heavy foot traffic and some
houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The vehicular traffic. The best soils have mild slopes and
plants, mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely are not wet or subject to flooding during the period of
spaced. To ensure plant survival, a healthy planting use. The surface has few or no stones or boulders,
stock of suitable species should be planted properly absorbs rainfall readily but remains firm, and is not
on a well prepared site and maintained in good dusty when dry. Strong slopes can greatly increase the
condition. cost of constructing campsites.






74 Soil Survey



index is the average height, in feet, that dominant and Additional information on planning windbreaks and
codominant trees of a given species attain in a screens and planting and caring for trees and shrubs
specified number of years. The site index applies to can be obtained from the local office of the Natural
fully stocked, even-aged, unmanaged stands. Resources Conservation Service or of the
Commonly grown trees are those that woodland Cooperative Extension Service or from a commercial
managers generally favor in intermediate or nursery.
improvement cuttings. They are selected on the basis
of growth rate, quality, value, and marketability. Recreation
The productivity class, is the yield likely to be
produced by the most important trees. This number, The soils of the survey area are rated in table 7
expressed as cubic meters per hectare per year, according to limitations that affect their suitability for
indicates the amount of fiber produced in a fully recreation.The ratings are based on restrictive soil
stocked, even-aged, unmanaged stand. features, such as wetness, slope, and texture of the
The first species listed under common trees for a surface layer. Susceptibility to flooding is considered.
soil is the indicator species for that soil. It generally is Not considered in the ratings, but important in
the most common species on the soil. evaluating a site, are the location and accessibility of
Trees to plant are those that are suitable for the area, the size and shape of the area and its scenic
commercial wood production, quality, vegetation, access to water, potential water
impoundment sites, and access to public sewer lines.
Woodland Understory Vegetation The capacity of the soil to absorb septic tank effluent
and the ability of the soil to support vegetation are also
Understory vegetation consists of grasses, forbs, important. Soils subject to flooding are limited for
shrubs, and other plants. If well managed, some recreational uses by the duration and intensity of
woodland can produce enough understory vegetation flooding and the season when flooding occurs. In
to support grazing of livestock or wildlife, or both, planning recreational facilities, onsite assessment of
without damage to the trees, the height, duration, intensity, and frequency of
The quantity and quality of understory vegetation flooding is essential.
vary with the kind of soil, the age and kind of trees in In the table, the degree of soil limitation is
the canopy, the density of the canopy, and the depth expressed as slight, moderate, or severe. Slight
and condition of the litter. The density of the canopy means that soil properties are generally favorable
determines the amount of light that understory plants and that limitations, if any, are minor and easily
receive. overcome. Moderate means that limitations can be
overcome or alleviated by planning, design, or
Windbreaks and Environmental Plantings special maintenance. Severe means that soil
properties are unfavorable and that limitations can
Windbreaks protect livestock, buildings, and yards be offset only by costly soil reclamation, special
from wind and snow. They also protect fruit trees and design, intensive maintenance, limited use, or a
gardens, and they furnish habitat for wildlife. Several combination of these measures.
rows of low- and high-growing broadleaf and The information in the table can be supplemented
coniferous trees and shrubs provide the most by other information in this survey, for example,
protection. interpretations for septic tank absorption fields in table
Field windbreaks are narrow plantings made at right 10 and interpretations for dwellings without basements
angles to the prevailing wind and at specific intervals and for local roads and streets in table 9.
across the field.The interval depends on the erodibility Camp areas require site preparation, such as
of the soil. Field windbreaks protect cropland and shaping and leveling the tent and parking areas,
crops from wind and provide food and cover for stabilizing roads and intensively used areas, and
wildlife. installing sanitary facilities and utility lines. Camp
Environmental plantings help to beautify and screen areas are subject to heavy foot traffic and some
houses and other buildings and to abate noise. The vehicular traffic. The best soils have mild slopes and
plants, mostly evergreen shrubs and trees, are closely are not wet or subject to flooding during the period of
spaced. To ensure plant survival, a healthy planting use. The surface has few or no stones or boulders,
stock of suitable species should be planted properly absorbs rainfall readily but remains firm, and is not
on a well prepared site and maintained in good dusty when dry. Strong slopes can greatly increase the
condition. cost of constructing campsites.






Calhoun County, Florida 75



Picnic areas are subject to heavy foot traffic. Most Moderately intensive management is required for
vehicular traffic is confined to access roads and satisfactory results. A rating of poor indicates that
parking areas. The best soils for picnic areas are firm limitations are severe for the designated element or
when wet, are not dusty when dry, are not subject to kind of habitat. Habitat can be created, improved, or
flooding during the period of use, and do not have maintained in most places, but management is difficult
slopes that increase the cost of shaping sites or of and must be intensive. A rating of very poor indicates
building access roads and parking areas, that restrictions for the element or kind of habitat are
Playgrounds require soils that can withstand very severe and that unsatisfactory results can be
intensive foot traffic. The best soils are almost level expected. Creating, improving, or maintaining habitat
and are not wet or subject to flooding during the is impractical or impossible.
season of use. The surface is firm after rains and is The elements of wildlife habitat are described in the
not dusty when dry. If grading is needed, the depth of following paragraphs.
the soil over a hardpan should be considered. Grain and seed crops are domestic grains and
Paths and trails for hiking and horseback riding seed-producing herbaceous plants. Soil properties
should require little or no cutting and filling. The best and features that affect the growth of grain and seed
soils are not wet, are firm after rains, are not dusty crops are depth of the root zone, texture of the surface
when dry, and are not subject to flooding more than layer, available water capacity, wetness, slope, and
once a year during the period of use. They have flooding. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also
moderate slopes, considerations. Examples of grain and seed crops are
Golf fairways are subject to heavy foot traffic and corn, wheat, oats, and millet.
some light vehicular traffic. Cutting or filling may be Grasses and legumes are domestic perennial
required. The best soils for use as golf fairways are grasses and herbaceous legumes. Soil properties
firm when wet, are not dusty when dry, and are not and features that affect the growth of grasses and
subject to prolonged flooding during the period of use. legumes are depth of the root zone, texture of the
They have moderate slopes. The suitability of the soil surface layer, available water capacity, wetness,
for tees or greens is not considered in rating the soils. flooding, and slope. Soil temperature and soil
moisture are also considerations. Examples of
Wildlife Habitat grasses and legumes are fescue, cowpea,
bahiagrass, clover, and alfalfa.
Soils affect the kind and amount of vegetation that Wild herbaceous plants are native or naturally
is available to wildlife as food and cover. They also established grasses and forbs, including weeds. Soil
affect the construction of water impoundments. The properties and features that affect the growth of these
kind and abundance of wildlife depend largely on the plants are depth of the root zone, texture of the
amount and distribution of food, cover, and water, surface layer, available water capacity, wetness, and
Wildlife habitat can be created or improved by planting flooding. Soil temperature and soil moisture are also
appropriate vegetation, by maintaining the existing considerations. Examples of wild herbaceous plants
plant cover, or by promoting the natural establishment are bluestem, goldenrod, partridge pea, and
of desirable plants, switchgrass.
In table 8, the soils in the survey area are rated Hardwood trees and woody understory produce
according to their potential for providing habitat for nuts or other fruit, buds, catkins, twigs, bark, and
various kinds of wildlife. This information can be used foliage. Soil properties and features that affect the
in planning parks, wildlife refuges, nature study areas, growth of hardwood trees and shrubs are depth of the
and other developments for wildlife; in selecting soils root zone, available water capacity, and wetness.
that are suitable for establishing, improving, or Examples of these plants are oak, wild grape, cherry,
maintaining specific elements of wildlife habitat; and in sweetgum, cabbage palm, hawthorn, dogwood,
determining the intensity of management needed for hickory, blackberry, and blueberry. Examples of fruit-
each element of the habitat. producing shrubs that are suitable for planting on soils
The potential of the soil is rated good, fair, poor, or rated good are wild plum and blueberry.
very poor. A rating of good indicates that the element Coniferous plants furnish browse and seeds. Soil
or kind of habitat is easily established, improved, or properties and features that affect the growth of
maintained. Few or no limitations affect management, coniferous trees, shrubs, and ground cover are depth
and satisfactory results can be expected. A rating of of the root zone, available water capacity, and
fair indicates that the element or kind of habitat can be wetness. Examples of coniferous plants are pine,
established, improved, or maintained in most places, cypress, cedar, and juniper.




University of Florida Home Page
© 2004 - 2010 University of Florida George A. Smathers Libraries.
All rights reserved.

Acceptable Use, Copyright, and Disclaimer Statement
Last updated October 10, 2010 - - mvs